country:algeria

  • #Algeria grants bail to #blogger jailed over “insulting” cartoons
    http://english.al-akhbar.com/content/algeria-grants-bail-blogger-jailed-over-insulting-cartoons

    A young Algerian blogger, jailed since September for posting cartoons on the Internet #mocking the #President, has been granted bail ahead of his trial, his lawyer said on Thursday. Abdelghani Aloui “was freed on bail on Wednesday by the indictment division of the court of Sidi M’Hamed in Algiers,” Amine Sidhoum told AFP. The trial date has not yet been fixed. Aloui, 24, faces several charges, including “attacking the person of the president” and “contempt”, for publishing cartoons on his Facebook page ridiculing #Bouteflika and then prime minister Abdelmalek Sellal. read more

    #Top_News


  • Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies - European University Institute

    http://data.borderlands-project.eu/data/?p=mapB

    Je n’ai pas encore regardé, je seen juste pour référencer

    The data on these pages represent an attempt to take stock of the plethora of cooperation patterns across different issue-areas that characterise relations between the EU and the MENA countries, that is Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, the Palestinian territories, Israel, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon and Turkey. Comprising both highly politicised and rather technical issue-areas and involving both territorial and functional or legal borders, the fields under

    investigation are:
    Migration
    Security
    Trade and internal market
    Transport

    #data #données #europe #cartographie #statistiques



  • Voting kicks off in #Algeria presidential election
    http://english.al-akhbar.com/content/voting-kicks-algeria-presidential-election

    http://english.al-akhbar.com/sites/default/files/imagecache/4cols/leading_images/764985-01-08.jpg

    Algerian police officers try to prevent AFPTV reporter Loutfi Mokdad (C) from filming a protest by the Barakat movement, in Algiers on April 16, 2014. (Photo: AFP / STR) Algerian police officers try to prevent AFPTV reporter Loutfi Mokdad (C) from filming a protest by the Barakat movement, in Algiers on April 16, 2014. (Photo: AFP / STR)

    Algerians were voting in presidential elections on Thursday, with incumbent Abdelaziz #Bouteflika widely expected to win a fourth term despite chronic health problems, fraud warnings and opposition calls for a boycott. More than 260,000 police have been deployed to protect the 50,000 polling booths set up across Africa’s largest country, where 23 million Algerians are eligible to vote in (...)

    #Top_News


  • Bouteflika denounces boycott calls as opponent warns against electoral fraud
    http://english.al-akhbar.com/content/bouteflika-denounces-election-boycott-movement-opponents-warn-aga

    http://english.al-akhbar.com/sites/default/files/imagecache/4cols/leading_images/756603-01-08.jpg

    Torn posters of current Algerian president #Abdelaziz_Bouteflika, who is running for re-election, appear in the city of Borj al-Bahri 24 kilometers east of the capital Algiers on April 15, 2014. (Photo: AFP - Patrick Baz)

    President Abdelaziz Bouteflika urged Algerians to defy boycott calls and vote in Thursday’s election, as his rival #Ali_Benflis said an “army” of supporters would monitor the poll and warned against fraud. The ailing 77-year-old incumbent is widely expected to clinch a fourth term in office, but he faces the damaging possibility of low voter turnout, with opposition parties and a youth protest group urging Algerians to snub the poll. “I call on all citizens to participate in the presidential election and express their choice,” Bouteflika said (...)

    #Algeria #Top_News


  • Europe Has Several Possible Replacements For Russian Gas But All Are Risky, Expensive And Will Take Years To Develop
    http://www.ibtimes.com/europe-has-several-possible-replacements-russian-gas-all-are-risky-expensiv
    http://s1.ibtimes.com/sites/www.ibtimes.com/files/styles/v2_article_large/public/2010/09/02/19389-kotenev-new-head-of-gazprom-germania-addresses-a-news-confer.jpg

    Vladimir Putin’s rapid annexation of Crimea has sparked a new urgency in the European Union to find energy supplies outside Russian state-owned gas giant Gazprom, but weaning the EU from Russian gas will be slow and difficult.

    The U.S. Congressional Research Service (CRS) concluded as much six months ago, when it published an extensive report on Western Europe’s energy security. That report discussed a handful of alternatives to Russia’s Gazprom, including North African gas, Central Asian gas and U.S. liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports, concluding that although the options are many, completely replacing Russian gas will be difficult if not impossible, and each option faces significant challenges.

    Little did the report’s authors know how prophetic their words were when they wrote last August, “The 28 member-state European Union (EU) has been a growing natural gas consumer and importer for decades. As Europe’s natural gas production has declined in recent years, its dependence on imported natural gas has increased. This has left it more dependent as a whole on its primary supplier, Russia, which has shown some inclination to use its resources for political ends.”

    In 2012, Gazprom accounted for 34 percent of the European Union’s natural gas imports, CRS found. Norway accounts for another 35 percent of natural gas imports, making it the lead supplier to the EU, and Algeria is the third-largest supplier to the 28 member countries, which import 64 percent of their natural gas supply.

    Little has changed since the CRS report, a senior analyst for the U.S. government said Thursday. He believes Europe’s best option to decrease dependency on Russia is within its own borders — to increase interconnectivity of existing pipelines, increase gas storage and increase transparency that would allow companies to calculate costs of transport between countries.

