/2020

  • Former world officials call on US to ease Iran sanctions to fight Covid-19 - The Guardian
    Group of former diplomats and ministers says shifting rules on medical trade could save hundreds of thousands of lives
    #Covid-19#Iran#USA#Economie#sanction#santé#migrant#migration

    https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/06/former-world-officials-call-on-us-to-ease-iran-sanctions-to-fight-covid

  • How my dream of freedom died in Greece’s ‘holding pens’

    https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/05/how-my-dream-of-freedom-died-on-the-road-to-greeces-gulag

    Via Migreurop

    Dans un article du Guardian sont décrites les conditions de vie inhumaines et les violations systématiques de droits fondamentaux dans les centres fermés de Malakassa et Serres. Ces centres ont été créés récemment pour que ceux et celles qui sont arrivés après le 1 mars y sont détenus en vue d’une expulsion ou d’un renvoi forcé vers la Turquie. Il s’agit de véritables prisons à ciel ouvert, où le manque d’eau courante et l’absence totale de toute mesure d’hygiène créent les conditions idéales pour une propagation généralisée de coronavirus. Le camp à l’endroit dit Klidi de Serres, construit au milieu de nulle part sur le lit d’une rivière asséchée, expose les personnes qui y sont détenus même au risque d’inondation. Vu l’extrême urgence de la situation- en Grèce les derniers jours des très fortes pluies sont tombées

    #Covid-19 #Migration #Migrant #Balkans #Grèce #Camp #Malakassa #Serres #Klidi

  • Les riches propagent le virus, et les pauvres paieront le plus lourd tribut... au Brésil c’est caricatural, on dirait presque la parodie de Pépette Andrieu (https://seenthis.net/messages/833080 ):

    Brazil’s super-rich and the exclusive club at the heart of a coronavirus hotspot
    Tom Phillips and Caio Barretto Briso, The Guardian, le 4 avril 2020
    https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/04/brazils-super-rich-and-the-exclusive-club-at-the-heart-of-a-coronavirus

    One of the first deaths recorded in Brazil was that of Cleonice Gonçalves, a 63-year-old domestic helper who was reportedly infected by her wealthy employer when she returned from holiday in Italy.

    #Brésil #coronavirus

  • #Grèce : un cas de #coronavirus dans un deuxième camp de migrants

    Le camp de #Malakasa, non loin d’#Athènes, a été placé en « confinement sanitaire total ».

    Un deuxième camp de migrants près d’Athènes a été placé dimanche 5 avril en quarantaine par les autorités grecques après un test au coronavirus qui s’est révélé positif pour un ressortissant afghan, a annoncé le ministère des Migrations.

    Le camp de Malakasa, à quelque 38 km au nord-est d’Athènes, a été placé « en confinement sanitaire total » pour 14 jours, avec interdiction d’y entrer ou d’en sortir.

    Selon le ministère, un Afghan âgé de 53 ans, souffrant déjà d’une maladie, s’est présenté de lui-même au dispensaire du camp après avoir ressenti des symptômes du Covid-19. Il a été emmené dans un hôpital d’Athènes où il a été testé positif au nouveau coronavirus. Sa famille a été placée à l’isolement et un examen complet du camp est en cours, a ajouté le ministère.

    Les camps de migrants qu’abrite la Grèce accueillent des dizaines de milliers de demandeurs d’asile dans des conditions précaires. Un foyer d’infection avait été repéré jeudi dans celui de Ritsona, à 80 km au nord d’Athènes, où 23 personnes ont jusqu’à présent été testées positives. Aucun membre du personnel du camp ne semblait touché par le virus, selon « le Monde ». « Nous alertons depuis des mois sur le manque d’hygiène dans les camps des îles. Face à cette épidémie, il devient urgent de transférer au plus vite les personnes les plus vulnérables vers le continent, vers des hébergements adaptés », estimait Boris Cheshirkov, porte-parole du Haut-Commissariat des Nations unies pour les réfugiés en Grèce, cité par le quotidien du soir.

    https://www.nouvelobs.com/coronavirus-de-wuhan/20200405.OBS27087/grece-un-cas-de-coronavirus-dans-un-deuxieme-camp-de-migrants.html
    #confinement #confinement_sanitaire_total #asile #migrations #réfugiés #covid-19 #camp_de_réfugiés

    Sur le camp de Ritsona :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/838008

    ping @luciebacon

    • Coronavirus : dans le camp de Malakasa en quarantaine, « personne ne manque de nourriture »

      Le camp de Malakasa, situé à 38 kilomètres au nord-est d’Athènes, a été placé en “confinement sanitaire total” pour 14 jours après qu’un cas de coronavirus y a été détecté. Les autorités grecques et l’OIM doivent assurer l’approvisionnement des résidents en nourriture et produits d’hygiène. Des tests sont également effectués.

      Plus personne n’entre ni ne sort du camp de Malakasa, en Grèce. Installé près d’un terrain militaire, à quelque 38 kilomètres au nord-est d’Athènes, ce camp – normalement ouvert – a été placé dimanche 5 avril en "confinement sanitaire total" pour 14 jours.

      Un migrant afghan y a été testé positif au Covid-19, a annoncé le ministère des Migrations. Cet homme de 53 ans, souffrant déjà d’une maladie, s’est présenté de lui-même au dispensaire du camp après avoir ressenti des symptômes du Covid-19.

      Il a été emmené dans un hôpital d’Athènes où il a été testé positif au nouveau coronavirus. Sa famille a été placée à l’isolement et un examen complet du camp est en cours, a ajouté le ministère.

      Interrogée par InfoMigrants, Christine Nikilaidou, responsable des informations publiques de l’Organisation internationale des migrations (OIM) – qui gère le camp – confirme que les résidents sont soumis à des tests. Si elle affirme ne pas savoir exactement combien de tests ont déjà été effectués, elle avance que l’entourage proche de l’Afghan malade a été testé en priorité.
      Distribution de nourriture et kits d’hygiène

      L’immense majorité des 1 611 personnes qui vivent dans le camp de Malakasa est originaire d’Afghanistan. En temps normal, les allées de graviers du camp grouillent d’enfants qui courent. Mais, ces jours-ci, le camp semble désert. La pluie tombe en permanence et l’OIM incite les familles à rester à l’intérieur de leur conteneur.

      Dans ces petits bâtiments posés sur le sol, les familles disposent de l’eau courante et de l’électricité mais les murs sont tachés d’humidité et le manque d’espace est criant.

      Jusqu’à la fermeture du camp, les résidents pouvaient aller faire leurs courses dans les commerces de la ville ou à Athènes. Toute sortie étant désormais interdite, l’OIM assure se coordonner avec les autorités grecques pour permettre des distributions de nourriture et de kits d’hygiène aux résidents du camp.

      "Ces distributions commenceront dans quelques jours. Les kits sont prêts mais nous attendons de recevoir les résultats des tests déjà effectués. Nous savons que, pour le moment, tout le monde a des provisions et personne ne manque de nourriture", affirme Christine Nikilaidou.

      Le camp de Malakasa est le deuxième camp de migrant en Grèce à être placé en quarantaine en raison du coronavirus. Un foyer d’infection avait déjà été repéré jeudi dans le camp de Ritsona, à 80 km au nord d’Athènes, où 23 personnes ont jusqu’à présent été testées positives.

      Comme de nombreux autres pays européens, la Grèce a imposé à sa population des mesures de confinement depuis le 23 mars. Les autorités grecques ont annoncé samedi qu’elles seraient étendues pour trois semaines, jusqu’au 27 avril.

      https://www.infomigrants.net/fr/post/23905/coronavirus-dans-le-camp-de-malakasa-en-quarantaine-personne-ne-manque
      https://seenthis.net/messages/839727

    • Greece Quarantines Second Migrant Camp After COVID-19 Case Confirmed

      Greece has quarantined a second migrant facility on its mainland after a 53-year-old man tested positive for the new coronavirus, the migration ministry said on Sunday.

      The Afghan man lives with his family at the Malakasa camp, just north of Athens, along with hundreds of asylum seekers. He has been transferred to a hospital in Athens and tests on his contacts will continue as authorities try to trace the route of the virus.

      Greece confirmed 62 new cases of COVID-19 later in the day, bringing the total in the country to 1,735 since its first case was reported in February. Seventy three people have died.

