Nous ne ferons pas barrage | Grise Bouille
L’hyper-concentration des richesses n’est pas une « dérive », ce n’est que la conséquence logique des mécanismes d’héritage, mais nous n’en parlerons pas, ce serait de la jalousie anti-riches ; la disparition du travail par l’automatisation et la robotisation généralisée n’est un problème qu’en l’absence de redistribution des profits et que par le caractère sacralisé de la propriété privée, mais nous n’en parlerons pas, car la dictature communiste ne serait pas loin, URSS hier et Vénézuela aujourd’hui ; les burn-outs ne sont que la conséquence d’un besoin d’augmentation constant des taux de profits répercuté par un accroissement constant de la pression sur les salariées et salariés, mais nous n’en parlerons pas, il ne faudrait pas freiner la croissance ; le désastre écologique annoncé n’est pas le résultat d’une nature humaine destructrice mais bien d’un système capitaliste inique qui ne peut survivre que par un accroissement infini dans un environnement fini, mais nous n’en parlerons pas, arrêtons plutôt les pailles en plastiques, trions nos déchets et oublions qui nous envoie joyeusement dans le mur.
De manière générale, l’analyse de la société par rapports de force entre intérêts de classes s’avère de plus en plus pertinente à mesure que le capitalisme se totalitarise et que se précisent les risques d’effondrement systémiques, mais nous n’en parlerons pas, car voyez-vous, la lutte des classes c’est ringard, ça sonne vachement xixe siècle (alors que les CDI de chantier, le paiement à la tâche et la sous-traitance généralisée pour contourner les droits du salariat, ça ne sonne pas xixe siècle mais ça nous y ramène carrément, soit dit en passant). Non seulement c’est ringard, mais en plus, c’est dangereux : CENT MILLIONS DE MORTS, qu’on vous répète sur tous les tons9. Car chacun sait que la seule alternative au capitalisme débridé, c’est la barbarie, barbarie contre laquelle ce même capitalisme est d’ailleurs immunisé, merci bien, fermez le ban et surtout vos gueules.
Il était d’ailleurs assez gonflé de venir gueuler sur les Insoumis10 qui refusaient d’aller faire barrage à Le Pen, quand on imagine assez bien qu’en cas de second tour Macron-Mélenchon, un appel général aurait été lancé pour faire barrage… à la France Insoumise.
Eh bien nous ne ferons pas barrage.
Et un hommage photographique de #Sylvain_Leser :
Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation? (2017)
In sette mesi di “buio informativo” sulle partenze di #migranti dalla Libia, possiamo essere certi che almeno 6.400 persone siano partite.
Di queste, almeno 1.300 sono partite tra gennaio e febbraio scorsi.
Il 75% di loro è stato intercettato dalla Guardia costiera libica.
#statistiques #Méditerranée #Libye #gardes-côtes_libyens #frontières #asile #migrations #mer_Méditerranée #départs #chiffres #pull-back #refoulement #2016 #2017 #2018 #mourir_en_mer #morts #décès #mortalité #traversées
Nei primi quattro mesi del 2019, per ogni 8 migranti partiti dalla Libia, 1 è morto. E più l’Europa cede il controllo dei salvataggi alla Guardia costiera libica, più aumenta il rischio di morte in mare.
All data to replicate these and other figures is publicly available at this link:
Traduction en anglais :
I morti nel Mediterraneo
Da qualche giorno si è scatenato un grottesco scontro sul numero dei #migranti morti nel Mediterraneo a seguito delle dichiarazioni del Ministro Salvini che difendendo la sua politica anti-sbarchi ha incautamente affermato: “Nel 2019 si sono avuti solo due morti nel Mediterraneo”. In un tweet successivo poi il ministro ha pubblicato, a sostegno delle sue tesi, una tabella con dati UNHCR riguardanti i cadaveri recuperati e i migranti morti/dispersi nel Mediterraneo negli ultimi 5 anni. Da questa tabella si capisce subito che nei primi 4 mesi del 2019 i morti e dispersi nel Mediterraneo non sono 2 ma 402, mentre il numero di 2 è riferito ai cadaveri recuperati. La tabella di Salvini presenta poi altre inesattezze, dal momento che compara impropriamente i dati dei primi 4 mesi del 2019 con i dati sui dodici mesi dei quattro anni precedenti. Inoltre, i dati menzionati dal ministro si riferiscono alle morti in tutto il Mediterraneo, dalla coste turche a quelle spagnole, mentre i dati che avrebbe dovuto citare, eventualmente imputabili alle sue politiche, sono quelli relativi al solo Mediterraneo centrale. Ci sembra questo un esempio evidente di come anche i numeri e i dati possano essere manipolati per sostenere le tesi più improbabili.
