Des réfugiés et migrants tués à la frontière grecque
Des réfugiés et migrants tués à la frontière grecque
Refoulés, détenus, tués…. Quand la Turquie a annoncé l’ouverture de ses frontières, la réponse de la Grèce a été sanglante. Retour sur des violences terribles aux frontières de l’Union européenne.
Depuis le 27 février, des milliers de personnes se sont dirigées vers la frontière gréco-turque sur l’incitation des autorités turques qui ont même facilité leurs déplacements. Certains demandeurs d’asile et leurs familles vivant en Turquie ont même abandonné leur logement et dépensé tout leur argent pour entreprendre ce périple.
Cependant, les autorités grecques ont entravé les personnes tentant de franchir la frontière en renforçant les contrôles et en faisant intervenir la police et l’armée qui ont utilisé des gaz lacrymogènes, des canons à eau, des balles en caoutchouc et des balles réelles.
Deux morts, une disparue
Dans le cadre de ces violences, au moins deux hommes ont été tués et une femme est portée disparue.
Muhammad Gulzari, un Pakistanais de 43 ans, a été touché à la poitrine alors qu’il tentait de passer en Grèce au point de passage de la frontière de Pazarkule/Kastanies, et a été déclaré mort dans un hôpital turc le 4 mars. Au cours de ce même événement, cinq autres personnes ont été blessées par balles. Un Syrien de 22 ans, Muhammad al Arab, est également mort dans le secteur.
Une troisième personne, Fatma [N.D.L.R : nom modifié] originaire de Syrie, est portée disparue et présumée morte. Fatma et son époux ont été séparés de leurs six enfants alors qu’ils tentaient de traverser le fleuve Evros/Meriç, pour entrer en Grèce. Ahmed [N.D.L.R : nom modifié] témoigne que son épouse a disparu et est présumée morte : des soldats grecs ont tiré dans sa direction alors qu’elle tentait de rejoindre leurs enfants, sur la rive grecque du fleuve.
Selon le témoignage d’Ahmed, il a ensuite été détenu par les autorités grecques, tout comme leurs enfants, pendant quatre ou cinq heures. Pendant leur détention, ils ont été déshabillés et dépouillés de leurs affaires. Ils ont ensuite été ramenés au fleuve et placés dans une embarcation en bois qui les a reconduits, avec d’autres, sur la rive turque. Bien qu’il ait engagé des avocats dans les deux pays pour découvrir ce qui était arrivé à sa femme, Ahmed ne sait toujours pas ce qui s’est passé.
Coups de matraques, détentions, vols
Des réfugiés et migrants ont témoigné que les gardes-frontières les ont frappés à coups de matraques, détenus sur des sites dans la zone frontalière pendant des périodes allant de quelques heures à plusieurs jours et renvoyés en Turquie à bord d’embarcations, sur le fleuve Evros/Meriç, par groupes. Ils ont aussi pris leur argent – dans certains cas des milliers de dollars, soit toutes leurs économies – et leur seul espoir de démarrer une nouvelle vie en Europe.
J’ai traversé le fleuve et ai marché sur le territoire grec pendant quatre jours et quatre nuits, avant de me faire attraper. Ils m’ont conduit dans un endroit où ils m’ont frappé et ont pris mon téléphone et mon argent, 2 000 Lires [environ 275 euros], c’est tout ce que j’avais. Ils m’ont ramené en Turquie en me faisant traverser le fleuve et m’ont laissé là, sans manteau ni chaussures.
Toujours aucune possibilité de demander l’asile
En réaction aux actions de la Turquie, la Grèce a renforcé ses capacités de patrouille en mer, avec 52 vaisseaux supplémentaires chargés d’empêcher les arrivées sur les îles et des ressources supplémentaires de Frontex (l’Agence européenne de garde-frontières et de garde-côtes).
En parallèle, la Grèce a suspendu la possibilité de demander l’asile pendant un mois, en violation flagrante du droit international et européen. Si cette mesure a cessé d’être en vigueur le 2 avril, les personnes en quête de sécurité ne peuvent toujours pas solliciter l’asile. En effet, les activités du Service d’asile grec sont suspendues jusqu’au 13 mars en raison du COVID-19.