    In North Africa, new political leadership and vast reserves mean some countries like Algeria, Libya and Egypt have the potential to become some of the largest European suppliers. The three countries together could provide about 44 percent of what Russia does today, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA).

    But problems with infrastructure and political instability are getting in the way.

    Algeria is the second-largest exporter on the continent and could possibly have more gas in shale resources than in its current reserves.

    “Algeria could become a more significant gas producer and exporter. However, a difficult business environment may continue to limit its potential,” the CRS report reads.

    In 2011, a consortium led by the Algerian state-owned Sonatrach opened the Medgaz natural gas pipeline that runs to Spain. But Spain’s pipelines have little connectivity to the rest of Europe, “like an island,” the senior U.S. official said. The state-owned Sonatrach continues to hold a majority stake in all energy projects and Algerian investment and export laws seem to change every year.

    Algeria’s regional neighbor Egypt has seen domestic for natural gas increase more than 57 percent since 2005, but production is limited, in part because of hard-to-reach reserves. While potentially a rich new source of supply for Europe, attacks from Bedouin and terrorist groups in the Sinai Peninsula have halted Egyptian exports much closer to home in Israel and Jordan. According to CRS, Egypt will need to make the tough political decisions to cut fuel subsidies and encourage western investment before it can tackle an ambitious export plan.

    In Libya, natural gas production dropped 90 percent during the 2011 civil war. The industry has recovered to a degree but civil unrest, protests and strikes still hamper production. Still, Libya holds the fourth-largest amount of natural gas reserves in Africa, and new leadership could help facilitate further exports.

    “Libya may have the greatest potential to increase natural gas exports to Europe once a new regime is established and possibly a new state oil and natural gas company in a post-Qadhafi Libya,” the Congressional Research Service concluded.

    Central Asia sits on top of the largest reserves of natural gas in the world, according to the Energy Information Administration (EIA), but transporting that gas to Europe would require expensive and lengthy pipelines through multiple countries. Nonetheless, the EU has proposed what’s known as the Southern Strategy or Southern Corridor to transport natural gas from the Caspian region through Turkey.

    The initially planned Nabucco pipeline, which is no longer considered commercially viable, would have transported gas from Turkey to Austria.

    Now a smaller pipeline project has taken its place, known as the Trans-Anatolian natural gas pipeline (TANAP). This pipeline would carry gas through Turkey from Azerbaijan and connect to the Trans Adriatic Pipeline (TAP), which flows from the Turkish border through Greece and Albania, ending in Italy. But delays in construction have forced the Central Asian countries to hunt for customers in the east. Construction on TANAP is expected to begin at the end of the year and be completed by 2018. Even so, European pipelines would then need to connect to Italy’s infrastructure, which would present its own problems.

    Perhaps the most touted option so far is to import LNG from the U.S, but the U.S. Energy Department has so far only approved seven applications out of more than 20, and only one has final approval from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. The soonest any company will export LNG from the U.S. is 2015.

    LNG already represents about 25 percent of European natural gas imports, up from 15 percent in 2010, according to CRS. Algeria, Egypt and Qatar are the largest suppliers, and the U.K., Spain and France are the largest consumers. There are 22 LNG import terminals around Europe, with Poland, Lithuania and Estonia building new terminals that could distribute imported LNG around Northern and Eastern Europe.

    With U.S. LNG in the global gas market, prices would decline and eat into Russia’s profit. Some energy analysts, like David Goldwyn, a senior fellow for the Energy Security Initiative at the Brookings Institution, argue merely expediting the LNG permitting process would immediately erode Russia’s market power.

    President Obama was in Brussels Wednesday to discuss trade relations and the Ukraine crisis and he said a new trans-Atlantic trade agreement under negotiation would make it easier for his administration to approve LNG exports. He emphasized that it can’t happen overnight.

    #Gazprom
    #Russie
    #CRS U.S. ( Congressional Research Service )
    #Western-Europe’s-energy-security
    #EU ( European Union )


  • Algeria’s Role in African Security - Sada
    http://carnegieendowment.org/sada/2014/04/03/algeria-s-role-in-african-security/h70i

    Algeria’s Role in African Security

    APRIL 3, 2014 Benjamin Nickels عربي
    0Add your comment

     

    Algeria is often seen as averse to security cooperation, but it has been deeply involved in Africa’s security architecture for years.

    Secretary of State John Kerry’s visit to Algeria provides an opportunity to discuss security cooperation and counterterrorism with a critical if ambivalent partner. With fallout from the Arab Spring and the Mali Crisis creating chaos along its borders and the In Aminas attack highlighting insecurity in its own territory, Algeria has been forced, albeit reluctantly, to move toward greater strategic cooperation with its neighbors. But these recent moves should not overshadow Algeria’s long-standing investments in regional security. Indeed, Algeria has become ubiquitous in the structures of African security cooperation.


  • #Algeria: Public apathetic as presidential elections approach
    http://english.al-akhbar.com/content/algeria-public-apathetic-presidential-elections-approach

    http://english.al-akhbar.com/sites/default/files/imagecache/4cols/leading_images/513933-01-08.jpg

    Supporters of Algerian President Abdelazziz Bouteflika (portraits) gather during a political meeting in the city of Tlemcen, some 600 km west of Algiers, ahead of next month’s presidential election. (Photo: AFP-Farouk Batiche) Supporters of Algerian President Abdelazziz Bouteflika (portraits) gather during a political meeting in the city of Tlemcen, some 600 km west of Algiers, ahead of next month’s presidential election. (Photo: AFP-Farouk Batiche)

    Algiers: The electoral campaigns for the April 2014 presidential elections in Algeria have started in earnest. The candidates have scrambled to visit Algeria’s provinces, with the exception of the incumbent 76-years-old President #Abdelaziz_Bouteflika, who has dispatched (...)

