• Unity projects analysis: the solution file has two projects named “UnityEngine.UI”
    https://hownot2code.com/2021/10/18/unity-projects-analysis-the-solution-file-has-two-projects-named-unitye

    While PVS-Studio analyses a Unity project, one may stumble upon such an error: Error was encountered while trying to open solution file ‘…’: The solution file has two projects named “UnityEngine.UI”. This note discusses the reasons for this error and how to eliminate it. Reasons PVS-Studio uses some third-party libraries, including Roslyn and MSBuild to … Continue reading Unity projects analysis: the solution file has two projects named “UnityEngine.UI”

    #Bugs_in_C#_projects #Tips_and_tricks #bugs #C# #coding #Csharp #development #gamedev #programming #SharpDevelop
    https://1.gravatar.com/avatar/a7fa0bb4ebff5650d2c83cb2596ad2aa?s=96&d=identicon&r=G

  • Ethnologue de la France d’après. Portrait de Jérôme Fourquet par Eugénie Bastié (Le Figaro, 11/10/2021) #paywall https://www.lefigaro.fr/actualite-france/jerome-fourquet-ethnologue-de-la-france-d-apres-20211011

    Après le succès phénoménal de L’Archipel français le sondeur publie, avec Jean-Laurent Cassely, La France sous nos yeux (Seuil). Un ouvrage indispensable pour comprendre notre pays à la veille de la présidentielle. Portrait d’un touche-à-tout à la curiosité insatiable et aux méthodes de travail très originales.

    (…) Dans son nouveau livre, La France sous nos yeux (Seuil), coécrit avec le talentueux Jean-Laurent Cassely, Fourquet multiplie ces variables inattendues qui permettent de mieux cerner des Français qui se définissent moins par leur généalogie politique que par leurs modes de vie. Évolution du taux de machine à dosettes dans les foyers (63 % contre 8 % en 2004) et des barbecues Weber dans les jardins, « premiumisation » des stations de ski, progression des kebabs et du halal… « Fourquet a compris que dans une société de consommation, on peut comprendre le pays par les habitudes de consommation » analyse Jérémie Peltier. « Dans une société qui ne croit plus dans le grand soir ni dans la révolution, ce qui compte, c’est ici et maintenant, ce que je peux payer à mes enfants. L’idée, c’est que si, à 40 ans, tu ne peux pas payer des Nike et du Nutella à tes enfants, tu as raté ta vie », résume Fourquet.

  • Le contexte, l’inscription. Bernard Aspe | La Division Politique
    http://ladivisionpolitique.toile-libre.org/seance1-le-contexte-linscription-bernard-aspe

    Scènes de la division politique, troisième année - Séance 1 : Le contexte, l’inscription

     

    Antiscience

    Je commencerai par rappeler la vérité de la situation : une classe, c’est-à-dire une force politique qui agit en assumant la partialité de son point de vue, cherche à gérer ce qu’elle appelle une « crise » sanitaire en faisant tout ce qu’elle peut pour que les causes de son existence ne soient pas mises en question. Par « causes », il faut entendre les plus immédiatement identifiables (la politique de santé menée en France depuis 2007 sous l’impulsion de quelques membres du gouvernement actuel) comme les plus profondes (la dévastation écologique qui accompagne comme son ombre le développement économique). Tout a été orchestré pour maintenir la rationalité de l’économie, et plus encore, pour trouver dans cette « crise » l’occasion de redéployer son espace. Maintenir l’économie comme loi, ce n’est certes pas dire qu’il y aurait chez les riches une pulsion incontrôlable (même si celle-ci existe certainement aussi par ailleurs) ; c’est dire que l’imposition de cette loi est la méthode la plus rationnelle de gouvernement mondial pour une classe qui veut à tout prix conserver son pouvoir.

    Du fait même de l’existence de cette classe, il nous a semblé nécessaire de conserver le schème de la division politique – même s’il n’y a pas deux classes qui se font face. L’une d’elle en effet, la nôtre, est difficile à identifier, surtout en une époque où les plus bienveillants, les plus proches, les plus sincèrement engagés, nous conseillent de ne pas pousser trop loin la recherche de cette identification. Il ne faut pas chercher à identifier ce qui est positivement flou, nous disent-ils, il ne faut pas figer ce qui est en mouvement, il ne faut pas cristalliser ce qui est encore métastable. En suivant ces injonctions, on est à peu près sûrs de remettre à plus tard, à toujours plus tard, le moment où une initiative politique nouvelle pourra s’énoncer en tant que telle.