      Last week, the Ritsona camp in central Greece was sealed off after 20 tested positive for the new coronavirus. It was the first such facility in the country to be hit since the outbreak of the disease. [L8N2BQ1V9]

      Greece has been the main gateway into the European Union for people fleeing conflict in the Middle East and beyond. More than a million people reached its shores from Turkey in 2015-16.

      At least 110,000 people currently live in migrant facilities - 40,000 of them in overcrowded camps on five islands.

      “The number (of migrants and refugees) is very large, therefore it is a given, mathematically, that there will be confirmed cases,” Migration Minister Notis Mitarachi told Skai TV. “We have an emergency plan in place ... But it is more difficult to implement it on the islands.”

      No cases have been recorded in camps on Greek islands so far.

      The conservative government wants to replace all existing camps on islands with enclosed detention centers, but its plans have been met with resistance from local authorities and residents who want all facilities shut.

      To contain the spread of the virus the government also wants new arrivals isolated from the rest of the migrants but most islands have not designated areas of accommodation, ministry officials said. About 120 people who recently arrived on Lesbos have not yet found a shelter, according to sources.
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      Aid groups have urged Greece to evacuate the camps, warning the risk of the fast-moving virus spreading among people living in squalid conditions is high and containing an outbreak in such settings would be “impossible”.

      The camp in Malakasa, 40 km (25 miles) northeast of Athens, will be put into quarantine for two weeks, the ministry said on Sunday, adding that police guarding the site would be reinforced to ensure the restrictions are implemented.

      A separate, enclosed facility started operating last month for migrants who arrived after March 1, the ministry said.

      Greece has imposed a nationwide lockdown and banned arrivals from non-EU countries as well as Germany, Britain, Italy and Spain. The measures have hit its economy which is relying on tourism for a recovery after a decade-long debt crisis.

      https://www.nytimes.com/reuters/2020/04/05/world/europe/05reuters-health-coronavirus-greece-camp.html?searchResultPosition=5

    • COVID-19 : Διαμαρτυρία μεταναστών στη Μαλακάσα

      Στο προσφυγικό κέντρο της Μαλακάσας μετανάστες διαμαρτύρηθηκαν και ζητούν να υποβληθούν σε τεστ για τον COVID-19. Η κυβέρνηση αποφάσισε τον υγειονομικό αποκλεισμό του κέντρου για 14 ημέρες, αφού ένας 53χρονος Αγφανός βρέθηκε θετικός στον ιό. Στο μεταξύ, ο Εθνικός Οργανισμός Δημόσιας Υγείας συνεχίζει την ιχνηλάτηση με στόχο τον εντοπισμό άλλων κρουσμάτων εντός της δομής φιλοξενίας, ενώ ειδικά συνεργεία απολυμαίνουν τους κοινόχρηστους χώρους.

      Οι υγιείς μετανάστες και πρόσφυγες διαμένουν σε χώρο πλήρως απομονωμένο, ενώ η αστυνομία έχει ενισχύσει την παρουσία της στην περίμετρο του χώρου φιλοξενίας. Μετά την Ριτσώνα, η παλιά δομή της Μαλακάσας είναι το δεύτερο προσφυγικό κέντρο που μπαίνει σε καραντίνα με στόχο να περιοριστεί η εξάπλωσης της πανδημίας.


      https://gr.euronews.com/2020/04/06/covid-19-diamartyria-metanaston-sti-maklakasa

      –-> Commentaire de Vicky Skoumbi reçu via mail via la mailing-list Migreurop :

      Aujourd’hui, c’était le deuxième jour d’une quarantaine de quatorze jours pour l’ancien camp de réception de Malakasa – celui qui se trouve juste à côté du nouveau camp fermé destinés à ceux qui sont arrivés après le 1 mars. A cet ancien camp géré par l’OIM mis sous quarantaine suite au recensement d’un cas de coronavirus -voir mail précédent- les migrants ont organisé une protestation juste derrière les barbelés pour réclamer un dépistage généralisé dans le camp –voir la vidéo sur https://gr.euronews.com/2020/04/06/covid-19-diamartyria-metanaston-sti-maklakasa

      Jusqu’à maintenant les seules personnes dépistées ont été la famille du malade et quelques contacts. 1.611 personnes habitent dans le camp, la plupart en containers de six personnes, mais il y a 133 personnes qui sont logés dans des espaces communs et 116 dans des abris de fortunes- voir photo.

      Pour les personnes qui ne sont pas logés en containers, il y 30 toilettes chimiques et 16 douches, tandis que chaque container dispose de sa propre toilette et d’une douche.

      D’après le quotidien grec Journal de Rédacteurs (Efimerida tôn Syntaktôn : https://www.efsyn.gr/ellada/ygeia/237999_poly-liga-kai-poly-arga-ta-metra-kai-sti-malakasa) les autorités ont fait trop peu et trop tard. Trois jours avant que le malade de 53 ne soit transféré à Athènes, un cas suspect d’une femme enceinte présentant tous les symptômes n’a pas été dépisté et aucune mesure n’a été prise.

    • How my dream of freedom died in Greece’s ‘holding pens’

      Ahmed fled Syria only to end up in the Malakasa refugee camp, where more than 1,000 people are being denied basic human rights.

      When Ahmed landed in darkness on the Greek island of Lesbos he was convinced that the road ahead could not be as hard as the one he had just travelled.

      But, instead of the volunteers and blankets that have met hundreds of thousands of asylum seekers before him, he was greeted by a jeering crowd of locals and had to be rescued by police. “It was the worst feeling I’ve ever had,” he said. “I felt that my dream of Greece was a false one.”

      Ahmed was among the more than 2,000 refugees who have arrived in Greece since the beginning of March, when the country suspended all access to asylum.

      Their experiences, from seeing their children drowned at sea to being attacked by angry islanders, separated from family and dumped in remote detention camps, offer a month-long, nightmarish vision of what Europe would look like with no asylum rights.

      Greece shut off access after Turkey opened its borders in February and encouraged refugees to cross in a bid to pressure the European Union for more aid money in support of its military involvement against Russia and the Assad regime over the Syrian enclave of Idlib.

      Born in Syria’s capital, Damascus, Ahmed fled his home to escape military service with the regime. The 30-year-old told his story from inside the Malakasa detention camp in central Greece.

      He spent the past four years in Turkey, where he met and married his wife, Hanin. Their precarious life and their wedding were documented in a Guardian photo essay last year.

      But the couple were unable to make ends meet and Hanin, by now pregnant, made the journey by dinghy to Lesbos six months ago, with Ahmed promising to follow. She arrived safely and gave birth to their daughter, who is now two months old. Ahmed has yet to meet his child.

      His first week on Lesbos was spent camping in a fenced-off area of the port city of Mytilene before he was shipped off, along with 450 other new arrivals, on a Greek navy vessel.

      Amelia Cooper, a case worker at the Lesbos Legal Centre who spoke to some of those detained at the port, said: “The suspension of the right to seek asylum was followed by deliberate attempts to isolate new arrivals and prevent their access to lawyers, journalists and members of the European parliament.”

      In the middle of last month, Greek authorities began work on two sites, one in Malakasa, where 1,340 people have been sent, and another near the border with Bulgaria in Serres, which is housing 600 people. A video of Malakasa shows white tents behind a chainlink fence topped with razor wire. A Greek contractor who posted the video on 28 March, with construction work still going on, acts as narrator: “The money is flowing. These illegal strays are good business.”

      “These sites are fundamentally different,” said Belkis Wille from Human Rights Watch. “They are open-air prisons, filled with people who have been denied their basic rights and are being held as de facto detainees without any legal framework.”

      Most people in Malakasa and Serres are thought to be holding a deportation order from the Greek police. Refugees say they were forced to sign this Greek-language document despite being unable to read it. Under European law everyone is entitled to an individual assessment of their claim for protection but these documents declare that the accused must be deported for illegally entering Greece.

      For the past four years, the larger flow of people across the eastern Aegean has been reduced by an arrangement between the EU and Ankara that saw Turkey get €6bn in aid in return for restricting crossings. Under this deal, Greece has returned 2,000 new arrivals. Since early March, Turkey has stated that even this deal is dead.

      Ahmed said the uncertainty of the situation was unbearable: “I lived through four years of war in Syria. This month is worse than those four years: can you imagine?”