    #Mideast_&_North_Africa #Algerian_presidential_elections #Ali_Benflis #Articles #National_Liberation_Front


  • #Algeria: Private TV stations alter the electoral scene
    http://english.al-akhbar.com/content/algeria-private-tv-stations-alter-electoral-scene

    http://english.al-akhbar.com/sites/default/files/imagecache/4cols/leading_images/519043-01-08.jpg

    Algerian supporters of a movement called Barakat (meaning in Arabic “That’s enough”), campaigning for new leadership in Algeria, demonstrate holding banners and shout slogans against Algeria’s current President Bouteflika Abdelaziz running for a fourth term in the April 17 elections, outside the central school in downtown Algiers on March 27, 2014. (Photo: AFP-Farouk Batiche) Algerian supporters of a movement called Barakat (meaning in Arabic “That’s enough”), campaigning for new leadership in Algeria, demonstrate holding banners and shout slogans against Algeria’s current President Bouteflika Abdelaziz running for a fourth term in the April 17 elections, outside the central school in downtown Algiers on March 27, 2014. (Photo: AFP-Farouk (...)

    #Mideast_&_North_Africa #Abdelaziz_Bouteflika #Al-Atlas_TV #Ali_Benflis #Articles #Media #Rida_Channouf



  • #US transfers #Guantanamo detainee to #Algeria
    http://english.al-akhbar.com/content/us-transfers-guantanamo-detainee-algeria

    The Pentagon said Thursday it had transferred an inmate from the Guantanamo prison back home to Algeria against his will, after holding him at the facility for 12 years without a trial. The move brought the number of detainees to 154 in the controversial detention camp at a US naval base in southeast Cuba. Ahmed Belbacha, 44, was cleared for transfer by a task force created to review inmates’ cases by a 2009 executive order, the Pentagon said in a statement. The task force “conducted a comprehensive review of this case,” taking into security concerns, it said. read more

    #Top_News


  • Algerian police halts demonstration against Bouteflika
    http://english.al-akhbar.com/content/algerian-police-halts-demonstration-against-bouteflika

    Algerian police prevented opposition leaders from marching on Wednesday to demand a boycott of next month’s election, in which President #Abdelaziz_Bouteflika is seeking a fourth term in power. Bouteflika, 77, registered his candidacy for the April 17 vote last week, one of the few times he has spoken in public since suffering a stroke last year that has raised opposition questions about his ability to govern. read more

    #Algeria #Top_News


  • Algerian protesters denounce Bouteflika bid for a fourth presidential term
    http://english.al-akhbar.com/content/algerian-protesters-denounce-bouteflika-bid-fourth-presidential-t

    http://english.al-akhbar.com/sites/default/files/imagecache/4cols/leading_images/374045-01-08.jpg

    An Algerian protester is arrested by policemen during a protest outside the constitutional council in Algiers on March 6, 2014, against the bid by Algerian President #Abdelaziz_Bouteflika to run for a fourth term in the up coming April 17 national elections. (Photo: AFP - Farouk Batiche)

    Algerian security forces on Thursday arrested at least 40 people protesting against President Abdelaziz Bouteflika standing for a fourth term next month, local media reported. “Long live #Algeria!” and “Free and democratic Algeria!” protesters chanted before police intervened forcefully to disperse them in central Algiers. Footage by Algerian news channel Al-Nahar TV showed policemen grabbing protesters and forcing them into vans.

    read (...)

    #Top_News


  • Saudis use nine times more electricity than fellow ArabsPower & Utilities - Zawya
    http://www.zawya.com/story/Saudis_use_nine_times_more_electricity_than_fellow_Arabs-ZAWYA20140219034119/?lok=034100140219&&zawyaemailmarketing

    Saudi individuals use on average nine times more electricity than their fellow Arab counterparts in Egypt, Algeria, Sudan and Morocco, according to a report published on Tuesday.
    These countries have 185.6 million people, seven times more than Saudi Arabia. Egypt has a population of 79.39 million, Algeria 37.76 million, Sudan 36.43 million and Morocco 32.06 million. Saudi Arabia has a population of 28.4 million.
    The report by the economic reporting unit of Al-Eqtisadiah newspaper stated that an individual in Saudi Arabia consumed on average 8,161 kilowatt an hour in 2011, compared to 951 kilowatt an hour by individuals in the four largest Arab countries.
    A previous report by Al-Eqtisadiah stated that Saudi consumption of electricity rose by 3 percent in 2011 and 9 percent in 2012. The housing sector consumed 50 percent of the Kingdom’s total electricity production.
    The energy sector is subsidized by the state, with the Kingdom using an estimated 4 million barrels of oil a day to power the country.
    In the Kingdom, air conditioners consume 51 percent of all electricity production. This is also because local air conditioners have a low energy efficiency ratio (EER). The EER is the ratio of the cooling capacity, in British thermal units (BTU) per hour, to the power input in watts. The higher the EER rating, the more efficient the air conditioner.

