Articles repérés par Hervé Le Crosnier

Je prend ici des notes sur mes lectures. Les citations proviennent des articles cités.

  • China’s Cryptocurrency Plan Has a Powerful Partner: Big Brother - The New York Times
    https://www.nytimes.com/2019/10/18/technology/china-cryptocurrency-facebook-libra.html

    BEIJING — When Facebook announced plans this year for a cryptocurrency called Libra, it said its goal was to reinvent money for the internet age. What the company probably didn’t imagine was that its efforts might spur China to get there first.

    China wants to start replacing the cash that people carry with a digital currency soon, a long-discussed project that went into overdrive after Libra was unveiled in June. Facebook has been fighting to defend its initiative against skeptical regulators, and key corporate partners have pulled out of the project. But Beijing’s ambitions appear to be moving ahead at full speed.

    The system emerging in China looks very different from Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies that enthusiasts have championed as tools of emancipation from big banks and governments.

    A state-issued e-currency would help China’s government know more — much, much more — about how its citizens spend their money, giving it sweeping new powers to fight crime and manage the economy while also raising privacy concerns.
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    “It’s extraordinary power and visibility into the financial system, more than any central bank has today,” said Martin Chorzempa, a research fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics in Washington.

    Not even half a year has passed since Facebook unveiled Libra, but the tech giant’s foray into finance has been met with a steady stream of doubts and questions.

    The Federal Reserve says it has “serious concerns.” European officials have threatened to block the project from moving ahead on the Continent. Mark Zuckerberg, Facebook’s chief executive, is set to appear on Capitol Hill next week to discuss the plans.

    For Beijing, Libra has provided another urgent motive for digitizing the currency. China blocks Facebook’s platforms within its borders, but Chinese leaders see in Libra the potential start of a new world financial system, one that could bulldoze the traditional authority of governments and central banks — China’s included.

    “If Libra is accepted by everyone and becomes a widely used payment tool, then after some time, it is entirely possible that it will develop into a global, super-sovereign currency,” Mu Changchun, a top official at China’s central bank, said in a recent online lecture. “We need to plan ahead to protect our monetary sovereignty.”

    Facebook says Calibra, its digital wallet for holding and spending Libra, will require ID verification, and the company is vowing to use your financial data responsibly. It says it will not, for instance, take note of your pain reliever purchases to push Instagram ads for clinics.

    China has suggested that it, too, will keep spending information away from marketers — but not from the authorities. The banks and electronic payment companies that will distribute the new digital currency already require users to authenticate their names and identities. And officials have made clear that the central bank will be able to view data on transactions.

    Chinese consumers have for years paid for everything with their phones, and the country’s two dominant mobile payment services, Alipay and WeChat Pay, have become pillars of the Chinese economy. Alipay says it has processed as many as 256,000 payments per second. By comparison, Visa says it can handle 65,000. Libra is promising to do 1,000, at least at the start.

    But many transactions on the Chinese platforms move exclusively between digital wallets, never making contact with the state-dominated banking system. That means the Chinese government has to go through the platforms’ privately owned parent companies, Ant Financial and Tencent, if it wants to track and scrutinize those movements.

    Not so with the new e-currency.

    #Monnaie_numérique #Libra #Chine #Surveillance

  • Boeing Pilot Complained of ‘Egregious’ Issue With 737 Max in 2016 - The New York Times
    https://www.nytimes.com/2019/10/18/business/boeing-flight-simulator-text-message.html

    Il y a deux choses fascinantes dans cet article :
    – l’usage du mot « culture » pour définir l’ensemble des pressions qui s’exercent sur une entreprise dans son ensemble... mais qui évite d’élargir la question à la « culture » de la société en général, qui fait de la concurrence, de l’innovation et du lancement de produit sans véritable certification son modèle de la réussite (i.e. la Silicon valley).

    – la pratique de la « complicité » par des acteurs d’un marché, qui vont jusqu’à mentir sciemment à des autorités pour cacher ou minimiser des problèmes. Une question majeure : il n’y a pas de domination sans complicités internes. Comment un réseau d’influence peut-il pousser les gens à mentir et se mentir pour répondre à des injonctions extérieures à leur propre métier/compétences/pratiques ?

    Cette affaire Boeing mérite plus encore de réfléchir à la société qu’a construite le néolibéralisme. Une société toxique au plus fort sens du terme.

    For months, Boeing has said it had no idea that a new automated system in the 737 Max jet, which played a role in two fatal crashes, was unsafe.

    But on Friday, the company gave lawmakers a transcript revealing that a top pilot working on the plane had raised concerns about the system in messages to a colleague in 2016, more than two years before the Max was grounded because of the accidents, which left 346 people dead.

    In the messages, the pilot, Mark Forkner, who played a central role in the development of the plane, complained that the system, known as MCAS, was acting unpredictably in a flight simulator: “It’s running rampant.”

    The messages are from November 2016, months before the Max was certified by the Federal Aviation Administration. “Granted, I suck at flying, but even this was egregious,” he said sardonically to a colleague, according to a transcript of the exchange reviewed on Friday by The New York Times.

    The Max crisis has consumed Boeing, and the revelation of the messages from Mr. Forkner comes at a particularly sensitive time. The company’s chief executive, Dennis A. Muilenburg, is scheduled to testify before two congressional committees, on Oct. 29 and Oct. 30, the first time a Boeing executive has appeared at a hearing related to the crashes. Boeing’s stock lost 7 percent of its value on Friday, adding to the financial fallout.

    The existence of the messages strike at Boeing’s defense that it had done nothing wrong regarding the Max because regulators had cleared the plane to fly, and potentially increases the company’s legal exposure as it faces civil and criminal investigations and multiple lawsuits related to both crashes. Facing competition from Airbus, Boeing worked to produce the Max as quickly as possible, striving to minimize costly training for pilots. Last week, a task force of 10 international regulators released a report that found that Boeing had not fully explained MCAS to the F.A.A.

    Mr. Forkner was the chief technical pilot for the Max and was in charge of communicating with the F.A.A. group that determined how pilots would be trained before flying it. He helped Boeing convince international regulators that the Max was safe to fly.

    In the messages, he said that during tests in 2016, the simulator showed the plane making unexpected movements through a process called trimming.

    “The plane is trimming itself like craxy,” he wrote to Patrik Gustavsson, a fellow 737 technical pilot at Boeing. “I’m like WHAT?”

    Mr. Forkner went on to say that he had lied to the F.A.A.

    “I basically lied to the regulators (unknowingly),” Mr. Forkner says in the messages, though it was not clear what he was specifically referring to.

    Lawmakers, regulators and pilots responded with swift condemnation on Friday.

    “This is the smoking gun,” Representative Peter DeFazio, Democrat of Oregon, said in an interview. “This is no longer just a regulatory failure and a culture failure. It’s starting to look like criminal misconduct.”

    The Times, which was the first to disclose Mr. Forkner’s involvement in the plane, previously reported that he had failed to tell the F.A.A. that the original version of MCAS was being overhauled, leaving regulators with the impression that the system was relatively benign and would be used only in rare cases.

    Eight months before the messages were exchanged, Mr. Forkner had asked the F.A.A. if it would be O.K. to remove mention of MCAS from the pilot’s manual. The F.A.A., which at the time believed the system would activate only in rare cases and wasn’t dangerous, approved Mr. Forkner’s request.

    [The New York Times was the first to report on Mr. Forkner’s role in the development of the 737 Max and his request to the F.A.A.]

    Another exchange, in a batch of emails among Mr. Forkner, Boeing colleagues and F.A.A. officials, was also reviewed by The Times on Friday. In one email from November 2016, Mr. Forkner wrote that he was “jedi-mind tricking regulators into accepting the training that I got accepted by F.A.A.”

    A lawyer for Mr. Forkner downplayed the importance of the messages, suggesting Mr. Forkner was talking about issues with the simulator.

    Mr. DeFazio, who as chairman of the House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee is overseeing the investigation into the crashes, said he had reviewed other internal Boeing documents and emails that suggested employees were under pressure to produce planes as fast as possible and avoid additional pilot training.

    “Boeing cannot say this is about one person,” Mr. DeFazio said. “This is about a cultural failure at Boeing under pressure from Wall Street to just get this thing out there and make sure that you don’t open the door to further pilot training.”

