Articles repérés par Hervé Le Crosnier

Je prend ici des notes sur mes lectures. Les citations proviennent des articles cités.

  • [livre] Nicolas BENIÈS : « Le souffle de la révolte (1917-1936)... (...) - CultureJazz.fr
    http://www.culturejazz.fr/spip.php?article3384

    Il en connaît forcément un rayon : longtemps animateur d’une émission de jazz pour TSF 98 et auteur de conférences dans le cadre de l’Université populaire de Michel Onfray (qui annonce publiquement à la date de ce 28 septembre qu’il quitte ses fonctions) sans oublier -ce qui lui vaut de figurer dans cette rubrique- auteur de deux précédents volumes [1] d’une histoire du jazz dont le dernier opus en date vient de paraître. C’est peut-être pour cette raison que notre auteur caennais ose, ce qu’aucune rivière ne saurait faire, remonter à la source. Non pas ici en faisant l’histoire du jazz à partir de ses origines mais en l’achevant par ses débuts. info document - voir en grand cette imageCe dernier volume porte en effet sur la naissance du jazz. Qu’on se rassure, l’ordre chronologique reprend vite ses droits dans cette histoire des commencements. On la connaît ou l’on croit la connaître. Cela est vrai dans les grandes lignes. Le chant de la révolte des esclaves, la naissance du blues, Louis Amstrong, Sidney Bechet, les orchestres blancs dansants, Al Johnson et Le Chanteur de jazz, le jazz aux Etats-Unis, le jazz en France, Ray Ventura, Charles Trenet, Django, Boris Vian, Jean-Paul Sartre et son célèbre air attribué faussement à une chanteuse noire (La Nausée), Jean Cocteau jouant de la guitare, Pierre Boulez détestant le jazz (qui peine en effet à lui rendre hommage en retour !) et tutti quanti. On révise, on découvre et cela est déjà un exercice plaisant. L’ouvrage n’est pas pour autant réductible à cette fonction vulgarisatrice. Frappe en effet la masse de documentation convoquée par l’auteur, tous domaines confondus. Il suffit de regarder les notes en bas de page qui livrent les sources pour s’en convaincre. Donc, on apprend beaucoup.
    Qui connaît, en effet, le destin du lieutenant noir au nom de James Europe chargé en 1916 de recruter des soldats-musiciens afin de construire un grand orchestre qui tournera en France réunissant des milliers de spectateurs et popularisant déjà le jazz avant la lettre …. et son destin tragique( poignardé par l’un de ses musiciens à Boston en 1919) ? Ou bien l’existence du premier musicien de jazz, le cornettiste Buddy Bolden (né à La Nouvelle Orléans en1877) et son groupe (1900-1906) qui mourra dans un asile d’aliénés (cette musique l’ayant rendu fou ?) sans avoir apparemment rien enregistré ? Nicolas Beniès consacre de nombreuses pages à ces figures méconnues et mythiques en faisant partager à ses lecteurs les hypothèses déjà émises par des historiens voire par les romanciers américains eux-mêmes.
    Sans oublier l’histoire des instruments (de leur apparition dans les formations), l’histoire des enregistrements, des lieux de concerts….

    Histoire du jazz, histoire culturelle, histoire tout court. L’ambition est légitime mais non sans risque ; celui des raccourcis spatio-temporels. Par exemple, 1917 premier disque de jazz signé par l’ODJB (Original Dixieland Jazz Band) et révolution russe : comment lier un mouvement de révolte et d’émancipation que porte le jazz aux États-Unis et celui d’une révolution qui marque le début de la fin des libertés en URSS où le jazz sera interdit pour cause de décadence (comme il le sera deux décennies plus tard sous le joug des nazis comme musique dégénéré) ? Avec un peu de dialectique, à l’inverse tout s’éclaire. Condamner le succès de jazz sous sa double forme discographique et spectaculaire au nom de la loi du marché relèverait par exemple de la cécité idéologique si l’auteur ne prenait soin de préciser avec raison que « le jazz fait donc partie de la sphère de la marchandise, tout en constituant un objet artistique, donc en dehors de la marchandise. » CQFD.

    Alors certes il y a bien quelques redites (la forme « conférence » oblige ?), des gimmicks comme en musique. Ainsi nos vieilles connaissances Adorno (et son anti-art) Walter Benjamin (et la reproduction), le capitalisme bien sûr toujours là (qui doit se sentir bien seul, soit dit en passant)… mais la morale de l’histoire demeure : quand le jazz est là… tout va.

    Last but not least : le CD joint au livre par les soins de l’auteur évoquant la naissance du jazz en 25 titres.

    #C&F_éditions #Nicolas_Beniès #Souffle_révolte


  • Opinion | Will Deep-Fake Technology Destroy Democracy? - The New York Times
    https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/17/opinion/deep-fake-technology-democracy.html

    Both images are the result of digital manipulation, and what, in its most ominous form, is called deep fakes: technology that makes it possible to show people saying things they never said, doing things they never did.

    This technology has great potential both as art and snark: One set of deep fakes has cleverly inserted Nicolas Cage into a half-dozen movies he wasn’t involved with, including “Raiders of the Lost Ark.” You can watch that and decide for yourself whether Mr. Cage or Harrison Ford makes for the best Indiana Jones.

    But, as always, the same technology that contains the opportunity for good also provides an opening for its opposite. As a result, we find ourselves on the cusp of a new world — one in which it will be impossible, literally, to tell what is real from what is invented.

    But deep-fake technology takes deception a step further, exploiting our natural inclination to engage with things that make us angriest. As Jonathan Swift said: “The greatest liar hath his believers: and it often happens, that if a lie be believed only for an hour, it hath done its work, and there is no further occasion for it.”

    Consider the image of Emma Gonzalez, a survivor of the Parkland High School shooting in February who has become a vocal activist. A manipulated photo of her tearing up the Constitution went viral on Twitter among gun-rights supporters and members of the alt-right. The image had been digitally altered from another photo appearing in Teen Vogue. That publication’s editor lamented: “The fact that we even have to clarify this is proof of how democracy continues to be fractured by people who manipulate and fabricate the truth.”

    That fake was exposed — but did it really make a difference to the people who wanted to inhabit their own paranoid universe? How many people still believe, all evidence to the contrary, that Barack Obama is a Muslim, or that he was born in Kenya?

    Now imagine the effect of deep fakes on a close election. Let’s say video is posted of Beto O’Rourke, a Democrat running for Senate in Texas, swearing that he wants to take away every last gun in Texas, or of Senator Susan Collins of Maine saying she’s changed her mind on Brett Kavanaugh. Before the fraud can be properly refuted, the polls open. The chaos that might ensue — well, let’s just say it’s everything Vladimir Putin ever dreamed of.

    There’s more: The “liar’s dividend” will now apply even to people, like Mr. Trump, who actually did say something terrible. In the era of deep fakes, it will be simple enough for a guilty party simply to deny reality. Mr. Trump, in fact, has claimed that the infamous recording of him suggesting grabbing women by their nether parts is not really him. This, after apologizing for it.