    Mais c’est d’une façon très générale que la pensée politique éveille le soupçon. Le pouvoir a d’ailleurs récemment trouvé une astuce imparable pour disqualifier toute velléité de pensée politique. Si je dis par exemple qu’une classe est responsable des catastrophes en cours, je me retrouve nécessairement enfermé dans le cercle étroit et mal fréquenté des complotistes. On nous explique qu’il n’y a qu’une alternative : soit le complotisme, soit la science. Par chance, la science est constitutivement incapable de mettre en question l’autorité de l’État, ou les nécessités du capital. Si l’on veut échapper au complotisme, il faut donc accepter seulement de devenir raisonnables, commencer par suivre ce qui est établi par la science, et remettre à plus tard le moment où nous pourrons discuter du bien-fondé des décisions prises dans l’urgence, du moins dans le cadre de l’état d’urgence. (Plus tard, c’est-à-dire par exemple quand des historiens reviendront dix ou vingt ans en arrière et feront carrière en révélant les aberrations que nous sommes censés ne pas voir ou deviner ici et maintenant.)

    Je vous propose de commencer par ne pas être ainsi raisonnables, et pour cela, de ne pas relayer la fausse alternative imposée entre le complotisme et le discours de la science. (...)

  • Je suis prof et je m’autocensure : où est le problème ? | Le Club de Mediapart
    https://blogs.mediapart.fr/thomasvescovi/blog/171021/je-suis-prof-et-je-mautocensure-ou-est-le-probleme

    Ai-je le droit de considérer que montrer un homme nu à quatre pattes, qu’il soit prophète d’une religion ou Président de la République, que cela me fasse rire ou non, n’est pas la meilleure manière d’échanger avec mes élèves de collège ? C’est en tout cas le choix que j’ai fait. Est-ce que pour illustrer la liberté d’expression je devrais faire lire à mes élèves des extraits de Rivarol ou Valeurs actuelles ?

  • « Nous ne pouvons pas empêcher qu’un homme ait peur de son ombre »
    Rémi Carayol > Michael Pauron > 18 octobre 2021
    https://afriquexxi.info/article4869.html

    Document sonore · En juillet 1984, à la veille du premier anniversaire de la révolution, le dirigeant de ce qui deviendra quelques jours plus tard le Burkina Faso accorde une interview au célèbre cinéaste René Vautier. Cet échange était tombé dans l’oubli. Afrique XXI le dévoile alors que le procès des assassins de Sankara et de douze de ses camarades doit se tenir dans les prochaines semaines. Cette seconde partie est consacrée à sa conception de la révolution, à ses relations avec les pays voisins et aux régimes sud-africain et israélien. (...)

    #Thomas_Sankara
    #Algérie #Burkina_Faso #Mali #Sahara_occidental #Tchad #Israël

  • Le 17 octobre 1961, la police française placée sous l’autorité du tristement célèbre préfet Maurice Papon commettait le pire massacre de civils depuis la seconde guerre mondiale.
    Aujourd’hui, la loi du silence pèse toujours sur cet tragédie comme une chape de plomb.
    #17octobre1961
    https://twitter.com/realmarcel1/status/1449491641308430337

    2 morts officiellement, des centaines en réalité, sur une période de 2 mois de déchaînement de violence
    Il a fallu attendre les années 70 pour que les langues se délient et les années 80 pour que les historiens s’en emparent
    En ce qui concerne les politiques, on attend toujours

    Ce n’était pas une somme de dérapages isolés, c’était un système.
    Papon a donné un blanc-seing à la police pour tirer, de fausses informations ont été diffusées sur la radio, on a flatté le sentiment raciste d’une police qui n’avait pas été réformée depuis Vichy.

    On n’attendait pas grand chose de Macron qui flatte une police à la dérive pour qu’elle continue à couvrir ses turpitudes, dans un contexte où le ministre de l’Intérieur porte plainte contre ceux qui constatent une évidence : la police tue.

    Il a fait pire, il n’a pas eu un mot.
    Et pour cause, jamais la police française n’a été aussi violente ni aussi impunie depuis cette période brune de l’Histoire.
    Le racisme est toujours là, la violence aussi, mais c’est le déni qui fait le plus de mal, parce que c’est un système.