    #Arabie_Saoudite
    #électricité
    #climatisation
    #énergie


  • Disguised militants kill four in #Tunisia
    http://english.al-akhbar.com/content/disguised-militants-kill-four-tunisia

    Islamist militants disguised as security officials killed three Tunisian policemen and a civilian in an attack near the border with Algeria, the state news agency TAP said on Sunday. The agency did not name any group in the attack. Tunisia’s security forces have been battling militants from the banned Islamist movement Ansar al-Sharia, whose leader has declared allegiance to al-Qaeda’s North Africa wing. read more

    #Top_News


  • 103 dead in army #plane_crash in east #Algeria: security
    http://english.al-akhbar.com/node/18589

    An Algerian military aircraft crashed in the east of the country on Tuesday killing all 103 people on board, an Algerian security source said. The C-130 Hercules aircraft, which was flying to the eastern city of Constantine crashed “in poor weather conditions” in Oum El Bouaghi, around 500 kilometers (310 miles) east of the capital, Algerian radio said. The plane was carrying 99 passengers - soldiers and their families - as well as four crew members, the source told AFP. “There were no survivors,” the source added. (AFP)

    #Top_News


  • Abused and Expelled
    Ill-Treatment of Sub-Saharan African Migrants in Morocco

    This 79-page report found that beatings and other abuses occurred as Moroccan security forces took custody of Sub-Saharan migrants who had tried unsuccessfully to reach the Spanish enclave of Melilla, or—prior to September 2013—as they were rounding up migrants without any semblance of due process to expel them to Algeria. Subsequent to the publication and printing of this report, the practice of summarily expelling migrants at the border with Algeria appears to have stopped. However, research in late January and early February 2014 in Oujda, Nador, and Rabat indicates that Moroccan security forces are still using violence against migrants expelled from Melilla.

    http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/imagecache/scale-200x/media/images/report-covers/morocco0214_reportcover.jpg

    http://www.hrw.org/node/122535

    #migration #Melilla #Maroc #migration_sub-saharienne #Afrique #frontière #violence #expulsion


  • Brahimi pushes for peace commitment from both sides in #syria peace talks
    http://english.al-akhbar.com/content/brahimi-pushes-peace-commitment-both-sides-syria-peace-talks

    Syria’s warring sides launched a new round of peace talks Monday, as an agreement from the first round last month was being implemented with aid convoys evacuating the besieged city of Homs. The #UN and Arab League mediator, veteran Algerian diplomat Lakhdar Brahimi, began the latest session in Geneva by shuttling between the government and opposition teams. In a letter reviewed by Reuters on Monday, Brahimi increased pressure on the two sides to show willingness in a peace process sponsored by Moscow and Washington that made no progress in the first round. read more

    #Geneva_II #Top_News


  • Maxime Rodinson Looks Back
    http://www.merip.org/mer/mer269/maxime-rodinson-looks-back

    Joan Mandell and Joe Stork spoke with him in April 1986, when he came to Washington for the celebration of MERIP’s fifteenth anniversary. We publish the interview here for the first time.

    What was your first view of the people and culture in Lebanon?

    I had some colonial ideas left in my mind, here and there, reinforced by study of anthropology. I remember a time I asked a Syrian man, “Did you have people gifted in mathematics, too?” He was angry, of course.

    (...)

    A big question at this time is that in 1954, the beginning of the Algerian revolution, the Party did not take a strong stand.

    I did not have much knowledge of the events in North Africa at that time.

    Did this become a big debate for you?

    Yes, because I was beginning to have doubts about the politics of the Party at that time, and with others we managed to ask the Party to take a stand more in favor of independence of Algeria. But we were all disciplined in the Party at that time. We got angry about the position of the Party, and more prone to associate with non-Party people — the independent left — which is taken very badly by the Party, of course. But the Party had taken great pains to demobilize. So in 1956 there were elections in France. The socialists came into power and the Party had great expectations, especially with relations to Moscow and the idea of the great alliance of the socialist parties and the Soviet Union. All this could not be endangered by secondary things like Algeria. When the new assembly [Chambre de Députes] met, the Party voted special powers for Guy Mollet in Algeria. This was the first time I dared to contradict the position of the Party. Not all the way, of course. I wanted to speak out against these special powers. They decided that they had to make that move and sacrifice a part for the whole. I began to have doubts, theoretically. I began the slow evolution toward a critique of the Party. I left two years later, in 1958.


  • Algerian tribal tensions threaten historic town
    http://english.al-akhbar.com/content/algerian-tribal-tensions-threaten-historic-town

    http://english.al-akhbar.com/sites/default/files/imagecache/4cols/leading_images/093454-01-08.jpg

    Algerian men from the Mozabites community, a Berber minority group, sit near closed shops (unseen) on January 27, 2014 in the flashpoint desert oasis town of #Ghardaia. (Photo: AFP - Farouk Batiche) Algerian men from the Mozabites community, a Berber minority group, sit near closed shops (unseen) on January 27, 2014 in the flashpoint desert oasis town of Ghardaia. (Photo: AFP - Farouk Batiche)

    Weeks of violence between two rival communities have swept #Algeria's desert city of Ghardaia, inflamed by the destruction of a historic Berber shrine, with analysts warning of sectarian conflict engulfing the fragile region. For more than a month, the city of 90,000 inhabitants has witnessed clashes between the Chaamba community of (...)