    #Infox #Fake_news #Manipulation_images


  • Et l’américain Palantir a désormais un rival « Made in France »
    https://www.latribune.fr/entreprises-finance/industrie/aeronautique-defense/si-si-l-americain-palantir-a-desormais-un-rival-made-in-france-793900.html

    Cette offre répond aux besoins de l’administration française, notamment des services de renseignement et des entreprises françaises, qui souhaitent s’exonérer des risques que peut induire un choix en faveur de Palantir. Pourquoi ? Guillaume Poupard est très clair quand il explique à l’Assemblée nationale en mars dernier, qu’il « va de soi qu’il faut par exemple déconnecter les logiciels Palantir, qui permettent d’effectuer des recherches dans les données, car il est hors de question que l’éditeur de Palantir ait accès aux données opérationnelles traitées par le logiciel. Or, c’est de plus en plus compliqué : de nombreux éditeurs logiciels, en effet, dégagent leur plus-value en fournissant non plus un simple CD-ROM comme autrefois mais un système à distance, en cloud, qui, pour fonctionner, ne doit plus se trouver chez le client mais chez l’éditeur, ce qui soulève de nombreuses questions ». D’ailleurs, le directeur du renseignement militaire, le général Jean-François Ferlet, a indiqué que son service a étudié le logiciel de Palantir, mais qu’il ne l’a pas retenu pour des questions de maîtrise du logiciel.
    La DGA travaille également sur une alternative

    « Il existe une volonté globale de créer une alternative française de confiance, et la DGA y travaille », avait rappelé en mars dernier Guillaume Poupard. C’est le programme Artemis (Architecture de traitement et d’exploitation massive de l’information multi-source), qui a été lancé en novembre 2017 par la direction générale de l’armement (DGA). Ce programme, qui servira à exploiter les bases de données de toute nature, est une composante importante de la feuille de route Intelligence Artificielle (IA) du ministère des Armées, annoncée en mars dernier par Florence Parly.

    #Palantir #Renseignement #Souveraineté_nationale


  • Le neurocapitalisme et la nouvelle servitude volontaire | AOC media - Analyse Opinion Critique
    https://aoc.media/analyse/2018/10/17/neurocapitalisme-nouvelle-servitude-volontaire

    Par Giorgio Griziotti
    Ingénieur informatique

    Le capitalisme contemporain n’exploite plus les travailleurs mais leurs émotions : on est entré dans le neurocapitalisme. Nouveaux instruments de la servitude volontaire, les technologies de l’information se font toujours plus addictives et socialement indispensables. Nos vies privées sont ainsi monétisées et c’est notre commune humanité qui s’en trouve menacée.

    #Neurocapitalisme #Giorgio_Griziotti #C&F_éditions


  • Le neurocapitalisme et la nouvelle servitude volontaire | AOC media - Analyse Opinion Critique
    https://aoc.media/analyse/2018/10/17/neurocapitalisme-nouvelle-servitude-volontaire

    Par Giorgio Griziotti
    Ingénieur informatique

    Le capitalisme contemporain n’exploite plus les travailleurs mais leurs émotions : on est entré dans le neurocapitalisme. Nouveaux instruments de la servitude volontaire, les technologies de l’information se font toujours plus addictives et socialement indispensables. Nos vies privées sont ainsi monétisées et c’est notre commune humanité qui s’en trouve menacée.

    #Neurocapitalisme #Giorgio_Griziotti #C&F_éditions


  • Linguistic red flags from Facebook posts can predict future depression diagnoses — ScienceDaily
    https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/10/181015150643.htm

    Research finds that the language people use in their Facebook posts can predict a future diagnosis of depression as accurately as the tools clinicians use in medical settings to screen for the disease.

    In any given year, depression affects more than 6 percent of the adult population in the United States — some 16 million people — but fewer than half receive the treatment they need. What if an algorithm could scan social media and point to linguistic red flags of the disease before a formal medical diagnosis had been made?

    Ah oui, ce serait fantastique pour les Big Pharma : la dépression est une maladie complexe, dont les symptômes graves sont souvent confondus avec la déprime qui est un état sychologique que nous connaissons tous. Notre Facebook, couplé avec notre assistant vocal Amazon nous gorgerait de Valium, et tout irait pour le mieux dans le Meilleur des mondes.

    Considering conditions such as depression, anxiety, and PTSD , for example, you find more signals in the way people express themselves digitally."

    For six years, the WWBP, based in Penn’s Positive Psychology Center and Stony Brook’s Human Language Analysis Lab, has been studying how the words people use reflect inner feelings and contentedness. In 2014, Johannes Eichstaedt, WWBP founding research scientist, started to wonder whether it was possible for social media to predict mental health outcomes, particularly for depression.

    “Social media data contain markers akin to the genome,” Eichstaedt explains. “With surprisingly similar methods to those used in genomics, we can comb social media data to find these markers. Depression appears to be something quite detectable in this way; it really changes people’s use of social media in a way that something like skin disease or diabetes doesn’t.”

    Il y a au moins une bonne nouvelle sur la déontologie scientifique :

    Rather than do what previous studies had done — recruit participants who self-reported depression — the researchers identified data from people consenting to share Facebook statuses and electronic medical-record information, and then analyzed the statuses using machine-learning techniques to distinguish those with a formal depression diagnosis.

    Les marqueurs considérés sont aussi des marqueurs sociaux et économiques, qu’il faudrait traiter autrement qu’avec des médicaments.

    They learned that these markers comprised emotional, cognitive, and interpersonal processes such as hostility and loneliness, sadness and rumination, and that they could predict future depression as early as three months before first documentation of the illness in a medical record.

    La conclusion est fantastique : il faut rendre le balayage obligatoire !!!

    Eichstaedt sees long-term potential in using these data as a form of unobtrusive screening. “The hope is that one day, these screening systems can be integrated into systems of care,” he says. “This tool raises yellow flags; eventually the hope is that you could directly funnel people it identifies into scalable treatment modalities.”

    Despite some limitations to the study, including its strictly urban sample, and limitations in the field itself — not every depression diagnosis in a medical record meets the gold standard that structured clinical interviews provide, for example — the findings offer a potential new way to uncover and get help for those suffering from depression.

    #Dépression #Facebook #Foutaises #Hubris_scientifique #Big_pharma #Psychologie


  • Harvard Calls for Retraction of Dozens of Studies by Noted Cardiologist - The New York Times
    https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/15/health/piero-anversa-fraud-retractions.html

    A prominent cardiologist formerly at Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston fabricated or falsified data in 31 published studies that should be retracted, officials at the institutions have concluded.

    The cardiologist, Dr. Piero Anversa, produced research suggesting that damaged heart muscle could be regenerated with stem cells, a type of cell that can transform itself into a variety of other cells.

    Although other laboratories could not reproduce his findings, the work led to the formation of start-up companies to develop new treatments for heart attacks and stroke, and inspired a clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health.

    “A couple of papers may be alarming, but 31 additional papers in question is almost unheard-of,” said Benoit Bruneau, associate director of cardiovascular research at the Gladstone Institutes in San Francisco. “It is a lab’s almost entire body of work, and therefore almost an entire field of research, put into question.”

    #Fraude_scientifique #Conflits_intérêt #Science


  • Le retour de la 3e classe ? - La Vie des idées
    https://laviedesidees.fr/Le-retour-de-la-3eme-classe.html

    Hôpital, soins dentaires, pompes funèbres, universités, TGV : partout le service public réinstaure sans le dire une « troisième classe », réservée aux plus pauvres. Qu’est-ce que cette segmentation nous dit des évolutions de l’État-providence ?

    Passionnant.

