No Jobs and Bad Jobs
Article très intéressant sur le marché du travail en Egypte et le chômage des jeunes. Le rôle de l’Etat, les secteurs porteurs, l’économie parallèle et les assurances y sont abordés. Tout comme des solutions pour faire évoluer la situation et des perspectives.
Cet article me fait penser aux parcours de plusieurs personnages du livre « L’arche de Noé » de Khaled Al Khamissi (chronique à lire prochainement dans Le Monde diplomatique).
Youth employment issues pose a threat to Egypt’s democratic transition. Persistent high unemployment rates among youth, the increasing deterioration of the quality of jobs available with no social protection and the growth in employment informality are central policy challenges in Egypt.
Research has repeatedly shown that unemployment in Egypt is primarily a problem of youth insertion to labor market. (...) However, unemployment is not the only problem in Egypt’s labor market. There are two main issues that unemployment figures fail to capture. The first is what is termed by the World Bank as “joblessness.” (...) (and) the quality of jobs available for youth.
Jobs that offer financial stability, employment security and social protection are rare in Egypt.
Job creation is central to any meaningful discussion of youth employment issues. While the government can no longer be the main employer of youth in Egypt, it is the role of the government to enable an environment in which the private sector can develop to its full potential and play a role in generating employment and decent jobs. (...)
The fact that most young people are working in the informal economy and not contributing to pension schemes urges policy interventions in this area.
There is also a growing interest worldwide in micro-insurance schemes that are provided by cooperatives, unions, non-governmental organizations, self-help groups, and the private sector.
Finally, it is important for youth to have a voice in the process of addressing their employment issues. Engagement with youth, particularly those working within the informal economy, is central to a youth-focused policy framework for employment. Fragmentation and limited avenues for advocacy has meant that youth are absent from the policy process. Violence and angry demonstrations have been the only means for them to be heard.