    Ce n’est pas un problème franco-algérien, c’est un problème français, et le déni qui perdure est un symbole d’un pays qui refuse le nécessaire devoir de mémoire qui lui permettrait enfin de se regarder dans une glace.

    Si ce déni continue encore aujourd’hui, c’est parce qu’il a une fonction : maintenir sous contrôle une institution qui n’a que très peu changé parce qu’on n’a jamais voulu qu’elle change, parce qu’au fond, le pouvoir a besoin d’une police raciste et violente

    Ce que raconte l’Histoire, ce n’est pas juste une histoire, c’est notre société.
    Ce que raconte cette histoire, c’est un tout petit pays qui se replie sur lui même parce qu’il n’accepte pas de perdre sa puissance, et c’est une élite qui se replie sur la violence pour se protéger.

    Plus que jamais, le fascisme frappe à nos portes avec ses grosses bottes qui font du bruit.
    Son ferment, c’est le mensonge.
    Pour le combattre, il faut dire la vérité.
    Si on a besoin de réparer les blessures du passé c’est pour avancer.
    Alors avançons ✊
    #LaPoliceTue

  • États-Unis : un empire policier ?
    https://laviedesidees.fr/Stuart-Schrader-Badges-Without-Borders.html

    À propos de : Stuart Schrader, Badges Without Borders : How Global Counterinsurgency Transformed American Policing, University of California Press. Dans les années 1960-1970, le gouvernement fédéral des États-Unis a déployé une même politique d’appui aux polices locales pour lutter contre les menaces insurrectionnelles à l’étranger et contre les émeutes urbaines sur le territoire national. Stuart Schrader restitue les luttes bureaucratiques qui ont donné lieu à cette politique et les circulations qu’elle a permises.

    #Histoire #police
    https://laviedesidees.fr/IMG/docx/20211018_schrader.docx
    https://laviedesidees.fr/IMG/pdf/20211018_schrader.pdf

  • Khrys’presso du lundi 18 octobre 2021
    https://framablog.org/2021/10/18/khryspresso-du-lundi-18-octobre-2021

    Comme chaque lundi, un coup d’œil dans le rétroviseur pour découvrir les informations que vous avez peut-être ratées la semaine dernière. Tous les liens listés ci-dessous sont a priori accessibles librement. Si ce n’est pas le cas, pensez à activer … Lire la suite­­

    #Claviers_invités #Internet_et_société #Libr'en_Vrac #Libre_Veille #Non_classé #GAFAM #Internet #Revue_de_web #Revue_hebdo #Surveillance #veille #webrevue
    https://mamot.fr/system/media_attachments/files/106/622/970/678/514/373/original/400c59b9a1973f55.mp4

  • Edward Snowden : « 12 septembre : Le plus grand regret de ma vie »
    https://www.les-crises.fr/edward-snowden-12-septembre-le-plus-grand-regret-de-ma-vie

    Ce qui suit est un extrait de mes mémoires, Permanent Record, disponible dans la plupart des langues partout où l’on vend de bons livres. Source : Edward SnowdenTraduit par les lecteurs du site Les-Crises Pandémonium, chaos : nos formes les plus anciennes de terreur. Ils font tous deux référence à un effondrement de l’ordre et […]

  • Why Everything is Suddenly Getting More Expensive — And Why It Won’t Stop | by umair haque | Oct, 2021 | Eudaimonia and Co
    https://eand.co/why-everything-is-suddenly-getting-more-expensive-and-why-it-wont-stop-cbf5a091

    It’s not just me. It’s probably you, too. Have you noticed that it’s starting to be hard to just…get stuff? If you’ve tried buying a car lately, you might have observed that even used car prices have climbed to relatively astronomical levels. The same is beginning to hold true for good after good — from electronics to energy. What’s going on here?

    I have some bad news, and I have some…well…worse news. We’re at the beginning of of an era in economic history that’ll probably come to be known as the Great Inflation.

    Prices are going to rise, probably exponentially, over the course of the next few decades. The reason for that’s simple: everything, more or less, has been artificially cheap. The costs of everything from carbon to fascism to ecological collapse to social fracture haven’t been factored in — ever, from the beginning of the industrial age. But that age is now coming to a sudden, climactic, explosive end. The problem is that, well, we’re standing in the way.