    #Top_News



  • One dead in #Algeria tribal clashes
    http://english.al-akhbar.com/content/one-dead-algeria-tribal-clashes

    Weeks of heightened tensions between rival communities in the town of #Ghardaia in southern Algeria have erupted into violence, leaving one person dead and others hurt, officials said Monday. Schools and shops were shut after a group of youths went on the rampage on Sunday, attacking five different neighborhoods, and after a 39-year-old man was stabbed in the chest at his home. Another 10 people were wounded in the desert town 600 kilometers (400 miles) south of Algiers, among them three policemen, Interior Minister Tayeb Belaiz said, cited by Algerian media. read more

    #Chaamba #Mozabites #Top_News


  • #Bouteflika sets #Algeria presidential vote for April 17
    http://english.al-akhbar.com/node/18269

    Algeria’s aging leader Abdelaziz Bouteflika on Friday called a presidential election for April 17, a day after returning from medical treatment in France, without indicating if he himself would stand. “Bouteflika today proceeded with the signing of the presidential decree convening the electoral body for Thursday, April 17, 2014, for the election of the presidency of the republic,” a statement from the president’s office said. read more

    #presidential_elections #Top_News


  • Revealed from archive: Israel’s secret plan to resettle Arab refugees
    Plans drawn up during the 1950s and ’60s had one overriding goal: to preserve the demographic status quo by resettling the 1948 Arab refugees far away from the country.
    By Arik Ariel Dec. 19, 2013 | 4:30 PM | 15
    http://www.haaretz.com/weekend/magazine/.premium-1.564422

    Au passage et entre autres, pour l’auteur les Palestiniens ont “abandonné” leurs maisons, et le pays “s’est vidé” de ses habitants arabes.

    Last month ‏marked the 50th anniversary of the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy. Amid the flood of articles dealing with the traumatic impact of the event on American society, a modest place was devoted to Israeli-American relations during the Kennedy presidency − mostly in relation to Washington’s fears about Israel’s nuclear project. Little if anything was written about the deep anxiety that prevailed in Israel at the start of Kennedy’s term because of the president’s initiative to resolve the Palestinian refugee problem.

    At the conclusion of the first meeting between Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion and President Kennedy, held in New York in the autumn of 1961, there was no longer any doubt on the Israeli side that the White House was working on a new initiative concerning the Arab refugees called the “three-pronged approach.” Ben-Gurion did not like ‏(to put it mildly‏) the idea presented to him by the president, which called for some of the refugees to be settled in Arab states, others overseas and some to return to Israel. However, in deference to the president, the Israeli leader did not reject the idea out of hand.

    Since the end of the fighting during the War of Independence in 1948, the question of what would become of the 650,000 to 700,000 refugees who had abandoned their homes and property within Israel’s borders had become a millstone around the country’s neck. Some of the refugees had fled, others had been encouraged to leave, some had been expelled. According to one estimate, the property left behind by the refugees included more than four million dunams of land ‏(one million acres‏), 73,000 rooms, and 8,000 stores and offices.

    Some of the nascent state’s leaders viewed the country’s “voiding” of its Arab inhabitants − and thus the ability to establish a state possessing a Jewish majority − as the greatest achievement of the Zionist movement, transcending even the creation of the Jewish state as such. Accordingly, already in mid-1948, while the fighting raged, Israel formulated a policy under which the return of the refugees to its territory would not be permitted under any circumstances. Jerusalem sought to perpetuate the demographic status quo together with the geographic status quo, which was created upon the cessation of hostilities and the signing of the armistice agreements.

    In December 1948, the United Nations General Assembly adopted Resolution 194 ‏(III‏), which stipulates, in Article 11, that “the refugees wishing to return to their homes and live at peace with their neighbors should be permitted to do so at the earliest practicable date.” In the wake of this, Israel came under heavy pressure to repatriate some of the refugees.

    The refugee issue was raised every year during the deliberations of the General Assembly and in international conferences. Notable in this regard was the Lausanne Conference in May 1949, which was convened to advance a solution to the Middle East conflict. During the conference, Israel came under great pressure from Washington, with President Harry Truman sending a strongly worded message in which he maintained that Israel’s refusal to accept refugees put the peace in danger and ignored UN resolutions.

    At Lausanne, Israel stated its willingness to take control of the Gaza Strip, under the mistaken impression that only 150,000 refugees lived there. Afterward, it turned out that the population of the Gaza Strip at that time consisted of between 150,000 and 200,000 refugees, in addition to 80,000 permanent residents. As the pressure mounted, Israel stated that, under certain conditions, it would be ready to accept up to 100,000 refugees. However, the Arab states rejected this offer, and Israel retracted it in July 1950.

    International pressure on Israel waned in the early 1950s, as the international community’s efforts to find a solution for the refugee problem turned more toward regional economic possibilities and the integration of the majority of the refugees into the Arab states. Still, the idea that some of the refugees would return to Israel remained a central element of every proposed solution.

    Burgeoning aid

    In the summer of 1961, the skies above Jerusalem darkened when it emerged that the Kennedy administration was determined to find a solution for the approximately one million refugees who were crowded into camps from Syria and Lebanon in the north, as far as Jordan, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip in the south. ‏(The exact number of refugees, and the question of who should be classified as a refugee, remained a constant subject of controversy.) It would be a mistake, though, to think that the catalyst for Washington’s new initiative was the refugees’ wretched and pitiful condition, the Middle East conflict or the Cold War. It was, in fact, Congress that set the initiative in motion by urging the State Department to find a solution for the problem.

