World news and comment from the Guardian

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  • Malta quarantines migrant camp | World news | The Guardian
    #Covid19#Malte#migrant#migration#camp

    https://www.theguardian.com/world/live/2020/apr/05/coronavirus-live-news-cases-approach-12m-as-trump-tells-americans-to-ex
    https://i.guim.co.uk/img/media/4feaa811535723933d9b3d8032103b17d3cc2aa8/0_135_3500_2098/master/3500..jpg?width=1200&height=630&quality=85&auto=format&fit=crop&overlay-al

    Malta quarantines migrant camp

    Some 1,000 migrants have been placed under quarantine after an outbreak of Covid-19 at a camp at Hal Far in the south of Malta. The camp has been was surrounded by police and army trucks.

    Health minister Chris Fearne said eight cases had been confirmed in two days and a risk assessment showed that the disease had likely spread since people in the camp are in close proximity.

    He said the eight confirmed cases had been placed in isolation. All other migrants in the camp will have to observe quarantine for 14 days.

    This follows outbreaks in Greece’s migrant camps in Ritsona and Malakasa.

    Malta has reported 227 cases but no deaths.

  • Les riches propagent le virus, et les pauvres paieront le plus lourd tribut... au Brésil c’est caricatural, on dirait presque la parodie de Pépette Andrieu (https://seenthis.net/messages/833080 ):

    Brazil’s super-rich and the exclusive club at the heart of a coronavirus hotspot
    Tom Phillips and Caio Barretto Briso, The Guardian, le 4 avril 2020
    https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/04/brazils-super-rich-and-the-exclusive-club-at-the-heart-of-a-coronavirus

    One of the first deaths recorded in Brazil was that of Cleonice Gonçalves, a 63-year-old domestic helper who was reportedly infected by her wealthy employer when she returned from holiday in Italy.

    #Brésil #coronavirus

  • Outbreaks like coronavirus start in and spread from the edges of cities

    Emerging infectious disease has much to do with how and where we live. The ongoing coronavirus is an example of the close relationships between urban development and new or re-emerging infectious diseases.

    Like the SARS pandemic of 2003, the connections between accelerated urbanization, more far-reaching and faster means of transportation, and less distance between urban life and non-human nature due to continued growth at the city’s outskirts — and subsequent trans-species infection — became immediately apparent.

    The new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, first crossed the animal-human divide at a market in Wuhan, one of the largest Chinese cities and a major transportation node with national and international connections. The sprawling megacity has since been the stage for the largest quarantine in human history, and its periphery has seen the pop-up construction of two hospitals to deal with infected patients.

    When the outbreak is halted and travel bans lifted, we still need to understand the conditions under which new infectious diseases emerge and spread through urbanization.
    No longer local

    Infectious disease outbreaks are global events. Increasingly, health and disease tend to be urban as they coincide with prolific urban growth and urban ways of life. The increased emergence of infectious diseases is to be expected.

    SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) hit global cities like Beijing, Hong Kong, Toronto and Singapore hard in 2003. COVID-19, the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, goes beyond select global financial centres and lays bare a global production and consumption network that sprawls across urban regions on several continents.

    To study the spread of disease today, we have to look beyond airports to the European automobile and parts industry that has taken root in central China; Chinese financed belt-and-road infrastructure across Asia, Europe and Africa; and in regional transportation hubs like Wuhan.

    While the current COVID-19 outbreak exposes China’s multiple economic connectivities, this phenomenon is not unique to that country. The recent outbreak of Ebola in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, for example, shone a light on the myriad strategic, economic and demographic relations of that country.
    New trade connections

    In January 2020, four workers were infected with SARS-CoV-2 during a training session at car parts company Webasto headquartered near Munich, revealing a connection with the company’s Chinese production site in Wuhan.

    The training was provided by a colleague from the Chinese branch of the firm who didn’t know she was infected. At the time of the training session in Bavaria, she did not feel sick and only fell ill on her flight back to Wuhan.

    First one, then three more colleagues who had participated in the training event in Germany, showed symptoms and soon were confirmed to have contracted the virus and infected other colleagues and family members.

    Eventually, Webasto and other German producers stopped fabrication in China temporarily, the German airline Lufthansa, like other airlines, cancelled all flights to that country and 110 individuals who had been contact traced to have been in touch with the four infected patients in Bavaria were advised by health officials to observe “domestic isolation” or “home quarantine.”

    This outbreak will likely be stopped. Until then, it will continue to cause human suffering and even death, and economic damage. The disease may further contribute to the unravelling of civility as the disease has been pinned to certain places or people. But when it’s over, the next such outbreak is waiting in the wings.
    Disease movements

    We need to understand the landscapes of emerging extended urbanization better if we want to predict, avoid and react to emerging disease outbreaks more efficiently.

    First, we need to grasp where disease outbreaks occur and how they relate to the physical, spatial, economic, social and ecological changes brought on by urbanization. Second, we need to learn more about how the newly emerging urban landscapes can themselves play a role in stemming potential outbreaks.