    Deux idéaux de l’État providence français semblent par ailleurs être entrés en contradiction. D’un côté le principe de l’accès de tous aux biens jugés importants ou devant rester « communs » : l’idée que certains pourraient en être totalement exclus paraît aujourd’hui difficilement compatibles avec l’idéal démocratique. De l’autre, le principe de l’universalisme, c’est à dire celui de l’égalité de tous dans cet accès à la prestation. Au premier idéal semble aujourd’hui devoir être sacrifié le second. Pourquoi ce grignotage de l’État-providence par un bout ? Deux évolutions socioéconomiques massives semblent ici à l’œuvre : la progression du chômage, produisant de fait nombre d’exclus ; l’autre évolution est constituée par l’accroissement du différentiel de ressources entre le haut et le bas de la hiérarchie sociale. Or le premier phénomène, touche – de manière certes inégale et inégalement dramatique – à peu près toutes les couches sociales. Le second n’est sensible que pour ceux qui fréquentent les extrêmes sociaux et sont amenés à naviguer entre les deux. La question de l’exclusion sociale – qui menace potentiellement tout le monde – est donc logiquement plus sensible et représente une question politiquement plus délicate que la segmentation croissante du monde social. Stratifier… pour éviter l’exclusion apparaît alors à beaucoup, en effet, comme un moindre mal.

    La privatisation – qui « sépare » par l’argent – n’en serait alors qu’un visible épiphénomène. Car elle s’accompagne souvent de la même « bonne volonté sociale » : avec cette différence que c’est la mise en concurrence de tous – et non plus la stratification – qui est censée ici favoriser la démocratisation. La privatisation du funéraire, le soutien au développement des multiplexes au côté des salles subventionnées par les collectivités locales, par exemple, ont chaque fois été accompagnées de la croyance (ou de la justification) chaque fois déçue, que les prix allaient baisser. Chaque fois les socialistes ont pu se faire par conséquent les plus ardents soutiens de ces privatisations : preuve que ce regard, expulsant désormais toute contradiction entre stratification et démocratisation, pourrait bien une sécrétion discrète d’une évolution idéologique de nos sociétés où marché, concurrence, compétition – donc hiérarchisation sociale – ne sont plus considérés non plus comme contradictoires avec le bien commun.

    Reste que cette segmentation ne se fait pas sans coût. En haut de l’espace social, l’aisance matérielle et culturelle protège sans doute de la disqualification potentielle attachée à la consommation de ces signes extérieurs de modestie sociale. D’autres parties de la population hésitent en revanche aujourd’hui à prendre Ouigo parce que le service est considéré comme au rabais (voire « déclassant ») [24] ou, pire, hésitent à choisir le service public hospitalier, en raison de la conviction d’y être plus mal servis – voire soignés – qu’ailleurs. Mais comment réagissent ceux qui n’ont d’autre possibilité aujourd’hui que d’accepter leur déclassement et de répondre positivement aux multiples et discrètes exhortations à retourner à leur place ? Dans quelle mesure en sont-ils conscients ? Et si oui, en sont-ils révoltés ? Si oui encore, rusent-ils ? C’est poser rien moins que la question de la lucidité et de la docilité à la toute-puissance des assignations sociales… quand elle s’exacerbe en toute discrétion.

    #Service_public #Inégalités #Nouvelles_exclusions


  • The smartphone app that can tell you’re depressed before you know it yourself - MIT Technology Review
    https://www.technologyreview.com/s/612266/the-smartphone-app-that-can-tell-youre-depressed-before-you-know-i

    A startup founded in Palo Alto, California, by a trio of doctors, including the former director of the US National Institute of Mental Health, is trying to prove that our obsession with the technology in our pockets can help treat some of today’s most intractable medical problems: depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and substance abuse.

    Mindstrong Health is using a smartphone app to collect measures of people’s cognition and emotional health as indicated by how they use their phones. Once a patient installs Mindstrong’s app, it monitors things like the way the person types, taps, and scrolls while using other apps. This data is encrypted and analyzed remotely using machine learning, and the results are shared with the patient and the patient’s medical provider.

    The seemingly mundane minutiae of how you interact with your phone offers surprisingly important clues to your mental health, according to Mindstrong’s research—revealing, for example, a relapse of depression.

    The seemingly mundane minutiae of how you interact with your phone offers surprisingly important clues to your mental health, according to Mindstrong’s research—revealing, for example, a relapse of depression.❞

    For now, Insel says, the company is working mainly with seriously ill people who are at risk of relapse for problems like depression, schizophrenia, and substance abuse. “This is meant for the most severely disabled people, who are really needing some innovation,” he says. “There are people who are high utilizers of health care and they’re not getting the benefits, so we’ve got to figure out some way to get them something that works better.” Actually predicting that a patient is headed toward a downward spiral is a harder task, but Dagum believes that having more people using the app over time will help cement patterns in the data.

    There are thorny issues to consider, of course. Privacy, for one: while Mindstrong says it protects users’ data, collecting such data at all could be a scary prospect for many of the people it aims to help. Companies may be interested in, say, including it as part of an employee wellness plan, but most of us wouldn’t want our employers anywhere near our mental health data, no matter how well protected it may be.

    #Données_médicales #Maladie_mentale #Surveillance #Algorithmes_prédictifs #Hubris_scientifique


  • « Dans l’espace, ceux qui arrivent après les explorateurs sont les commerçants »
    https://abonnes.lemonde.fr/sciences/article/2018/10/15/dans-l-espace-ceux-qui-arrivent-apres-les-explorateurs-sont-les-comm ?

    Certains entrepreneurs du NewSpace ont clairement l’ambition d’exploiter les ressources minières spatiales, ce qui va à l’encontre des traités internationaux sur l’espace qui stipulent que ces ressources ne peuvent faire l’objet d’une appropriation. Comment résoudre cette contradiction ?

    C’est l’enjeu principal – juridique, éthique, politique – de cette nouvelle phase. Quand les Etats-Unis en 2015 et le Luxembourg l’année suivante ont dit qu’ils accueillaient les entreprises voulant se lancer dans l’exploitation minière des corps extraterrestres et qu’ils les protégeaient légalement, cela a créé beaucoup de brouhaha dans la communauté juridique parce que cela remet en cause le principe de la non-appropriation de l’espace.

    Par exemple, la Lune a été déclarée patrimoine commun de l’humanité et personne ne peut l’exploiter pour en tirer un profit personnel. Depuis 2015, le Groupe de la Hague sur les ressources spatiales réunit un certain nombre d’acteurs étatiques, institutionnels, universitaires, privés, pour réfléchir à la question de la gouvernance spatiale. Ce qui est intéressant, c’est que, pour une fois, nous avons largement anticipé les problématiques du futur mais aussi que cela nous permet de réfléchir à notre manière de gérer ensemble les ressources communes, ce dont on a également besoin sur Terre…

    Quelle place laissera-t-on à la science sur les objets célestes s’ils sont avant tout considérés comme des ressources économiques ?

    Le risque de la disparition possible de la phase d’exploration scientifique existe effectivement. Celle-ci s’est faite jusqu’ici avec une ­attention portée à la protection et à la non-contamination des corps où nous envoyons des sondes. Or tout cela n’est pas le premier souci – et peut-être même pas un souci du tout – pour des entrepreneurs spatiaux. La question se pose aussi avec les projets de colonisation de Mars : faire débarquer des colons sur cette planète, même si ce n’est que pour quelques jours, c’est immédiatement « polluer » une zone assez étendue sur Mars ! Et donc complètement shunter l’exploration scientifique que ces colons pourraient mener. Qu’est-ce qui peut aujourd’hui empêcher une telle contamination massive, obliger à respecter une démarche scientifique ? Je crois qu’il n’y a rien. Les chercheurs s’imposent des codes de bonne conduite, comment contraindre les entrepreneurs privés de faire de même ?