      Conditions at the Serres site, where tents are packed tightly together behind fences on a dry riverbed, are even worse than at Malakasa. Detainees say they have no electricity to even charge a phone. The Serres police union said in a statement that the site was “totally unsuitable”.

      Spyros Leonidas, mayor of the nearest village, Promaxonas, said the camp was “unfit for animals, let alone people”. “There are newborns and pregnant women among the people. And there is no hot water,” he said.

      The fate of those in detention remains unclear.

      The Greek government has said that the suspension of asylum will be lifted , and the EU home affairs commissioner, Ylva Johansson, said last week she had received assurances that those who arrived in March would be able to apply for asylum.

      However, Greece’s migration and asylum minister, Notis Mitarakis, subsequently said that people who had been issued with deportation orders would not be granted an asylum process.

      None of the detainees reached by the Observer had been notified of any change in their access to asylum. The Greek asylum service is closed until 10 April 10 because of the Covid-19 crisis.

      Vassilis Papadopoulos, a lawyer and former senior official at the migration ministry under the previous government, said that Ahmed and the other detainees were “being made an example of” to show there was a tough new policy.

      “What happened in March brought the numbers [of crossings] down so they’re going to keep doing it, even if they say something different,” he added.

      https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/05/how-my-dream-of-freedom-died-on-the-road-to-greeces-gulag

      –-> commentaire de Vicky Skoumbi reçu via mail, le 06.04.2020:

      Dans un article du Guardian sont décrites les conditions de vie inhumaines et les violations systématiques de droits fondamentaux dans les centres fermés de Malakassa et Serres. Ces centres ont été créés récemment pour que ceux et celles qui sont arrivés après le 1 mars y sont détenus en vue d’une expulsion ou d’un renvoi forcé vers la Turquie. Il s’agit de véritables prisons à ciel ouvert, où le manque d’eau courante et l’absence totale de toute mesure d’hygiène créent les conditions idéales pour une propagation généralisée de coronavirus. Le camp à l’endroit dit Klidi de Serres, construit au milieu de nulle part sur le lit d’une rivière asséchée, expose les personnes qui y sont détenus même au risque d’inondation. Vu l’extrême urgence de la situation- en Grèce les derniers jours des très fortes pluies sont tombées- j’aimerais vous rappeler l’appel à fermer immédiatement ce camp (en grec) et dont la traduction en français se trouve en PJ. Merci de partager.

      #Malakassa #Serres #Klidi

  • Outbreaks like coronavirus start in and spread from the edges of cities

    Emerging infectious disease has much to do with how and where we live. The ongoing coronavirus is an example of the close relationships between urban development and new or re-emerging infectious diseases.

    Like the SARS pandemic of 2003, the connections between accelerated urbanization, more far-reaching and faster means of transportation, and less distance between urban life and non-human nature due to continued growth at the city’s outskirts — and subsequent trans-species infection — became immediately apparent.

    The new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, first crossed the animal-human divide at a market in Wuhan, one of the largest Chinese cities and a major transportation node with national and international connections. The sprawling megacity has since been the stage for the largest quarantine in human history, and its periphery has seen the pop-up construction of two hospitals to deal with infected patients.

    When the outbreak is halted and travel bans lifted, we still need to understand the conditions under which new infectious diseases emerge and spread through urbanization.
    No longer local

    Infectious disease outbreaks are global events. Increasingly, health and disease tend to be urban as they coincide with prolific urban growth and urban ways of life. The increased emergence of infectious diseases is to be expected.

    SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) hit global cities like Beijing, Hong Kong, Toronto and Singapore hard in 2003. COVID-19, the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, goes beyond select global financial centres and lays bare a global production and consumption network that sprawls across urban regions on several continents.

    To study the spread of disease today, we have to look beyond airports to the European automobile and parts industry that has taken root in central China; Chinese financed belt-and-road infrastructure across Asia, Europe and Africa; and in regional transportation hubs like Wuhan.

    While the current COVID-19 outbreak exposes China’s multiple economic connectivities, this phenomenon is not unique to that country. The recent outbreak of Ebola in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, for example, shone a light on the myriad strategic, economic and demographic relations of that country.
    New trade connections

    In January 2020, four workers were infected with SARS-CoV-2 during a training session at car parts company Webasto headquartered near Munich, revealing a connection with the company’s Chinese production site in Wuhan.

    The training was provided by a colleague from the Chinese branch of the firm who didn’t know she was infected. At the time of the training session in Bavaria, she did not feel sick and only fell ill on her flight back to Wuhan.

    First one, then three more colleagues who had participated in the training event in Germany, showed symptoms and soon were confirmed to have contracted the virus and infected other colleagues and family members.

    Eventually, Webasto and other German producers stopped fabrication in China temporarily, the German airline Lufthansa, like other airlines, cancelled all flights to that country and 110 individuals who had been contact traced to have been in touch with the four infected patients in Bavaria were advised by health officials to observe “domestic isolation” or “home quarantine.”

    This outbreak will likely be stopped. Until then, it will continue to cause human suffering and even death, and economic damage. The disease may further contribute to the unravelling of civility as the disease has been pinned to certain places or people. But when it’s over, the next such outbreak is waiting in the wings.
    Disease movements

    We need to understand the landscapes of emerging extended urbanization better if we want to predict, avoid and react to emerging disease outbreaks more efficiently.

    First, we need to grasp where disease outbreaks occur and how they relate to the physical, spatial, economic, social and ecological changes brought on by urbanization. Second, we need to learn more about how the newly emerging urban landscapes can themselves play a role in stemming potential outbreaks.

    Rapid urbanization enables the spread of infectious disease, with peripheral sites being particularly susceptible to disease vectors like mosquitoes or ticks and diseases that jump the animal-to-human species boundary.

    Our research identifies three dimensions of the relationships between extended urbanization and infectious disease that need better understanding: population change and mobility, infrastructure and governance.
    Travel and transport

    Population change and mobility are immediately connected. The coronavirus travelled from the periphery of Wuhan — where 1.6 million cars were produced last year — to a distant Bavarian suburb specializing in certain auto parts.

    Quarantined megacities and cruise ships demonstrate what happens when our globalized urban lives come grinding to a halt.

    Infrastructure is central: diseases can spread rapidly between cities through infrastructures of globalization such as global air travel networks. Airports are often located at the edges of urban areas, raising complex governance and jurisdictional issues with regards to who has responsibility to control disease outbreaks in large urban regions.

    We can also assume that disease outbreaks reinforce existing inequalities in access to and benefits from mobility infrastructures. These imbalances also influence the reactions to an outbreak. Disconnections that are revealed as rapid urban growth is not accompanied by the appropriate development of social and technical infrastructures add to the picture.

    Lastly, SARS-CoV-2 has exposed both the shortcomings and potential opportunities of governance at different levels. While it is awe-inspiring to see entire megacities quarantined, it is unlikely that such drastic measures would be accepted in countries not governed by centralized authoritarian leadership. But even in China, multilevel governance proved to be breaking down as local, regional and central government (and party) units were not sufficiently co-ordinated at the beginning of the crisis.

    This mirrored the intergovernmental confusion in Canada during SARS. As we enter another wave of megaurbanization, urban regions will need to develop efficient and innovative methods of confronting emerging infectious disease without relying on drastic top-down state measures that can be globally disruptive and often counter-productive. This may be especially relevant in fighting racism and intercultural conflict.

    The massive increase of the global urban population over the past few decades has increased exposure to diseases and posed new challenges to the control of outbreaks. Urban researchers need to explore these new relationships between urbanization and infectious disease. This will require an interdisciplinary approach that includes geographers, public health scientists, sociologists and others to develop possible solutions to prevent and mitigate future disease outbreaks.

    https://theconversation.com/outbreaks-like-coronavirus-start-in-and-spread-from-the-edges-of-ci
    #villes #urban_matter #géographie_urbaine #covid-19 #coronavirus #ressources_pédagogiques

    ping @reka

    • The Urbanization of COVID-19

      Three prominent urban researchers with a focus on infectious diseases explain why political responses to the current coronavirus outbreak require an understanding of urban dynamics. Looking back at the last coronavirus pandemic, the SARS outbreak in 2002/3, they highlight what affected cities have learned from that experience for handling the ongoing crisis. Exploring the political challenges of the current state of exception in Canada, Germany, Singapore and elsewhere, Creighton Connolly, Harris Ali and Roger Keil shed light on the practices of urban solidarity as the key to overcoming the public health threat.