    What provoked Congress to become involved was the burgeoning amount of aid provided by the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees, in the form of food, education and health − and the fact that the American taxpayer was underwriting 70 percent of UNRWA’s budget. Israel understood thoroughly the intricacies of American politics − far more so, indeed, than it understood the developments in the refugee camps adjacent to its borders. Jerusalem thus believed that the refugee problem was gradually disappearing, or, as Ben-Gurion noted, “The Arabs of Israel are out of the game” and “the resolution of November 29 is dead” − a reference to the General Assembly’s partition of Palestine resolution on November 29, 1947. However, at the end of the 1950s, the ball started to roll in the opposite direction.

    Not only did the refugees not disappear, and not only did their ambition to return to their homeland not fade, but an accelerated process of heightened national identity set in among them. Their desire to return to their former homes grew more intense, in tandem with the political institutionalization of that wish. Israel failed to discern the emergence of the process, though its ambassador to Rome, Eliyahu Sasson, issued a warning about it in a message to Foreign Minister Golda Meir at the end of 1961. Time was working against Israel, he wrote, for within a few years the refugees will establish an official body to represent them and speak in their name, while pursuing a policy akin to that of the rebels in Algeria.

    Jerusalem was perturbed by the Kennedy administration’s new initiative and concerned about the upcoming 16th General Assembly session, particularly in light of the fact that Israel had suffered a setback the previous year in the General Assembly’s deliberations about the refugee question. “Palestinian existence” was dredged up from the recesses of oblivion, but the Foreign Ministry initially thought − wrongly − that this referred to “the refugees’ existing rights to their property.”

    The Arab and Muslim states submitted a resolution calling for the appointment of a custodian to protect the refugees’ property rights. Ahmad Shukeiri, the first chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization − dubbed “the savage” by Meir − was, for the first time, allowed to address the General Assembly on behalf of the refugees. As these developments unfolded, concern grew in Jerusalem that this time Israel would have to “pay” in the currency of refugees, whom it would have no choice but to accept. The overriding question was: How many refugees could Israel accept without putting its survival and existence as a Jewish state at risk?

    Appearing at a meeting of the Knesset Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee in June 1961, Golda Meir stated that Israel had been asked to accept elderly refugees. The country’s Arab minority already constituted 10 percent of Israel’s population, Meir noted, and she went on to ask how many refugees would have to be allowed in before the situation resembled that of Algeria.

    The senior staff of the Foreign Ministry also considered the question of the price to be paid, in a series of meetings classified as top secret. The ministry’s director general, Dr. Haim Yahil, thought that admitting 30,000 to 40,000 refugees over a period of three or four years would not pose an excessive risk. Others disagreed. Some of the participants averred that an Arab minority constituting 25 percent of the population was a number Israel could live with, but others argued that this was a dangerously high percentage.

    In July 1961, the government held two discussions about how Israel would present its position at the General Assembly. Since the status-quo policy was not on the agenda, except for the expressed willingness to make some tactical compromises, the ministers instead discussed the “price” Israel could live with.

    Interior Minister Yosef Burg, who liked to sum up things with pithy quips, said, “The return of Arabs is not only an atomic bomb, it is an anatomical bomb.” Striking a somewhat businesslike note, Finance Minister Levi Eshkol asked what constituted a decisive Jewish majority: 51, 61 or 71 percent? He said that the last number certainly constituted a decisive majority. Ben-Gurion said that if there would be 600,000 Arabs in Israel, they would be the majority within two generations. ‏(At the time, Israel’s population stood at 3.1 million, including 252,000 Arabs.‏) No formal decisions were made.

    Encouraging emigration

    As the idea that Israel, under international pressure, might have to allow some refugees to return began to sink in, Jerusalem started to look for demographic solutions to “balance out” this prospect. Starting with the premise that the birthrate among the refugees and among the Arabs who had remained in Israel was higher than among the Jews, the question the policymakers asked was how it would be possible to reduce the number of the country’s Arab population.

    In the midst of the War of Independence, when more than 400,000 Arabs from then-nascent Israel had already become refugees, a “transfer committee” − i.e., one dealing with population transfer − was established with a mandate from the government to recommend policy on the subject of the refugees.

    Yosef Weitz, a Jewish National Fund official who had been the driving force behind the committee’s establishment, was appointed its chairman. One of its recommendations was that the Arabs’ abandonment of their homes should be considered an irrevocable fait accompli and that Israel should support their resettlement elsewhere. The committee also recommended that Arabs who had remained in the country should be encouraged to emigrate and that the state should buy the land of Arabs who were willing to leave. In addition, Arab villages should be destroyed and Arabs should be prevented from working the land, including a ban on harvesting field crops and olive picking − this in the wake of attempts by refugees to cross back into Israel, to the villages and fields they had left behind.

    Secretly, the highest levels in Jerusalem realized there would be no option but to take back some of the refugees. With this in mind, Weitz’s committee decreed that the number of Arabs in Israel should not exceed 15 percent of the total population. The recommendations, submitted in written form, were not adopted in a formal government resolution. However, they had the effect of reinforcing the government’s view that Israel had to be assertive in its effort to preserve the demographic status quo.

