Notre position dans un ascenseur en dit beaucoup sur nous - 20minutes.fr
Rebekah Rousi a effectué son enquête dans les ascenseurs de deux des plus grands immeubles de bureaux d’Adelaïde, en Australie, avant de la publier sur le site « Ethnography matters » au début du mois. Elle y a fait pas moins de trente tours d’ascenseurs et découvert cet ordre établi : les hommes d’expérience se placent au fond de la cabine avec devant eux les plus jeunes ou les plus timides, tandis que les femmes, quel que soit leur âge, se placent au plus près de la sortie.
Cela s’explique : en cas de naufrage de l’ascenseur, faut évacuer « les femmes et les enfants d’abord » :-)
Plus sérieusement, je crois que c’est clairement lié à la confiance en soi, au sens « légitimité » sociale. Un mec se sent légitime à demander aux autres de le laisser sortir, ce sera plus dur pour une femme. Généralisation #sexiste, c’est possible..
Hypothèse analogue sur les autoroutes à 3 voies ou plus : en remarquant que les voitures qui roulent sur l’avant dernière file à vitesse modérée - alors que la file de droite est vide - étaient plus souvent conduites par des femmes, ma femme me disait que c’était pour elle lié à la difficulté de déboîter pour doubler, une réticence à s’imposer dans le trafic..
Les femmes ont généralement la voiture secondaire du foyer : soit une petite citadine, soit une familiale boîte à chaussures, mais rarement la grosse cylindrée qui arrache à la reprise.
Encore que j’ai remarqué que de plus en plus de nanas viennent à la sortie de l’école avec des gros 4x4 rutilants... Pas certaine que ce soit un progrès.
#Oblabla et le climat.
Obama, janvier 2010
If Congress won’t act soon to protect future generations, I will.
Obama, septembre 2012,
my plan will continue to reduce the carbon pollution that is heating our planet, because climate change is not a hoax. More droughts and floods and wildfires are not a joke. They are a threat to our children’s future.
Obama. janvier 2013,
We, the people, still believe that our obligations as Americans are not just to ourselves, but to all posterity. We will respond to the threat of climate change, knowing that the failure to do so would betray our children and future generations. Some may still deny the overwhelming judgment of science, but none can avoid the devastating impact of raging fires and crippling drought and more powerful storms.
Obama, février 2013,
heat waves, droughts, wildfires, floods all are now more frequent and more intense. [I would] act before it’s too late.
Finalement ? Finalement http://www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/comment/2013/04/climate-change-out-of-obama-budget.html :
... the budget released this week makes it clear that Obama’s surprising appeal to Congress was an empty piece of rhetoric . The phrase “climate change” appears twenty-nine times in the new budget, but there is no new plan for Congress to take up in Obama’s otherwise ambitious legislative blueprint . There are some worthy energy initiatives that could achieve modest reductions in emissions, but the budget is silent on what Obama will do to aggressively reduce carbon pollution by the biggest emitters, like power plants and automobiles .
It is not as if Obama doesn’t have the power to act. On many issues the President is at the mercy of Congress . He can’t reform gun laws or the immigration system, or rewrite the tax code, without coöperation from the House and Senate. Climate change is different. Obama’s Environmental Protection Agency, backed by the force of a Supreme Court ruling, has the authority to reduce carbon pollution through regulation . In 2010, when White House negotiators were trying to pass cap and trade, they presented reluctant senators with a promise (some called it a threat): pass a comprehensive bill to deal with the problem or the E.P.A. would move forward on its own. Three years later, the Administration has still not acted on that ultimatum. And, ominously for those who care about tackling climate change, Obama’s new budget proposes to reduce funding for the E.P.A. by 3.5 per cent compared to the current year .
Kim closes Kaesong, a crucial source of income for North Koreans—and of news from outside – Quartz
Signalé par @fil
North Korea has shuttered the Kaesong Industrial Complex, a symbol of cooperation between North and South Korea that generated some $2 billion in trade each year. The move brings the peninsula even closer to war, and also closes a crucial source of word-of-mouth information for North Koreans.
The status of Kaesong, where some 51,000 North Korean employees work for 120 South Korean manufacturing companies, had grown increasingly precarious in the last few weeks, as tensions between the Kim Jong-un government and the US and South Korea mounted. Days ago, North Korea banned hundreds of South Korean managers from entering the facility. Still, production continued at a lower rate until Monday, when Kim’s government announced the withdrawal of Kaesong’s North Korean workforce.