      Guests:

      Creighton Connolly is a Senior Lecturer in Development Studies and the Global South in the School of Geography, University of Lincoln, UK. He researches urban political ecology, urban-environmental governance and processes of urbanization and urban redevelopment in Southeast Asia, with a focus on Malaysia and Singapore. He is editor of ‘Post-Politics and Civil Society in Asian Cities’ (Routledge 2019), and has published in a range of leading urban studies and geography journals. Previously, he worked as a researcher in the Asian Urbanisms research cluster at the Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore.

      Harris Ali is a Professor of Sociology, York University in Toronto. He researches issues in environmental sociology, environmental health and disasters including the social and political dimensions of infectious disease outbreaks. He is currently conducting research on the role of community-based initiatives in the Ebola response in Africa.

      Roger Keil is a Professor at the Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University in Toronto. He researches global suburbanization, urban political ecology, cities and infectious disease, and regional governance. Keil is the author of “Suburban Planet” (Polity 2018) and editor of “Suburban Constellations” (Jovis 2013). A co-founder of the International Network for Urban Research and Action (INURA), he was the inaugural director of the CITY Institute at York University and former co-editor of the International Journal of Urban and Regional Research.

      Referenced Literature:

      Ali, S. Harris, and Roger Keil, eds. 2011. Networked disease: emerging infections in the global city. Vol. 44. John Wiley & Sons.

      Keil, Roger, Creighton Connolly, and Harris S. Ali. 2020. “Outbreaks like coronavirus start in and spread from the edges of cities.” The Conversation, February 17. Available online here: https://theconversation.com/outbreaks-like-coronavirus-start-in-and-spread-from-the-edges-of-ci

      https://urbanpolitical.podigee.io/16-covid19

    • Extended urbanisation and the spatialities of infectious disease: Demographic change, infrastructure and governance

      Emerging infectious disease has much to do with how and where we live. The recent COVID-19 coronavirus outbreak is an example of the close relationships between urban development and new or re-emerging infectious diseases. Like the SARS pandemic of 2003, the connections between accelerated urbanisation, more expansive and faster means of transportation, and increasing proximity between urban life and non-human nature — and subsequent trans-species infections — became immediately apparent.

      Our Urban Studies paper contributes to this emerging conversation. Infectious disease outbreaks are now global events. Increasingly, health and disease tend to be urban as they coincide with the proliferation of planetary urbanisation and urban ways of life. The increased emergence of infectious diseases is to be expected in an era of extended urbanisation.

      We posit that we need to understand the landscapes of emerging extended urbanisation better if we want to predict, avoid and react to emerging disease outbreaks more efficiently. First, we need to grasp where disease outbreaks occur and how they relate to the physical, spatial, economic, social and ecological changes brought on by urbanisation. Second, we need to learn more about how the newly emerging urban landscapes can themselves play a role in stemming potential outbreaks. Rapid urbanisation enables the spread of infectious disease, with peripheral sites being particularly susceptible to disease vectors like mosquitoes or ticks and diseases that jump the animal-to-human species boundary.

      Our research identifies three dimensions of the relationships between extended urbanisation and infectious disease that need better understanding: population change and mobility, infrastructure and governance. Population change and mobility are immediately connected. Population growth in cities - driven primarily by rural-urban migration - is a major factor influencing the spread of disease. This is seen most clearly in rapidly urbanising regions such as Africa and Asia, which have experienced recent outbreaks of Ebola and SARS, respectively.

      Infrastructure is also central: diseases can spread rapidly between cities through infrastructures of globalisation such as global air travel networks. Airports are often located at the edges of urban areas, raising complex governance and jurisdictional issues with regards to who has responsibility to control disease outbreaks in large urban regions. We can also assume that disease outbreaks reinforce existing inequalities in access to and benefits from mobility infrastructures. We therefore need to consider the disconnections that become apparent as rapid demographic and peri-urban growth is not accompanied by appropriate infrastructure development.

      Lastly, the COVID-19 outbreak has exposed both the shortcomings and potential opportunities of governance at different levels. While it is awe-inspiring to see entire megacities quarantined, it is unlikely that such drastic measures would be accepted in countries not governed by centralised authoritarian leadership. But even in China, multilevel governance proved to be breaking down as local, regional and central government (and party) units were not sufficiently co-ordinated at the beginning of the crisis. This mirrored the intergovernmental confusion in Canada during SARS.

      As we enter another wave of megaurbanisation, urban regions will need to develop efficient and innovative methods of confronting emerging infectious disease without relying on drastic top-down state measures that can be globally disruptive and often ineffective. This urges upon urban researchers to seek new and better explanations for the relationships of extended urbanisation and the spatialities of infectious disease - an effort that will require an interdisciplinary approach including geographers, health scientists, sociologists.

      https://www.urbanstudiesonline.com/resources/resource/extended-urbanisation-and-the-spatialities-of-infectious-disease
      #géographie_de_la_santé #maladies_infectieuses

    • Cities after coronavirus: how Covid-19 could radically alter urban life

      Pandemics have always shaped cities – and from increased surveillance to ‘de-densification’ to new community activism, Covid-19 is doing it already.

      Victoria Embankment, which runs for a mile and a quarter along the River Thames, is many people’s idea of quintessential London. Some of the earliest postcards sent in Britain depicted its broad promenades and resplendent gardens. The Metropolitan Board of Works, which oversaw its construction, hailed it as an “appropriate, and appropriately civilised, cityscape for a prosperous commercial society”.

      But the embankment, now hardwired into our urban consciousness, is entirely the product of pandemic. Without a series of devastating global cholera outbreaks in the 19th century – including one in London in the early 1850s that claimed more than 10,000 lives – the need for a new, modern sewerage system may never have been identified. Joseph Bazalgette’s remarkable feat of civil engineering, which was designed to carry waste water safely downriver and away from drinking supplies, would never have materialised.

      From the Athens plague in 430BC, which drove profound changes in the city’s laws and identity, to the Black Death in the Middle Ages, which transformed the balance of class power in European societies, to the recent spate of Ebola epidemics across sub-Saharan Africa that illuminated the growing interconnectedness of today’s hyper-globalised cities, public health crises rarely fail to leave their mark on a metropolis.
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      As the world continues to fight the rapid spread of coronavirus, confining many people to their homes and radically altering the way we move through, work in and think about our cities, some are wondering which of these adjustments will endure beyond the end of the pandemic, and what life might look like on the other side.

      One of the most pressing questions that urban planners will face is the apparent tension between densification – the push towards cities becoming more concentrated, which is seen as essential to improving environmental sustainability – and disaggregation, the separating out of populations, which is one of the key tools currently being used to hold back infection transmission.

      “At the moment we are reducing density everywhere we can, and for good reason,” observes Richard Sennett, a professor of urban studies at MIT and senior adviser to the UN on its climate change and cities programme. “But on the whole density is a good thing: denser cities are more energy efficient. So I think in the long term there is going to be a conflict between the competing demands of public health and the climate.”

      Sennett believes that in the future there will be a renewed focus on finding design solutions for individual buildings and wider neighbourhoods that enable people to socialise without being packed “sardine-like” into compressed restaurants, bars and clubs – although, given the incredibly high cost of land in big cities like New York and Hong Kong, success here may depend on significant economic reforms as well.

      In recent years, although cities in the global south are continuing to grow as a result of inward rural migration, northern cities are trending in the opposite direction, with more affluent residents taking advantage of remote working capabilities and moving to smaller towns and countryside settlements offering cheaper property and a higher quality of life.

      The “declining cost of distance”, as Karen Harris, the managing director of Bain consultancy’s Macro Trends Group, calls it, is likely to accelerate as a result of the coronavirus crisis. More companies are establishing systems that enable staff to work from home, and more workers are getting accustomed to it. “These are habits that are likely to persist,” Harris says.

      The implications for big cities are immense. If proximity to one’s job is no longer a significant factor in deciding where to live, for example, then the appeal of the suburbs wanes; we could be heading towards a world in which existing city centres and far-flung “new villages” rise in prominence, while traditional commuter belts fade away.

      Another potential impact of coronavirus may be an intensification of digital infrastructure in our cities. South Korea, one of the countries worst-affected by the disease, has also posted some of the lowest mortality rates, an achievement that can be traced in part to a series of technological innovations – including, controversially, the mapping and publication of infected patients’ movements.