    #Boeing #Culture_entreprise #Concurrence #Mensonge #Autorité_régulation

  • The Pro-Trump Super PAC at the Center of the Ukraine Scandal Has Faced Multiple Campaign Finance Complaints — ProPublica
    https://www.propublica.org/article/the-pro-trump-super-pac-at-the-center-of-the-ukraine-scandal-has-faced-m

    Last year, a Department of Defense contractor quietly donated half a million dollars to a group supporting President Donald Trump’s reelection.

    Once a watchdog organization noticed it, the contribution raised an alarm. Federal contractors are not allowed to donate to political entities. And groups are required by law to examine all donations for potential legal issues. If they discover that a contractor has made a contribution, the money has to be returned.

    The other unusual aspect of the donation was the man behind it. Randy Perkins, the founder of DOD contractor AshBritt Environmental, had no history of six-figure contributions to federal political groups, although he has been a regular donor to Republicans for the past 15 years. He ran unsuccessfully for Congress as a Democrat in 2016.

    The watchdog group pointed out that the money came in a day after AshBritt won a supplemental contract award worth $460,000 from the DOD for wildfire cleanup, bringing its contract total to about $1.7 million.

    Asked about the donation, Perkins said he had meant to make a personal donation to express his support for specific Trump policies: “I actually think this administration cares deeply about children and mental health issues.” He said the contract extension had nothing to do with the contribution.

    #Corruption #USA #Donald_Trump

  • Q. & A. with Charles Duhigg : suite de l’article sur Amazon dans le New Yorker

    “It wasn’t fair to call Amazon a cult, but it wasn’t entirely unfair, either,” Charles Duhigg writes this week in The New Yorker. His piece explores the retailer’s readiness to fight regulators, the company’s intense culture, and the tabloid scandal that engulfed Jeff Bezos, its founder. In a conversation that has been edited for length and clarity, Duhigg discussed what he learned.

    You wrote that “Amazon now has such a severe image problem that it can no longer count on being able to do whatever it pleases.” In fact, Elizabeth Warren tweeted your piece, arguing that a company can be an umpire or own a team but can’t do both in the same game. How is this image problem affecting Amazon’s relationship with consumers?

    For the first time—for all of the tech industry, but Amazon is front and center on this—you’re seeing this reëvaluation on the part of shoppers and consumers and voters and politicians to say, “This thing we thought was great—now we’re beginning to understand there are vast downsides associated with it.” Before, we couldn’t even perceive the downsides.

    What’s happening right now is there’s this very complicated and very challenging reëvaluation of the age we’re living in. Part of that is saying, “Let’s look at these companies with a more gimlet eye,” but also, “Let’s look at our lives with a more critical eye.”

    You wrote about the National Enquirer’s coverage of Jeff Bezos’s extramarital affair, which was more personal than the other controversies that have shaken Amazon. What implications did the scandal have for the company, beyond Bezos’s own reputation?

    I don’t think the National Enquirer has many implications for Amazon, except what this one guy said: Amazon is a reflection of Jeff Bezos’s brain. Jeff Bezos is at the core of everything Amazon does. He is the spiritual center. I heard this from a lot of people: the reason Jeff Bezos has moral authority within Amazon is because of his integrity.

    Everything at Amazon is so rational and logical. For this guy to take what seemed like a crazy risk, to become tabloid fodder—it really shook people’s sense of the company, and of Bezos, and of themselves. For people inside Amazon, it was shocking.

    If you had another two months to report this story, what would you have wanted to explore?

    Amazon is one of the biggest lobbyists in Washington, D.C. It’s harder to track state-by-state lobbying. As a result, companies are much less transparent when they’re lobbying state legislatures than when they’re lobbying the federal government. If I had more time, I would have looked at what Amazon is doing in states.

    Amazon now has fulfillment centers in almost forty states—most of them are in different congressional districts. They have more than six hundred thousand employees. Amazon lobbies lawmakers, but they don’t ask citizens to become lobbyists for Amazon. But if they ever decided to, or they ever asked their employees to become lobbyists on behalf of Amazon, the political impact could be enormous.

    Read Duhigg’s story, “Is Amazon Unstoppable?”

    #Amazon #Lobbying #Jeff_Bezos

  • Sara Danius, 57, Dies ; First Woman to Head Nobel Literature Committee - The New York Times
    https://www.nytimes.com/2019/10/17/books/sara-danius-dead.html

    Impressionnante necro de la femme qui a nommé Bob Dylan Prix Nobel de littérature, mais fut ensuite obligée de démissionner suite à un crime sexuel commis par l’un des membres du Comité Nobel et qu’elle ne voulait pas couvrir. Ce qui fut la cause de manifestations de soutien : un homme commet un crime, et c’est une femme qui paye les pots cassés.

    She led the deliberations to grant Bob Dylan the Nobel. When she was ousted after a sex scandal in which she was not involved, thousands rallied to her defense.
    ImageSara Danius spoke during the Nobel Prize award ceremony in Stockholm in 2017. She led the Swedish Academy, which awards the Nobel Prize in Literature, but left the position in the aftermath of a sex scandal in which she was not involved.
    Sara Danius spoke during the Nobel Prize award ceremony in Stockholm in 2017. She led the Swedish Academy, which awards the Nobel Prize in Literature, but left the position in the aftermath of a sex scandal in which she was not involved.CreditCreditFredrick Sandberg , TT News Agency, via Reuters

    By Katharine Q. Seelye

    Oct. 17, 2019

    Sara Danius, who was the first woman to lead the Swedish Academy, which awards the Nobel Prize in Literature, and who was ousted in the aftermath of a sexual abuse and harassment scandal that roiled the academy, died on Oct. 12 in Stockholm. She was 57.

    The cause was breast cancer, which was diagnosed six years ago, her mother, the author Anna Wahlgren, said on Facebook.

    Ms. Danius, a literary scholar, professor and writer, was the permanent secretary of the academy from 2015 to 2018. As such, she played a central role in the hotly debated decision in 2016 to bestow the world’s most prestigious award for literature on a musician, Bob Dylan.

    But a sex scandal the next year, when 18 women accused a board member’s husband of sexual assault, overshadowed the Dylan dust-up and led to Ms. Danius’s departure.
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    She herself was never accused of wrongdoing. But she was the public face of a global institution whose reputation had been severely damaged.

    Behind the scenes, her enemies within the academy sought to protect the accused man. They resisted her attempts to bring in law enforcement and forced her out.

    When she left, Ms. Danius acknowledged that her colleagues had lost confidence in her leadership. She also defiantly suggested that arrogant and anachronistic forces within the academy had invoked the institution’s traditions to deny accountability.

    “Not all traditions are worth preserving,” she said.

    Her abrupt departure infuriated many women — and many men as well — across Sweden, a country that prides itself on gender equality. She was widely viewed as a scapegoat.

    As a New York Times headline put it: “In Nobel Scandal, a Man Is Accused of Sexual Misconduct. A Woman Takes the Fall.”
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    Thousands of people rallied to support her in public demonstrations and on social media. In a show of solidarity, many wore a garment favored by the fashion-conscious Ms. Danius — the pussy-bow blouse, or knytblus, in which a flowing wide tie is knotted at the neck. Considered the professional woman’s alternative to the suit and tie, the blouse was worn in the 1980s by Margaret Thatcher and Nancy Reagan and more recently by Melania Trump.
    ImageA demonstration in support of Ms. Danius in April 2018 in Stortorget Square in Stockholm. Thousands showed their support her in public demonstrations and on social media after she was ousted from the academy.
    A demonstration in support of Ms. Danius in April 2018 in Stortorget Square in Stockholm. Thousands showed their support her in public demonstrations and on social media after she was ousted from the academy.CreditFredrik Persson/TT news, via Reuters

    The scandal, driven in part by the #MeToo movement sweeping the United States, set off recriminations and power struggles within the academy. Amid the turmoil, several of the 18 board members left their chairs. And in 2018, for the first time since World War II, no Nobel Prize in Literature was awarded.

    The literature prize has a long history of controversy. The academy has tended to favor Europeans, often Swedes and especially men, and has frequently honored obscure writers rather than towering literary figures.

    In 2016 it drew plenty of fire for awarding the literature prize to Mr. Dylan; it was the first time a songwriter was so honored. Ms. Danius was pivotal in that selection, but the deliberations that lead to the selection of recipients are kept secret for 50 years, and she revealed little about it in her book “On Bob Dylan.”

    When she announced the award, Ms. Danius cited Mr. Dylan “for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition.”

    The award horrified many in the literary world, who maintained that song lyrics were not literature.