Comment l’internet nous rend pauvre – Quartz
Tout le monde sait comment les robots remplacent les humains dans les usines... Mais les travailleurs de la connaissance eux, sont de plus en plus remplacés par des logiciels. Entre 2000 et 2010, 1,1 millions d’emplois de secrétaires ont été éliminés, remplacées par des services internet. Les 2/3 de 7,6 millions d’emplois de la connaissance ont été victimes de la technologie, rapporte Martin Goos de l’université de Louvain. Pour Brynjolfsson, la technologie ne cesse de favoriser les travailleurs les (...)
Merci pour ce partage, ce propos me semble assez éloigné de ce que j’en pense. La technologie transforme les emplois, souvent elle les déplace. C’est ce qu’on pourrait penser d’une vue sous la forme d’un marché, le marché est un gaz, il est expansif, compressif...
Plus de technologie, plus de science, plus élaborée, et ce sera forcément plus de techniciens, plus de savants, et globalement plus d’emploi. Après, je ne sais pas si les Civilisations en sont capables. Cela nécessite une adaptation des populations aux innovations. Et j’en connais pleins qui freinent des deux pieds, parfois à juste titre, un risque mal calculé et c’est le mur. Les machines ne simulent pas assez. Il faut leurs donner plus d’ordres, mais nous ne sommes peut-être pas assez nombreux à savoir le faire.
Peter Thiel’s Rise to Wealth and Libertarian Futurism : The New Yorker
un long (et intéressant) portrait du businessman #libertarien
Thiel’s closest friends date back to the early days of PayPal, in the late nineties, or even further, to his years at Stanford, in the late eighties. They are, for the most part, like him and one another: male, conservative, and super-smart in the fields of math and logical reasoning. (...)
He pushed hard to build #PayPal, against formidable obstacles, because he wanted to create an online currency that could circumvent government control. (Though the company succeeded as a business, it never achieved that libertarian goal—Thiel attributes the failure mainly to heightened concerns, after 9/11, that terrorists might exploit electronic currency systems.)
(...) In Thiel’s techno-utopia, a few thousand Americans might own robot-driven cars and live to a hundred and fifty, while millions of others lose their jobs to computers that are far smarter than they are, then perish at sixty.
(...) [Thiel] wants to live forever, have the option to escape to outer space or an oceanic city-state, and play chess against a robot that can discuss Tolkien, because these were the fantasies that filled his childhood imagination.
Rapport de la Banque mondiale : les restrictions imposées par Israël nuisent durablement à l’économie palestinienne.
While urgent attention to the short-term financing shortfalls is essential, it is important to recognize that the continued existence of a system of closures and restrictions is creating lasting damage to economic competiveness in the Palestinian Territories. The longer the current, restrictive situation persists, the more costly and time-consuming it will be to restore the productive capacity of the Palestinian economy. Without easing current restrictions, investments risk being put into low productivity activities that cannot be the drivers of sustainable economic growth in the future. The external competitiveness of the manufacturing sector, which is one of the key growth engines for small open economies, is likely to erode even further Palestinian exports are yielding less development impact than they might, as they are focused largely on low value added products and services and the economy is currently ill-positioned to benefit from market diversification. The skills deficit caused by high levels of unemployment and low labor force participation rates would continue to accumulate and make a large part of the Palestinian labor force less competitive in high value added sectors. Bolder efforts need to be made to stem the deterioration and help put the economy on a sustainable growth path that will reduce its dependence on donor transfers
Servicialisation - Service Design Programme
La servicialisation, c’est la tendance à développer des services (le plus souvent gratuits) pour les clients, permettant de créer de nouvelles façons d’interagir avec le client. Pour le design de service, c’est un moyen d’apporter de la créativité et de la radicalité dans la proposition de nouveaux services par des entreprises traditionnelles, estime Paul Thurston. Le Conseil de recherche économique et social britannique dans un récent rapport « Re-igniting Growth » - (...)