Dans les îles de la mer Égée, toutes les personnes arrivées après le 1er mars 2020 étaient détenues de manière arbitraire dans des installations portuaires et d’autres zones, sans pouvoir demander l’asile et risquant d’être renvoyées en Turquie ou vers des pays « d’origine ou de transit ».
Sur la seule île de Lesbos, environ 500 personnes arrivées par la mer, dont plus de 200 mineurs, ont été retenues pendant plus de 10 jours sur un navire de la marine grecque, habituellement utilisé pour transporter des tanks et autres véhicules militaires.
Toutes les personnes détenues sur les îles ont finalement été transférées vers des centres de rétention plus grands, en Grèce continentale, le 20 mars, où elles sont détenues dans l’attente des décisions de renvoi et sans pouvoir demander l’asile.
La Grèce doit changer rapidement de cap et autoriser tous les nouveaux arrivants à bénéficier de procédures d’asile et de services élémentaires. Elle doit transférer les personnes qui se trouvent dans les centres de rétention et les camps insalubres vers des structures sûres et adaptées. La propagation rapide du COVID-19 ne fait qu’en souligner l’urgence.
Il y a deux actions faciles de proposées par AI ▻https://www.amnesty.fr/actions-mobilisation/grece-protegeons-les-refugies-du-covid-19-
un mail et pour celleux qui ont touiter un message sur le réseau
La frontière gréco-turque a vu affluer un nombre considérable de migrantEs, du fait d’un chantage du régime turc en direction de l’Union Européenne. Le “coronavirus”, là aussi agit comme un révélateur, en même temps qu’il menace.
#coronavirus #solidarité #migrants
Voir compile des effets délétères indirects de la pandémie :
Refugee, volunteer, prisoner: #Sarah_Mardini and Europe’s hardening line on migration
Early last August, Sarah Mardini sat on a balcony on the Greek island of Lesvos. As the sun started to fade, a summer breeze rose off the Aegean Sea. She leaned back in her chair and relaxed, while the Turkish coastline, only 16 kilometres away, formed a silhouette behind her.
Three years before, Mardini had arrived on this island from Syria – a dramatic journey that made international headlines. Now she was volunteering her time helping other refugees. She didn’t know it yet, but in a few weeks that work would land her in prison.
Mardini had crossed the narrow stretch of water from Turkey in August 2015, landing on Lesvos after fleeing her home in Damascus to escape the Syrian civil war. On the way, she almost drowned when the engine of the inflatable dinghy she was travelling in broke down.
More than 800,000 people followed a similar route from the Turkish coast to the Greek Islands that year. Almost 800 of them are now dead or missing.
As the boat Mardini was in pitched and spun, she slipped overboard and struggled to hold it steady in the violent waves. Her sister, Yusra, three years younger, soon joined. Both girls were swimmers, and their act of heroism likely saved the 18 other people on board. They eventually made it to Germany and received asylum. Yusra went on to compete in the 2016 Olympics for the first ever Refugee Olympic Team. Sarah, held back from swimming by an injury, returned to Lesvos to help other refugees.https://assets.irinnews.org/s3fs-public/styles/responsive_medium/public/img_9754_1920.jpg?0smTHNEGwuvq6A7CNCOZNuAsRUWkLpQ5&itok=dTGUYAP_#.jpg
On the balcony, Mardini, 23, was enjoying a rare moment of respite from long days spent working in the squalid Moria refugee camp. For the first time in a long time, she was looking forward to the future. After years spent between Lesvos and Berlin, she had decided to return to her university studies in Germany.
But when she went to the airport to leave, shortly after The New Humanitarian visited her, Mardini was arrested. Along with several other volunteers from Emergency Response Centre International, or ERCI, the Greek non-profit where she volunteered, Mardini was charged with belonging to a criminal organisation, people smuggling, money laundering, and espionage.
According to watchdog groups, the case against Mardini is not an isolated incident. Amnesty International says it is part of a broader trend of European governments taking a harder line on immigration and using anti-smuggling laws to de-legitimise humanitarian assistance to refugees and migrants.