    #Communs #Espace #Marchandisation #Enclosures


  • Tech suffers from lack of humanities, says Mozilla head | Technology | The Guardian
    https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/oct/12/tech-humanities-misinformation-philosophy-psychology-graduates-mozilla-

    Mitchell Baker, head of the Mozilla Foundation, has warned that hiring employees who mainly come from Stem – science, technology, engineering and maths – will produce a new generation of technologists with the same blindspots as those who are currently in charge, a move that will “come back to bite us”.

    “Stem is a necessity, and educating more people in Stem topics clearly critical,” Baker told the Guardian. “Every student of today needs some higher level of literacy across the Stem bases.

    “But one thing that’s happened in 2018 is that we’ve looked at the platforms, and the thinking behind the platforms, and the lack of focus on impact or result. It crystallised for me that if we have Stem education without the humanities, or without ethics, or without understanding human behaviour, then we are intentionally building the next generation of technologists who have not even the framework or the education or vocabulary to think about the relationship of Stem to society or humans or life.”

    “We need to be adding not social sciences of the past, but something related to humanity and how to think about the effects of technology on humanity – which is partly sociology, partly anthropology, partly psychology, partly philosophy, partly ethics … it’s some new formulation of all of those things, as part of a Stem education,” Baker told the Guardian.

    “Otherwise we’ll have ourselves to blame, for generations of technologists who don’t even have the toolsets to add these things in.”

    Kathy Pham, the computer scientist at Mozilla who is leading the challenge, said “Students of computer science go on to be the next leaders and creators in the world, and must understand how code intersects with human behaviour, privacy, safety, vulnerability, equality, and many other factors.

    “Just like how algorithms, data structures, and networking are core computer science classes, we are excited to help empower faculty to also teach ethics and responsibility as an integrated core tenet of the curriculum.”

    #Mozilla #Développeurs #Education #Université #Humanités


  • It’s Time for Video Game Makers to Unionize | Alternet
    https://www.alternet.org/its-time-video-game-makers-unionize?src=newsletter1097088

    The tech sector generally has a reputation for being fairly libertarian culturally — in other words, not particularly ripe for a labor movement. Yet the spectacular rise and crash of a once-renowned studio, Telltale Games, has shed a light on the plight of abused developers in a difficult industry. And the fate of Telltale and its workers has a shot at catalyzing unionization across the entire industry.

    The digital canary in the coalmine

    If you’ve never met someone who works in the game industry, their lifestyles are not glamorous. Well-being of employees is a huge issue: video game makers routinely suffer, terrible working conditions, long work-weeks, sudden layoffs with no severance. Mattias Lehman, a former developer, wrote an essay documenting the situation he witnessed in his four years in the industry: “If you work in the industry, I probably don’t need to explain how we workers are exploited by companies, only to turn around and be abused by the very communities we want to make games for,” he writes. Lehman describes witnessing rampant sexism, a horrible lack of diversity, constant overwork and “abuse of contractors” as norms in the industry.

    In November of 2017, Telltale announced it was laying off 90 developers. Employees at the time were reported to be working under intense conditions, tight deadlines and long hours — something known, in the video game industry, as “crunch”, meaning a time period in which the game is in its final stages of production and employees are rushing to finish a game. Jason Schreier, news editor at the video game website Kotaku and author of “Blood Sweat, and Pixels,” a study of the video game industry, explains that crunch is seen as a necessary evil by some and is the “big ugly side of working in the video game industry.” “It’s safe to say that a large percentage of studios incorporate some sort of crunch in their work, which is essentially overtime periods that are very long nights and weekends,” Schreier told Salon. “It could be weeks. It could be months. It could, in some very rare but horrible occasions, be entire years.”

    In a cutthroat industry, in the absence of employees advocating and organizing for better conditions,labor will continue to be taken advantage of by large corporations. As games continue to become larger and more expansive, the human cost rises. Kinema agrees:

    “How many people burned out? How many people had mental breakdowns? How many people ran out of money? How many people didn’t go home to see their kids that night while making something like ‘Assassins Creed,’ right? The latest game is so massive, right? You look at a trailer for ‘Red Dead Redemption 2’ and you’re just like, ‘How could you have made this if you didn’t just overwork your developers?’”

    #Jeux_video #Syndicats #Conditions_travail


  • The Growth of Sinclair’s Conservative Media Empire | The New Yorker
    https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2018/10/22/the-growth-of-sinclairs-conservative-media-empire

    Sinclair is the largest owner of television stations in the United States, with a hundred and ninety-two stations in eighty-nine markets. It reaches thirty-nine per cent of American viewers. The company’s executive chairman, David D. Smith, is a conservative whose views combine a suspicion of government, an aversion to political correctness, and strong libertarian leanings. Smith, who is sixty-eight, has a thick neck, deep under-eye bags, and a head of silvery hair. He is an enthusiast of fine food and has owned farm-to-table restaurants in Harbor East, an upscale neighborhood in Baltimore. An ardent supporter of Donald Trump, he has not been shy about using his stations to advance his political ideology. Sinclair employees say that the company orders them to air biased political segments produced by the corporate news division, including editorials by the conservative commentator Mark Hyman, and that it feeds interviewers questions intended to favor Republicans.

    In some cases, anchors have been compelled to read from scripts prepared by Sinclair. In April, 2018, dozens of newscasters across the country parroted Trump’s invectives about “fake news,” saying, “Some members of the media use their platforms to push their own personal bias and agenda to control exactly what people think. This is extremely dangerous to our democracy.” In response, Dan Rather, the former anchor of “CBS Evening News,” wrote, on Twitter, “News anchors looking into camera and reading a script handed down by a corporate overlord, words meant to obscure the truth not elucidate it, isn’t journalism. It’s propaganda. It’s Orwellian. A slippery slope to how despots wrest power, silence dissent, and oppress the masses.”

    It’s unclear whether Sinclair is attempting to influence the politics of its viewers or simply appealing to positions that viewers may already have—or both. Andrew Schwartzman, a telecommunications lecturer at Georgetown Law School, told me, “I don’t know where their personal philosophy ends and their business goals begin. They’re not the Koch brothers, but they reflect a deep-seated conservatism and generations of libertarian philosophy that also happen to help their business.”

    Sinclair has even greater ambitions for expansion. In May, 2017, the company announced a proposed $3.9-billion merger between Sinclair and Tribune Media Company, which owns forty-two television stations. The merger would make Sinclair far larger than any other broadcaster in the country, with stations beaming into seventy per cent of American households. The proposal alarmed regulatory and free-speech experts. Michael Copps, a former official at the Federal Communications Commission, told me, “One of the goals of the First Amendment is to make sure the American people have the news and information they need to make intelligent decisions about our democracy, and I think we’re pretty close to a situation where the population lacks the ability to do that. That’s the whole premise of self-government.” He went on, “There are a lot of problems facing our country, but I don’t know one as important as this. When you start dismantling our news-and-information infrastructure, that’s poison to self-government and poison to democracy.”

    In subsequent years, Smith took measures to deepen Sinclair’s influence among policymakers, apparently recognizing that the company’s profits were dependent upon regulatory decisions made in Washington. One of Smith’s first notable forays into politics was his support for Robert Ehrlich, Jr., a Republican congressman who represented Maryland from 1995 until 2003. Sinclair became a top donor to Ehrlich and, in 2001, Ehrlich sent the first of several letters on Sinclair’s behalf to Michael Powell, who had recently become the chair of the F.C.C. The commission was investigating a request from Sinclair to buy a new group of stations, and Ehrlich protested the “unnecessary delays on pending applications.” The F.C.C.’s assistant general counsel responded that Ehrlich’s communication had violated procedural rules. Ehrlich sent another message, alleging that the delays were politically motivated and threatening to “call for a congressional investigation into this matter.” He added, “Knowing that you have served as Chairman for a few short months, we would prefer to give you an opportunity to address these concerns.” The proposed acquisitions were approved.