    Rapid urbanization enables the spread of infectious disease, with peripheral sites being particularly susceptible to disease vectors like mosquitoes or ticks and diseases that jump the animal-to-human species boundary.

    Our research identifies three dimensions of the relationships between extended urbanization and infectious disease that need better understanding: population change and mobility, infrastructure and governance.
    Travel and transport

    Population change and mobility are immediately connected. The coronavirus travelled from the periphery of Wuhan — where 1.6 million cars were produced last year — to a distant Bavarian suburb specializing in certain auto parts.

    Quarantined megacities and cruise ships demonstrate what happens when our globalized urban lives come grinding to a halt.

    Infrastructure is central: diseases can spread rapidly between cities through infrastructures of globalization such as global air travel networks. Airports are often located at the edges of urban areas, raising complex governance and jurisdictional issues with regards to who has responsibility to control disease outbreaks in large urban regions.

    We can also assume that disease outbreaks reinforce existing inequalities in access to and benefits from mobility infrastructures. These imbalances also influence the reactions to an outbreak. Disconnections that are revealed as rapid urban growth is not accompanied by the appropriate development of social and technical infrastructures add to the picture.

    Lastly, SARS-CoV-2 has exposed both the shortcomings and potential opportunities of governance at different levels. While it is awe-inspiring to see entire megacities quarantined, it is unlikely that such drastic measures would be accepted in countries not governed by centralized authoritarian leadership. But even in China, multilevel governance proved to be breaking down as local, regional and central government (and party) units were not sufficiently co-ordinated at the beginning of the crisis.

    This mirrored the intergovernmental confusion in Canada during SARS. As we enter another wave of megaurbanization, urban regions will need to develop efficient and innovative methods of confronting emerging infectious disease without relying on drastic top-down state measures that can be globally disruptive and often counter-productive. This may be especially relevant in fighting racism and intercultural conflict.

    The massive increase of the global urban population over the past few decades has increased exposure to diseases and posed new challenges to the control of outbreaks. Urban researchers need to explore these new relationships between urbanization and infectious disease. This will require an interdisciplinary approach that includes geographers, public health scientists, sociologists and others to develop possible solutions to prevent and mitigate future disease outbreaks.

    https://theconversation.com/outbreaks-like-coronavirus-start-in-and-spread-from-the-edges-of-ci
    #villes #urban_matter #géographie_urbaine #covid-19 #coronavirus #ressources_pédagogiques

    ping @reka

    • The Urbanization of COVID-19

      Three prominent urban researchers with a focus on infectious diseases explain why political responses to the current coronavirus outbreak require an understanding of urban dynamics. Looking back at the last coronavirus pandemic, the SARS outbreak in 2002/3, they highlight what affected cities have learned from that experience for handling the ongoing crisis. Exploring the political challenges of the current state of exception in Canada, Germany, Singapore and elsewhere, Creighton Connolly, Harris Ali and Roger Keil shed light on the practices of urban solidarity as the key to overcoming the public health threat.

      Guests:

      Creighton Connolly is a Senior Lecturer in Development Studies and the Global South in the School of Geography, University of Lincoln, UK. He researches urban political ecology, urban-environmental governance and processes of urbanization and urban redevelopment in Southeast Asia, with a focus on Malaysia and Singapore. He is editor of ‘Post-Politics and Civil Society in Asian Cities’ (Routledge 2019), and has published in a range of leading urban studies and geography journals. Previously, he worked as a researcher in the Asian Urbanisms research cluster at the Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore.

      Harris Ali is a Professor of Sociology, York University in Toronto. He researches issues in environmental sociology, environmental health and disasters including the social and political dimensions of infectious disease outbreaks. He is currently conducting research on the role of community-based initiatives in the Ebola response in Africa.

      Roger Keil is a Professor at the Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University in Toronto. He researches global suburbanization, urban political ecology, cities and infectious disease, and regional governance. Keil is the author of “Suburban Planet” (Polity 2018) and editor of “Suburban Constellations” (Jovis 2013). A co-founder of the International Network for Urban Research and Action (INURA), he was the inaugural director of the CITY Institute at York University and former co-editor of the International Journal of Urban and Regional Research.

      Referenced Literature:

      Ali, S. Harris, and Roger Keil, eds. 2011. Networked disease: emerging infections in the global city. Vol. 44. John Wiley & Sons.

      Keil, Roger, Creighton Connolly, and Harris S. Ali. 2020. “Outbreaks like coronavirus start in and spread from the edges of cities.” The Conversation, February 17. Available online here: https://theconversation.com/outbreaks-like-coronavirus-start-in-and-spread-from-the-edges-of-ci

      https://urbanpolitical.podigee.io/16-covid19

    • Extended urbanisation and the spatialities of infectious disease: Demographic change, infrastructure and governance

      Emerging infectious disease has much to do with how and where we live. The recent COVID-19 coronavirus outbreak is an example of the close relationships between urban development and new or re-emerging infectious diseases. Like the SARS pandemic of 2003, the connections between accelerated urbanisation, more expansive and faster means of transportation, and increasing proximity between urban life and non-human nature — and subsequent trans-species infections — became immediately apparent.