Far-right Italian Deputy Prime Minister Matteo Salvini recently pushed through legislation that ends humanitarian protection for migrants and asylum seekers, while Italy and Greece have ramped up pressure on maritime search and rescue NGOs, forcing them to shutter operations. At the end of March, the EU ended naval patrols in the Mediterranean that had saved the lives of thousands of migrants.
In 2016, five other international volunteers were arrested on Lesvos on similar charges to Mardini. They were eventually acquitted, but dozens of other cases across Europe fit a similar pattern: from Denmark to France, people have been arrested, charged, and sometimes successfully prosecuted under anti-smuggling regulations based on actions they took to assist migrants.
Late last month, Salam Kamal-Aldeen, a Danish national who founded the rescue non-governmental organisation Team Humanity, filed an application with the European Court of Human Rights, challenging what he says is a Greek crackdown on lifesaving activities.
According to Maria Serrano, senior campaigner on migration at Amnesty International, collectively the cases have done tremendous damage in terms of public perception of humanitarian work in Europe. “The atmosphere… is very hostile for anyone that is trying to help, and this [has a] chilling effect on other people that want to help,” she said.
As for the case against Mardini and the other ERCI volunteers, Human Rights Watch concluded that the accusations are baseless. “It seems like a bad joke, and a scary one as well because of what the implications are for humanitarian activists and NGOs just trying to save people’s lives,” said Bill Van Esveld, who researched the case for HRW.
While the Lesvos prosecutor could not be reached for comment, the Greek police said in a statement after Mardini’s arrest that she and other aid workers were “active in the systematic facilitation of illegal entrance of foreigners” – a violation of the country’s Migration Code.
Mardini spent 108 days in pre-trial detention before being released on bail at the beginning of December. The case against her is still open. Her lawyer expects news on what will happen next in June or July. If convicted, Mardini could be sentenced to up to 25 years in prison.
“It seems like a bad joke, and a scary one as well because of what the implications are for humanitarian activists and NGOs just trying to save people’s lives.”
Return to Lesvos
The arrest and pending trial are the latest in a series of events, starting with the beginning of the Syrian war in 2011, that have disrupted any sense of normalcy in Mardini’s life.
Even after making it to Germany in 2015, Mardini never really settled in. She was 20 years old and in an unfamiliar city. The secure world she grew up in had been destroyed, and the future felt like a blank and confusing canvas. “I missed Syria and Damascus and just this warmness in everything,” she said.
While wading through these emotions, Mardini received a Facebook message in 2016 from an ERCI volunteer. The swimming sisters from Syria who saved a boat full of refugees were an inspiration. Volunteers on Lesvos told their story to children on the island to give them hope for the future, the volunteer said, inviting Mardini to visit. “It totally touched my heart,” Mardini recalled. “Somebody saw me as a hope… and there is somebody asking for my help.”
So Mardini flew back to Lesvos in August 2016. Just one year earlier she had nearly died trying to reach the island, before enduring a journey across the Balkans that involved hiding from police officers in forests, narrowly escaping being kidnapped, sneaking across tightly controlled borders, and spending a night in police custody in a barn. Now, all it took was a flight to retrace the route.
Her first day on the island, Mardini was trained to help refugees disembark safely when their boats reached the shores. By nighttime, she was sitting on the beach watching for approaching vessels. It was past midnight, and the sea was calm. Lights from the Turkish coastline twinkled serenely across the water. After about half an hour, a walkie talkie crackled. The Greek Coast Guard had spotted a boat.
Volunteers switched on the headlights of their cars, giving the refugees something to aim for. Thin lines of silver from the reflective strips on the refugees’ life jackets glinted in the darkness, and the rumble of a motor and chatter of voices drifted across the water. As the boat came into view, volunteers yelled: “You are in Greece. You are safe. Turn the engine off.”
Mardini was in the water again, holding the boat steady, helping people disembark. When the rush of activity ended, a feeling of guilt washed over her. “I felt it was unfair that they were on a refugee boat and I’m a rescuer,” she said.