    Ms. Danius defended the choice, telling reporters, “He’s a great poet in the great English tradition, stretching from Milton and Blake onwards.” Mr. Dylan worked in the oral tradition, she added, like Homer and Sappho, whose works were meant to be performed, often with instruments, and whose art has survived well on the printed page.
    Image
    Ms. Danius, left, with a fellow member of the Swedish Academy member, Sara Stridsberg, in 2018.
    Ms. Danius, left, with a fellow member of the Swedish Academy member, Sara Stridsberg, in 2018.CreditJonas Ekstromer/EPA, via Shutterstock

    Sara Danius was born on April 5, 1962, in Taby, north of Stockholm. As a child she moved frequently with her mother, Ms. Wahlgren, who had nine children, of whom Sara was the oldest. Ms. Wahlgren, who was married and divorced seven times, was nonetheless acclaimed in Europe in the 1980s for her popular child-rearing manual, “For the Love of Children,” which was published in English in 2009.

    When Sara was 11, she moved to Taby to live with her father, Lars Danius, a teacher and author.

    She studied at Stockholm University, graduating in 1986, then established herself as a literary critic. After further studies in France, England and the United States, where she received her doctorate in literature from Duke University in 1997, she was appointed professor of aesthetics at Sodertorn University in Stockholm. In 2013 she was named professor of literature at Stockholm University. She wrote extensively about modernist aesthetics and also about Proust, Flaubert and Joyce.

    Ms. Danius married Stefan Jonsson, an author, in 1989; the marriage ended in divorce in 2010. In addition to her mother, survivors include her son, Leo; six of her seven sisters; and one brother.

    Ms. Danius was installed at the Swedish Academy in 2013 and became permanent secretary in June 2015. After stepping down from that position, she retained her seat in the academy until she resigned last February.

    The man at the center of the sex scandal, Jean-Claude Arnault, was found guilty last year of raping a woman in 2011 and sentenced to two years in jail. In his appeal of the verdict, the appeals court found him guilty of raping the same woman twice and extended his sentence.

    In addition, his wife, Katarina Frostenson, a poet who resigned from the academy, was accused of leaking the names of prize recipients to Mr. Arnault on at least seven occasions so that their friends could profit from bets. The two have denied all charges and said they were the objects of a witch hunt.

    The academy underwent extensive restructuring after the scandal. This year, it named two Nobel laureates in literature — the Austrian writer Peter Handke and the Polish novelist Olga Tokarczuk — to make up for the absence of the award in 2018.

    Mr. Handke’s selection drew fresh outrage: In 2006 he had eulogized Slobodan Milosevic, the former leader of Yugoslavia who was on trial for war crimes.

    Ms. Danius left the academy before the decision was announced to award two literature prizes. But she told reporters that she disagreed with the decision. She suggested that the year 2018 should have been left blank, without a recipient — “out of respect,” she said, “for the women who became victims.”

    #Prix_Nobel #Littérature #Sara_Danius

  • Comment le monde est pensé par les hommes... pour les hommes - Marie Claire
    https://www.marieclaire.fr/comment-le-monde-est-pense-par-les-hommes-pour-les-hommes,1326873.asp

    Le 29 mars dernier, les astronautes Christina Koch et Anne McClain devaient effectuer la première sortie dans l’espace exclusivement féminine. Un évènement historique finalement annulé par la NASA : Christina Koch préférait une combinaison taille M, mais une seule étant prête pour sa collègue de vol, c’est un homme qui la remplacera. Tweet de la porte-parole de la NASA (@schierholz) : « Dans ce cas, il est plus facile (et plus rapide) de changer d’astronaute que de préparer une nouvelle combinaison. »

    Vous êtes-vous déjà demandé pourquoi l’été, vous baissez la climatisation de votre open space ? Pourquoi vous mettez tant de temps à émerger d’un sommeil comateux après avoir pris un somnifère ? Et pourquoi vous avez du mal à manipuler votre smartphone d’une seule main ?
    Des hommes qui créent à leur image

    Vous n’êtes, certes, pas une astronaute, mais une femme qui vit sur une planète où tout ou presque a été pensé par et pour les hommes.

    Cinquante ans plus tard, c’est une autre ineptie qui fait bondir les féministes. En septembre 2018, Apple présente ses iPhone XS, XS Max et XR… qui ne seraient pas adaptés à toutes les mains. Zeynep Tufekci, journaliste du New York Times dégaine aussitôt sur Twitter : "Les femmes comme moi avec de petites mains qui ont besoin d’un téléphone le plus sécurisé possible sont coincées avec un appareil qu’elles ne peuvent pas tenir et qui risque de tomber à tout moment."Suivie par Sophie Walker, figure du Women’s Equality Party au Royaume-Uni qui, elle, préfère ironiser : « Évidemment, les gars de chez Apple sont obsédés par la taille, mais parfois le rendement est aussi important. »

    On sourit, mais il existe des situations où cet aveuglement sexiste a des conséquences bien plus dramatiques. Pendant trois ans, Caroline Criado Perez (3) a enquêté sur l’invisibilité des femmes dans la conception de nombreux objets du quotidien, et relevé, entre autres, de nombreuses sources de danger sur les chantiers et dans les métiers de la sécurité. En cause, des outils et vêtements conçus sans tenir compte de la morphologie des femmes. Ainsi, en 1997, une policière anglaise qui avait dû retirer son gilet pare-balle inadapté avant d’utiliser un bélier a été poignardée lors d’une intervention.

    En France, nos forces de l’ordre utiliseraient, selon une ex-policière, un réglage « d’aisance » sur les gilets pare-balle. Pourtant, dans une note de la CGT Douanes de Roissy en mars 2016, les personnels de surveillance féminins s’inquiétaient : « Les fameux gilets tant attendus qui devaient être adaptés à l’anatomie de chacune se sont transformés en gilets basiques, plats, totalement inadaptés aux morphologies. Ces gilets ne sont pas coqués, ils n’épousent pas les formes et sont donc plus proches des gaines du XIXe siècle que d’autre chose… »

    #Genre #Design

  • Trump Will Host Next G7 Summit at His Doral Resort - The New York Times
    https://www.nytimes.com/2019/10/17/us/politics/trump-g7-doral.html

    WASHINGTON — President Trump has decided to host the Group of 7 meeting next June at the Trump National Doral near Miami, Mick Mulvaney, the president’s acting chief of staff, said Thursday, a decision that prompted immediate questions about whether it was a conflict of interest for him to choose one of his own properties for a diplomatic event.

    Mr. Mulvaney said the president had considered the possibility of the “political sort of criticism” in picking the resort. But he said Mr. Trump chose it anyway because administration officials had considered hotels throughout the country, and concluded that the Trump National Doral was “by far and away, far and away, the best physical facility for this meeting.”

    “‘It’s almost like they built this facility to host this type of event,’” Mr. Mulvaney told reporters, quoting what he said an unnamed official told him during the planning process. And he dismissed any suggestion that the president would profit from the choice.

    Mr. Mulvaney said the hotel would put on the summit “at cost.” “I think the president has pretty much made it very clear since he got here that he doesn’t profit from being here,” he said. “He has no interest in profit from being here.”

    “The Constitution is clear,” Ms. Pelosi wrote on Twitter, citing the emoluments clause. “The President cannot accept gifts or payments from foreign governments. No one is above the law.”

    Legal experts said hosting the Group of 7 summit at the Doral might violate the Constitution in two ways.

    First, the Constitution prohibits the president from accepting a gift or payment from a foreign government source, technically called a foreign emolument. And second, the president is prohibited from taking any kind of payment from the federal government that is beyond his salary.

    #Corruption #Donald_Trump #G7

  • Devin Nunes and the Power of Keyword Signaling | WIRED
    https://www.wired.com/story/devin-nunes-and-the-dark-power-of-keyword-signaling

    We increasingly turn to search engines to seek out information. Since Google’s earliest days, marketers have relied on “search engine optimization” to try to maximize the likelihood that Google returns content that highlights their cause or company. In today’s media landscape, organizations and individuals also use these tactics to manipulate the algorithms behind Facebook/Instagram and Twitter feeds. The problem is, whether or not we’re aware, the key words we search are coded with political biases. My research demonstrates that it’s possible to position ideological searches to maximize the exposure of their content.