      Our Urban Studies paper contributes to this emerging conversation. Infectious disease outbreaks are now global events. Increasingly, health and disease tend to be urban as they coincide with the proliferation of planetary urbanisation and urban ways of life. The increased emergence of infectious diseases is to be expected in an era of extended urbanisation.

      We posit that we need to understand the landscapes of emerging extended urbanisation better if we want to predict, avoid and react to emerging disease outbreaks more efficiently. First, we need to grasp where disease outbreaks occur and how they relate to the physical, spatial, economic, social and ecological changes brought on by urbanisation. Second, we need to learn more about how the newly emerging urban landscapes can themselves play a role in stemming potential outbreaks. Rapid urbanisation enables the spread of infectious disease, with peripheral sites being particularly susceptible to disease vectors like mosquitoes or ticks and diseases that jump the animal-to-human species boundary.

      Our research identifies three dimensions of the relationships between extended urbanisation and infectious disease that need better understanding: population change and mobility, infrastructure and governance. Population change and mobility are immediately connected. Population growth in cities - driven primarily by rural-urban migration - is a major factor influencing the spread of disease. This is seen most clearly in rapidly urbanising regions such as Africa and Asia, which have experienced recent outbreaks of Ebola and SARS, respectively.

      Infrastructure is also central: diseases can spread rapidly between cities through infrastructures of globalisation such as global air travel networks. Airports are often located at the edges of urban areas, raising complex governance and jurisdictional issues with regards to who has responsibility to control disease outbreaks in large urban regions. We can also assume that disease outbreaks reinforce existing inequalities in access to and benefits from mobility infrastructures. We therefore need to consider the disconnections that become apparent as rapid demographic and peri-urban growth is not accompanied by appropriate infrastructure development.

      Lastly, the COVID-19 outbreak has exposed both the shortcomings and potential opportunities of governance at different levels. While it is awe-inspiring to see entire megacities quarantined, it is unlikely that such drastic measures would be accepted in countries not governed by centralised authoritarian leadership. But even in China, multilevel governance proved to be breaking down as local, regional and central government (and party) units were not sufficiently co-ordinated at the beginning of the crisis. This mirrored the intergovernmental confusion in Canada during SARS.

      As we enter another wave of megaurbanisation, urban regions will need to develop efficient and innovative methods of confronting emerging infectious disease without relying on drastic top-down state measures that can be globally disruptive and often ineffective. This urges upon urban researchers to seek new and better explanations for the relationships of extended urbanisation and the spatialities of infectious disease - an effort that will require an interdisciplinary approach including geographers, health scientists, sociologists.

      https://www.urbanstudiesonline.com/resources/resource/extended-urbanisation-and-the-spatialities-of-infectious-disease
      #géographie_de_la_santé #maladies_infectieuses

    • Cities after coronavirus: how Covid-19 could radically alter urban life

      Pandemics have always shaped cities – and from increased surveillance to ‘de-densification’ to new community activism, Covid-19 is doing it already.

      Victoria Embankment, which runs for a mile and a quarter along the River Thames, is many people’s idea of quintessential London. Some of the earliest postcards sent in Britain depicted its broad promenades and resplendent gardens. The Metropolitan Board of Works, which oversaw its construction, hailed it as an “appropriate, and appropriately civilised, cityscape for a prosperous commercial society”.

      But the embankment, now hardwired into our urban consciousness, is entirely the product of pandemic. Without a series of devastating global cholera outbreaks in the 19th century – including one in London in the early 1850s that claimed more than 10,000 lives – the need for a new, modern sewerage system may never have been identified. Joseph Bazalgette’s remarkable feat of civil engineering, which was designed to carry waste water safely downriver and away from drinking supplies, would never have materialised.

      From the Athens plague in 430BC, which drove profound changes in the city’s laws and identity, to the Black Death in the Middle Ages, which transformed the balance of class power in European societies, to the recent spate of Ebola epidemics across sub-Saharan Africa that illuminated the growing interconnectedness of today’s hyper-globalised cities, public health crises rarely fail to leave their mark on a metropolis.
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      As the world continues to fight the rapid spread of coronavirus, confining many people to their homes and radically altering the way we move through, work in and think about our cities, some are wondering which of these adjustments will endure beyond the end of the pandemic, and what life might look like on the other side.

      One of the most pressing questions that urban planners will face is the apparent tension between densification – the push towards cities becoming more concentrated, which is seen as essential to improving environmental sustainability – and disaggregation, the separating out of populations, which is one of the key tools currently being used to hold back infection transmission.