HBS study reveals that Harvard’s MBA alumni perceive management as high-quality if it succeeds in meeting quarterly numbers and getting stock prices up, even if it fails wider and longer term competitive goals - http://www.forbes.com/sites/stevedenning/2013/03/10/the-surprising-reasons-why-america-lost-its-ability-to-compete #finance #management
Les trois règles de l’#innovation : l’emplacement, l’emplacement et l’emplacement - Co.Design
Depuis 2 ans, 21 scientifiques du MIT se sont rassemblés pour former le groupe PIE (Production in the innovation economy : http://mit.edu/pie ) pour comprendre les rapports de la fabrication et de l’innovation. Ils viennent de publier un rapport - http://web.mit.edu/press/images/documents/pie-report.pdf - résultat d’un long voyage dans l’innovation américaine. Si la fabrication aux Etats-Unis n’est pas morte et a diminué de façon significative dans tous les domaines, un certain nombre (...)
An exemplary revolt - pamphlet sur la révolte de Battipaglia 1969
The occasion for this specific text, from April 11, 1969, was a mass uprising in Battipaglia, a southern Italian town in Campania, occuring just two days prior. In the period leading up to this, the town faced the planned closures of two manufacturing plants, one for tobacco, one for sugar. This would have crippled the town, given that the two were the largest employers in a region already facing population exodus and perennial poverty. Protests began and during a march on April 9th, cops did what cops do perennially - i.e. kill the citizens they allegedly protect, here in a particularly stark fashion, murdering a 19 year old worker and a middle school teacher. What followed the next day is unsurprising: the town took serious revenge, against the cops, the planned devastation of their community, and many objects (such as 200 cars that got torched) alike ...
Comment les grandes entreprises pourraient bloquer l’innovation des imprimantes 3D - Wired.com
Wired met en avant 10 brevets qui pourraient étouffer l’innovation dans le secteur de l’#impression 3D, empêchant de faire de l’impression colorée, lisse, fine... voir même des pièces articulées. Formlabs, l’un des acteurs du domaine vient d’être poursuivit en justice par 3D systems pour infraction de brevets... Comme le fait remarquer l’Electronic Frontier Foundation - https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2012/10/join-effs-efforts-keep-3d-printing-open - plusieurs brevets nécessaires pour faire avancer (...)
Maker Row lance un pont entre la conception et la fabrication - Wired.com
Maker Row - http://makersrow.com - se veut une place de marché qui relie les nouveaux entrepreneurs aux usines américaines en leur permettant d’accéder aux usines qui peuvent les aide à fabriquer leur matériel. Une base de donnée pour aider à trouver des partenaires industriels pour ses projets. Tags : internetactu internetactu2net fing #diy (...)
Global Resource Depletion : Monthly Review :: Monthly Review
The general problem of rapid resource depletion that occurs in the poor countries of the world is frequently a result of foreign exploitation and not because of a country’s growing population. The exploitation of the Democratic Republic of the Congo’s natural resources by shady means—“opaque deals to acquire prime mining assets”—organized through shell companies by British and Israeli capital is an example of what can happen.
Signalé par Ramy Zuraik :
The euro crisis no one is talking about: France is in free fall -
The main reason for France’s cost disadvantage is the burden of labor, a factor that typically accounts for around 70% of all corporate expenses worldwide. In France, the problem comprises a both high wage and social costs, and rigid laws, including a 35-hour work week that allows French employees the lowest number of working hours in the developed world. An astounding 86% of all wage earners enjoy “contrats a durée indéterminées,” permanent contracts that make layoffs extremely expensive and time-consuming.
I didn’t watch the video but the finance.fortune.cnn.com article is such ideological bullshit that I don’t even know where to start.
Unit labor costs : France’s workers cost too much... No - it is German workers who are too cheap : France has closely tracked the agreed EU inflation target of 2%, while Germany violated the agreement, largely by repressing wage increases (what some call "social dumping). German Unit Labor Cost repression is the primary cause of periphery stress in Europe. Beside, France’s productivity is among the highest in the world and companies love the highly qualified workforce.
Social charges : “In France, 42 euros for every 100 euros in total expenses go to social charges, versus 34 euros in Germany, 26 in the UK, and 20 in the US”... Makes France look bad if you don’t take into account what USians pay for medical services and their own retirement : it may not be accounted as social charges but it is even more expensive - the USA is the worst medical insurance system in the world in terms of value for money.
Then the article argues that France’s companies don’t enjoy high margins because they fail in the market’s high-end - they sell cheap cars compared to the Germans. Did the author take any marketing courses ? Margins can be very high in the low-end - a whole range of low-cost products let their companies make piles of cash. Have you heard of Easyjet, Lidl, the Renault Logan ?