But Mardini was hooked. She spent the next two weeks assisting with boat landings and teaching swimming lessons to the kids who idolised her and her sister. Even after returning to Germany, she couldn’t stop thinking about Lesvos. “I decided to come back for one month,” she said, “and I never left.”
The island became the centre of Mardini’s life. She put her studies at Bard College Berlin on hold to spend more time in Greece. “I found what I love,” she explained.
Meanwhile, the situation on the Greek islands was changing. In 2017, just under 30,000 people crossed the Aegean Sea to Greece, compared to some 850,000 in 2015. There were fewer arrivals, but those who did come were spending more time in camps with dismal conditions.
“You have people who are dying and living in a four-metre tent with seven relatives. They have limited access to water. Hygiene is zero. Privacy is zero. Security: zero. Children’s rights: zero. Human rights: zero… You feel useless. You feel very useless.”
The volunteer response shifted accordingly, towards the camps, and when TNH visited Mardini she moved around the island with a sense of purpose and familiarity, joking with other volunteers and greeting refugees she knew from her work in the streets.
Much of her time was spent as a translator for ERCI’s medical team in Moria. The camp, the main one on Lesvos, was built to accommodate around 3,000 people, but by 2018 housed close to 9,000. Streams of sewage ran between tents. People were forced to stand in line for hours for food. The wait to see a doctor could take months, and conditions were causing intense psychological strain. Self-harm and suicide attempts were increasing, especially among children, and sexual and gender-based violence were commonplace.
Mardini was on the front lines. “What we do in Moria is fighting the fire,” she said. “You have people who are dying and living in a four-metre tent with seven relatives. They have limited access to water. Hygiene is zero. Privacy is zero. Security: zero. Children’s rights: zero. Human rights: zero… You feel useless. You feel very useless.”https://assets.irinnews.org/s3fs-public/styles/responsive_medium/public/msf237463high.jpg?VM6.y_Inyn9hLGvVFK89quxr7CiAf1nQ&itok=Rw6YULhE#.jpg
By then, Mardini had been on Lesvos almost continuously for nine months, and it was taking a toll. She seemed to be weighed down, slipping into long moments of silence. “I’m taking in. I’m taking in. I’m taking in. But it’s going to come out at some point,” she said.
It was time for a break. Mardini had decided to return to Berlin at the end of the month to resume her studies and make an effort to invest in her life there. But she planned to remain connected to Lesvos. “I love this island… the sad thing is that it’s not nice for everybody. Others see it as just a jail.”
Investigation and Arrest
The airport on Lesvos is on the shoreline close to where Mardini helped with the boat landing her first night as a volunteer. On 21 August, when she went to check in for her flight to Berlin, she was surrounded by five Greek police officers. “They kind of circled around me, and they said that I should come with [them],” Mardini recalled.
Mardini knew that the police on Lesvos had been investigating her and some of the other volunteers from ERCI, but at first she still didn’t realise what was happening. Seven months earlier, in February 2018, she was briefly detained with a volunteer named Sean Binder, a German national. They had been driving one of ERCI’s 4X4s when police stopped them, searched the vehicle, and found Greek military license plates hidden under the civilian plates.
When Mardini was arrested at the airport, Binder turned himself in too, and the police released a statement saying they were investigating 30 people – six Greeks and 24 foreigners – for involvement in “organised migrant trafficking rings”. Two Greek nationals, including ERCI’s founder, were also arrested at the time.
While it is still not clear what the plates were doing on the vehicle, according Van Esveld from HRW, “it does seem clear… neither Sarah or Sean had any idea that these plates were [there]”.
The felony charges against Mardini and Binder were ultimately unconnected to the plates, and HRW’s Van Esveld said the police work appears to either have been appallingly shoddy or done in bad faith. HRW took the unusual step of commenting on the ongoing case because it appeared authorities were “literally just [taking] a humanitarian activity and labelling it as a crime”, he added.
After two weeks in a cell on Lesvos, Mardini was sent to a prison in Athens. On the ferry ride to the mainland, her hands were shackled. That’s when it sank in: “Ok, it’s official,” she thought. “They’re transferring me to jail.”