      “At the moment we are reducing density everywhere we can, and for good reason,” observes Richard Sennett, a professor of urban studies at MIT and senior adviser to the UN on its climate change and cities programme. “But on the whole density is a good thing: denser cities are more energy efficient. So I think in the long term there is going to be a conflict between the competing demands of public health and the climate.”

      Sennett believes that in the future there will be a renewed focus on finding design solutions for individual buildings and wider neighbourhoods that enable people to socialise without being packed “sardine-like” into compressed restaurants, bars and clubs – although, given the incredibly high cost of land in big cities like New York and Hong Kong, success here may depend on significant economic reforms as well.

      In recent years, although cities in the global south are continuing to grow as a result of inward rural migration, northern cities are trending in the opposite direction, with more affluent residents taking advantage of remote working capabilities and moving to smaller towns and countryside settlements offering cheaper property and a higher quality of life.

      The “declining cost of distance”, as Karen Harris, the managing director of Bain consultancy’s Macro Trends Group, calls it, is likely to accelerate as a result of the coronavirus crisis. More companies are establishing systems that enable staff to work from home, and more workers are getting accustomed to it. “These are habits that are likely to persist,” Harris says.

      The implications for big cities are immense. If proximity to one’s job is no longer a significant factor in deciding where to live, for example, then the appeal of the suburbs wanes; we could be heading towards a world in which existing city centres and far-flung “new villages” rise in prominence, while traditional commuter belts fade away.

      Another potential impact of coronavirus may be an intensification of digital infrastructure in our cities. South Korea, one of the countries worst-affected by the disease, has also posted some of the lowest mortality rates, an achievement that can be traced in part to a series of technological innovations – including, controversially, the mapping and publication of infected patients’ movements.

      In China, authorities have enlisted the help of tech firms such as Alibaba and Tencent to track the spread of Covid-19 and are using “big data” analysis to anticipate where transmission clusters will emerge next. If one of the government takeaways from coronavirus is that “smart cities” including Songdo or Shenzhen are safer cities from a public health perspective, then we can expect greater efforts to digitally capture and record our behaviour in urban areas – and fiercer debates over the power such surveillance hands to corporations and states.

      Indeed, the spectre of creeping authoritarianism – as emergency disaster measures become normalised, or even permanent – should be at the forefront of our minds, says Sennett. “If you go back through history and look at the regulations brought in to control cities at times of crisis, from the French revolution to 9/11 in the US, many of them took years or even centuries to unravel,” he says.

      At a time of heightened ethnonationalism on the global stage, in which rightwing populists have assumed elected office in many countries from Brazil to the US, Hungary and India, one consequence of coronavirus could be an entrenchment of exclusionary political narratives, calling for new borders to be placed around urban communities – overseen by leaders who have the legal and technological capacity, and the political will, to build them.

      In the past, after a widespread medical emergency, Jewish communities and other socially stigmatised groups such as those affected by leprosy have borne the brunt of public anger. References to the “China virus” by Donald Trump suggest such grim scapegoating is likely to be a feature of this pandemic’s aftermath as well.

      On the ground, however, the story of coronavirus in many global cities has so far been very different. After decades of increasing atomisation, particularly among younger urban residents for whom the impossible cost of housing has made life both precarious and transient, the sudden proliferation of mutual aid groups – designed to provide community support for the most vulnerable during isolation – has brought neighbours together across age groups and demographic divides. Social distancing has, ironically, drawn some of us closer than ever before. Whether such groups survive beyond the end of coronavirus to have a meaningful impact on our urban future depends, in part, on what sort of political lessons we learn from the crisis.

      The vulnerability of many fellow city dwellers – not just because of a temporary medical emergency but as an ongoing lived reality – has been thrown into sharp relief, from elderly people lacking sufficient social care to the low-paid and self-employed who have no financial buffer to fall back on, but upon whose work we all rely.

      A stronger sense of society as a collective whole, rather than an agglomeration of fragmented individuals, could lead to a long-term increase in public demands for more interventionist measures to protect citizens – a development that governments may find harder to resist given their readiness in the midst of coronavirus to override the primacy of markets.

      Private hospitals are already facing pressure to open up their beds without extra charge for those in need; in Los Angeles, homeless citizens have seized vacant homes, drawing support from some lawmakers. Will these kinds of sentiments dwindle with the passing of coronavirus, or will political support for urban policies that put community interests ahead of corporate ones – like a greater imposition of rent controls – endure?

      We don’t yet know the answer, but in the new and unpredictable connections swiftly being forged within our cities as a result of the pandemic, there is perhaps some cause for optimism. “You can’t ‘unknow’ people,” observes Harris, “and usually that’s a good thing.” Sennett thinks we are potentially seeing a fundamental shift in urban social relations. “City residents are becoming aware of desires that they didn’t realise they had before,” he says, “which is for more human contact, for links to people who are unlike themselves.” Whether that change in the nature of city living proves to be as lasting as Bazalgette’s sewer-pipe embankment remains, for now, to be seen.

      https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/mar/26/life-after-coronavirus-pandemic-change-world
      #le_monde_d'après

    • Listening to the city in a global pandemic

      What’s the role of ‘academic experts’ in the debate about COVID-19 and cites, and how can we separate our expert role from our personal experience of being locked down in our cities and homes?