    A former general-assignment reporter at the station, Jonathan Beaton, told me, “Almost immediately, I could tell it was a very corrupt culture, where you knew from top down there were certain stories you weren’t going to cover. They wanted you to keep your head down and not upset the fruit basket. I’m a Republican, and I was still appalled by what I saw at Sinclair.” Beaton characterized the man-on-the-street segments as “Don’t forget to grab some random poor soul on the street and shove a microphone in their face and talk about what the Democrats have done wrong.” He said that reporters generally complied because of an atmosphere of “intimidation and fear.”

    After Trump’s victory, it looked as though Sinclair’s investment in the candidate would pay off. In January, 2017, Trump appointed Ajit Pai, a vocal proponent of media deregulation, to be the chair of the F.C.C. Pai, formerly an associate general counsel at Verizon and an aide to Senators Jeff Sessions and Sam Brownback, was exactly the sort of commission head that Sinclair had been hoping for. He believed that competition from technology companies such as Google had made many government restrictions on traditional media irrelevant—an argument that echoed Smith’s views on ownership caps and other regulations. Sinclair executives quickly tried to cultivate a relationship with Pai; shortly after the election, he addressed a gathering of Sinclair managers at the Four Seasons in Baltimore. He also met with David Smith and Sinclair’s C.E.O., Christopher Ripley, the day before Trump’s Inauguration.

    It’s not unusual for business executives to meet with the chair of the F.C.C., but Pai soon announced a series of policy changes that seemed designed to help Sinclair. The first was the reinstatement of the ultrahigh-frequency discount, an arcane rule that digital technology had rendered obsolete. The move served no practical purpose, but it freed Sinclair to acquire many more stations without bumping up against the national cap.

    The F.C.C. soon made other regulatory modifications that were helpful to Sinclair. It eliminated a rule requiring television stations to maintain at least one local studio in licensed markets, essentially legitimatizing Sinclair’s centralized news model. Perhaps most perniciously, Pai took steps toward approving a new broadcast-transmission standard called Next Gen TV, which would require all consumers in the U.S. to purchase new televisions or converter devices. A subsidiary of Sinclair owns six patents necessary for the new standard, which could mean billions of dollars in earnings for the company. Jessica Rosenworcel, the sole Democratic commissioner at the F.C.C., told me, “It’s striking that all of our media policy decisions seem almost custom-built for this one company. Something is wrong.” Rosenworcel acknowledged that many F.C.C. policies need to be modernized, but, she said, “broadcasting is unique. It uses the public airwaves, it’s a public trust.” She added, “I don’t think those ideas are retrograde. They are values we should sustain.”

    The F.C.C. and the D.O.J. both warned Sinclair about the dummy divestitures, insisting that the company find independent owners in ten problematic markets. According to a lawsuit later filed by Tribune, instead of taking steps to appease regulators, Sinclair executives “antagonized DOJ and FCC staff” by acting “confrontational” and “belittling.” The company offered to make sales in only four of the markets, and told the Justice Department that it would have to litigate for any further concessions. One Sinclair lawyer told government representatives, “Sue me.” There was no tactical reason for Sinclair to take such a combative and self-sabotaging stance. Instead, the episode seemed to reflect how Trump’s own corruption and conflicts of interest have filtered into the business community. One industry expert who followed the proceedings closely told me that the company clearly “felt that, with the President behind them, why would the commission deny them anything?

    Then, in April, the Web site Deadspin edited the broadcasts of Sinclair anchors reciting the script about fake news into one terrifying montage, with a tapestry of anchors in different cities speaking in unison. The video ignited public outrage, and Trump tweeted a defense of Sinclair, calling it “far superior to CNN and even more Fake NBC, which is a total joke.” (In a statement, a spokesperson for Sinclair said, “This message was not presented as news and was not intended to be political—there was no mention of President Trump, political parties, policy issues, etc. It was a business objective centered on attracting more viewers.”)

    #Médias #Concentration #Dérégulation #Etats-Unis #Sinclair


  • What Public Life Used to Look Like in San Francisco’s Mission District | The New Yorker
    https://www.newyorker.com/culture/photo-booth/what-public-life-used-to-look-like-in-san-franciscos-mission-district

    Fabuleuses photos de The Mission à San Francisco

    The photographer Janet Delaney first came to San Francisco in 1967, for the Summer of Love. By the time she began living in the Mission, in the nineteen-eighties, she had learned Spanish and trained herself to recognize moments of quiet revelation in the streets. “I’ve always seen San Francisco as a small place where big things happen,” she says. “There’s a kind of freedom in being on the West Coast, as if your parents aren’t around.” She was an interloper in the Mission, not having been raised there. And yet, like many new arrivals, she found her place—and her subject—by studying the people for whom it was home.

    The area was busy and fast-moving then, with domestic culture spilling out onto the public turf. Photographing life in the streets was fluid and spontaneous work—“like shooting from the solar plexus,” Delaney says—and often it was unclear what she had until she got back to her darkroom. In this way, she was capturing, not composing; gathering, not trying to bear out a story. In time, though, a story did form in her photographs, much as a drift grows from accumulated flakes of snow. The story was about the inflow of culture that kept a pluralistic district alive—and the way that this flow drove life into the local streets, and then beyond them, toward a bigger world.

    #San_Francisco #The_Mission #Photographies


  • A White Woman, Teresa Klein, Called the Police on a Black Child She Falsely Said Groped Her - The New York Times
    https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/12/nyregion/woman-calls-police-black-boy-brooklyn.html

    Une histoire fabuleuse, et si significative. Elle pourrait être drôle, cette femme ayant confondu le sac à dos du gamin avec une volonté de la toucher. Mais elle est si triste de l’état de nos relations sociales, du racisme ambiant, de l’incapacité des gens à se respecter. Significative également de l’usage des médias sociaux et des vidéos sur téléphone.

    A white woman who called the police after claiming that a young black boy touched her behind in a Brooklyn deli drew a storm of ridicule and criticism on social media, and late on Friday she made a public apology to the child.

    Critics characterized the incident as the latest example of a hypersensitive white person calling the police to report black people for dubious reasons. Many detractors imputed racist motives to the woman, Teresa Klein.

    #Racisme #Médias_sociaux


  • Amazon’s Echo May Be Able To Read Your Emotions - The Atlantic
    https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2018/10/alexa-emotion-detection-ai-surveillance/572884

    Amazon has patented technology that would allow its devices to read your emotional and physical state, and sell advertisements based on them. Are we entering the era of the mood-targeted ad?

    Patents are not products, of course—but they can offer insight into how companies will approach emergent tech. In this case, the patent hints at new possibilities for dynamic targeted advertising in its always-on line of products. The patent lays out an example: Say you tell Alexa you’re hungry, and she can tell by the sniffle in your voice that you’re coming down with something. She can then ask if you want a recipe for chicken soup, or she can ask a question “associated with particular advertisers.” Perhaps Panera wants to tell you about its soups.

    Amazon isn’t the only technology company to pursue technology that takes full advantage of these emotional windows. Google has a similar patent, for a method to augment devices to detect negative emotions then automatically suggest advice. IBM has one that would help search engines return web results based on the user’s “current emotional state.” Searching for “good podcasts,” “football,” or “events near me,” for example, would return different results based on user mood, as determined via face recognition in the webcam, a scan of the person’s heart rate or—and this is where the “patents are not products” disclaimer must be emphasized most heavily—the “user’s brain waves.”