    Let me explain, with an example. I was looking for a microphone for a singer I’m working with. I was shocked to read that a well-know German microphone company had just…stopped making them. And furloughed all its workers. It didn’t say why — but it didn’t need to. The reason’s obvious. Steel prices are rising, and they’re going to to keep rising, because energy prices are rising. Then there’s the by now infamous “chip shortage,” chips they probably rely on, too. Add all that up, and bang — you’ve got an historic company suddenly imploding.

    I’ve heard story after story like this. Small or medium sized companies just…shutting down. They can’t get raw materials. They can’t afford the raw materials they can get. In either case, bang, it’s game over — for the foreseeable future. It’s not just a microphone company — I’ve heard similar stories in industries from medical devices to auto parts to technology. So far, this is just anecdotal — precisely because it’ll take a year or two for the quantitative data to reflect it. But we don’t have to wait that long to see what’s right before our eyes.

    The economy is undergoing a profound shock. Unfortunately for us, it’s going to be one of the largest shocks in economic history. It’s a “supply shock,” as economists formally call it — perhaps the greatest of all time. No, I’m not exaggerating. The world can’t get microchips right about now.

    A “supply shock” means, in this case, supply itself suddenly implodes. A city’s, town’s, country’s, or in this case, a world’s.

    Let’s think about that microchip shortage. What’s it really about? Well, there are three factories in which the majority of the world’s chips are made. Three factories — each hit in a different way. The one in Japan caught fire due to an equipment malfunction — apparently the blaze took hours to put out because of the conditions. The one in Texas was hit by an historic snowstorm, which knocked out power for days. The one in Taiwan is being affected by the worst drought in half a century — and microchips require huge amounts of water to manufacture.

    These are all effects of climate change. They might not be the kinds of monocausal direct effects climate change deniers and American pundits look for — the hand of God roasting a factory alive — but they are very much caused by living on a rapidly heating planet. It should be eminently clear to see that when factories are freezing and burning, that is what climate change does to an economy before your very eyes. (And even if you think the Japan fire had little to do with global warming, the face of the matter is that without climate change, two of the world’s largest chip factories would still be open.)

    The “chip shortage” is something that the world doesn’t really grasp yet, in its full importance and magnitude. It is the first climate catastrophe related shortage to hit us at a civilizational, global level. In a world of stable temperatures, guess what, we’d probably still have microchips to power our cars and gadgets and AV studios, because factories wouldn’t be losing power or be so parched they don’t have enough water. But they are — and so we do have a microchip shortage that has been caused by climate change, aka global warming.

    That’s the first such catastrophe, but it won’t be the last. The chip shortage is just the tip of the immense shockwave rolling down the volcano. It’s just the first burning rock soaring through the ash-filled sky. Today, it’s chips. Tomorrow? Well, some of the things that are already becoming more and more costly to produce are steel, food, and water. That is because all those things rely on energy, and energy is getting more expensive.

    Why is energy getting more expensive? The short-term answer is: Covid. Gas producers are hesitant to turn on the taps because they’re afraid that Covid will send the world into lockdown again. But that’s not the real answer. The real answer is that even if they begin to produce more gas, energy prices will go on rising over the long run.

    Why? Because right about now, energy is vastly underpriced, like it has been since the beginning of the industrial age. When you buy a gallon of gas, who pays for the pollution, the carbon it emits, which heats the planet? Right about now, nobody does. But over the next few decades, someone’s going to have to. Because we are going to need to use that money to rebuild all the cities and towns and systems and factories wrecked by flood and fire and drought and plague.

    Who’s that somebody going to be? Well, it’s probably not going to be energy companies. It’s probably going to be you, since they’re powerful, and you’re powerless.

    As the price of energy rises, the price of everything has to rise, too. Because the dirty truth is that our civilisation is still about 80% dependent on fossil fuels. The problem isn’t the electricity grid, as you might think. It’s that making things like steel and cement and glass still use gas. The world has just one fossil fuel free steel factory so far. But our civilisation depends fundamentally on all these things. Without them? We go back to living medieval lives. All our steel and glass and concrete skyscrapers, factories, universities, cities, towns — kiss them goodbye.

    What’s made in all those factories which are still ultimately made of by fossil fuels — of steel, cement, glass? Everything. Everything you rely and depend on. Cars, clothes, medicine. The stuff that clothes and feeds your kids. The stuff you “work” on and are tasked with buying and selling. See how deep this rabbit hole really goes?

    All that adds up to the prices of everything rising. For how long? For the foreseeable future. At least for a generation or two, I’d say.

    Now let me tell you the story that might help make it even clearer, and I’ll put it a little bit more formally.