      This is a question we’ve certainly been struggling with at City Road, and we think it’s a question that a lot of academics are struggling with at the moment. Perhaps it’s a good time to listen to the experiences of academics as their cities change around them, rather than ask them to speak at us about their urban expertise. With this in mind, we asked academics from all over the world to open up the voice recorder on their phones and record a two minute report from the field about their city.

      Over 25 academics from all over the world responded. As you will hear, some of their recordings are not great quality, but their stories certainly are. Many of those who responded to our call are struggling , just like us, to make sense of their experience in the COVID-19 city.

      https://cityroadpod.org/2020/03/29/listening-to-the-city-in-a-global-pandemic

    • Ce que les épidémies nous disent sur la #mondialisation

      Bien que la première épidémie connue par une trace écrite n’ait eu lieu qu’en 430 avant J.-C. à Athènes, on dit souvent que les microbes, et les épidémies auxquels ils donnent lieu, sont aussi vieux que le monde. Mais le Monde est-il aussi vieux qu’on veutbien le dire ? Voici une des questions auxquelles l’étude des épidémies avec les sciences sociales permet d’apporter des éléments de réponse. Les épidémies ne sont pas réservées aux épidémiologistes et autres immunologistes. De grands géographes comme Peter Haggett ou Andrew Cliff ont déjà investi ce domaine, dans une optique focalisée sur les processus de diffusion spatiale. Il est possible d’aller au-delà de cette approche mécanique et d’appréhender les épidémies dans leurs interactions sociales. On verra ici qu’elles nous apprennent aussi beaucoup sur le Monde, sur l’organisation de l’espace mondial et sur la dimension sociétale du processus de mondialisation.

      http://cafe-geo.net/wp-content/uploads/epidemies-mondialisation.pdf
      #épidémie #globalisation

  • #Immunity_passports' could speed up return to work after Covid-19

    “Immunity passports” for key workers could be a way of getting people who have had coronavirus back into the workforce more quickly, scientists and politicians in the UK have suggested.

    Researchers in Germany are currently preparing a mass study into how many people are already immune to the Covid-19 virus, allowing authorities to eventually issue passes to exclude workers from restrictive measures currently in place.

    The study, which is yet to finalise funding, would involve testing the blood of more than 100,000 volunteers for coronavirus antibodies from mid-April. The test would then be repeated at regular intervals on an accumulatively larger sample of the population, to track the pandemic’s progress.

    The shadow health secretary, Jonathan Ashworth, said: “Germany appears to be leading the way in the testing and we have much to learn from their approach. I’ve repeatedly called for more testing and contact tracing in the UK, and we should be looking at initiatives like this closely.”
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    The results of the German study, organised by the government’s public health body, the Robert Koch Institute, the German Centre for Infection Research, the Institute for Virology at Berlin’s Charite hospital and blood donation services, would make it easier to decide when and where schools in the country could reopen, and which people are safe to go back to work.

    “Those who are immune could be issued with a kind of vaccination pass that would for example allow them to exempted from restrictions on their activity,” said Gerard Krause, head of epidemiology at the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research in Braunschweig. The German government has not yet officially commented on the proposal for such a certificate made by scientists.

    Dr Philippa Whitford, an SNP MP and former surgeon, said immunity passports could be used specifically for key workers in healthcare in the UK but would be difficult to roll out more widely across the country because of the level of administration needed.

    Whitford, who is also chair of the all-party parliamentary group for vaccines, said the length of time someone may have immunity after they have had Covid-19 was still largely unknown. Someone contracting Sars, which is also a coronavirus, did not have long-term immunity – potentially only up to a year after the infection.

    Prof Peter Openshaw, a member of the government’s new and emerging respiratory virus threats advisory group, said people who have recovered and test positive for coronavirus antibodies should no longer be infectious themselves and would be expected to have at least some immunity to the virus.

    He said the worse case scenario – based on what is known about immunity to coronaviruses that cause common colds – is that former patients would have only partial resistance for about three months.

    “It could be that this coronavirus causes a pretty robust immune response, which is durable and protective for much longer, maybe a year or even five years, but we don’t know because it’s a new virus,” he said.

    Immunity passports are a “reasonable provisional measure”, Openshaw said, but he stressed that people granted the passports would have to be kept under close observation to ensure they were not becoming reinfected.

    “In subsequent monitoring, it would be really important to determine whether those who do return to normal circulation are in fact protected,” he said.
    But Openshaw said it would be “highly inadvisable” to breach the government’s lockdown rules and intentionally risk infection.

    “Although there are risk factors for severity of illness and admission to intensive care, quite a high proportion who are being admitted are otherwise well and do not have those risk factors,” he said.