“It’s unclear when the crisis that’s going mostly unacknowledged by investors and the Hollande government will erupt into a panic” - nice FUD. Investors don’t acknowledge the crisis because they know that whatever problems France may have, they still want to be there - and French people who have traveled know why.
The myth of Africa’s rise - why the rumors of Africa’s explosive growth have been greatly exaggerated : http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2013/01/04/the_myth_of_africa_s_rise?page=full
Recent high growth rates and increased foreign investment in Africa have given rise to the popular idea that the continent may well be on track to become the next global economic powerhouse. This “Africa Rising” narrative has been most prominently presented in recent cover stories by Time Magazine and The Economist. Yet both publications are wrong in their analysis of Africa’s developmental prospects
What’s striking about the two articles cited above is that they don’t mention manufacturing, or its disturbing absence, in Africa. And that, in turn, confirms once again the extent to which the idea of development as industrialization has been completely abandoned in the last few decades. Free market economics has come to advise poor countries to stick with their current primary agriculture and extractives industries and “integrate” into the global economy as they are. Today, for many champions of free markets, the mere presence of GDP growth and an increase in trade volumes are euphemisms for successful economic development. But increased growth and trade are not development.
As Companies Seek Tax Deals, Governments Pay High Price
A Times investigation has examined and tallied thousands of local incentives granted nationwide and has found that states, counties and cities are giving up more than $80 billion each year to companies. The beneficiaries come from virtually every corner of the corporate world, encompassing oil and coal conglomerates, technology and entertainment companies, banks and big-box retail chains.
The cost of the awards is certainly far higher. A full accounting, The Times discovered, is not possible because the incentives are granted by thousands of government agencies and officials, and many do not know the value of all their awards. Nor do they know if the money was worth it because they rarely track how many jobs are created. Even where officials do track incentives, they acknowledge that it is impossible to know whether the jobs would have been created without the aid.
Why Things Fail: From Tires to Helicopter Blades, Everything Breaks Eventually | Wired Design
The Failure Curve
Product failure happens in what’s called a Weibull distribution and often looks roughly like a bell curve. Ensuring reliability requires knowing where this curve begins and where it peaks. The chart below shows the logarithmic failure curve of steel bars placed in a fatigue machine. Most fail after 1 million cycles, but if you were to test only a few bars, those failures might occur after 10 million cycles. This might cause you to think the steel is much stronger than it actually is.
The New MakerBot Replicator Might Just Change Your World | Wired Design | Wired.com
You might think of 3-D printing as bleeding-edge technology, relevant only to geeks or high-end design workshops. But you may have encountered a 3-D printer already, in circumstances so prosaic you didn’t even notice.
The headphones consist of nine 3D-printed parts and electrical components that can be sourced by customers.
build weapons at home.
ça n’arrête pas donc
Quatre cent cinquante participants à guichet fermé pour la troisième édition de l’Open Hardware Summit la semaine dernière, 650 exposants pour les 55 000 visiteurs de la World #Maker Faire le week-end dernier, un maire de New York qui qualifie officiellement la semaine de “Maker Week” : le mouvement maker était plus que jamais à l’honneur ces derniers jours.
Revoilà donc Chris Anderson. http://www.wired.com/magazine/2010/01/ff_newrevolution
A garage renaissance is spilling over into such phenomena as the booming Maker Faires and local “hackerspaces.” Peer production, open source, crowdsourcing, user-generated content — all these digital trends have begun to play out in the world of atoms, too. The Web was just the proof of concept. Now the revolution hits the real world.
In short, atoms are the new bits.
The older printers — and the kind most frequently used by hobbyists — use heat to harden layers of printed liquid plastic into a complete model. But that also means that a finished object can appear a little melted and smudgy. The SLA machines are much better, print at much higher resolutions and use UV light instead of heat. The machines can also use a wider variety of materials and print at higher speeds. The problem is that these machines and their ultra-thin light-sensitive plastic are prohibitively expensive for most consumers — for now.
et là aussi, lu par @doctorow
Makers : economic manifesto - Boing Boing
Though I’ve disagreed pretty vociferously with some of the things he’s had to say in the past, his work has provoked more nods from me than head-shakes, and when I’ve disagreed with him, it’s been for chewy, substantive reasons that were worth exploring.