    Ben-Gurion and his adviser on Arab affairs, Yehoshua Palmon, took part in some of the committee’s meetings, in which ways to encourage the
    country’s Arabs to leave were discussed. In June 1950 Israel Defense Forces’ GOC Southern Command Moshe Dayan said: “The 170,000 Arabs who remain in the country should be treated as though their fate has not yet been sealed. I hope that, in the years ahead, another possibility might arise to implement a transfer of those Arabs from the Land of Israel.”

    In the country’s first decade of existence, the leaders of the ruling Mapai party ‏(the precursor of Labor‏) and its coalition partner Ahdut Ha’avoda, together with the senior officers of the Military Government ‏(Israel’s Arab citizens were under military rule until 1966‏), believed that at least some local Arabs would draw the “right conclusions” from the outcome of the War of Independence, and consider emigrating of their own volition. In 1950, Palmon wrote to Foreign Minister Moshe Sharett that the majority of the propertied Arabs aspired to leave if they could also take their assets. The Christians among them would choose to move to Lebanon, he noted, while the Muslims would opt for Egypt. Palmon confirmed that he had examined possibilities of a property exchange between Arabs from Israel and Jews in Egypt and Lebanon. His conclusion was that an arrangement to that effect could be worked out.

    For his part, Defense Minister Pinhas Lavon referred to migration among the country’s Arabs in a talk he gave in November 1953. For the Jewish population, he said, “This is a vital matter, even if we do not see emigration as a solution to the basic question. We have to remember that the natural growth rate among the Arabs is approximately 6,000 a year, and emigration could solve that issue.”

    The largest and most comprehensive plan, involving the transfer of thousands of Christian Arabs from Galilee to Argentina and Brazil, was given the secret codename “Operation Yohanan,” named for Yohanan from Gush Halav ‏(John of Giscala‏), a leader of the Jewish revolt against the Romans in the first Jewish-Roman war. The plan was devised in the utmost secrecy in backroom meetings in the Prime Minister’s Office and the Foreign Ministry, with Weitz’s aid. Foreign Ministry documents from the early 1950s show that it was actually Sharett, known for his moderate views, who encouraged the plan, even though he was concerned about the Church’s response when it became apparent that a large portion of the leavers were Christians.

    In March 1952, Weitz forwarded to the Foreign Ministry a detailed report about the resettlement of Christian Arabs from Upper Galilee to Argentina and Brazil. The report pointed out that the Argentine authorities were abetting the migration of farmers to the country. He added that 35 families from the Galilee village of Jish ‏(Gush Halav‏) had evinced an interest in the plan. The overall proposal included the creation of a share-holding company to be held by non-Jews and for which the initial financing would come from Jewish National Fund capital in Argentina. Sharett added that, if necessary, the project could be presented as an initiative of Israel’s Arab community, similar to the migration of Maronite Christians from Lebanon, which was then underway. Should the operation be discovered, the foreign minister made it clear, any connection to the government must be vehemently denied.

    In November 1952, Sharett informed Weitz that the prime minister had authorized Operation Yohanan. He added that the details of the plan must be kept strictly confidential. In any event, the project was canceled at the beginning of 1953, apparently because the Argentine authorities balked. The Middle Eastern department in the Foreign Ministry dealt with the subject of resettling the refugees outside Israel from the day the department was created. Its mission was to find places where the refugees could be settled, raise funds and obtain international support for settling the refugees abroad.

    In the spring of 1950, the director of the Foreign Ministry’s international institutions department, Yehezkel Gordon, suggested that Israel consider settling Arab refugees in Somalia and Libya, to take the place of the 17,000 to 18,000 Jews who had immigrated to Israel from Cyrenaica and Tripoli. The idea was particularly appealing because the Jews who left Libya had not been allowed to remove their property from the country.

    After Libya became independent, in January 1952, Moshe Sasson, from the Foreign Ministry, put forward a secret proposal to settle Arabs from Israel − from among both the refugees and those who had remained in the country − in Libya, with the property of the Libyan Jews to be restored to them within the framework of the exchange. In June 1955, Weitz traveled from Paris to Tunisia and Algeria in order to examine the possibility of settling Arabs from Israel and Arab refugees there, parallel to the immigration to Israel of Jews from those countries.

    Palmon was involved in an attempt by Israel to purchase about 100,000 dunams ‏(25,000 acres‏) of land in the Ras al-Akhdar region of Libya, in order to settle refugees there. The plan went awry when it was leaked to the media and the Libyan ruler came under massive pressure not to allow the refugees to settle there. In 1956-1957, another plan was devised to acquire farms near Tripoli and bring in a core group of 50 to 70 refugee families. Codenamed “Uri,” the plan was to be carried out by a development and construction company which would be registered in Switzerland, with its shares held by a Swiss bank. The elaborate plan was canceled after it, too, was leaked to the press.

    Palmon was also sent to Paris to hold talks with the president of Syria, Adib Shishakli ‏(who ruled in 1953-54‏), about the possibility of resettling refugees in Arab countries. However, no concrete arrangement emerged from these talks. In 1955, Sharett examined the possibility that Brazil would admit 100,000 refugees. He also looked into the possible acquisition of land in Cyprus at a rock-bottom price in order to exchange it for property held in Israel by Arabs wishing to emigrate.