      In China, authorities have enlisted the help of tech firms such as Alibaba and Tencent to track the spread of Covid-19 and are using “big data” analysis to anticipate where transmission clusters will emerge next. If one of the government takeaways from coronavirus is that “smart cities” including Songdo or Shenzhen are safer cities from a public health perspective, then we can expect greater efforts to digitally capture and record our behaviour in urban areas – and fiercer debates over the power such surveillance hands to corporations and states.

      Indeed, the spectre of creeping authoritarianism – as emergency disaster measures become normalised, or even permanent – should be at the forefront of our minds, says Sennett. “If you go back through history and look at the regulations brought in to control cities at times of crisis, from the French revolution to 9/11 in the US, many of them took years or even centuries to unravel,” he says.

      At a time of heightened ethnonationalism on the global stage, in which rightwing populists have assumed elected office in many countries from Brazil to the US, Hungary and India, one consequence of coronavirus could be an entrenchment of exclusionary political narratives, calling for new borders to be placed around urban communities – overseen by leaders who have the legal and technological capacity, and the political will, to build them.

      In the past, after a widespread medical emergency, Jewish communities and other socially stigmatised groups such as those affected by leprosy have borne the brunt of public anger. References to the “China virus” by Donald Trump suggest such grim scapegoating is likely to be a feature of this pandemic’s aftermath as well.

      On the ground, however, the story of coronavirus in many global cities has so far been very different. After decades of increasing atomisation, particularly among younger urban residents for whom the impossible cost of housing has made life both precarious and transient, the sudden proliferation of mutual aid groups – designed to provide community support for the most vulnerable during isolation – has brought neighbours together across age groups and demographic divides. Social distancing has, ironically, drawn some of us closer than ever before. Whether such groups survive beyond the end of coronavirus to have a meaningful impact on our urban future depends, in part, on what sort of political lessons we learn from the crisis.

      The vulnerability of many fellow city dwellers – not just because of a temporary medical emergency but as an ongoing lived reality – has been thrown into sharp relief, from elderly people lacking sufficient social care to the low-paid and self-employed who have no financial buffer to fall back on, but upon whose work we all rely.

      A stronger sense of society as a collective whole, rather than an agglomeration of fragmented individuals, could lead to a long-term increase in public demands for more interventionist measures to protect citizens – a development that governments may find harder to resist given their readiness in the midst of coronavirus to override the primacy of markets.

      Private hospitals are already facing pressure to open up their beds without extra charge for those in need; in Los Angeles, homeless citizens have seized vacant homes, drawing support from some lawmakers. Will these kinds of sentiments dwindle with the passing of coronavirus, or will political support for urban policies that put community interests ahead of corporate ones – like a greater imposition of rent controls – endure?

      We don’t yet know the answer, but in the new and unpredictable connections swiftly being forged within our cities as a result of the pandemic, there is perhaps some cause for optimism. “You can’t ‘unknow’ people,” observes Harris, “and usually that’s a good thing.” Sennett thinks we are potentially seeing a fundamental shift in urban social relations. “City residents are becoming aware of desires that they didn’t realise they had before,” he says, “which is for more human contact, for links to people who are unlike themselves.” Whether that change in the nature of city living proves to be as lasting as Bazalgette’s sewer-pipe embankment remains, for now, to be seen.

      https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/mar/26/life-after-coronavirus-pandemic-change-world
      #le_monde_d'après

    • Listening to the city in a global pandemic

      What’s the role of ‘academic experts’ in the debate about COVID-19 and cites, and how can we separate our expert role from our personal experience of being locked down in our cities and homes?

      This is a question we’ve certainly been struggling with at City Road, and we think it’s a question that a lot of academics are struggling with at the moment. Perhaps it’s a good time to listen to the experiences of academics as their cities change around them, rather than ask them to speak at us about their urban expertise. With this in mind, we asked academics from all over the world to open up the voice recorder on their phones and record a two minute report from the field about their city.

      Over 25 academics from all over the world responded. As you will hear, some of their recordings are not great quality, but their stories certainly are. Many of those who responded to our call are struggling , just like us, to make sense of their experience in the COVID-19 city.

      https://cityroadpod.org/2020/03/29/listening-to-the-city-in-a-global-pandemic

    • Ce que les épidémies nous disent sur la #mondialisation

      Bien que la première épidémie connue par une trace écrite n’ait eu lieu qu’en 430 avant J.-C. à Athènes, on dit souvent que les microbes, et les épidémies auxquels ils donnent lieu, sont aussi vieux que le monde. Mais le Monde est-il aussi vieux qu’on veutbien le dire ? Voici une des questions auxquelles l’étude des épidémies avec les sciences sociales permet d’apporter des éléments de réponse. Les épidémies ne sont pas réservées aux épidémiologistes et autres immunologistes. De grands géographes comme Peter Haggett ou Andrew Cliff ont déjà investi ce domaine, dans une optique focalisée sur les processus de diffusion spatiale. Il est possible d’aller au-delà de cette approche mécanique et d’appréhender les épidémies dans leurs interactions sociales. On verra ici qu’elles nous apprennent aussi beaucoup sur le Monde, sur l’organisation de l’espace mondial et sur la dimension sociétale du processus de mondialisation.

      http://cafe-geo.net/wp-content/uploads/epidemies-mondialisation.pdf
      #épidémie #globalisation

    • Città ai tempi del Covid

      Lo spazio pubblico urbano è uno spazio di relazioni, segnato dai corpi, dagli incontri, dalla casualità, da un ordine spontaneo che non può, se lo spazio è pubblico veramente, accettare altro che regole di buon senso e non di imposizione. È un palcoscenico per le vite di tutti noi, che le vogliamo in mostra o in disparte, protagonisti o comparse della commedia urbana e, come nella commedia, con un fondo di finzione ed un ombra di verità.
      Ma cosa accade se gli attori abbandonano la scena, se i corpi sono negati allo spazio? Come percepiamo quel che rimane a noi frequentabile di strade e piazze che normalmente percorriamo?

      Ho invitato gli studenti che negli anni hanno frequentato il seminario “Fotografia come strumento di indagine urbana”, ma non solo loro, ad inviarmi qualche immagine che documenta (e riflette su) spazio pubblico, città e loro stessi in questi giorni. Come qualcuno mi ha scritto sono immagini spesso letteralmente ‘rubate’, quasi sentendosi in colpa. Eppure documentare e riflettere è un’attività tanto più essenziale quanto la criticità si prolunga e tocca la vita di tutti noi.

      Appunti di viaggio – Iacopo Zetti Ho avuto modo, per una serie di evenienze, di attraversare Firenze di mattina e di sera. Aspettavo il silenzio ed infatti l’ho ascoltato. Il silenzio non è quello dei luoghi extraurbani. ...
      Inferriata – Eni Nurihana L’inferriata de balcone ricorda sempre di più le sbarre carcerarie 23 marzo 2020, 15:11
      Situazioni di necessità – Chiara Zavattaro Le strade della zona di Sant’Ambrogio a Firenze
      Ora d’aria – Antonella Zola Ho avuto la possibilità di scattare queste foto dopo 10 giorni di quarantena completa, in cui ho rinunciato a qualunque contatto con il mondo esterno. Alla fine sono dovuta uscire ...
      Firenze – Agnese Turchi Firenze - Agnese Turchi
      Nostalgia di Silenzi – Gabriele Pierini
      Il recinto – Laura Panichi In un libro che ho letto in questo periodo di “reclusione”, Haruki Murakami dice che quando si prova ad uscire da una gabbia alla fine si finisce sempre per trovarci ...
      Spazio solidale – Jacopo Lorenzini
      Castagneto Carducci – Cristian Farina Chissà se dall’alto qualcuno si è accorto che ci siamo fermati solo per un attimo Da lontano si scorgano i monumenti fermi nel tempo, quasi come noi, fermi nello spazio
      Firenze, mercoledì 18/03/20 ore 15.30 circa – Leonardo Ceccarelli Firenze, mercoledì 18/03/20 ore 15.30 circa - Leonardo Ceccarelli
      Firenze, marzo 2020 – Giulia D’Ercole Firenze, marzo 2020 - Giulia D’Ercole
      Feriale d’altri tempi – Dario Albamonte La mia fortuna è quella di vivere in campagna e di potermi muovere liberamente e avere molto spazio a disposizione senza varcare i confini di casa mia. Quello che mi ...
      L’architettura è fatta di mattoni e PERSONE – Laura Pagnotelli L’architettura è fatta di mattoni e PERSONE. Esse sono il fine ultimo del costruire, del dare vita a spazi sempre nuovi. Senza la loro presenza, dell’architettura non resta che una scatola vuota, priva ...
      Il traffico di Firenze – Veronica Capecchi Il Traffico di Firenze, oggi è scomparso, e lascia intravedere la città, profondamente diversa e silenziosa. Una città che è sempre viva, oggi priva della sua vitalità, dei suoi rumori, una ...
      Dalla finestra – Lucio Fiorentino Ho sentito dei rumori nella strada sotto la mia finestra e ho immaginato l’atmosfera scura di un film di Bergman, (goffamente) ho cercato di riprodurla Nel palazzo di fronte alla mia ...
      Livorno, 28 marzo – Giulia Bandini Luoghi affollati di ricordi vie trafficate di emozioni ormai vinte dal tempo ma vive nella mente di chi sa sperare forte
      Sesto Fiorentino: la piana senza smog – Alice Giordano Sesto Fiorentino: la piana senza smog - Alice Giordano
      Lari e Pontedera – Silvia Princi Ritorno alle origini – Perignano di Lari (Pi), 23 marzo 2020 La semina del trattore, rappresenta uno dei pochi segni di vitalità umana e meccanica,in questo periodo di quarantena e di ...
      A distanza sociale nel parco: Zurigo – Philipp Klaus A distanza sociale nel parco: Zurigo - Philipp Klaus
      Galleggiare in un mondo irreale – Alessio Prandin