    When there is limited or no content available on a topic, it’s possible to game search engines to guarantee that certain keywords will be directed to content that includes these terms or is tagged accordingly. This is why conspiracy theorists were able to capitalize on the concept of a “crisis actor.” By producing a plethora of insidious content rife with the term and maximizing SEO, conspiracy theorists filled what Microsoft’s Michael Golebiewski and danah boyd referred to as a “data void.” Searches for “crisis actor” got conspiratorial results until other sources filled the void with more legitimate content debunking the theory.
    screenshot of a google search
    Courtesy of Francesca Tripodi

    To demonstrate how this works in politics, I Googled a few key phrases used in both of Nunes’ speeches. The results demonstrate how politicians and pundits can exploit data voids to create ideological information silos. During each hearing, Nunes describes “the Russia collusion hoax.” When you search for “collusion hoax,” the links returned support the position that investigations into the president are bogus. The top links are from a story in The New York Post published just last week that Dems are trying to block Barr’s probe into the “Russian collusion hoax” and a link to Amazon to purchase a book titled The Russia Hoax: The Illicit Scheme to Clear Hillary Clinton and Frame Donald Trump, by Fox News legal analyst Gregg Jarrett.

    Strategic signaling also drew attention to what the Mueller report did not focus on. On June 12, Nunes noted that the report had not procured any “useful information on figures who played key roles in the investigation such as Joseph Mifsud,” a Maltese academic and figure in the George Papadopoulos case, “or the Democrat paid operative, former spy Christopher Steele,” the British intelligence officer behind the now notorious pee tape allegations. In the days following Nunes’ remarks, the search returns were primarily conservative content published anywhere between two weeks to 12 minutes before Nunes’ speech. In addition to traditional conservative sources like Fox News, Washington Examiner, and National Review, there are also digital-first sources like the Daily Caller and the Daily Wire, as well as stories posted from more dubious publications like the Epoch Times.

    These findings reveal that existing studies on algorithms, filter bubbles, and misinformation online are missing a crucial component regarding the problem of political polarization, specifically data focused on how we access news and information. Epistemological frameworks can lead us into algorithmic rabbit holes. Understanding keyword signaling is an essential part of studying political polarization. While most focus on how output (e.g., search results or social media newsfeeds) keeps us in filter bubbles, more research is needed on how inputs are manipulated for political gain. This level of sophistication highlights how conservative groups systematically work to optimize their content for search and social media. Not unlike the tactics of Republican strategist Frank Luntz, political players and members of the right-wing media ecosystem are able to fill data voids with their own ideas and stories.

    #Politique_numérique #Moteurs_recherche #Faschosphère #Mots_clés #Fake_news

  • Zeynep Tufekci : Get a red team to ensure AI is ethical | Verdict
    https://www.verdict.co.uk/zeynep-tufekci-ai-red-team

    In cybersecurity, red team professionals are tasked with finding vulnerabilities before they become a problem. In artificial intelligence, flaws such as bias often become apparent only once they are deployed.

    One way to catch these AI flaws early is for organisations to apply the red team concept when developing new systems, according to techno-sociologist and academic Zeynep Tufekci.

    “Get a read team, get people in the room, wherever you’re working, who think about what could go wrong,” she said, speaking at Hitachi Vantara’s Next conference in Las Vegas, US, last week. “Because thinking about what could go wrong before it does is the best way to make sure it doesn’t go wrong.”

    Referencing Hitachi CEO and president Toshiaki Higashihara description of digitalisation as having “lights and shadows”, Tufekci warned of the risks associated with letting the shadowy side go unchecked.
    AI shadows

    One of these “shadows” is when complex AI systems become black boxes, making it difficult even for the AI’s creators to explain how it made its decision.

    Tufekci also cited the example of YouTube’s recommendation algorithm pushing people towards extremism. For example, a teenager could innocently search ‘is there a male feminism’ and then be nudged towards misogynistic videos because such controversial videos have received more engagement.

    And while data can be used for good, it can also be used by authoritarian governments to repress its citizens, or by election consultancies to manipulate our votes.

    Then there are the many instances of human bias finding their way into algorithms. These include AI in recruitment reflecting the sexism of human employers or facial recognition not working for people with darker skin.

    “If the data can be used to fire you, or to figure out protesters or to use for social control, or not hire people prone to depression, people are going to be like: ‘we do not want this’,” said Tufekci, who is an associate professor at the UNC School of Information and Library Science.

    “What would be much better is to say, what are the guidelines?”
    Using a red team to enforce AI ethics guidelines

    Some guidelines already exist. In April 2018, the European Union’s High-Level Expert Group on AI presented seven key requirements for trustworthy AI.

    These requirements include human oversight, accountability and technical robustness and safety. But what Tufekci suggests is having a team of people dedicated to ensuring AI ethics are adhered to.
    3 Things That Will Change the World Today
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    “You need people in the room, who are going to say there’s light and there are shadows in this technology, and how do we figure out to bring more light into the shadowy side, so that we’re not blindsided, so that we’re not just sort of shocked by the ethical challenges when they hit us,” she explained.

    “So we think about it ahead of time.”

    However, technology companies often push back against regulation, usually warning that too much will stifle innovation.

    “Very often when a technology is this new, and this powerful, and this promising, the people who keep talking about what could go wrong – which is what I do a lot – are seen as these spoilsport people,” said Tufekci.

    “And I’m kind of like no – it’s because we want it to be better.”

    #Intelligence_artificielle #Zeynep_Tufekci #Cybersécurité #Biais #Big_data

  • Recension de « Twitter & les gaz lacrymogènes » par Stéphane Bortzmeyer
    https://www.bortzmeyer.org/twitter-gaz-lacrymos.html

    Beaucoup de textes ont été écrits sur le rôle de l’Internet, et des réseaux sociaux centralisés, comme Facebook ou Twitter, dans des évènements politiques. Ce fut le cas, par exemple, du printemps arabe. L’auteure explore, dans ce livre très riche et très rigoureux, tous les aspects de cette relation entre les militants et les techniques d’information et de communication. Twitter peut-il battre les gaz lacrymogènes ?

    Une des raisons pour lesquelles bien des discours sur les mouvements politiques utilisant l’Internet sont très unilatéraux est que beaucoup de leurs auteurs sont des férus de technique qui ne connaissent pas grand’chose à la politique, et qui découvrent comme s’ils étaient les premiers à militer, ou bien ils sont des connaisseurs de la politique, mais complètement ignorants de la technique, dont il font un tout, animé d’une volonté propre (les fameux « algorithmes »), et pas des outils que les gens vont utiliser. L’auteure, au contraire, informaticienne, puis chercheuse en sciences politiques, connait bien les deux aspects. Elle a étudié en profondeur de nombreux mouvements, les zapatistes au Mexique, Occupy Wall Street, l’occupation du parc Gezi, Black Lives Matter, les révolutions tunisienne et égyptienne, en étant souvent sur le terrain, à respirer les gaz lacrymogènes. (Les gilets jaunes n’y sont pas, bien que ce mouvement mériterait certainement d’être étudié dans son rapport à Facebook, mais le livre a été publié avant.) Et elle analyse le rôle de l’Internet, en chercheuse qui le connait bien, en voit les forces et les limites.

    Parmi les affordances de l’Internet, il y a le fait que beaucoup de choses sont possibles sans organisation formelle. Des mouvements très forts (comme celui du parc Gezi) ont été possibles sans qu’un parti traditionnel ne les structure et ne les dirige. Mais, bien sûr, cet avantage a aussi une face négative : puisque la nécessité d’une organisation n’est pas évidente, on peut se dire qu’on peut s’en passer. Au début, ça se passe effectivement bien, sans les lourdeurs bureaucratiques exaspérantes. Mais, ensuite, les problèmes surgissent : le pouvoir en place fait des ouvertures. Comment y répondre ? Ou bien il change de tactique, et le mouvement doit s’adapter. Et, là, l’absence d’un mécanisme de prise de décision commun se fait sentir, et beaucoup de mouvements s’affaiblissent alors, permettant à la répression de disperser ce qui reste.

    Léger reproche à l’auteure : elle ne discute pas ce qui pourrait arriver avec d’autres outils que les gros réseaux centralisés étatsuniens comme Facebook ou Twitter. Il est vrai qu’on manque encore d’exemples détaillés à utiliser, il n’y a pas encore eu de révolution déclenchée sur le fédivers ou via Matrix.