    In September 1959, yet another plan was devised, codenamed “Theo,” to settle 2,000 refugee families in Libya and employ them through a commercial development company. It was estimated that $11.5 million ‏(in the terms of that era‏) would be needed to execute this scheme. The terms of the plan ensured that the refugees’ presence would not be a burden on the Libyan economy and would not reduce the income of local workers. Furthermore, for every outside professional, three local workers would be employed.

    In the first half of the 1960s, the Foreign Ministry continued to examine plans to encourage the emigration of Arab refugees from the Middle East to Europe, particularly to France and Germany. One option that was considered was to find them jobs in Germany, which was then in dire need of working hands. During 1962, Israeli officials examined the possibility of finding employment for Palestinian refugee laborers in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The initial checks done for this plan, known as “Operation Worker,” and the correspondence involved, were kept completely under wraps. But both Foreign Minister Meir and her director general, Yahil, objected to these ideas. Meir was concerned that Germany would be flooded with Arab refugees, and, in any event, the whole scheme proved fruitless.

    In February 1966, the possibility of settling refugees from Jordan in France was also examined.

    Israel’s efforts to find overseas locations in which to settle Arab refugees continued even after the Six-Day War of 1967. In the end, though, these efforts failed, as had ideas and proposals raised by others, including Syrian President Husni al-Zaim and Iraqi Prime Minister Nuri al-Said in 1949. Sharett, for one, objected to the Iraqi leader’s proposal to exchange the refugees for Iraq’s community of 140,000 Jews. Sharett and others were concerned about the lawsuits demanding compensation that Iraqi Jews were liable to file for their property, as other Jewish communities in Arab countries were doing. The refugee issue was thus intertwined with the question of the property of the Jewish immigrants to Israel from the Arab states.

    ‘Quiet talks’

    In late 1961, in the wake of President Kennedy’s initiative, Dr. Joseph Johnson, from the Carnegie Endowment, was appointed a special representative to tackle the problem and to work with the parties involved to come up with a solution. The plan he devised − to distribute questionnaires to the Palestinian refugees and permit those who wished to return to Israel, subject to security considerations − stirred deep fears in Jerusalem.

    Meir, who was appalled by the idea, wielded all the influence at her command in Washington in order to ensure that the plan met a quick death.

    The “payment” Israel would be required to make in return for the shelving of the plan became apparent in top-secret discussions − known as the “quiet talks’ − held between Jerusalem and Washington in 1962-63. In them, Israel expressed its readiness to absorb up to 10 percent of the refugees as part of a comprehensive settlement. At that time, the refugee population stood at approximately 1,100,000 souls. But this initiative, too, fell by the wayside, because the United States was unable to obtain the Arab states’ agreement to a comprehensive settlement.

    Between 1948 and 1967, Israel viewed the refugee problem through the prism of Washington. The refugees appeared on Jerusalem’s agenda when the United States thought that measures should be taken or a new plan devised to resolve the problem. In the absence of external pressure, the status-quo policy prevailed.

    The fact that the “political compass” of Jerusalem’s decision makers repeatedly pointed to Washington and New York as the sources dictating their policy on the refugees explains in good measure Israel’s lack of attention to the social and political developments occurring in the refugee camps across the border until 1967. Whereas security and military developments in the camps, such as the founding of Fatah and the establishment of armed units, were followed closely in Israel, the processes by which the refugees consolidated themselves politically was of little if any interest. Thus, as the refugee problem gradually evolved from a humanitarian issue into the Palestinian national issue, Israel found itself reacting to events.

    Under American pressure, Israel displayed readiness to absorb a considerable number of refugees on three occasions, even if by doing so it would cross the “15 percent line” − i.e., the agreement of 1949 to absorb 150,000 refugees living in the Gaza Strip ‏(together with the territory of the Strip‏); a proposal that same year to admit 100,000 refugees; and agreement to take in 10 percent of the refugees within the framework of the “quiet talks.”

    Israel was willing to accept refugees at a time when its demographic and geostrategic situation was far worse than it is today. To the extent that one can learn from past experience, it can be said that willingness to take in a small token number of refugees based on Israeli-determined criteria − including age, timetables and family situation ‏(UNRWA now has five million refugees registered, scattered in 58 camps‏) − could provide an important and symbolic response to the demand for “return,” which still underlies the ethos of the Palestinian refugees. Israel would thus acknowledge its moral share in the creation of the problem.

    The establishment of a Palestinian state alongside Israel as part of a comprehensive settlement will take the edge off the demand for return, as it is illogical that a large proportion of the refugees will demand to return to this country rather than settle in their new state. In retrospect, the effort to preserve the status quo did not benefit Israel ‏(as witnessed by the Yom Kippur War, the first intifada and other events‏). This is unlikely to change in the future.

    Dr. Arik Ariel, an attorney, is a lecturer in intelligence and policy and in law and politics at the Emek Yezreel College. The article is based on his PhD. thesis at the University of Haifa.


  • In pictures: African migrants in Algeria

    For the past three years, the number of immigrants travelling from sub-Saharan Africa to Algeria has risen dramatically. Some are fleeing war and ethnic conflict in their home countries; others seek better economic conditions.

    Most are in Algeria as a stopping point on their way to Europe.

    On International Migrants Day, learn about these migrants’ stories, hopes and fears as they make their way towards Europe.

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    http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/inpictures/2013/12/pictures-african-migrants-algeria-2013121882448512576.html

    #migrants #migration #Algérie #photographie #photo #photoreportage