Hungary : Key Asylum Figures as of 1 December 2017
La règle des 8 km dit :
Recent legal amendments that entered into force on 5 July allow the Hungarian police to automatically push back asylum - seekers who are apprehended within 8 km (5 miles) of the Serbian - Hungarian or Croatian - Hungarian border to the external side of the border fence , without registering their data or allowing them to submit an asylum claim, in a summary procedure lacking the most basic procedural safeguards (e.g. access to an interpreter or legal assistance) .
Voir comment cela marche dans un texte de Nora Bernardi écrit par Vivre Ensemble :
Pour légitimer la pratique des expulsions à chaud, clairement illégale, le gouvernement espagnol utilise le concept de « #frontière_opérationnelle » : d’après celui-ci, le territoire ibérique ne commencerait qu’à partir de la troisième barrière, de par un « déplacement libre et souverain de la ligne de frontière ». Les migrants interceptés dans l’espace entre deux barrières n’auraient par conséquent aucun droit, ne se trouvant pas encore en Espagne.
In response to the legal challenge, the Spanish government has argued that reaching or even crossing the three fences around Melilla’s nearly seven-mile border is not enough to claim asylum.
Instead, Madrid has recently argued that the migrants must cross what it calls an “operational border” — set wherever the last line of police security stands.
The Spanish operational border concept
Spanish authorities are guided by the “operational border concept” consolidated since 2005. Following this concept, the Aliens Act applies only once a third country national has crossed the last of the three fences successfully. While they remain in the land between the fences or climbing the third fence close to Spanish territory, they are considered as not being arrived in Spain, even if they are helped by Spanish agents to get off the third fence. Therefore, the migrants would not be under Spanish jurisdiction and Spanish legislation doesn’t apply. In relation with the ECtHR’s first decision in the case N.D and N.T on 7 July 2015 , Spain amended its Aliens Act in order to legalise the summary returns of those who irregularly cross the border at its enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla. The Act on the Protection of Public Security of 30 March 2015 actually established an additional 10th provision to the Aliens Act regulating the aforementioned summary returns (devoluciones en caliente) under the concept of “rejection at the border”, a provision currently examined by the Constitutional Court. This provision states the following:
“1. Foreigners that are detected on the border line of the territorial demarcation of Ceuta or Melilla while trying to cross the border‘s contentive elements (fences) to irregularly cross the border, may be rejected in order to prevent their illegal entry into Spain.
2. In any case, the rejection shall be carried out in accordance with international human rights law and international regime of protection binding for Spain
3. Applications for international protection shall be formalised in the authorised places for that purpose and will be processed according to international protection obligations.”