    Je n’ai donné qu’une idée très limitée de ce livre. Il est très riche, très nuancé, l’auteure a vraiment tenu à étudier tout en détail, et aucun résumé ne peut donc suffire. En conclusion, un livre que je recommande à toutes celles et tous ceux qui veulent changer le monde et se demandent comment faire. Il n’est ni optimiste, ni pessimiste sur le rôle de l’Internet dans les révolutions : « ni rire, ni pleurer, mais comprendre »

    #Zeynep_Tufekci #C&F_éditions #Stéphane_Bortzmeyer

  • « Jusqu’où laisserons-nous passer la haine des musulmans ? »
    https://www.lemonde.fr/idees/article/2019/10/15/jusqu-ou-laisserons-nous-passer-la-haine-des-musulmans_6015557_3232.html

    Ne nous y trompons donc pas. L’extrême droite a fait de la haine contre les musulmans un outil majeur de sa propagande, mais elle n’en a pas le monopole. Des membres de la droite et de la gauche dites républicaines n’hésitent pas à stigmatiser les musulmans, et en premier lieu les femmes portant le voile, souvent « au nom de la laïcité ». Le ministre de l’éducation nationale, Jean-Michel Blanquer, voit ainsi dans le port du foulard par des mères d’élèves accompagnant bénévolement des sorties scolaires, en soutien des équipes enseignantes, du « prosélytisme » et du « communautarisme ». Interrogé par BFM-TV sur l’agression de la mère d’élève à Dijon par l’élu RN Julien Odoul, le ministre a certes condamné son comportement, mais a tout de même affirmé : « Le voile n’est pas souhaitable dans notre société. » N’est-ce pas ici l’illustration même d’une stigmatisation assumée jusqu’au plus haut niveau de l’Etat ?
    Lire aussi Voile à l’école : Jean-Michel Blanquer demande des sanctions contre le député LRM Aurélien Taché

    La laïcité, consacrée par la loi de 1905, c’est certes la séparation de l’Etat et du religieux, mais c’est aussi la liberté de croire ou de ne pas croire, la liberté d’exercer sa foi ou de ne pas l’exercer, la liberté de manifester ses convictions dans les limites du respect de l’ordre public. Malgré les nombreuses alertes des associations et des militants, malgré le travail de déconstruction des universitaires, nous avons trop longtemps laissé la voie libre aux interprétations dévoyées du principe de laïcité, semant la division et la haine. Cette femme et son fils en payent le prix aujourd’hui, comme d’autres avant eux, mais qu’en sera-t-il demain ?
    Instrumentalisation de la laïcité

    Jusqu’où laisserons-nous passer ces haines ? Des plateaux télé dans leur course au buzz et à l’audience permanente, de nos rangs d’élus et de décideurs avides de gains électoraux, sans parler de nos sphères privées elles aussi imprégnées d’intolérances, jusqu’à quand allons-nous accepter que des citoyennes, des citoyens soient insultés, agressés, attaqués, stigmatisés en raison de leur religion ? Jusqu’à quand allons-nous accepter que la laïcité, socle de notre République, soit instrumentalisée pour le compte d’une vision ségrégationniste, raciste, xénophobe, mortifère de notre société ? Acceptons-nous de nous laisser sombrer collectivement ou disons-nous stop maintenant, tant qu’il est encore temps ?

    Hier, Latifa Ibn Ziaten, mère du militaire Imad Ibn Ziaten, victime des attentats de Mohamed Merah, huée lors d’un colloque à l’Assemblée nationale en raison de son foulard ; hier encore, une femme de 24 ans, portant elle aussi un foulard, poignardée devant son conjoint et leurs enfants à Sury-le-Comtal (Loire). Aujourd’hui, cette femme humiliée dans une assemblée de la République française. Aujourd’hui encore, l’université de Cergy-Pontoise qui demande à son personnel de lui faire remonter les « signaux faibles » de détection de radicalisation d’étudiants ou de collègues, ciblant uniquement les personnes de confession musulmane.

    #Racisme #Extrême_droite #Islamophobie

  • Is Amazon Unstoppable? | The New Yorker
    https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2019/10/21/is-amazon-unstoppable

    n 2017, a few months after Forbes named Jeff Bezos, the founder of Amazon, the world’s richest man, a rumor spread among the company’s executives: Bill Gates, the former wealthiest person on earth, had called Bezos’s assistant to schedule a lunch, asking if Tuesday or Wednesday was available. The assistant informed Bezos of the invitation, and told him that both days were open. Bezos, who had built an empire exhorting employees to be “vocally self-critical,” and to never “believe their or their team’s body odor smells of perfume,” issued a command: Make it Thursday.

    Bezos’s power play was so mild that it likely wasn’t noticed by Gates, but within Amazon the story sparked a small panic (and, later, an official denial). Such a willful act of vanity felt like a bad omen. At Amazon’s headquarters, in Seattle, the company’s fourteen Leadership Principles—painted on walls, posted in bathrooms, printed on laminated cards in executives’ wallets—urge employees to “never say ‘that’s not my job,’ ” to “examine their strongest convictions with humility,” to “not compromise for the sake of social cohesion,” and to commit to excellence even if “people may think these standards are unreasonably high.” (When I recently asked various employees to recite the precepts, they did so with alarming gusto: “ ‘Frugality breeds resourcefulness, self-sufficiency, and invention!’ ”) A former executive said, “That’s how we earn our success—we’re willing to be frugal and egoless, and obsessed with delighting our customers.”

    Amazon is now America’s second-largest private employer. (Walmart is the largest.) It traffics more than a third of all retail products bought or sold online in the U.S.; it owns Whole Foods and helps arrange the shipment of items purchased across the Web, including on eBay and Etsy. Amazon’s Web-services division powers vast portions of the Internet, from Netflix to the C.I.A. You probably contribute to Amazon’s profits whether you intend to or not. Critics say that Amazon, much like Google and Facebook, has grown too large and powerful to be trusted. Everyone from Senator Elizabeth Warren to President Donald Trump has depicted Amazon as dangerously unconstrained. This past summer, at a debate among the Democratic Presidential candidates, Senator Bernie Sanders said, “Five hundred thousand Americans are sleeping out on the street, and yet companies like Amazon, that made billions in profits, did not pay one nickel in federal income tax.” And Steven Mnuchin, the Treasury Secretary, declared that Amazon has “destroyed the retail industry across the United States.” The Federal Trade Commission and the European Union, meanwhile, are independently pursuing investigations of Amazon for potential antitrust violations. In recent months, inquiries by news organizations have documented Amazon’s sale of illegal or deadly products, and have exposed how the company’s fast-delivery policies have resulted in drivers speeding down streets and through intersections, killing people. Company insiders were accustomed to complaints from rivals at book publishers or executives at big-box stores. Those attacks rarely felt personal. Now, a recently retired Amazon executive told me, “people are worried—we’re suddenly on the firing line.”

    Amazon executives were also concerned about dramatic changes within the company. In 2015, Amazon had roughly two hundred thousand employees. Since then, its workforce had nearly tripled. Bezos, now fifty-five, had transformed as well, from a pudgy bookseller with an elephant-seal laugh to a sleek, muscled mogul whose empire included a television-and-movie studio. (Bezos declined to be interviewed for this article.) Amazon executives comforted themselves with the thought that, even if the story about the Bill Gates lunch was true, at least their boss wasn’t reckless, like, say, Elon Musk or Travis Kalanick or Adam Neumann. Many admired Bezos’s dedication to his wife and children, and saw it as an embodiment of the company’s integrity. Still, they whispered, what if his flywheel has gone off track?

    #Amazon #14_principes #Jeff_Bezos #Capitalisme_sauvage

  • BookTube, le futur club de lecture de YouTube, arrive mi-octobre
    https://www.actualitte.com/article/lecture-numerique/booktube-le-futur-club-de-lecture-de-youtube-arrive-mi-octobre/97302

    Les créateurs de YouTube, fortement inspirés par les tendances modernes de la communication, ont décidé de lancer une nouvelle chaîne. Baptisée — sans aucun doute possible sur son contenu — BookTube, l’émission débutera ce 17 octobre avec Malcolm Gladwell, puis accueillera Margaret Atwood.

    ex libris
    Roger Salz, CC BY 2.0

    On se souvient qu’en mars dernier, Michelle Obama avait fait une apparition remarquée, et remarquable, dans le cadre d’un club de lecture. Plus de 1,5 million de visionnages pour l’émission sobrement nommée BookTube où l’ex-première Dame était venue pour discuter de ses lectures et de ses mémoires, Becoming.

    YouTube, propriété de Google, investit désormais dans les contenus éducatifs, considérant l’attrait des utilisateurs pour les tutoriaux qu’héberge la plateforme. Pour Malik Ducard, en charge de YouTube Learning, l’approche passe par une responsabilisation des créateurs soucieux de partager des connaissances avec les internautes du monde entier. Et fournir des vidéos de qualité qui vont de la vulgarisation scientifique jusqu’aux cours de grammaire.