The political economy of 3D printing | Re-public: re-imagining democracy – english version
The capabilities that desktop manufacturing and in particular #3D printing offer have led to a shift from do-it-yourself (#DIY) culture to design-and-fabricate-yourself (DAFY) culture redefining the industrial value chain. Different kind of laboratories (#Fablabs) and other maker-spaces are being developed worldwide, blurring and mixing the roles of the designer, producer, distributor and consumer. Free/open source software and the passionate labour of online communities meet the novel capabilities of 3D printing and what happens at their crossroads remains to be critically investigated.
This issue aims to tentatively approach the necessity and the potential of this new technological capability for economy, society and culture. The articles try to shed light on the current status of 3D printing and its relation to a manufacturing model that is changing.
Quatre articles au sommaire :
– Areti Markopoulou – Towards the democratization of production: Additive and personal fabrication in Fab Labs http://www.re-public.gr/en/?p=5396
– Johan Söderberg – The unmaking of the working class and the rise of the Maker http://www.re-public.gr/en/?p=5399
– Dimitris Papalexopoulos – The 3d printing technology fantasy http://www.re-public.gr/en/?p=5401
– Sarah Griffiths – The amateur at play: How Fab Labs nurture sociable expertise http://www.re-public.gr/en/?p=5403
Detroit’s story has encapsulated the iconic narrative of America over the last century— the Great Migration of African Americans escaping Jim Crow; the rise of manufacturing and the middle class; the love affair with automobiles; the flowering of the American dream; and now . . . the collapse of the economy and the fading American mythos. With its vivid, painterly palette and haunting score, DETROPIA sculpts a dreamlike collage of a grand city teetering on the brink of dissolution. These soulful pragmatists and stalwart philosophers strive to make ends meet and make sense of it all, refusing to abandon hope or resistance. Their grit and pluck embody the spirit of the Motor City as it struggles to survive postindustrial America and begins to envision a radically different future.
New Era In Space Exploration Taking Off : Entrepreneurs Step In Where Big Government Left Off | Singularity Hub
(puisqu’on termine par l’EPFL, ça montre que le titre est faux, mais les infos sont intéressantes)
Just like the rise of electronics hobbyists in the 1970’s and the proliferation of garage manufactured personal computers, the do-it-yourself #DIY movement is now (...) with new ways to affordably spark the commercial space revolution. (...)
PhoneSat is a small (10 cm) cube #satellite project that makes use of smartphones as the central processing unit. With the computing power equivalent to big mainframe computers a couple of decades ago and with a wealth of sensors, cell phones are essentially supercomputers in our pockets – easy to hack and modify to serve many applications and uses. <http://vr-zone.com/articles/nasa-phonesat-project-to-launch-nexus-one-satellite/15619.html>
Similarly, ArduSat has raised money in #Kickstarter to make available open source platforms using a 1-2 kg cube satellite powered by an Arduino CPU. <http://www.kickstarter.com/projects/575960623/ardusat-your-arduino-experiment-in-space> (...)
Made in Space is riding on the rise of #3D printing technology as the next disruptive phenomenon in the manufacturing industry. They plan to 3D print in space parts that would otherwise have to be launched from Earth, cutting the cost and wait time for broken systems waiting for parts in space. (Apollo 13 could have used such a 3D printer to fit their square CO2 filter into their round hole.) For interplanetary exploration, this would allow missions to just bring their own 3D printers, and make use of available materials (or even dirt) to manufacture what they need to live and survive once they reach their destinations. <http://madeinspace.us>
The microthruster program at EPFL in Lausanne is developing a micro engine for nano-satellites that can potentially send a satellite to the moon in six months using two shot glasses worth of fuel.
Etats-Unis : qui a travaillé et comment depuis 1960 ?
GE Data Visualization
Working in America
Jobs are definitely a top of mind subject. Did you know that manufacturing jobs were the largest sector of employment in 1960, yet today the category has fallen to 6th place? In this interactive visualization, browse who has been working in America over the past 50 years by sector, gender or age. Or take a look at GE’s expert opinion on the subject and tweet your own thoughts about key insights uncovered. This is best viewed in Safari, Chrome, Firefox and IE9.
A third industrial revolution | The Economist
As manufacturing goes digital, a third great change is now gathering pace. It will allow things to be made economically in much smaller numbers, more flexibly and with a much lower input of labour, thanks to new materials, completely new processes such as 3D printing, easy-to-use robots and new collaborative manufacturing services available online. The wheel is almost coming full circle, turning away from mass manufacturing and towards much more individualised production.
ouais ouais… c’est pas vraiment ce qui se passe avec les iPad hein…