    “It would be putting your life at risk to try and catch it at the moment. It would be much better to adhere to social distancing and to wait for the vaccine.”

    https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/mar/30/immunity-passports-could-speed-up-return-to-work-after-covid-19?CMP=sha
    #le_monde_d'après #passeport #frontière_mobile #frontières_mobiles #corps #contrôles_frontaliers #frontières #immunité #passeport_d'immunité #mobilité #Allemagne

    ping @reka @fil @mobileborders

  • ’Cybergulag’ : Russia looks to surveillance technology to enforce lockdown | World news | The Guardian
    https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/02/cybergulag-russia-looks-to-surveillance-technology-to-enforce-lockdown

    Critics fear plans for enhanced monitoring could remain even after coronavirus crisis passes Russia is considering aggressive new surveillance methods as the country seeks to enforce mandatory shelter-in-place orders in cities including Moscow and St Petersburg and other regions across its 11 time zones. While the details of the new monitoring system have not been confirmed, official statements and leaked plans have indicated they could include mobile apps that track users’ location, CCTV (...)

    #carte #CCTV #QRcode #smartphone #biométrie #géolocalisation #facial #reconnaissance #vidéo-surveillance #BigData #santé (...)

    ##santé ##surveillance
    https://i.guim.co.uk/img/media/f48ff6a15021a4f67a0ee1fb7e0b04fd95f9906d/0_308_4732_2840/master/4732..jpg

  • Quelques nouvelles:

    De #Syrie:

    “Before Corona, I will die of hunger”: The socio-economic impact of Covid-19 on the Syrian population and new challenges for the regime
    https://blogs.eui.eu/medirections/corona-i-will-die-hunger-socio-economic-impact-covid-19-syrian-population-

    D’ #Afrique_du_Sud:

    One working tap for 2,000 households as virus lockdown looms
    https://www.heraldlive.co.za/news/2020-03-26-one-working-tap-for-2000-households-as-virus-lockdown-looms

    d’ #Italie:

    Singing stops in Italy as fear and social unrest mount
    https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/01/singing-stops-italy-fear-social-unrest-mount-coronavirus-lockdown

    #coronavirus #pauvreté

  • ‘A beautiful thing’ : the African migrants getting healthy food to Italians

    After years of exploitation, former fruit pickers set up a co-operative near Rome selling vegetables and yoghurt. Now they are working ‘twice as hard’ to get supplies to families under lockdown.

    Ismail bends over the vegetables in the middle of the field and shouts to his co-worker – “Lorè you’re doing nothing and your back already hurts?” – as he deftly separates a head of cauliflower from its long leaves and throws it into a waiting box.

    His co-workers Lorenzo and Cheikh also get up, lifting boxes packed with produce after their morning’s work. Today the sun is shining here in Italy but there is no time to pause and enjoy it. Salad and spinach picked from other fields must be washed alongside the cabbages and cauliflowers; boxes for delivery have to be readied and loaded into the van.

    This is Barikama, a co-operative started in 2011 by a group of young Africans. Many of the founders took part in the Rosarno revolt, an uprising in January 2010 in which hundreds of African fruit pickers whose labour was being exploited in Italy’s citrus groves rose up in support of a workmate seriously injured in a racist attack. The rebellion broke the silence surrounding the conditions of immigrant workers in the Italian countryside.

    Ten years on, the members of Barikama find themselves on the frontline of Italy’s deadly battle against Covid-19. Every day, while the people in their community are in lockdown in their homes, Ismail and his colleagues are out in the field and in the warehouse, packing delivery boxes of vegetables and dairy products to help feed increasing numbers of local households.

    “The demand is higher than ever because people can’t go out, we’re working twice as hard as we’ve ever done,” says Modibo, a 32-year-old from Mali who arrived in Lampedusa in 2008 and is one of the co-founders of the Barikama co-operative, which is based at Casale di Martignano, 22 miles from Rome.

    “Every day all day is just farming and deliveries. Every day we’re getting new orders and we won’t stop working because people need us. Yet even though it is very hard, to feel useful to people in this awful moment, it makes me very happy.”

    For Modibo and all the members of the co-operative this job is also a form of redemption from exploitation: “barikama” means “strength” or “resistance”in the Malian dialect Bamara.

    The co-operative has its warehouse in Pigneto, a historic working-class neighbourhood of Rome.

    At seven in the morning the sky begins to lighten. “Something has changed in our life,” says Modibo. “If you’re not rich, you can’t afford to heal yourself and buy medicines. If a person you love falls ill you can’t do anything, and you lose your mind.”

    Each morning the young members of the Barikama co-operative meet at the warehouse to load the van and then divide their daily duties among field work, deliveries and taking food to local markets.

    One of these is the Trieste market in Via Chiana. While normally the market bustles with customers, in the current lockdown only 24 people are allowed in at a time. Today it is Tony’s turn to man the Barikama stall. Tony arrived in Italy four years ago from Nigeria and shortly after began labouring in the tomato fields of Foggia alongside hundreds of other migrants and refugees. “In Foggia they gave €4 for each 350kg box filled, it was like a race,” he says.