In prison, Mardini was locked in a cell with eight other women from 8pm to 8am. During the day, she would go to Greek classes and art classes, drink coffee with other prisoners, and watch the news.
She was able to make phone calls, and her mother, who was also granted asylum in Germany, came to visit a number of times. “The first time we saw each other we just broke down in tears,” Mardini recalled. It had been months since they’d seen each other, and now they could only speak for 20 minutes, separated by a plastic barrier.
Most of the time, Mardini just read, finishing more than 40 books, including Nelson Mandela’s autobiography, which helped her come to terms with her situation. “I decided this is my life right now, and I need to get something out of it,” she explained. “I just accepted what’s going on.”
People can be held in pre-trial detention for up to 18 months in Greece. But at the beginning of December, a judge accepted Mardini’s lawyer’s request for bail. Binder was released the same day.
On Lesvos, where everyone in the volunteer community knows each other, the case came as a shock. “People started to be... scared,” said Claudia Drost, a 23-year-old from the Netherlands and close friend of Mardini’s who started volunteering on the island in 2016. “There was a feeling of fear that if the police… put [Mardini] in prison, they can put anyone in prison.”
“We are standing [up] for what we are doing because we are saving people and we are helping people.”
That feeling was heightened by the knowledge that humanitarians across Europe were being charged with crimes for helping refugees and migrants.
During the height of the migration crisis in Europe, between the fall of 2015 and winter 2016, some 300 people were arrested in Denmark on charges related to helping refugees. In August 2016, French farmer Cédric Herrou was arrested for helping migrants and asylum seekers cross the French-Italian border. In October 2017, 12 people were charged with facilitating illegal migration in Belgium for letting asylum seekers stay in their homes and use their cellphones. And last June, the captain of a search and rescue boat belonging to the German NGO Mission Lifeline was arrested in Malta and charged with operating the vessel without proper registration or license.
Drost said that after Mardini was released the fear faded a bit, but still lingers. There is also a sense of defiance. “We are standing [up] for what we are doing because we are saving people and we are helping people,” Drost said.
As for Mardini, the charges have forced her to disengage from humanitarian work on Lesvos, at least until the case is over. She is back in Berlin and has started university again. “I think because I’m not in Lesvos anymore I’m just finding it very good to be here,” she said. “I’m kind of in a stable moment just to reflect about my life and what I want to do.”
But she also knows the stability could very well be fleeting. With the prospect of more time in prison hanging over her, the future is still a blank canvas. People often ask if she is optimistic about the case. “No,” she said. “In the first place, they put me in… jail.”
#criminalisation #délit_de_solidarité #asile #migrations #solidarité #réfugiés #Grèce #Lesbos #Moria #camps_de_réfugiés #Europe
Avec une frise chronologique:
Demand the charges against Sarah and Seán are dropped
In Greece, you can go to jail for trying to save a life. It happened to Seán Binder, 25, and Sarah Mardini, 24, when they helped to spot refugee boats in distress. They risk facing up to 25 years in prison.
Sarah and Seán met when they volunteered together as trained rescue workers in Lesvos, Greece. Sarah is a refugee from Syria. Her journey to Europe made international news - she and her sister saved 18 people by dragging their drowning boat to safety. Seán Binder is a son of a Vietnamese refugee. They couldn’t watch refugees drown and do nothing.
Their humanitarian work saved lives, but like many others across Europe, they are being criminalised for helping refugees. The pair risk facing up to 25 years in prison on ‘people smuggling’ charges. They already spent more than 100 days in prison before being released on bail in December 2018.
“Humanitarian work isn’t criminal, nor is it heroic. Helping others should be normal. The real people who are suffering and dying are those already fleeing persecution." Seán Binder
Criminalising humanitarian workers and abandoning refugees at sea won’t stop refugees crossing the sea, but it will cause many more deaths.
Solidarity is not a crime. Call on the Greek authorities to:
Drop the charges against Sarah Mardini and Seán Binder
Publicly acknowledge the legitimacy of humanitarian work which supports refugee and migrant rights