    From the beginning of the industrial age, our economy has “externalized” costs. Costs like what? Costs like carbon. Like the plastic that’s now jamming up the oceans, of cleaning it up. Of the misery and despair that poverty breeds — the political costs of fascism and supremacy, which rear their heads in times of poverty. Of ecological collapse.

    How have we “externalised” those costs? Who have we externalised them to? Well, to “future generations,” economists once used to say. All the people who’d have to clean up the oceans and the skies and replant the forests and nurture the animals back to life. And do all that while figuring out ways to make things like steel and concrete and food and glass without killing the planet we lived on, or pushing our societies into fascism by way of inequality. Big job? Biggest in history.

    Guess what? We are those “future generations.” The ones economists used to speak of, like it was in some remote future. It wasn’t. We don’t have much a choice left. We clean up the oceans and rivers, beginning now, or we ruin them for a millennia or two. That means killing off fish we eat and water we drink, too. We clean up the skies — or we don’t breathe. We decarbonise how we make stuff — or we don’t have it.

    And that is what the Great Inflation really is. Let’s begin with the last point. We have to figure out how to decarbonise basics — steel, cement, food, water, how to make without destroying the planet. We don’t know how. Until we figure it out, prices are going to rise — prices of everything made in factories made of steel, largely still powered by fossil fuels, using raw materials made in other factories powered by other fossil fuels. That’s everything you can think of, from cars to clothes.

    We have to figure out how to perform a Great Cleanup, too — cleaning up the oceans, skies, rivers, mountains, rainforests. Then comes a Great Replenishment. We have to replant the forests and nurture the animals and nature — biotic matter — back to life. We have no idea how to do that — we haven’t even begun. Until we do, prices are going to rise, because, well, nature’s underling a mass extinction, the first man-made one in history.

    Remember when I said this was the greatest supply shock in history? Now you should be able to get why a little bit. What even comes close to: “we’re annihilating nature so fast we’ve caused the first human-made mass extinction”? Now that’s a supply shock: we’re making nature extinct. Of course prices of everything dependent on it are going to skyrocket, because we’re running out of the supply.

    Or let’s come back to decarbonising steel, cement, glass — all the basics of industrial production. Until we do figure it out, all that stuff is just going to keep on getting more expensive. Sure, there’ll be a dip here and there, but the basic principle remains: making that stuff poisons the planet at an accelerating rate, and it’s going to cost more and more to produce, manufacture, distribute, and sell.

    That’s not just because of carbon taxes, but for a deeper reason.

    Making, producing, distributing, buying, selling the basics of civilisation the dirty way that we do causes climate change — and climate change is trying to teach us a lesson. Climate change is made of fire and flood and typhoon and plague. See the feedback effect? Good luck distributing that batch of steel when there’s a megaflood or megafire in the way. Good luck getting that supertanker full of clothes and gadgets to the right shore when a megatyphoon lasting a month and wrecking a coastline hits…all winter long. And good luck when Covid-21 hits, because, well, we haven’t vaccinated the planet, so it’s sure to — and there goes the economy all over again.

    I can put that more simply: the costs of mega floods and fires and typhoons and droughts and plagues now have to be internalized, because the costs of carbon, natural extinction, poverty, ill health, inequality, were all externalized. But these are asymmetrical effects. These costs were externalised for centuries. They will have to be internalized over decades.

    See the problem? The huge timescale difference? We’ve been externalising the costs of carbon and natural extinction and inequality and ecological collapse since the beginning of the industrial age. But now we have to internalise them over the next few decades — or its light out.

    Human civilisation has never faced the wave of inflationary pressures it does now. It has never had to internalize centuries of externalities over decades — because if someone doesn’t pay those costs, well, then, there is more civilization, no more glass, steel, cement, medicine, factories, clothes, electronics…no more clean air, water, food…no shelter from the megafire or megaflood…and good luck having democracy or rights then.

    Someone has to pay for all that. That leaves three parties. One, you and me, average folks, living average lives. Two, megacorporations. Three, the billionaires who own them. Good luck getting them to pay up. It’s a noble effort, don’t get me wrong. But if you ask me realistically? So far, there’s an effort to make global tax rates…15%. LOL. So far, they pay zero, which means you and me are going to have to pay for it all — climate change, mass extinction, ecological collapse, probably while they jet off to Mars.