    BookTube n’est cependant pas l’unique initiative dans le secteur pédagogique que YouTube souhaite porter. La firme investit en effet de plus en plus pour garantir la production de didacticiels, séries sur le bricolage et autres — les thématiques les plus regardées sur la plateforme. En effet, l’année passée, YouTube dévoilait une enveloppe de 20 millions $ pour soutenir YouTube Learning, et financer les productions des YouTubers de qualité.

    La réalisation de BookTube est confiée à Boardwalk Pictures, pour garantir une animation et un véritable spectacle. Et si c’est à travers le livre que la filiale de Google attaque fort, il ne faut pas oublier qu’Apple vient de s’offrir les bons services d’Oprah Winfrey, présentatrice star aux États-Unis.

    Sur Apple TV+, à compter du 1er novembre, elle animera un club de lecture, avec pour premier invité Ta-Nehisi Coates.

    On imagine aisément que les vidéos de BookTube seront alors connectées à la librairie numérique de Google, Play Books, histoire de ne pas rater une occasion en or de vendre quelques ebooks.

    #Booktubing #Edition #YouTube #Spectacle_télévisuel

  • Dangers des pesticides : comment l’agrochimie noie le poisson - Idées - Télérama.fr
    https://www.telerama.fr/idees/dangers-des-pesticides-comment-lagrochimie-noie-le-poisson,n6423269.php

    Dans les champs, dans le sang, insecticides et fongicides sont partout. Et mortels ? Deux enquêtes racontent comment l’agro-industrie organise la désinformation. Au mépris de la démocratie et, surtout, de notre santé.

    Chronique des livres de Fabrice Nicolino et Stéphane Foucart. Très bon papier.

    #Pesticides #Perturbateurs_endocriniens #Stéphane_Foucart #Fabrice_Nicolino

  • Here’s what’s behind the comeback of vinyl and printed photos – Alternet.org
    https://www.alternet.org/2019/10/heres-whats-behind-the-comeback-of-vinyl-and-printed-photos

    The resurgence of vinyl records in a time of digital music and streaming is a story of how innovation can make technological comebacks possible. In the summer of 2019, the sales of vinyl albums are on the verge of becoming the largest source of revenue from physical sales in the music industry. This follows 15 years of upward trend – today, while remaining a niche product, the vinyl record may well eventually survive to be the only analogue medium for music, as the sales of CD continue their downward spiral.

    Researchers in sociology and consumer culture have shown how this trend goes well beyond nostalgia – buyers of vinyl are attracted by its status as an object, its physical presence. This attraction matters even more today, as most of the time listening to a song does not involve buying a physical support anymore.

    Our study starts from this vinyl comeback. We try to show how it is precisely the process of innovation, in which a new product or technology replaces an outdated one, that opens the possibility for an even older and obsolete product or technology to become relevant again.

    Some consumers, who had abandoned products of the first generation start using them again as a complement to the third one. As in the case of vinyl recordings, the industry has well understood the demand for tangible photography, beyond simply reverting to old cameras. Polaroid is soon to release a “Lab” to print analogue pictures of images taken on smartphones. Fujifilm’s Instax, meanwhile, offers the possibility to print a format similar to Polaroid based on digital pictures.

    Not every comeback is possible. Many products and technologies disappear because they have nothing useful to bring anymore. But when a new product or technology starts dominating a market, it may be a good idea to look at what existed two or three generations before. This may well prove to be part of the future – even if it’s just a small one.

    #Vinyl #Musique #Photographie #Technologie #Objets #Artefacts

  • An Open Source License That Requires Users to Do No Harm | WIRED
    https://www.wired.com/story/open-source-license-requires-users-do-no-harm

    China uses facial recognition technology to track Uyghur Muslims. The US military uses drones to kill suspected terrorists—any nearby civilians. US Immigration and Customs Enforcement—which has locked children in cages near the Mexican border—relies on software for communications and coordination, like all modern organizations.

    Someone had to write the code that makes all of that possible. Increasingly, some developers are calling on their employers and the government to stop using their work in ways they believe are unethical. Google employees convinced the company to stop its drone footage analysis work and cancel plans to bid on a cloud computing contract with the Pentagon. Microsoft employees have protested the company’s work for ICE and the military, though with little success thus far.

    But it’s hard to stop a company or government from using software that it already has, especially if that software is open source. Last month, for example, programmer Seth Vargo deleted some of his open source code from online repositories to protest its potential use by ICE. But because open source code can be freely copied and distributed, his code was soon back online elsewhere.

    Coraline Ada Ehmke wants to give her fellow developers more control over how their software is used. Software released under her new “Hippocratic License” can be shared and modified for almost any purpose, with one big exception: "Individuals, corporations, governments, or other groups for systems or activities that actively and knowingly endanger, harm, or otherwise threaten the physical, mental, economic, or general well-being of individuals or groups in violation of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights.”

    #Logiciels_libres #Licence #Hippocratic_licence #Coraline_Ada_Ehmke

  • Statement on Gab’s fork of Mastodon - Official Mastodon Blog
    https://blog.joinmastodon.org/2019/07/statement-on-gabs-fork-of-mastodon

    Mastodon is completely opposed to Gab’s project and philosophy, which seeks to monetize and platform racist content while hiding behind the banner of free speech. Mastodon remains committed to standing up against hate speech; for example, our new server covenant means we only list servers on joinmastodon.org that are committed to active moderation against racism, sexism and transphobia. The Mastodon community does not approve of their attempt to hijack our infrastructure and has already taken steps to isolate Gab and keep hate speech off the fediverse.

    Mastodon champions a free API ecosystem and as such all Mastodon apps are created and maintained by independent developers. However, Tusky (Android) and Toot! (iOS) have blacklisted Gab’s domains from their login screens. Gab users will not be able to use these apps to access or post from Gab. We do not currently know if any other apps are doing the same. Mastodon itself allows instance owners to decide which domains to block. Most servers in the fediverse are already blocking the Gab domains and we have done the same at mastodon.social.

    In addition to the isolation Gab can expect from the fediverse, it is clear that their design choices offer users no incentive to choose their platform. By paywalling basic features that are freely available on Mastodon, Gab puts itself at a disadvantage compared to any Mastodon instance. Mastodon remains non commercially structured and all features are available to users freely from the start.

    #Modération #Mastodon #Détournement #Logiciels_libres

  • Oligarchs, as U.S. Arts Patrons, Present a Softer Image of Russia - The New York Times
    https://www.nytimes.com/2019/10/06/arts/russia-oligarchs-arts.html

    Since the fall of the Soviet Union, rich Russians have emerged as influential patrons of the arts and Western cultural organizations have often been the beneficiaries. Carnegie Hall, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Art Institute of Chicago, the Brooklyn Academy of Music and Lincoln Center are among those who have received gifts from moneyed Russians or the companies they control over the past decade.

    Stay on top of the latest in pop and jazz with reviews, interviews, podcasts and more from The New York Times music critics.

    Advertisement

    Though wealthy patrons have long used the arts to advance their individual tastes and social standing, much of the Russian giving is different. While the oligarchs also promote their personal preferences and support a wide range of cultural activities, they often employ philanthropy to celebrate their homeland, depicting it as an enlightened wellspring of masterworks in dance, painting, opera and the like.

    These patrons have been quite public in their philanthropy, and there is little evidence that their donations have been directed or coordinated by Moscow. But they all enjoy good relations with the Kremlin — a prerequisite to flourish in business in Russia — and their giving fits seamlessly with President Vladimir V. Putin’s expanding efforts to use the “soft power” of cultural diplomacy as a tool of foreign policy.

    The effect, however cultivated, helps burnish the image of a nation whose aggression in Ukraine and election meddling have led it to be viewed by many as a hostile power.

    In 2005, Mr. Potanin’s foundation helped finance an 800-year survey of Russian art, from icons to 19th-century paintings, called simply “Russia!” at the Guggenheim. Mr. Putin spoke at the opening.

    “Such events,” Mr. Putin said, “are the best and most eloquent way to understand a country that possesses huge humanistic and spiritual potential, a country such as Russia.”

    #Philanthropie #Art #Russie #Propagande

  • Addicted to Screens? That’s Really a You Problem - The New York Times
    https://www.nytimes.com/2019/10/06/technology/phone-screen-addiction-tech-nir-eyal.html

    Nir Eyal does not for a second regret writing Silicon Valley’s tech engagement how-to, “Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products,” even as he now has a new book out on how to free ourselves of that same addiction.