    Another co-operative member, Cheikh, was a football player in Senegal and studied biology at university. When he arrived in Italy in 2007 he worked in the fields to survive. “I looked around at the situation and always did the maths,” he says. “In Rosarno there were between 200 and 300 people working without contracts for over a month. It’s not possible that nobody noticed. How did they escape paying taxes on all that money they were making?”

    The idea for the co-operative came from a friend at a social centre that the men attended after the 2010 Rosarno uprisings. All of the men knew how to farm. She suggested that they come together and start producing their own food. “At the beginning we were making our own yogurt and we managed to make only about €5 or €10 each, which at least allowed us to call home,” says Chiekh.

    In 2014 they formed a co-operative and found a place to base themselves, the Casale di Martignano, a farmhouse in Martignano. They made agreements with the farm owners to start dairy farming, to rent the machinery to start producing yogurt and then to farm the property’s unused fields. Six years on, Barikama cultivates six hectares of orchards and produces up to 200 litres of yogurt a week.

    In one of the fields, Cheikh checks the weight of the freshly packed crates before loading the van. The co-operative’s finances are managed carefully. Something is always set aside and the rest of the profits divided equally.

    In one of the fields, Cheikh checks the weight of the freshly packed crates before loading the van. The co-operative’s finances are managed carefully. Something is always set aside and the rest of the profits divided equally.

    According to Cheikh, the goal now is to gain more autonomy, extend distribution and increase wholesale sales to guarantee a stable salary for everyone.

    “It’s not much, but 2019 went well, an average of €500 per month, €700 in the last months of the year,” he says with a smile. “In summer for a month we gave up wages, but we didn’t lose money.”

    Now, they feel that they are performing a vital task in keeping their customers healthy in a time of extreme trauma and fear.

    “It’s a beautiful thing that we are helping feed the community in these terrible times,” says Cheikh as he turns and gets back to work.

    https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/01/a-beautiful-thing-the-african-migrants-getting-healthy-food-to-italians

    #Italie #agriculture #coronavirus #migrations #alimentation

    #photographie #Giacomo_Sini

    ping @albertocampiphoto @wizo @karine4 @isskein @thomas_lacroix

    Ajouté à la métaliste coronavirus / agriculture /migrations :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/836693

  • Coronavirus live news: the first case of a refugee testing positive | World news | The Guardian
    #covid-19 #migrant #migration #Grece #camp #réfugié

    https://www.theguardian.com/world/live/2020/mar/31/coronavirus-live-news-usa-confirmed-cases-double-china-update-uk-italy-
    https://i.guim.co.uk/img/media/5e13718168cc627159e9eb8716520d2bf1c2d871/0_0_2645_1589/master/2645.jpg?width=1200&height=630&quality=85&auto=format&fit=crop&overlay-ali

    Over in Greece authorities have announced that an asylum seeker has contracted coronavirus, in what has been the first case of a refugee testing positive for the potentially lethal disease since the outbreak of the virus at the end of February.

    Manos Logothetis, a senior official at the migration ministry, told the Guardian that a woman was diagnosed with the virus two days after giving birth in an Athens hospital on 28 March.

    She may well have contracted it in the hospital. We are still awaiting the results as to whether the baby has also tested positive.

    The woman, accommodated in a migrant camp hosting up to 2,500 people on the Greek mainland, remained in the hospital.

    As the first recorded case among tens of thousands of migrants and refugees living in vastly overcrowded holding facilities in the country, the news has been received with trepidation. More than 42,000 men, women and children are currently held in reception centres on the five Aegean islands – Lesbos, Samos, Chios, Leros and Kos – facing the Turkish coast.

    Appalling conditions in the camps provide what medics fear are exceptionally high-risk environments for Covid-19 to spread. “Authorities are tracing her recent contacts,” the health ministry spokesman and infectious diseases expert, Sotiris Tsiodras, told reporters on Tuesday. A man who lived with the woman had tested negative, he said.

    To date, Greek officials have confirmed 1,314 cases of coronavirus. The Covid-19 death toll currently stands at 49 – much lower than in other European countries.

    Of the 102 new cases reported overnight, 20 had originated from the staff of a passenger ship, chartered by a US cruise operator, and anchored off Piraeus.

  • Revealed : Saudis suspected of phone spying campaign in US | World news | The Guardian
    https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/mar/29/revealed-saudis-suspected-of-phone-spying-campaign-in-us

    Exclusive : Whistleblower’s data suggests millions of tracking requests sent over four-month period Saudi Arabia appears to be exploiting weaknesses in the global mobile telecoms network to track its citizens as they travel around the US, according to a whistleblower who has shown the Guardian millions of alleged secret tracking requests. Data revealed by the whistleblower, who is seeking to expose vulnerabilities in a global messaging system called SS7, appears to suggest a systematic (...)