      http://controgeografie.net/controgeografie/citta-ai-tempi-del-covid

  • #Immunity_passports' could speed up return to work after Covid-19

    “Immunity passports” for key workers could be a way of getting people who have had coronavirus back into the workforce more quickly, scientists and politicians in the UK have suggested.

    Researchers in Germany are currently preparing a mass study into how many people are already immune to the Covid-19 virus, allowing authorities to eventually issue passes to exclude workers from restrictive measures currently in place.

    The study, which is yet to finalise funding, would involve testing the blood of more than 100,000 volunteers for coronavirus antibodies from mid-April. The test would then be repeated at regular intervals on an accumulatively larger sample of the population, to track the pandemic’s progress.

    The shadow health secretary, Jonathan Ashworth, said: “Germany appears to be leading the way in the testing and we have much to learn from their approach. I’ve repeatedly called for more testing and contact tracing in the UK, and we should be looking at initiatives like this closely.”
    Coronavirus: the week explained - sign up for our email newsletter
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    The results of the German study, organised by the government’s public health body, the Robert Koch Institute, the German Centre for Infection Research, the Institute for Virology at Berlin’s Charite hospital and blood donation services, would make it easier to decide when and where schools in the country could reopen, and which people are safe to go back to work.

    “Those who are immune could be issued with a kind of vaccination pass that would for example allow them to exempted from restrictions on their activity,” said Gerard Krause, head of epidemiology at the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research in Braunschweig. The German government has not yet officially commented on the proposal for such a certificate made by scientists.

    Dr Philippa Whitford, an SNP MP and former surgeon, said immunity passports could be used specifically for key workers in healthcare in the UK but would be difficult to roll out more widely across the country because of the level of administration needed.

    Whitford, who is also chair of the all-party parliamentary group for vaccines, said the length of time someone may have immunity after they have had Covid-19 was still largely unknown. Someone contracting Sars, which is also a coronavirus, did not have long-term immunity – potentially only up to a year after the infection.

    Prof Peter Openshaw, a member of the government’s new and emerging respiratory virus threats advisory group, said people who have recovered and test positive for coronavirus antibodies should no longer be infectious themselves and would be expected to have at least some immunity to the virus.

    He said the worse case scenario – based on what is known about immunity to coronaviruses that cause common colds – is that former patients would have only partial resistance for about three months.

    “It could be that this coronavirus causes a pretty robust immune response, which is durable and protective for much longer, maybe a year or even five years, but we don’t know because it’s a new virus,” he said.

    Immunity passports are a “reasonable provisional measure”, Openshaw said, but he stressed that people granted the passports would have to be kept under close observation to ensure they were not becoming reinfected.

    “In subsequent monitoring, it would be really important to determine whether those who do return to normal circulation are in fact protected,” he said.
    But Openshaw said it would be “highly inadvisable” to breach the government’s lockdown rules and intentionally risk infection.

    “Although there are risk factors for severity of illness and admission to intensive care, quite a high proportion who are being admitted are otherwise well and do not have those risk factors,” he said.

    “It would be putting your life at risk to try and catch it at the moment. It would be much better to adhere to social distancing and to wait for the vaccine.”

    https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/mar/30/immunity-passports-could-speed-up-return-to-work-after-covid-19?CMP=sha
    #le_monde_d'après #passeport #frontière_mobile #frontières_mobiles #corps #contrôles_frontaliers #frontières #immunité #passeport_d'immunité #mobilité #Allemagne

    ping @reka @fil @mobileborders

  • ’Cybergulag’ : Russia looks to surveillance technology to enforce lockdown | World news | The Guardian
    https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/02/cybergulag-russia-looks-to-surveillance-technology-to-enforce-lockdown

    Critics fear plans for enhanced monitoring could remain even after coronavirus crisis passes Russia is considering aggressive new surveillance methods as the country seeks to enforce mandatory shelter-in-place orders in cities including Moscow and St Petersburg and other regions across its 11 time zones. While the details of the new monitoring system have not been confirmed, official statements and leaked plans have indicated they could include mobile apps that track users’ location, CCTV (...)

    #carte #CCTV #QRcode #smartphone #biométrie #géolocalisation #facial #reconnaissance #vidéo-surveillance #BigData #santé (...)

    ##santé ##surveillance
    https://i.guim.co.uk/img/media/f48ff6a15021a4f67a0ee1fb7e0b04fd95f9906d/0_308_4732_2840/master/4732..jpg

  • Quelques nouvelles:

    De #Syrie:

    “Before Corona, I will die of hunger”: The socio-economic impact of Covid-19 on the Syrian population and new challenges for the regime
    https://blogs.eui.eu/medirections/corona-i-will-die-hunger-socio-economic-impact-covid-19-syrian-population-

    D’ #Afrique_du_Sud:

    One working tap for 2,000 households as virus lockdown looms
    https://www.heraldlive.co.za/news/2020-03-26-one-working-tap-for-2000-households-as-virus-lockdown-looms

    d’ #Italie:

    Singing stops in Italy as fear and social unrest mount
    https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/01/singing-stops-italy-fear-social-unrest-mount-coronavirus-lockdown

    #coronavirus #pauvreté

  • ‘A beautiful thing’ : the African migrants getting healthy food to Italians

    After years of exploitation, former fruit pickers set up a co-operative near Rome selling vegetables and yoghurt. Now they are working ‘twice as hard’ to get supplies to families under lockdown.

    Ismail bends over the vegetables in the middle of the field and shouts to his co-worker – “Lorè you’re doing nothing and your back already hurts?” – as he deftly separates a head of cauliflower from its long leaves and throws it into a waiting box.

    His co-workers Lorenzo and Cheikh also get up, lifting boxes packed with produce after their morning’s work. Today the sun is shining here in Italy but there is no time to pause and enjoy it. Salad and spinach picked from other fields must be washed alongside the cabbages and cauliflowers; boxes for delivery have to be readied and loaded into the van.

    This is Barikama, a co-operative started in 2011 by a group of young Africans. Many of the founders took part in the Rosarno revolt, an uprising in January 2010 in which hundreds of African fruit pickers whose labour was being exploited in Italy’s citrus groves rose up in support of a workmate seriously injured in a racist attack. The rebellion broke the silence surrounding the conditions of immigrant workers in the Italian countryside.

    Ten years on, the members of Barikama find themselves on the frontline of Italy’s deadly battle against Covid-19. Every day, while the people in their community are in lockdown in their homes, Ismail and his colleagues are out in the field and in the warehouse, packing delivery boxes of vegetables and dairy products to help feed increasing numbers of local households.