    You’d better prepare for the greatest inflationary wave in human history. It’s going to be really bad. This is just the beginning. It’s going to be a lot like Covid, or climate change — harder, faster, and much, much worse than anyone really thinks right about now.

    Umair
    October 2021

  • #Berlin (Allemagne) : #expulsion de la Köpi-Wagenplatz, et riposte de rue immédiate
    https://fr.squat.net/2021/10/17/berlin-allemagne-expulsion-de-la-kopi-wagenplatz-et-riposte-de-rue-immedia

    Deux textes repris d’attaque.noblogs.org : – Berlin (Allemagne) : Avec un sourire sur le visage – Le bureau de Covivo à coups de marteau de.indymedia.org / dimanche 17 octobre 2021 (sur Attaque) La soirée de vendredi dernier a probablement été l’une des plus belles de l’année. Alors que, plus tôt, l’expulsion de la Köpi-Wagenplatz par une énorme […]

    #actions_directes #Allemagne #émeutes #Koepi_Wagenplatz #Kreuzberg #manifestation

  • Dash to Dock v70 Adds GNOME 40 Support
    https://www.omgubuntu.co.uk/2021/10/dash-to-dock-official-gnome-40-support

    Dash to Dock now supports GNOME 40 — officially. Work to get the popular desktop dock extension jiving with GNOME 40 got underway shortly after the latter’s release in April. Progress was swift as we reported but to try it out users needed to manually install a development version from Github. Well, no more. You can now install Dash to Dock on GNOME 40 from the GNOME extensions site using a compatible web browser. Version 70 of the add-on gains official support for GNOME 40 and its horizontal workspace and application launcher. The dock can be placed on the bottom […] This post, Dash to Dock v70 Adds GNOME 40 Support is from OMG! Ubuntu!. Do not reproduce elsewhere without (...)

  • The U.S. Army’s ‘Suicide Squad’ Was Ready to Sacrifice Everything to Beat Russia | The National Interest
    https://nationalinterest.org/blog/reboot/us-army%E2%80%99s-%E2%80%98suicide-squad%E2%80%99-was-ready-sacrif

    Theirs was a mission that may have caused Moscow some pain but also was certainly doomed to fail.

    by Michael Peck
    Here’s What You Need to Remember: Fortunately, this unit was saved by the fall of the Berlin Wall. 

    Had the Cold War turned hot, there would have been no escape for the U.S. garrison in West Berlin. Marooned in a city more than 100 miles inside Communist East Germany, the U.S. Berlin Brigade—and the British and French garrisons as well—would certainly have been overwhelmed by Soviet and East German troops. Their presence helped keep half of Berlin free from Communist rule. But it was no secret that theirs was a suicide mission.

    Yet there was a unique American unit with an even more hazardous mission: a small Special Forces detachment whose job it would during wartime to conduct guerrilla warfare against the Soviets and their puppet armies. That sentence bears repeating: Deep inside East Germany, in the midst of a vast Soviet military and secret police apparatus, a small group of U.S. commandos would attempt to blow up Russian supply depots and lead local resistance groups.

    The phrase “suicide mission” doesn’t even apply.

    The unit had many names over the Cold War. But as James Stejskal, a veteran of the detachment, describes in his book Special Forces Berlin: Clandestine Cold War Operations of the US Army’s Elite 1956-1990, they always knew what they were getting into. “They were aware of the odds against them and the threat posed by the Warsaw Pact forces stationed just kilometers away. Despite that, no one wavered in their commitment to face and deter the Soviet war machine.”

    The U.S. Army’s Special Forces (SF) was born in 1952, and by 1956 SF units were deployed to Berlin. “The unit would first conduct sabotage attacks on vital targets such as rail marshaling yards, bridges, military command and control systems, communications, petroleum oil and lubricant (POL) facilities, power plants, and inland waterways,” Stejskal writes:

    Most of the rail targets were on the Berliner Aussenring, a 125-kilometer [77.7-mile] rail line that circled West Berlin just outside the city and would carry the overwhelming majority of Soviet traffic westwards to the front. Once those targets were destroyed the teams would then conduct the CINCEUR’s [Commander-in-Chief Europe’s] mission of unconventional warfare behind the lines of the Warsaw Pact armies, the so-called ’stay behind’ mission. It was also prepared to arm and direct civilians inside Berlin against an occupation force—there were 10,000 weapons in the Brigade’s Emergency Arms Reserve stored specifically for that purpose.

    Quite a task for a unit that numbered less than a hundred men.