    #smartphone #activisme #géolocalisation #surveillance

    • About 2,100 migrants in northern France are fearful of being dispersed to new centres.

      Up to 2,100 refugees in Calais and Dunkirk are facing an imminent coronavirus lockdown by French authorities, with many saying they will try to reach the UK rather than go to accommodation centres if their camps are cleared.

      Buses will be sent to the camps to transfer refugees to centres housing up to 100 people from Tuesday. The transfers are said to be voluntary but some of the refugees told the Guardian that they distrust the police and are fearful of being forced into the centres, so plan to run away and continue in their attempts to cross the Channel.

      Conditions in the camps are worsening, with shortages of food, water and showers as NGOs are forced to pull out because of the coronavirus pandemic, although no cases of Covid-19 have been reported in the camps.

      Many refugees – mostly from Afghanistan, Eritrea, Iran, Iraq and Sudan – often make repeated attempts to cross to the UK. Last year, 1,900 reached the UK by boat, with many others arriving by lorry. Eighty migrants are understood to have reached the UK by boat last week, with some reports of around 160 attempts in one day.

      While numbers are disputed, internal documents collated by NGOs in the area and seen by the Guardian revealed there are about 1,500 people in Calais, including 160 unaccompanied children, the youngest of whom is 11. There are about 600 people in Grand Synthe in Dunkirk, including around 35 families. Some have serious health problems such as diabetes, and others have suffered broken limbs including a broken arm and a broken jaw.

      A 16-year-old boy from Sudan told the Guardian that he planned to run away and cross the Channel rather than go into one of the French centres. “If we are taken away to these centres we won’t know what will happen to us,” he said. “I will run away and I will keep trying to reach the UK by lorry. In the camps we are more spread out but if we go into the centres we could be closer together so more at risk.”

      He said that catching Covid-19 was not uppermost in the minds of the refugees. “We are thinking more about our survival,” he said.

      Many NGOs, which provide food and other support to refugees in the camps, have pulled out because of the pandemic. Refugees have reported food and water shortages. French authorities are distributing bottled water but it is understood they are concerned that too many water points in the camps will hinder physical distancing. Provision of showers and phone charging facilities have also decreased.

      NGOs working in the camps in Calais say it is crucial that the lockdown is managed properly and that the French authorities work with them, as they are trusted by the refugees.

      Clare Moseley, founder of Care4Calais, which provides emergency aid and support for refugees in Calais and Dunkirk as well as in Brussels, and is continuing to operate in the refugee areas, said: “We haven’t had any confirmed cases of Covid-19 in the camps. The refugees are more focused on survival than on the virus. We don’t know how ‘voluntary’ the accommodation centres will be.

      “Food supplies in the camps have reduced significantly and if it’s the only way people can get food, they may feel forced to go. The reduction of food in the camps has been a game-changer. If the only way people can eat is by going into one of the centres then it won’t really be voluntary.”

      She said that after getting legal advice from lawyers in the UK and France, Care4Calais volunteers are continuing to operate as frontline aid workers and are following current World Health Organization guidance on infection control.

      According to documents seen by the Guardian, some unaccompanied minors have reported being beaten by French police and they have told charity workers they prefer to sleep in the camps rather than in centres provided by the French authorities.

      When buses are sent to the camps from Tuesday, migrants who agree to leave will be given a medical check before being transferred. Once they reach the temporary accommodation they will be expected to keep the same lockdown rules as the rest of France, which has prohibited all movement except for essential work, essential shopping, medical appointments and a daily maximum one-hour exercise routine not more than 1km from home.

      Even before the coronavirus crisis, life in the refugee camps was grim. Volunteers said that asking migrants who were often four or five to a tent to maintain social distancing was impossible.

      Léah Njeim, a volunteer with Utopia 56, an organisation that distributes food to the camps, told Ouest France: “Some migrants are more than an hour’s walk away from running water.”

      Utopia 56 had been transporting sick migrants to local health centres. “We’ve had to stop this ... the police are blocking the exit to the Jungle [camp],” Njeim added.

      Secours Catholique, a charity that ran a day centre for 250 to 300 migrants where they could warm up, have a hot drink and charge their mobiles, said it had been forced to close as most of its volunteers were aged over 70 and in the coronavirus “at risk” group. In an open letter to the authorities, 18 NGOs called for the migrants who wished to stay in the Channel area to be housed in “hotels, schools and empty apartments”.

      “To stay home, you have to have a home to stay in,” the organisations wrote in the petition addressed to the French prime minister, Édouard Philippe.

      François Guennoc, vice-president of the Auberge des Migrants, told La Voix du Nord newspaper: “Giving them accommodation far away will not work. Some will not get in the buses and there will be people who return soon afterwards.”

      Sources close to the French government told the Guardian that health protection and sheltering arrangements for refugees in the camps were under way.

      #coronavirus #réfugiés #UK #Angleterre #confinement #asile #migrations