    In his original manual for building enthralling smartphone apps, Mr. Eyal laid out the tricks “to subtly encourage customer behavior” and “bring users back again and again.” He toured tech companies speaking about the Hook Model, his four-step plan to grab and keep people with enticements like variable rewards, or pleasures that come at unpredictable intervals.

    “Slot machines provide a classic example of variable rewards,” Mr. Eyal wrote.

    Silicon Valley’s technorati hailed “Hooked.” Dave McClure, the founder of 500 Startups, a prolific incubator, called it “an essential crib sheet for any start-up looking to understand user psychology.”

    But that was 2014. That was when making a slot-machinelike app was a good and exciting thing. When “seductive interaction design” and “design for behavior change” were aspirational phrases.

    “Nir Eyal’s trying to flip,” said Richard Freed, a child psychologist who supports less screen time. “These people who’ve done this are all trying to come back selling the cure. But they’re the ones who’ve been selling the drugs in the first place.”

    “I’m sure the cigarette industry said there’s just a certain number of people with a propensity for lung disease,” he added.

    Mr. Eyal said he was not reversing himself. His Hook Model was useful, certainly, and he believed in the tactics. But it was not addicting people. It’s our fault, he said, not Instagram’s or Facebook’s or Apple’s.

    “It’s disrespectful for people who have the pathology of addiction to say, ‘Oh, we all have this disease,’” he said. “No, we don’t.”

    #Médias_sociaux #Addiction #Dopamine #Mir_Eyal

  • Les influenceurs changent la face du marketing
    https://www.lemonde.fr/economie/article/2019/10/06/les-influenceurs-changent-la-face-du-marketing_6014435_3234.html

    Pour accéder à des audiences internationales, les marques consacrent une part croissante de leur budget publicitaire à des opérations de séduction sur les réseaux sociaux, menées par de jeunes « icônes » qui contribuent à forger une nouvelle culture de la vente.

    Renan Pacheco, 24 ans, a commencé à poster ses photos de voyage sur Instagram, il y a cinq ans, alors qu’il étudiait l’économie et la gestion à l’université Paris-Dauphine. « Cela a démarré comme une passion, le métier d’influenceur n’existait pas. » Aujourd’hui, c’est devenu son gagne-pain. Au retour de son dernier voyage dans sa famille, au Brésil, ce jeune homme au profil de mannequin n’oublie pas de poser tout sourire, une valise à la main, et de remercier son client Samsonite.

    Influenceurs, motivateurs, créateurs de talents, ou « KOL » (acronyme de key opinion leader, en vogue en Asie), ils sont désormais des millions dans le monde et 150 000 en France à connecter, comme lui, des marques à leurs communautés sur les réseaux sociaux. Décoiffant au passage la façon de parler des produits, de les concevoir et, dans un avenir proche, de les vendre. « Les influenceurs ont un énorme pouvoir entre les mains, ils sont les nouveaux médias », affirme Lolita Abraham, qui réunissait à Monaco, début octobre, 150 influenceurs du monde entier pour les Influencers Awards, « Oscars » d’une profession en quête de reconnaissance.

    #Commerce_électronique #Influenceurs #Publicité

  • affordance.info : Inauguration de C&F Editions.
    https://www.affordance.info/mon_weblog/2019/09/inauguration-de-cf-editions.html
    https://www.affordance.info/.a/6a00d8341c622e53ef0240a4b40272200d-600wi

    Ce samedi 5 Octobre, si vous êtes sur Paris, vous êtes chaleureusement invité(e)s à passer faire un tour dans ce qu’il est coutume d’appeler une « petite » maison d’édition. Qui s’appelle C&F Editions. « C » pour Cigale et « F » pour Fourmi. Dans cette « petite » maison d’édition tenue par deux gaillards qu’il est coutume d’appeler « grands », sieur Hervé Le Crosnier et sieur Nicolas Taffin, se tisse depuis déjà quelques années la trame de ce qu’il est coutume d’appeler la « culture numérique » mais aussi la « culture des Communs ». Et aussi d’ailleurs sur le Jazz. Oui il y a un lien. Mais si.

    Bref. J’ai la chance de faire partie des auteurs édités par C&F Editions. Parce qu’en plus de me trouver au milieu des noms présents sur le carton ci-dessous, je peux aussi me la péter grave en soirée en annonçant que j’ai le même éditeur que danah boyd et Zeynep Tufekci qui sont, à mes yeux en tout cas, deux des chercheuses qui produisent aujourd’hui le discours critique le plus vif, le plus clair et le plus pédagogique sur nombre de questions « du numérique ».

    Or donc me direz-vous ? Or donc la maison C&F Editions s’est trouvée un local parisien. Dans lequel vous êtes convié(e)s - oui, Vous - à venir passer cinq minutes ou cinq heures ce samedi 5 Octobre. J’y serai à partir de 15h. Les autres présent(e)s sont indiqué(e)s par là.

    Mais c’est bien connu, les invitations s’il n’y a pas de mirifiques lots à gagner, ça marche moyen. Alors je lance ...
    Le grand jeu concours de l’inauguration de C&F Editions.

    Règlement : Un exemplaire d’un ouvrage surprise vous sera offert par moi-même si vous êtes capable de me donner le nom du personnage que l’on voit de dos sur la photo ci-dessous. Pour ce faire il vous suffira d’être le premier ou la première à venir me hurler au visage le nom dudit personnage dès que vous me verrez samedi dans les locaux de C&F Editions.

    Carton

    Nota-Bene 1 : il n’est pas impossible que je sois l’auteur de cet ouvrage surprise et que vous l’ayez déjà. Mais bon. C’est pas non plus une question super difficile hein.

    Nota-Bene 2 : merci de hurler courtoisement.
    Mais c’est pas tout. Gros lot du grand jeu concours.

    Accrochez-vous. La totalité, oui j’ai bien dit la TOTALITÉ du catalogue de C&F Editions sera offerte, en version papier et en version numérique garantie sans DRM, au premier ou à la première capable de donner le descriptif détaillé exact du contenu du sac à dos porté par le personnage de dos sur le carton d’invitation. Et oui.

    Alors à Samedi. On compte sur vous.

    Nota-Bene : ma présence samedi reste tout de même conditionnée au match de mercredi matin. Si l’équipe de France de rugby perd contre les Etats-Unis j’entame immédiatement une reconversion monastique et je pars brasser de la bière dans une abbaye en Belgique dans ma robe de bure.

    Mais sinon à Samedi.

    #C&F_éditions #Olivier_Ertzscheid

  • The New York Times published a story alleging ‘swing voters’ are repelled by impeachment. Turns out, they really interviewed Trump voters – Alternet.org
    https://www.alternet.org/2019/09/the-new-york-times-published-a-story-alleging-moderate-swing-voters-are-re

    This week, Sabrina Tavernise and other New York Times reporters have been focusing on swing voters and the issues that could sway them either for or against President Donald Trump in the 2020 election — including an impeachment inquiry in response to the Ukraine scandal. Tavernise, on Twitter, posted, “I talked with six swing voters today. Impeachment repelled every one of them. This could cost Dems at polls.” But pollster Matt McDermott responded that the voters Tavernise was referring to weren’t really swing voters, but committed conservatives or strong Trump supporters.

    McDermott, responding to Tavernise’s tweet, posted, “No, the New York Times did not talk to six ‘swing voters’ about impeachment. The article quotes a handful of devout GOP voters who the NYT has repeatedly interviewed multiple times.”

    The New York Times article that McDermott was referring to rang with the headline, “Elated, Furious, Wary: Impeachment Divides Voters, Like Everything Trump.”

    McDermott, director of Whitman Insight Strategies, specifically discussed some of the voters the Times had interviewed and explained why he didn’t consider them swing voters but rather, staunch conservatives or Trump loyalists.

    For example, a Tennessee woman named Donna Burgraff was interviewed. McDermott notes that the Times presented Donna as an example of a swing voter who “doesn’t favor impeachment. The problem? NYT interviewed the same woman last year. She voted for Trump and the Republicans again in the midterm.”

    McDermott notes that another person presented by the Times as a swing voter, Trisha Hope, has repeatedly attended Trump rallies. Hope, McDermott tweets, “admits she’s been to 23 Trump campaign rallies. 23!…. She’s a Trump fanatic, not a swing voter.”