    “The demand is higher than ever because people can’t go out, we’re working twice as hard as we’ve ever done,” says Modibo, a 32-year-old from Mali who arrived in Lampedusa in 2008 and is one of the co-founders of the Barikama co-operative, which is based at Casale di Martignano, 22 miles from Rome.

    “Every day all day is just farming and deliveries. Every day we’re getting new orders and we won’t stop working because people need us. Yet even though it is very hard, to feel useful to people in this awful moment, it makes me very happy.”

    For Modibo and all the members of the co-operative this job is also a form of redemption from exploitation: “barikama” means “strength” or “resistance”in the Malian dialect Bamara.

    The co-operative has its warehouse in Pigneto, a historic working-class neighbourhood of Rome.

    At seven in the morning the sky begins to lighten. “Something has changed in our life,” says Modibo. “If you’re not rich, you can’t afford to heal yourself and buy medicines. If a person you love falls ill you can’t do anything, and you lose your mind.”

    Each morning the young members of the Barikama co-operative meet at the warehouse to load the van and then divide their daily duties among field work, deliveries and taking food to local markets.

    One of these is the Trieste market in Via Chiana. While normally the market bustles with customers, in the current lockdown only 24 people are allowed in at a time. Today it is Tony’s turn to man the Barikama stall. Tony arrived in Italy four years ago from Nigeria and shortly after began labouring in the tomato fields of Foggia alongside hundreds of other migrants and refugees. “In Foggia they gave €4 for each 350kg box filled, it was like a race,” he says.

    Another co-operative member, Cheikh, was a football player in Senegal and studied biology at university. When he arrived in Italy in 2007 he worked in the fields to survive. “I looked around at the situation and always did the maths,” he says. “In Rosarno there were between 200 and 300 people working without contracts for over a month. It’s not possible that nobody noticed. How did they escape paying taxes on all that money they were making?”

    The idea for the co-operative came from a friend at a social centre that the men attended after the 2010 Rosarno uprisings. All of the men knew how to farm. She suggested that they come together and start producing their own food. “At the beginning we were making our own yogurt and we managed to make only about €5 or €10 each, which at least allowed us to call home,” says Chiekh.

    In 2014 they formed a co-operative and found a place to base themselves, the Casale di Martignano, a farmhouse in Martignano. They made agreements with the farm owners to start dairy farming, to rent the machinery to start producing yogurt and then to farm the property’s unused fields. Six years on, Barikama cultivates six hectares of orchards and produces up to 200 litres of yogurt a week.

    In one of the fields, Cheikh checks the weight of the freshly packed crates before loading the van. The co-operative’s finances are managed carefully. Something is always set aside and the rest of the profits divided equally.

    In one of the fields, Cheikh checks the weight of the freshly packed crates before loading the van. The co-operative’s finances are managed carefully. Something is always set aside and the rest of the profits divided equally.

    According to Cheikh, the goal now is to gain more autonomy, extend distribution and increase wholesale sales to guarantee a stable salary for everyone.

    “It’s not much, but 2019 went well, an average of €500 per month, €700 in the last months of the year,” he says with a smile. “In summer for a month we gave up wages, but we didn’t lose money.”

    Now, they feel that they are performing a vital task in keeping their customers healthy in a time of extreme trauma and fear.

    “It’s a beautiful thing that we are helping feed the community in these terrible times,” says Cheikh as he turns and gets back to work.

    https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/01/a-beautiful-thing-the-african-migrants-getting-healthy-food-to-italians

    #Italie #agriculture #coronavirus #migrations #alimentation

    #photographie #Giacomo_Sini

    ping @albertocampiphoto @wizo @karine4 @isskein @thomas_lacroix

    Ajouté à la métaliste coronavirus / agriculture /migrations :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/836693

  • Revealed : Saudis suspected of phone spying campaign in US | World news | The Guardian
    https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/mar/29/revealed-saudis-suspected-of-phone-spying-campaign-in-us

    Exclusive : Whistleblower’s data suggests millions of tracking requests sent over four-month period Saudi Arabia appears to be exploiting weaknesses in the global mobile telecoms network to track its citizens as they travel around the US, according to a whistleblower who has shown the Guardian millions of alleged secret tracking requests. Data revealed by the whistleblower, who is seeking to expose vulnerabilities in a global messaging system called SS7, appears to suggest a systematic (...)

    #smartphone #activisme #géolocalisation #surveillance

    • About 2,100 migrants in northern France are fearful of being dispersed to new centres.

      Up to 2,100 refugees in Calais and Dunkirk are facing an imminent coronavirus lockdown by French authorities, with many saying they will try to reach the UK rather than go to accommodation centres if their camps are cleared.

      Buses will be sent to the camps to transfer refugees to centres housing up to 100 people from Tuesday. The transfers are said to be voluntary but some of the refugees told the Guardian that they distrust the police and are fearful of being forced into the centres, so plan to run away and continue in their attempts to cross the Channel.

      Conditions in the camps are worsening, with shortages of food, water and showers as NGOs are forced to pull out because of the coronavirus pandemic, although no cases of Covid-19 have been reported in the camps.

      Many refugees – mostly from Afghanistan, Eritrea, Iran, Iraq and Sudan – often make repeated attempts to cross to the UK. Last year, 1,900 reached the UK by boat, with many others arriving by lorry. Eighty migrants are understood to have reached the UK by boat last week, with some reports of around 160 attempts in one day.

      While numbers are disputed, internal documents collated by NGOs in the area and seen by the Guardian revealed there are about 1,500 people in Calais, including 160 unaccompanied children, the youngest of whom is 11. There are about 600 people in Grand Synthe in Dunkirk, including around 35 families. Some have serious health problems such as diabetes, and others have suffered broken limbs including a broken arm and a broken jaw.

      A 16-year-old boy from Sudan told the Guardian that he planned to run away and cross the Channel rather than go into one of the French centres. “If we are taken away to these centres we won’t know what will happen to us,” he said. “I will run away and I will keep trying to reach the UK by lorry. In the camps we are more spread out but if we go into the centres we could be closer together so more at risk.”

      He said that catching Covid-19 was not uppermost in the minds of the refugees. “We are thinking more about our survival,” he said.

      Many NGOs, which provide food and other support to refugees in the camps, have pulled out because of the pandemic. Refugees have reported food and water shortages. French authorities are distributing bottled water but it is understood they are concerned that too many water points in the camps will hinder physical distancing. Provision of showers and phone charging facilities have also decreased.

      NGOs working in the camps in Calais say it is crucial that the lockdown is managed properly and that the French authorities work with them, as they are trusted by the refugees.

      Clare Moseley, founder of Care4Calais, which provides emergency aid and support for refugees in Calais and Dunkirk as well as in Brussels, and is continuing to operate in the refugee areas, said: “We haven’t had any confirmed cases of Covid-19 in the camps. The refugees are more focused on survival than on the virus. We don’t know how ‘voluntary’ the accommodation centres will be.

      “Food supplies in the camps have reduced significantly and if it’s the only way people can get food, they may feel forced to go. The reduction of food in the camps has been a game-changer. If the only way people can eat is by going into one of the centres then it won’t really be voluntary.”

      She said that after getting legal advice from lawyers in the UK and France, Care4Calais volunteers are continuing to operate as frontline aid workers and are following current World Health Organization guidance on infection control.

      According to documents seen by the Guardian, some unaccompanied minors have reported being beaten by French police and they have told charity workers they prefer to sleep in the camps rather than in centres provided by the French authorities.

      When buses are sent to the camps from Tuesday, migrants who agree to leave will be given a medical check before being transferred. Once they reach the temporary accommodation they will be expected to keep the same lockdown rules as the rest of France, which has prohibited all movement except for essential work, essential shopping, medical appointments and a daily maximum one-hour exercise routine not more than 1km from home.

      Even before the coronavirus crisis, life in the refugee camps was grim. Volunteers said that asking migrants who were often four or five to a tent to maintain social distancing was impossible.

      Léah Njeim, a volunteer with Utopia 56, an organisation that distributes food to the camps, told Ouest France: “Some migrants are more than an hour’s walk away from running water.”

      Utopia 56 had been transporting sick migrants to local health centres. “We’ve had to stop this ... the police are blocking the exit to the Jungle [camp],” Njeim added.