    Spotify, meanwhile, is already practicing a type of dynamic emotional targeting all its own. Starting in 2014, it began associating playlists with different moods and events, selling ad space to companies based on the associations. An Adele-centric playlist may be a dead giveaway for emotional turmoil, so products associated with sadness (ice cream, tissues) would be recommended. A hip-hop heavy playlist might come with a “block party” association, and Spotify would suggest the playlist for a company advertising barbecue sauce, and so on.

    The purpose of profiling is to sell products. Each of us are made up of dozens of marketable categories. Dynamic emotional targeting ups the ante: Now we are a collection of categories both stable (gender, age, residence) and in flux (mental and emotional states), and our devices are eager to hear all about it.

    #Emotions #Publicité #Brevets #Amazon #IBM #Google #Spotify


  • Voice-based determination of physical and emotional characteristics of users - United States Patent: 10096319
    http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-adv.htm

    Le brevet déposé par Amazon

    United States Patent 10,096,319
    Jin , et al. October 9, 2018
    Voice-based determination of physical and emotional characteristics of users

    Abstract

    Systems, methods, and computer-readable media are disclosed for voice-based determination of physical and emotional characteristics of users. Example methods may include determining first voice data, wherein the first voice data is generated by a user, determining a first real-time user status of the user using the first voice data, generating a first data tag indicative of the first real-time user status, determining first audio content for presentation at a speaker device using the first data tag and the first voice data, and causing presentation of the first audio content via a speaker of the speaker device.

    #Amazon #Alexa #Brevet #Emotions #Publicité


  • US20120143693A1 - Targeting Advertisements Based on Emotion - Google Patents
    https://patents.google.com/patent/US20120143693A1/en

    Un brevet de 2010 par Microsoft

    A computer system, a computer-implemented method, and computer readable media configured to target advertisements based on emotional states are provided. Advertisers specify desired emotional states of users they intend to target with advertisements. Advertisers also provide emotional tags having the desired emotional state of users that should see the advertisements linked to the emotional tags. Online activities for users are obtained and processed to assign emotional states to the users. An advertisement engine selects advertisements that are emotionally compatible based on the assigned emotional states and the desired emotional states provided by the advertisers.

    #Emotions #Publicité #Brevet


  • Amazon patents Alexa tech to tell if you’re sick, depressed and sell you meds | Ars Technica
    https://arstechnica.com/gadgets/2018/10/amazon-patents-alexa-tech-to-tell-if-youre-sick-depressed-and-sell-you-

    Amazon has patented technology that could let Alexa analyze your voice to determine whether you are sick or depressed and sell you products based on your physical or emotional condition.

    The patent, titled “Voice-based determination of physical and emotional characteristics of users,” was issued on Tuesday this week; Amazon filed the patent application in March 2017.

    The patent describes a voice assistant that can detect “abnormal” physical or emotional conditions. “For example, physical conditions such as sore throats and coughs may be determined based at least in part on a voice input from the user, and emotional conditions such as an excited emotional state or a sad emotional state may be determined based at least in part on voice input from a user,” the patent says. “A cough or sniffle, or crying, may indicate that the user has a specific physical or emotional abnormality.”

    It’s not clear what ads would be sent based on a user’s emotional state, but someone who is sick might be asked if they want to buy cold medicine.

    “A current physical and/or emotional condition of the user may facilitate the ability to provide highly targeted audio content, such as audio advertisements or promotions, to the user,” the patent said.

    If the Amazon voice assistant determines that you have a sore threat, the system would “communicate with the audio content server(s)” to select the appropriate ad. “For example, certain content, such as content related to cough drops or flu medicine, may be targeted towards users who have sore throats,” the patent says.

    Alexa might then ask, “would you like to order cough drops with 1 hour delivery?” After the order is made, the voice assistant “may append a message to the audible confirmation, such as well wishes, or ’feel better!’”
    System could raise privacy concerns

    Companies get patents all the time for technologies that never make it to market, so there is no guarantee this capability will be implemented in future versions of Alexa.

    Amazon would have to consider the privacy implications of letting its voice assistant analyze the emotional and physical states of Amazon customers. Amazon and other tech companies last month were called to a Senate Commerce Committee hearing to testify about consumer data privacy, and senators are considering whether to write a new privacy law.

    Besides analyzing your physical or emotional states, Amazon’s patent says the system would take into account the user’s browsing history and purchase history:

    Embodiments of the disclosure may use physical and/or emotional characteristics of a user in combination with behavioral targeting criteria (e.g., browse history, number of clicks, purchase history, etc.) and/or contextual targeting criteria (e.g., keywords, page types, placement metadata, etc.) to determine and/or select content that may be relevant for presentation to a user.

    The system would use a “voice processing algorithm” to determine a user’s emotional state. The voice analysis would be able to detect “happiness, joy, anger, sorrow, sadness, fear, disgust, boredom, stress, or other emotional states.” It would make those determinations “based at least in part on an analysis of pitch, pulse, voicing, jittering, and/or harmonicity of a user’s voice, as determined from processing of the voice data.”

    The system would apply tags to each physical or emotional characteristic. Those tags may be “associated with or linked to a data file of the voice input,” and “used to determine content for presentation to the user.”

    The emotion-detecting system would be tailored to each user, determining the user’s “default or normal/baseline state” so that it can detect changes that indicate that “the emotional state of the user is abnormal,” the patent says.

    Amazon’s analysis would presumably be more accurate when tailored to a specific user, but the patent says the technology can also determine the emotional state of “any user” regardless of whether they normally use that device.

    #Le_Meilleur_des_Mondes #Folie #Amazon #Brevet


  • Most White Americans’ DNA Can Be Identified Through Genealogy Databases - The New York Times
    https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/11/science/science-genetic-genealogy-study.html

    The genetic genealogy industry is booming. In recent years, more than 15 million people have offered up their DNA — a cheek swab, some saliva in a test-tube — to services such as 23andMe and Ancestry.com in pursuit of answers about their heritage. In exchange for a genetic fingerprint, individuals may find a birth parent, long-lost cousins, perhaps even a link to Oprah or Alexander the Great.

    But as these registries of genetic identity grow, it’s becoming harder for individuals to retain any anonymity. Already, 60 percent of Americans of Northern European descent — the primary group using these sites — can be identified through such databases whether or not they’ve joined one themselves, according to a study published today in the journal Science.

    Within two or three years, 90 percent of Americans of European descent will be identifiable from their DNA, researchers found. The science-fiction future, in which everyone is known whether or not they want to be, is nigh.

    Their results were eye-opening. The team found that a DNA sample from an American of Northern European heritage could be tracked successfully to a third-cousin distance of its owner in 60 percent of cases. A comparable analysis on the MyHeritage site had similar results. (The analysis focused on Americans of North European background because 75 percent of the users on GEDmatch and other genealogy sites belong to that demographic.)

    Some experts have raised questions about the study’s methodology. Its sample size was small, and it didn’t factor in that more than one match is often required to identify a suspect.

    CeCe Moore, a genetic genealogist with Parabon, a forensic consulting firm, also expressed worry in an email that the Science paper may obscure the difficulty involved in puzzling out someone’s identity; it takes a highly skilled expert to build a family tree from the initial genetic clues.

    Still, she said, the takeaway of the study “is not news to us.” In recent months Ms. Moore has been involved in a dozen murder and sexual assault cases that used GEDmatch to identify suspects. Of the 100 crime-scene profiles that her firm had uploaded to GEDmatch by May, half were obviously solvable, she said, and 20 were “promising.”