    Reggie Dickerson is also presented by the Times as a swing voter, but Dickerson, McDermott points out, “was highlighted in an AP story last year entitled ‘In the heart of Trump country, his base remains unshaken.’ Reggie has a portrait of Robert E. Lee hanging in his living room. No, Reggie is not a swing voter.”

    McDermott asserts, “The NYT is repeating its exact same 2016 reporting antics, presenting devout Trump supporters as some sort of forgotten swing constituency. Why does this keep happening, and why do they keep going back to the same individuals for interviews?”

    #Fake_news #Micro_trottoir #Journalisme #new_York_Times

  • (cyber)harcèlement - Doc pour docs
    http://docpourdocs.fr/spip.php?article643

    D’ailleurs, quel professeur(e) documentaliste n’a jamais été interpellé(e) par son ou sa chef d’établissement au sujet d’un problème de violence en ligne commis par un ou plusieurs élèves de l’établissement ? A qui n’a-t on jamais demandé, dans l’urgence, de prévoir une ou plusieurs interventions avec une classe pour armer les élèves à mieux vivre un problème semblable ?
    Pour réagir à toutes ces situations nous menons une veille régulière sur le sujet. Mais c’est un travail long… Et nous avons parfois besoin d’une bonne remise à niveau sur le sujet !
    Le livre de Bérengère Stassin, (cyber)harcèlement , est le livre idéal pour découvrir ou se remettre à jour sur toutes les questions de violence en ligne. Indispensable pour les professeurs documentalistes, il sera aussi utile pour les personnels de direction et les CPE concernés par ce sujet. Très accessible, il se lit avec facilité et permet de préciser et de structurer les concepts en lien avec la violence en ligne. Plus encore, le livre propose des pistes pédagogiques et éducatives en prévention des situations de harcèlement.

    Enfin, l’ouvrage offre de pistes institutionnelles et pédagogiques d’intervention et de prévention du cyberharcèlement. Le rôle des partenariats associatifs ainsi que des instances comme le CESC (comité d’éducation à la santé et la citoyenneté) sont précisés. L’auteure relève la nécessaire formation aux compétences psycho-sociales et notamment la formation aux émotions individuelles et collectives notamment dans le cadre du parcours éducatif de santé. Enfin elle souligne et développe le rôle de l’EMI pour renforcer les compétences numériques, informationnelles, médiatiques et communicationnelles des adolescents.
    (cyber)harcèlement est donc un ouvrage à la fois extrêmement précis, documenté et exhaustif sur le sujet des cyberviolences…. Une lecture indispensable !

    Pour vous faire une idée plus précise de son ouvrage, nous avons demandé à l’auteure de répondre à quelques questions. Nous la remercions d’avoir accepté...

    4. Comment pensez-vous que nous pouvons en tant qu’enseignants, et plus précisément professeurs documentalistes, prévenir cette violence ?

    Il faut envisager le harcèlement et le cyberharcèlement comme les deux faces d’une même pièce et les combattre par les mêmes dispositifs et notamment par des dispositifs éducatifs. Dans mon livre je parle de l’éducation à l’empathie, car les émotions jouent un rôle prépondérant dans ces phénomènes. Il faut apprendre aux élèves à verbaliser leurs émotions, mais aussi à reconnaître celles des autres, à se mettre à leur place. Je parle aussi de l’éducation aux médias et à l’information, qui vise, entre autres, à apprendre aux élèves à gérer leur présence en ligne, à comprendre le fonctionnement des médias sociaux, mais aussi à identifier la nature des messages et à faire preuve d’esprit critique. L’enjeu est de leur faire prendre conscience qu’une information compromettante circulant, en ligne ou hors ligne, à l’encontre de tel ou tel camarade n’est peut-être qu’une simple rumeur visant à lui nuire et qu’il n’est probablement pas nécessaire de la relayer ou de la « liker ». Le professeur documentaliste a bien évidemment un rôle clé à jouer dans ces éducations et notamment dans le renforcement de la culture informationnelle et numérique des élèves. En outre, pour travailler sur les émotions, la tolérance, la différence, certains documentalistes mettent en place des ateliers de bibliothérapie. C’est aussi une belle piste à creuser.

    #Cyberharcèlement #Bérengère_Stassin #C&F_éditions

  • Les règles de Facebook sont-elles les mêmes pour tout le monde ? Pas si vous êtes un politicien
    https://www.lemonde.fr/pixels/article/2019/09/25/facebook-les-messages-de-politiciens-violant-ses-regles-resteront-tout-de-me

    Les règles en vigueur sur Facebook sont-elles les mêmes pour tout le monde ? Non, a clarifié mardi 24 septembre son directeur des affaires publiques. Nick Clegg a expliqué, dans un discours sur la façon dont le réseau social se prépare à l’élection présidentielle américaine de 2020, que les messages des politiciens qui contreviennent à ses règles d’utilisation et de modération ne seraient pas supprimés. « Ce n’est pas notre rôle d’intervenir quand des politiciens s’expriment », a-t-il déclaré. A deux exceptions près : les publicités (messages sponsorisés) issus de ces politiciens devront, elles, respecter le règlement du réseau social ; et les posts « qui mènent à des violences dans le monde réel » seront, eux, supprimés.

    Si un politicien « fait une déclaration ou partage un message qui contrevient à notre règlement, nous l’autoriserons tout de même sur notre plate-forme si nous pensons qu’il est d’intérêt public de le lire et que cela surpasse les risques de nuisances », précise Nick Clegg. « Dorénavant, nous traiterons les discours des politiciens comme des contenus d’actualité qui devraient, en règle générale, être vus et entendus. »
    Manque de précisions

    Le discours de Nick Clegg a beau être long, il manque toutefois de précisions importantes : comment Facebook définit-il un politicien ? Et comment définit-il les posts « qui mènent à des violences dans le monde réel » ? Peu après le discours, le site spécialisé TechCrunch écrivait que Facebook, avec cette ligne de conduite, « pourrait devenir complice de la désinformation et de la malveillance que certains politiciens vont ainsi répandre ».

    Anticipant les critiques, Nick Clegg avait déclaré que c’était aux citoyens de se faire leur propre avis sur les déclarations des politiciens.

    « Je sais que certains diront que nous devrions aller plus loin. Que nous avons tort de permettre à des politiciens d’utiliser notre plate-forme pour dire de mauvaises choses ou faire de fausses déclarations. Mais imaginez l’inverse. Serait-il acceptable, pour la société, qu’une entreprise privée devienne l’arbitre autoproclamé de tout ce que disent les politiciens ? Je ne pense pas. »

    Facebook rejoint ainsi Twitter qui, embarrassé par des tweets de Donald Trump qui violent son règlement, avait fini par statuer que certains messages de politiciens, étant d’intérêt public, resteraient en ligne, même s’ils contrevenaient à ses règles.

    #Modération #Facebook #Politique

  • Amazon wants you to be surrounded with Alexa—wherever you are - MIT Technology Review
    https://www.technologyreview.com/f/614436/amazons-new-products-show-it-wants-alexa-to-always-be-with-you

    The news: Amazon unveiled a dizzying number of new gadgets yesterday, including wireless earphones (Echo Buds), a smart ring (Echo Loop), and smart glasses (Echo Frames). They all provide hands-free access, so you can ask Alexa to play a song, give you directions, or whatever else you may need, on the go. The products cost between $129 and $180 each.

    What’s behind all this: Taking these three products together, there’s a clear push to move Alexa beyond the home and onto your body. While Google Assistant is embedded into Android smartphones, people currently use Alexa only at home, and there’s no Amazon smartphone.

    That’s a limitation Amazon wants to overcome, pushing deeper into people’s lives, and that’s partly why it wants interoperability between Alexa and other tech companies’ products (though Google, Apple, and Samsung are not playing ball). As the first to launch a home voice assistant, Amazon has a huge advantage over its competitors: more than 100 million Echo devices have been sold, and they are the default product many people think of when discussing smart speakers.

    The big question: Will people be comfortable walking around openly talking to a voice assistant? It’s one thing in the home, but quite another on the subway or in the park. Many smart watches have a speaker facility, but it’s very rare to see anyone using it in public.

    What else: Amazon also announced a night light for kids, an Echo you can use in the bathroom, a smart oven, and tracking devices for pets. Oh, and you can now make Alexa sound like Samuel L. Jackson, if you like.

    Gender controversy: Amazon said it is committed to a woman’s voice as the default for its Alexa software, despite a UN report’s conclusion that always-available, always-friendly female assistants add to damaging gender stereotypes.

    #Amazon #Alexa #Assistants_vocaux #Wearable_computers