Smuggling, Trafficking, and Extortion: New Conceptual and Policy Challenges on the Libyan Route to Europe
This paper contributes a conceptual and empirical reflection on the relationship between human smuggling, trafficking and kidnapping, and extortion in Libya. It is based on qualitative interview data with Eritrean asylum seekers in Italy. Different tribal regimes control separate territories in Libya, which leads to different experiences for migrants depending on which territory they enter, such as Eritreans entering in the southeast Toubou controlled territory. We put forth that the kidnapping and extortion experienced by Eritreans in Libya is neither trafficking, nor smuggling, but a crime against humanity orchestrated by an organized criminal network. The paper details this argument and discusses the implications.
Et ce passage signalé par @isskein:
“Asylum claims in the EU should consider not only the situation back home that gave origin to the migration, but also the hardship endured en route and events that took place during the journey which can raise a claim for international protection.”