Ma cosa sta davvero succedendo con le morti nel Mediterraneo? Le cose stanno davvero andando meglio? Per poter cercare di comprendere in maniera obiettiva, è necessario, prima di tutto, analizzare dati credibili. Il numero di cadaveri recuperati in mare non può fornire una stima attendibile di quanto sta accadendo, dal momento che recuperare i corpi dei naufraghi è di per sè già molto complicato, tanto più lo diventa in acque svuotate dalle navi di soccorso, quali sono oggi quelle del Mediterraneo centrale proprio in conseguenza delle misure adottate dal ministro dell’Interno. Se si vuole cercare di fare un’analisi seria, è necessario dunque prendere in considerazione le stime dei morti e dispersi. Questi numeri ci dicono che le vittime nel Mediterraneo centrale sono state, nei primi quattro mesi di ogni anno, 1.936 nel 2015, 966 nel 2016, 1.021 nel 2017, 379 nel 2018 ed infine 257 nel 2019. Ha dunque ragione Salvini? Il numero di morti, peraltro ancora tragicamente alto, sta comunque diminuendo? A nostro avviso assolutamente no, per alcune ragioni.
Innanzi tutto se andiamo a vedere il numero di migranti sbarcati in Italia nello stesso periodo dei 5 anni vediamo che esso è drasticamente diminuito: 26.228 nel 2015, 27.926 nel 2016, 37.235 nel 2017, 9.467 nel 2018 e 779 nel 2019. Se andiamo poi a vedere il rapporto tra migranti che hanno perso la vita nel cercare di attraversare il Mediterraneo centrale e coloro che sono riusciti effettivamente ad arrivare sulle coste italiane, notiamo che esso è passato da 3 su cento nel 2017 a 32 su cento nel 2019. In altre parole la letalità della traversata, ossia il rischio di perdere la vita, si è più che decuplicato dal 2017 al 2019. Ma c’è un altro fattore, a nostro avviso ancora più importante, che smentisce le affermazioni del ministro Salvini e riguarda proprio la diminuzione del numero degli sbarchi da lui fortemente voluta. In effetti le morti nel Mediterraneo sono solo un aspetto della crisi migratoria che stiamo vivendo. E analizzare solo una parte di una questione complessa come questa, non porta a una verità parziale ma piuttosto a una menzogna completa. Coloro che non riescono più a partire dalle coste libiche rimangono intrappolati nella inaudita violenza di quel paese, presente sia fuori che dentro le miriadi di strutture di detenzione e sequestro per migranti. Che tali centri, formali e informali, siano luoghi di tortura e morte per i migranti è accertato al di là di ogni ragionevole dubbio ed è stato documentato anche dalle migliaia di testimonianze dirette raccolte dagli operatori di Medici per i Diritti Umani (si veda ►http://esodi.mediciperidirittiumani.org ). Chi si ostina a negare ciò o è ignorante o è in malafede, e se ha responsabilità politiche si assume una grave responsabilità storica. E’ dunque del tutto probabile che i morti in meno nel Mediterraneo vengano oggi controbilanciati da più torture e più morti tra le migliaia di migranti ancora intrappolati in Libia. La situazione non è dunque migliorata in questi mesi per chi ha cuore la dignità e la vita umana ma, se possibile, peggiorata.
Che fare dunque di fronte alla sfida dell’attuale flusso migratorio (si badi bene, migrazione forzata nella stragrande maggioranza di casi) in arrivo, in particolare, dall’Africa sub-sahariana? La complessità della questione richiede una risposta che va al di là dello scopo di questa breve analisi. Un intervento immediato, a livello multilaterale, è comunque certamente necessario: procedere all’evacuazione verso paesi sicuri, in grado di assicurare protezione internazionale, di tutti i migranti oggi ancora detenuti nei centri di detenzione ufficiali libici. Sarebbe per lo meno un primo passo da parte della comunità internazionale che porta oggi la responsabilità di una pressoché totale indifferenza di fronte a una tragedia che sta segnando il nostro tempo.