    “I think it’s a strong and convincing paper,” said Graham Coop, a population genetics researcher at the University of California, Davis. In a blog post in May, Dr. Coop calculated just how lucky investigators had been in the Golden State killer case. He reached a statistical conclusion similar to Dr. Erlich’s: society is not far from being able to identify 90 percent of people through the DNA of their cousins in genealogical databases.

    “This is this moment of, wow, oh, this opens up a lot of possibilities, some of which are good and some are more questionable,” he said.

    In an alarming result, the Science study found that a supposedly “anonymized” genetic profile taken from a medical data set could be uploaded to GEDmatch and positively identified. This shows that an individual’s private health data might not be so private after all.

    #Génomique #ADN #Vie_privée


  • New studies show how easy it is to identify people using genetic databases - STAT
    https://www.statnews.com/2018/10/11/genetic-databases-privacy

    n recent months, consumer genealogy websites have unleashed a revolution in forensics, allowing law enforcement to use family trees to track down the notorious Golden State Killer in California and solve other cold cases across the country. But while the technique has put alleged killers behind bars, it has also raised questions about the implications for genetic privacy.

    According to a pair of studies published Thursday, your genetic privacy may have already eroded even further than previously realized.

    In an analysis published in the journal Science, researchers used a database run by the genealogy company MyHeritage to look at the genetic information of nearly 1.3 million anonymized people who’ve had their DNA analyzed by a direct-to-consumer genomics company. For nearly 60 percent of those people, it was possible to track down someone whose DNA was similar enough to indicate they were third cousins or closer in relation; for another 15 percent of the samples, second cousins or closer could be found.

    Yaniv Erlich, the lead author on the Science paper, said his team’s findings should prompt regulators and others to reconsider the assumption that genetic information is de-identified. “It’s really not the case. At least technically, it seems feasible to identify some significant part of the population” with such investigations, said Erlich, who’s a computer scientist at Columbia University and chief science officer at MyHeritage.

    The Science paper counted 12 cold cases that were solved between April and August of this year when law enforcement turned to building family trees based on genetic data; a 13th case was an active investigation.

    The most famous criminal identified this way: the Golden State Killer, who terrorized California with a series of rapes and murders in the 1970s and 1980s. With the help of a genetic genealogist, investigators uploaded a DNA sample collected from an old crime scene to a public genealogy database, built family trees, and tracked down relatives. They winnowed down their list of potential suspects to one man with blue eyes, and in April, they made the landmark arrest.

    To crack that case, the California investigators used GEDmatch, an online database that allows people who got their DNA analyzed by companies like 23andMe and Ancestry to upload their raw genetic data so that they can track down distant relatives. MyHeritage’s database — which contains data from 1.75 million people, mostly Americans who’ve gotten their DNA analyzed by MyHeritage’s genetic testing business — works similarly, although it explicitly prohibits forensic searches. (23andMe warns users about the privacy risks of uploading their genetic data to such third party sites.)

    “For me, these articles are fascinating and important and we shouldn’t shy away from the privacy concerns that these articles raise. But at the same time, we should keep in mind the personal and societal value that we believe that we are accruing as we make these large collections,” said Green, who was not involved in the new studies and is an adviser for genomics companies including Helix and Veritas Genetics.

    He pointed to the potential of genomics not only to reunite family members and put criminals behind bars, but also to predict and prevent heritable diseases and develop new drugs.

    As with using social media and paying with credit cards online, reaping the benefits of genetic testing requires accepting a certain level of privacy risk, Green said. “We make these tradeoffs knowing that we’re trading some vulnerability for the advantages,” he said.

    #Génomique #ADN #Vie_privée


  • affordance.info : Pourquoi je vais fermer mon compte Twitter.
    http://affordance.typepad.com/mon_weblog/2018/10/pourquoi-je-vais-fermer-mon-compte-twitter.html
    http://www.affordance.info/.a/6a00d8341c622e53ef022ad3b7fa9b200b-600wi

    Je vais donc fermer mon compte Twitter lorsque j’atteindrai les 10 000 followers parce que j’ai envie d’avoir l’impression que je reste maître des espaces discursifs dans lesquels je m’exprime, pour garder une vague impression d’y être encore libre de m’y exprimer comme je l’entends afin, justement, de pouvoir me rassurer sur le fait que j’y sois entendu. Et que cette maîtrise, en tout cas sur Twitter, passe par une mesure. Et que 10 000 ce n’est plus une mesure mais, à mon échelle, la limite d’une dé-mesure.

    Je vais fermer mon compte Twitter parce que même si j’ai régulièrement pris le temps de faire un peu le ménage dans mes followers pour en éliminer l’essentiel des « bots » ou des comptes en quête de « Growth Hacking », je n’ai honnêtement plus trop le temps de le faire.

    Et puis fermer un compte (Twitter ou autre) c’est aussi mesurer, à l’échelle de la subjectivité de ses propres usages, quelle est la vraie valeur du service associé au dit compte. Pour Twitter en l’occurence, cette valeur est toute entière dans le liste des 666 comptes dont je suis moi-même le suiveur et qui alimentent l’essentiel de mon activité de veille personnelle, professionnelle et sociale. Et pour lesquels je suis à la recherche d’une méthode rapide voire automatique pour m’y réabonner depuis mon futur nouveau compte (à vos avis et conseils :-)
    Voilà pourquoi je vais fermer mon compte Twitter ... et en ouvrir un autre bien sûr.

    Je vais bien sûr conserver tout ce que j’ai dit sur Twitter depuis la création de mon (premier) compte. Je déposerai cette archive sur ce blog. Ou quelque part ailleurs sur les internets. Elle est peut-être probablement déjà archivée dans une bibliothèque américaine pour la période 2006-2017 en tout cas. Et j’avoue avoir autant de raisons de faire cela que de garder de vieux cartons de cours de classe de première chez moi. C’est à dire aucune autre que l’illusion que cela pourrait un jour servir sans vraiment savoir à qui ou à quoi.

    Et je continuerai de m’exprimer dans ces espaces numériques divers qui sont autant d’espaces distincts : sur ce blog en premier lieu, sur Facebook également, sur Twitter constamment, dans des médias ou des congrès et revues scientifiques plus rarement. Il est vital de préserver la diversité de ces espaces discursifs. De tous ces espaces discursifs. De disposer d’espaces différenciés pour des pratiques différenciées.

    #Olivier_Ertzscheid #Affordance #Twitter


  • Archéologie du capitalisme de surveillance – Statium Blog
    https://statium.link/blog/2018/10/12/archeologie-du-capitalisme-de-surveillance

    Par Christophe Masutti

    L’expression « capitalisme de surveillance » est employée le plus souvent non comme un concept mais comme un dénominateur, c’est-à-dire de l’ordre de la perception des phénomènes, de ceux qui nous font tomber de nos chaises presque tous les jours lorsque nous apprenons à quels trafics sont mêlées nos données personnelles. Mais il n’a pas été défini pour cela : son ambition est surtout d’être un outil, une clé de lecture pour comprendre la configuration politique et sociale de l’économie de la surveillance. Il faut donc mettre à l’épreuve ce concept et voir dans quelle mesure il permet de comprendre si l’économie de la surveillance obéit ou non à une idéologie, au-delà des pratiques. Certes, il faut donner une définition du capitalisme de surveillance (idéologique, pratique, sociale, collective, culturelle, anthropologique ou politique), mais il faut surtout en comprendre l’avènement.

    Je propose dans ce livre une approche historique qui commence par une lecture différente des révolutions informatiques depuis les années 1960. Comment vient la surveillance ? comment devient-elle un levier économique ?