      Secours Catholique, a charity that ran a day centre for 250 to 300 migrants where they could warm up, have a hot drink and charge their mobiles, said it had been forced to close as most of its volunteers were aged over 70 and in the coronavirus “at risk” group. In an open letter to the authorities, 18 NGOs called for the migrants who wished to stay in the Channel area to be housed in “hotels, schools and empty apartments”.

      “To stay home, you have to have a home to stay in,” the organisations wrote in the petition addressed to the French prime minister, Édouard Philippe.

      François Guennoc, vice-president of the Auberge des Migrants, told La Voix du Nord newspaper: “Giving them accommodation far away will not work. Some will not get in the buses and there will be people who return soon afterwards.”

      Sources close to the French government told the Guardian that health protection and sheltering arrangements for refugees in the camps were under way.

      #coronavirus #réfugiés #UK #Angleterre #confinement #asile #migrations

  • Didier Sicard : « Il est urgent d’enquêter sur l’origine animale de l’épidémie de Covid-19 »
    https://www.franceculture.fr/sciences/didier-sicard-il-est-urgent-denqueter-sur-lorigine-animale-de-lepidemi

    D’un côté, déforestation massive et trafic d’animaux sauvages. De l’autre, désintérêt et financement anémique des recherches sur les virus hébergés par ces mêmes animaux… Tableau flippant d’un cocktail explosif par un spécialiste des maladies infectieuses
    #coronavirus

    • #animaux #animaux_sauvages #déforestation

      #Rony_Brauman en parle un peu :

      Le point commun du Covid, du Sras, du Mers et d’Ebola est que ces maladies sont le fruit d’un passage de la #barrière_virale_d'espèces entre les #animaux et les hommes. L’extension des certaines mégapoles entraîne une interpénétration entre #ville et #forêts : c’est le cas d’Ebola, qui trouve son origine dans la présence des #chauves-souris en ville et qui mangeaient par des humains. Mais ce paramètre, s’il faut avoir à l’esprit, est à manier avec une certaine retenue. Car il s’agit d’une constance dans l’histoire des épidémies : la plupart, à commencer par la #peste, sont liées à ce franchissement. L’homme vit dans la compagnie des animaux depuis le néolithique, notre existence est rendue possible par cette coexistence. Mais la peste avait été importée par la puce du rat qui était disséminé sur les bateaux et les caravanes ; pour le corona, ce sont les #avions qui ont fait ce travail. La spécificité du Covid-19, c’est sa vitesse de #diffusion. Le professeur Sansonnetti, infectiologue et professeur au Collège de France, parle d’une « maladie de l’#anthropocène » : en superposant la carte de l’extension du virus et celle des déplacements aériens, il montre que les deux se recouvrent parfaitement.

      https://www.nouvelobs.com/coronavirus-de-wuhan/20200327.OBS26690/rony-brauman-repond-a-macron-la-metaphore-de-la-guerre-sert-a-disqualifie

      Et #Sansonetti dans sa conférence :
      https://seenthis.net/messages/834008

    • L’indifférence aux #marchés d’#animaux sauvages dans le monde est dramatique. On dit que ces marchés rapportent autant d’argent que le marché de la #drogue.

      [...]

      on sait que ces #épidémies vont recommencer dans les années à venir de façon répétée si on n’interdit pas définitivement le #trafic d’animaux sauvages. Cela devrait être criminalisé comme une vente de cocaïne à l’air libre. Il faudrait punir ce #crime de prison. Je pense aussi à ces élevages de poulet ou de porc en batterie que l’on trouve en #Chine. Ils donnent chaque année de nouvelles crises grippales à partir de virus d’origine aviaire. Rassembler comme cela des animaux, ce n’est pas sérieux.

      [...]

      C’est comme si l’art vétérinaire et l’art médical humain n’avaient aucun rapport. L’origine de l’épidémie devrait être l’objet d’une mobilisation internationale majeure.

    • animaux sauvages ou non (poissons oiseaux mamifères) avec les parasites et les insectes par les déjections alvines à ciel ouvert ou en bout de canal , le cycle de contamination n’est jamais simple

    • Les pangolins, les mammifères les plus braconnés au monde, ont été identifiés comme des porteurs du coronavirus.
      https://www.nationalgeographic.fr/animaux/2020/03/les-pangolins-sont-bien-porteurs-de-souches-de-coronavirus

      Bien que le commerce international des huit espèces connues de #pangolins soit strictement interdit, ceux-ci restent les mammifères les plus braconnés au monde. Les écailles de milliers de pangolins sont chaque année passées en contrebande en Chine à des fins médicinales. Leur viande est par ailleurs considérée comme un mets délicat par certaines franges des populations chinoise et vietnamienne. Étant donné que les coronavirus peuvent être transmis par certains fluides corporels, les matières fécales et la viande, le commerce de pangolins vivants à des fins alimentaires est plus préoccupant pour la propagation de la maladie que celui des écailles.

    • Ban wildlife markets to avert pandemics, says UN biodiversity chief

      Warning comes as destruction of nature increasingly seen as key driver of zoonotic diseases.

      The United Nations’ biodiversity chief has called for a global ban on wildlife markets – such as the one in Wuhan, China, believed to be the starting point of the coronavirus outbreak – to prevent future pandemics.

      Elizabeth Maruma Mrema, the acting executive secretary of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity, said countries should move to prevent future pandemics by banning “wet markets” that sell live and dead animals for human consumption, but cautioned against unintended consequences.

      China has issued a temporary ban on wildlife markets where animals such as civets, live wolf pups and pangolins are kept alive in small cages while on sale, often in filthy conditions where they incubate diseases that can then spill into human populations. Many scientists have urged Beijing to make the ban permanent.
      Using the examples of Ebola in west-central Africa and the Nipah virus in east Asia, Mrema said there were clear links between the destruction of nature and new human illnesses, but cautioned against a reactionary approach to the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic.

      “The message we are getting is if we don’t take care of nature, it will take care of us,” she told the Guardian.

      “It would be good to ban the live animal markets as China has done and some countries. But we should also remember you have communities, particularly from low-income rural areas, particularly in Africa, which are dependent on wild animals to sustain the livelihoods of millions of people.

      “So unless we get alternatives for these communities, there might be a danger of opening up illegal trade in wild animals which currently is already leading us to the brink of extinction for some species.

      “We need to look at how we balance that and really close the hole of illegal trade in the future.”

      As the coronavirus has spread around the world, there has been increased focus on how humanity’s destruction of nature creates conditions for new zoonotic illness to spread.

      Jinfeng Zhou, secretary general of the China Biodiversity Conservation and Green Development Foundation, called on authorities to make the ban on wildlife markets permanent, warning diseases such as Covid-19 would appear again.

      “I agree there should be a global ban on wet markets, which will help a lot on wildlife conservation and protection of ourselves from improper contacts with wildlife,” Zhou said. “More than 70% of human diseases are from wildlife and many species are endangered by eating them.”

      Mrema said she was optimistic that the world would take the consequences of the destruction of the natural world more seriously in the wake of the Covid-19 outbreak when countries returned to negotiate the post-2020 framework for biodiversity, billed as the Paris agreement for nature.

      “Preserving intact ecosystems and biodiversity will help us reduce the prevalence of some of these diseases. So the way we farm, the way we use the soils, the way we protect coastal ecosystems and the way we treat our forests will either wreck the future or help us live longer,” she said.

      “We know in the late 1990s in Malaysia with the outbreak of Nipah virus, it is believed that the virus was a result of forest fires, deforestation and drought which had caused fruit bats, the natural carriers of the virus, to move from the forests into the peat farms. It infected the farmers, which infected other humans and that led to the spread of disease.

      “Biodiversity loss is becoming a big driver in the emergence of some of these viruses. Large-scale deforestation, habitat degradation and fragmentation, agriculture intensification, our food system, trade in species and plants, anthropogenic climate change – all these are drivers of biodiversity loss and also drivers of new diseases. Two thirds of emerging infections and diseases now come from wildlife.”

      In February, delegates from more than 140 countries met in Rome to respond for the first time to a draft 20-point agreement to halt and reverse biodiversity loss, including proposals to protect almost a third of the world’s oceans and land and reduce pollution from plastic waste and excess nutrients by 50%.

      A major summit to sign the agreement in October was scheduled in the Chinese city of Kunming but has been postponed because of the coronavirus outbreak.

      https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/06/ban-live-animal-markets-pandemics-un-biodiversity-chief-age-of-extincti

      #animaux_sauvages