Migrazioni, il Mediterraneo sempre più pericoloso per chi fugge via mare
Lanciata oggi la quarta edizione di «#Fatal_Journeys» (►https://publications.iom.int/fr/books/fatal-journeys-volume-4-missing-migrant-children). Nel 2018 è morto in mare un migrante ogni 35. Nel 2017 era uno ogni 50. Sono circa 1.600 i bambini morti nel mondo lungo le rotte migratorie
Fatal Journeys Volume 4: Missing Migrant Children
Fatal Journeys Volume 4 focuses on a special theme – missing migrant children – given the growing number of children embarking on journeys that are dangerous and often fatal. Since 2014, IOM has documented more than 32,000 deaths and disappearances during the migration journey worldwide, although the true number of migrant fatalities is unknown, as many deaths go unrecorded. Data on deaths and disappearances of missing migrant children tend to be even more limited. According to IOM’s Missing Migrants Project, nearly 1,600 children have been reported dead or missing since 2014.
This report discusses why it is often difficult to find data on missing migrants disaggregated by age. It explores what measures could be taken to improve data on missing migrant children, to help improve policy options and to prevent these tragedies from occurring. The report is a contribution to the joint efforts of UNICEF, UNHCR, IOM, Eurostat and OECD to improve data on migrant and refugee children. Without better data on missing migrants, any policy understanding of children’s migration journeys and the risks and vulnerabilities they face will remain incomplete.
En octobre #2013, l’#Italie lance l’opération #Mare_Nostrum suite au naufrage survenu à quelques kilomètres de l’île de Lampedusa en Sicile où 366 personnes ont perdu la vie. Elle débloque alors des moyens matériels (hélicoptères, bateaux, garde-côtes, aide humanitaire) et des fonds considérables (environ 9 millions d’euros par mois) pour éviter de nouveaux naufrages et contrôler les migrants arrivant au sud de l’Italie.
Au sein de l’Union Européenne, les États votent la résolution #Eurosur qui met en place système européen de surveillance des frontières qui sera assuré par l’agence #Frontex. Frontex est chargée d’assister techniquement les pays pour protéger leurs frontières extérieures et former leurs garde-côtes. En 2018, son siège à Varsovie lui a accordé un budget de 320 millions d’euros. Elle dispose à ce jour (février 2019) de 976 agents, 17 bateaux, 4 avions, 2 hélicoptères, et 59 voitures de patrouille, des moyens qui seront accrus d’ici 2020 avec la formation d’un corps permanent de 10 000 agents et un pouvoir d’exécution renforcé et souhaité par la Commission européenne d’ici 2027.
Dans le cadre de leur mission de surveillance de la mer, les agents de Frontex interceptent les embarcations d’exilés, contrôlent les rescapés et les remettent aux autorités du pays où ils sont débarqués. Les bateaux Frontex sillonnent ainsi les eaux internationales du Maroc à l’Albanie. Les ONG humanitaires l’accusent de vouloir repousser les migrants dans leurs pays d’origine et de transit comme le prévoient les États de l’Union Européenne.
Octobre 2014, l’opération Mare Nostrum qui a pourtant permis de sauver 150 000 personnes en un an et d’arrêter 351 passeurs, est stoppée par l’Italie qui investit 9 millions d’euros par mois et ne veut plus porter cette responsabilité seule. L’agence européenne Frontex via l’opération Triton est chargée de reprendre le flambeau avec des pays membres. Mais elle se contente alors de surveiller uniquement les eaux territoriales européennes là où Mare Nostrum allait jusqu’aux côtes libyennes pour effectuer des sauvetages. La recherche et le sauvetage ne sont plus assurés, faisant de ce passage migratoire le plus mortel au monde. L’Italie qui est alors pointée du doigts par des États membres car elle n’assure plus sa mission de sauvetage, de recherche et de prise en charge au large de ses côtes est dans le même temps accusée par les mêmes d’inciter les traversées « sécurisées » en venant en aide aux exilés et de provoquer un appel d’air. Une accusation démentie très rapidement par le nombre de départs qui est resté le même après l’arrêt de l’opération Mare Nostrum.