    On peut focaliser non pas sur l’évolution technologique mais sur le besoin d’information et de traitement de l’information, tout particulièrement à travers des exemples de projets publics et privés. L’informatisation est un mouvement de transformation des données en capital.

    Qu’est-ce qui donne corps à la société de la surveillance ? c’est l’apparition de dispositifs institutionnels de vigilance et de régulation, poussés par un débat public, politique et juridique, sur fond de crainte de l’avènement de la société de 1984. C’est dans ce contexte qu’au sein de l’appareillage législatif germèrent les conditions des capacités de régulation des institutions. Néanmoins la valorisation des données, en tant que propriétés, capitaux et composantes stratégiques, fini par consacrer l’économie de la surveillance comme modèle unique. Le marketing, la modélisation des comportements, la valeur vie client : la surveillance devient une activité prédictive.

    #Christophe_Masutti #Surveillance #Capitalisme_surveillance #Informatisation


  • Universal Basic Income Is Silicon Valley’s Latest Scam
    https://medium.com/s/powertrip/universal-basic-income-is-silicon-valleys-latest-scam-fd3e130b69a0
    https://cdn-images-1.medium.com/focal/1200/632/51/47/0*pksYF4nMsS3aKrtD

    Par Douglas Rushkoff

    To my surprise, the audience seemed to share my concerns. They’re not idiots, and the negative effects of their operations were visible everywhere they looked. Then an employee piped up with a surprising question: “What about UBI?”

    Wait a minute, I thought. That’s my line.

    Up until that moment, I had been an ardent supporter of universal basic income (UBI), that is, government cash payments to people whose employment would no longer be required in a digital economy. Contrary to expectations, UBI doesn’t make people lazy. Study after study shows that the added security actually enables people to take greater risks, become more entrepreneurial, or dedicate more time and energy to improving their communities.

    So what’s not to like?

    Shouldn’t we applaud the developers at Uber — as well as other prominent Silicon Valley titans like Facebook co-founder Chris Hughes, bond investor Bill Gross, and Y Combinator’s Sam Altman — for coming to their senses and proposing we provide money for the masses to spend? Maybe not. Because to them, UBI is really just a way for them to keep doing business as usual.

    Uber’s business plan, like that of so many other digital unicorns, is based on extracting all the value from the markets it enters. This ultimately means squeezing employees, customers, and suppliers alike in the name of continued growth. When people eventually become too poor to continue working as drivers or paying for rides, UBI supplies the required cash infusion for the business to keep operating.

    Walmart perfected the softer version of this model in the 20th century. Move into a town, undercut the local merchants by selling items below cost, and put everyone else out of business. Then, as sole retailer and sole employer, set the prices and wages you want. So what if your workers have to go on welfare and food stamps.

    Now, digital companies are accomplishing the same thing, only faster and more completely. Instead of merely rewriting the law like colonial corporations did or utilizing the power of capital like retail conglomerates do, digital companies are using code. Amazon’s control over the retail market and increasingly the production of the goods it sells, has created an automated wealth-extraction platform that the slave drivers who ran the Dutch East India Company couldn’t have even imagined.

    Of course, it all comes at a price: Digital monopolists drain all their markets at once and more completely than their analog predecessors. Soon, consumers simply can’t consume enough to keep the revenues flowing in. Even the prospect of stockpiling everyone’s data, like Facebook or Google do, begins to lose its allure if none of the people behind the data have any money to spend.

    To the rescue comes UBI. The policy was once thought of as a way of taking extreme poverty off the table. In this new incarnation, however, it merely serves as a way to keep the wealthiest people (and their loyal vassals, the software developers) entrenched at the very top of the economic operating system. Because of course, the cash doled out to citizens by the government will inevitably flow to them.

    Think of it: The government prints more money or perhaps — god forbid — it taxes some corporate profits, then it showers the cash down on the people so they can continue to spend. As a result, more and more capital accumulates at the top. And with that capital comes more power to dictate the terms governing human existence.

    To venture capitalists seeking to guarantee their fortunes for generations, such economic equality sounds like a nightmare and unending, unnerving disruption. Why create a monopoly just to give others the opportunity to break it or, worse, turn all these painstakingly privatized assets back into a public commons?

    The answer, perhaps counterintuitively, is because all those assets are actually of diminishing value to the few ultra-wealthy capitalists who have accumulated them. Return on assets for American corporations has been steadily declining for the last 75 years. It’s like a form of corporate obesity. The rich have been great at taking all the assets off the table but really bad at deploying them. They’re so bad at investing or building or doing anything that puts money back into the system that they are asking governments to do this for them — even though the corporations are the ones holding all the real assets.

    Like any programmer, the people running our digital companies embrace any hack or kluge capable of keeping the program running. They don’t see the economic operating system beneath their programs, and so they are not in a position to challenge its embedded biases much less rewrite that code.

    Whether its proponents are cynical or simply naive, UBI is not the patch we need. A weekly handout doesn’t promote economic equality — much less empowerment. The only meaningful change we can make to the economic operating system is to distribute ownership, control, and governance of the real world to the people who live in it.

    written by
    Douglas Rushkoff

    #Revenu_de_base #Revenu_universel #Disruption #Economie_numérique #Uberisation


  • L’essor de la fanfiction, ou l’engouement contagieux de l’écriture
    https://www.actualitte.com/article/monde-edition/l-essor-de-la-fanfiction-ou-l-engouement-contagieux-de-l-ecriture/91268?origin=newsletter

    Se tisse ainsi une relation suivie et quotidienne entre les deux acteurs sur le site, où la communauté joue un véritable rôle pédagogique. L’auteur lui-même est d’ailleurs parfois le premier à solliciter l’avis des lecteurs : les sites de fanfiction mettent en effet à sa disposition des fonctionnalités permettant d’ajouter des notes en marge des chapitres pour encourager le lectorat à donner son avis sur la qualité du texte ou la suite à lui donner.

    Une influence du lectorat dès la naissance du projet

    Pour éviter fautes d’orthographe et de syntaxe ou incohérences dans l’histoire, un système de relecture, accessible sur le site, s’est d’ailleurs mis en place entre les membres des communautés ou fandoms (un fandom correspondant à l’univers de fiction original dont la fanfiction est tirée, Star Trek par exemple) avant même la publication : à l’image du fonctionnement d’un site comme Wikipédia, un travail collaboratif se développe en effet entre lecteurs, où certains, appelés bêta-lecteurs, endossent donc un rôle d’éditeur, chargés d’améliorer le récit mais aussi de s’assurer qu’il reste en conformité avec l’esprit de l’univers originel.

    Une formation accélérée au métier d’auteur ?

    Marissa Meyer, auteure star de la littérature adolescente (Le Gang des prodiges, Pocket jeunesse, 2018) a fait ses premières armes dans l’univers de la fanfiction, où elle écrivait des mangas dérivés de Sailor Moon. Interviewée par le journal Le Monde en mars, elle confiait les leçons que lui avait apportées cette expérience, où la proximité avec son lectorat et le partage quotidien de ses écrits ont eu un impact décisif.

    Fanfiction, les motivations des auteur.e.s

    « Si j’avais directement écrit des récits classiques originaux, il n’y aurait pas vraiment eu de monde avec qui j’aurais pu partager mon travail au début. Dans la fanfiction, la communauté de fans inspire, encourage et a un véritable impact sur les auteurs. Ça a eu de l’influence non seulement sur mon style d’écriture, mais aussi cela m’a appris à persévérer et à tenir des dates butoir, parce que les fans attendent un chapitre chaque semaine. Cela m’a appris à être écrivaine professionnelle même si je n’étais pas payée pour ça. »

    #Fanfiction #Lecture #Edition