    Ironically, the unit’s mission was eased slightly by the nature of the Berlin Wall: it was designed to keep people from escaping from East Germany, rather than into East Germany. Nonetheless, had war broken out, West Berlin would have been suddenly and massively assaulted by Soviet and East German troops. The SF troopers would have had little warning to leave their barracks, go underground and slip into the East before the Soviet juggernaut surged west.

    As if the Soviet army and KGB weren’t enough, the Berlin special operators faced another equally formidable enemy: the U.S. government. The CIA was supposed to set up underground guerrilla groups in Eastern Europe that the Green Berets could train and lead, but the spy agency had little luck in creating them.

    More important was a phenomenon that is still a problem today: using special forces troops as nothing more than elite assault infantry for direct action missions. By the 1970s, the Berlin SF detachment was increasingly asked to train and prepare for counterterrorism missions. Given the wave of terrorism that swept across Europe in the 1970s and 1980s, from groups such as Baader-Meinhof, the Red Brigades, and Carlos the Jackal, the temptation to use commandos to stop them was understandable. But kicking in doors to rescue hostages was far from the skills needed to stay alive in the East German countryside.

    In any event, West Berlin became united Berlin when the wall came tumbling down in 1989. In August 1990, the Berlin Special Forces unit was disbanded. This writer was once told by an ex–Special Forces soldier (who hadn’t served in Berlin) that the Soviets had photos of all the members of the detachment. True or not, East German records uncovered after the unification of Germany show that East German intelligence didn’t have any real knowledge of the unit until 1975.

    Even Stejskal admits that the Berlin Special Forces would have had a difficult time accomplishing their wartime mission. Nonetheless, whether they were practicing skiing or practicing shadowing East German spies that had slipped into West Berlin, the commandos could enjoy a strenuous but exciting assignment.

    Most of all, the Berlin Special Forces were on the front line, at the most famous flashpoint of the Cold War, and almost no one knew they existed:

    The Detachment’s men moved through the city in civilian clothes, carrying the briefcases, shoulder bags, or, later, day packs, that contained the tools of their trade; whatever they needed for the tasks they were to undertake that day. They walked alongside ordinary Berliners with the uneasy knowledge that they could well be called upon to fight on those very streets. At the same time, it was hard not to smile inside—for these men were among the privileged few Special Forces soldiers given the opportunity to serve in this far outpost on such an important mission. The glory of the Spartans was often recalled at unit events, but not unforgotten was the unequivocal ending that befell them at Thermopylae.

    Further reading: Special Forces Berlin: Clandestine Cold War Operations of the US Army’s Elite, 1956–1990, by James Stejskal.

    Michael Peck is a contributing writer for the National Interest. He can be found on Twitter and Facebook. This first appeared in 2017.

  • Au nom du père - YouTube
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2zZRFJ1oXHA

    Sur la transmission du nom de famille

    #inertie #patronyme

    L’article du philosophe William MacAskill évoqué dans la vidéo : https://www.theatlantic.com/sexes/archive/2013/03/men-should-consider-changing-their-last-names-when-they-get-married/273718

    Un article de la sociologue Virginie Descoutures sur le nom des femmes et sa transmission : https://www.cairn.info/journal-mouvements-2015-2-page-43.htm

    Les statistiques de noms donnés aux enfants en France pour 2014 : https://www.insee.fr/fr/statistiques/1379722

    Et la même chose pour 2017 : https://www.ined.fr/fr/tout-savoir-population/memos-demo/focus/double-noms

    Par curiosité, j’ai cherché des données sur la transmission du nom du père au Royaume-Uni et je n’ai pas réussi à en trouver. Si vous en trouvez (ou si vous trouvez pour d’autres pays ou pour d’autres années en France, ce sera toujours intéressant), envoyez-moi le lien et j’ajouterai ça ici.

    Sommaire

    0:00 - Intro. Un point aveugle moral
    2:59 - Une norme hégémonique
    4:27 - Que dit la loi ? Égalité formelle et non réelle
    6:58 - Le poids du statu quo
    9:05 - Quelle norme alternative ?
    11:05 - Le cas du Royaume-Uni et de Will MacAskill
    12:53 - La norme actuelle satisfait-elle le principe de tort ?
    14:49 - Conclusion. Quel avenir ?

    Ah et n’oublions pas la vidéo drôlatique sur les noms dans les RPG : https://youtu.be/gzBZFArR4mc