L’Italie qui avait déployé un arsenal impressionnant pour le sauvetage durant cette période n’avait pas pour autant assuré la prise en charge et procédé à l’enregistrement des dizaines de milliers d’exilés arrivant sur son sol comme le prévoit l’accord de Dublin (prise empreintes et demande d’asile dans le premier pays d’accueil). Le nombre de demandes d’asile enregistrées fut bien supérieur en France, en Allemagne et en Suède à cette même période.
#2015 marque un tournant des politiques migratoires européennes. Le corps du petit syrien, #Aylan_Kurdi retrouvé sans vie sur une plage turque le 2 septembre 2015, a ému la communauté européenne seulement quelques semaines, rattrapée ensuite par la peur de ne pas pouvoir gérer une crise humanitaire imminente. « Elle n’a jusqu’ici pas trouvé de réponse politique et collective à l’exil », analysent les chercheurs. Les pays membres de l’Union Européenne ont opté jusqu’à ce jour pour des politiques d’endiguement des populations de migrants dans leurs pays d’origine ou de transit comme en Turquie, en Libye ou au Maroc, plutôt que pour des politiques d’intégration.
Seule l’#Allemagne en 2015 avait opté pour une politique d’accueil et du traitement des demandes d’asile sans les conditions imposées par l’accord de #Dublin qui oblige les réfugiés à faire une demande dans le premier pays d’accueil. La chancelière allemande avait permis à un million de personnes de venir en Allemagne et d’entamer une demande d’asile. « Elle démontrait qu’on peut être humaniste tout en légalisant le passage de frontières que l’Europe juge généralement indésirables. Elle a aussi montré que c’est un faux-semblant pour les gouvernements de brandir la menace des extrêmes-droites xénophobes et qu’il est bien au contraire possible d’y répondre par des actes d’hospitalité et des paroles », décrit Michel Agier dans son livre “Les migrants et nous”.
En mars #2016, la #Turquie et l’Union européenne signent un #accord qui prévoit le renvoi des migrants arrivant en Grèce et considérés comme non éligibles à l’asile en Turquie. La Turquie a reçu 3 milliards d’aide afin de garder sur son territoire les candidats pour l’Europe. A ce jour, des réseaux de passeurs entre la Turquie et la #Grèce (5 kms de navigation) sévissent toujours et des milliers de personnes arrivent chaque jour sur les îles grecques où elles sont comme à Lesbos, retenues dans des camps insalubres où l’attente de la demande d’asile est interminable.
En #2017, l’OIM (Office international des migrations), remarque une baisse des arrivées de réfugiés sur le continent européen. Cette baisse est liée à plusieurs facteurs qui vont à l’encontre des conventions des droits des réfugiés à savoir le renforcement des contrôles et interceptions en mer par l’agence Frontex, le refus de l’Europe d’accueillir les rescapés secourus en mer et surtout la remise entre les mains des garde-côtes libyens des coordinations de sauvetages et de leur mise en place, encouragés et financés par l’UE afin de ramener les personnes migrantes en #Libye. Cette baisse ne signifie pas qu’il y a moins de personnes migrantes qui quittent leur pays, arrivent en Libye et quittent ensuite la Libye : 13 185 personnes ont été ainsi interceptées par les Libyens en Méditerranée en 2018, des centaines ont été secourues par les ONG et plus de 2 250 seraient mortes, sans compter celles dont les embarcations n’ont pas été repérées et ont disparu en mer.
En avril #2018, le président Macron suggérait un pacte pour les réfugiés pour réformer le système de #relocalisation des migrants en proposant un programme européen qui soutienne directement financièrement les collectivités locales qui accueillent et intègrent des réfugiés : « nous devons obtenir des résultats tangibles en débloquant le débat empoisonné sur le règlement de Dublin et les relocalisations », déclarait-il. Mais les pourparlers qui suivirent n’ont pas fait caisse de raisonnance et l’Europe accueille au compte goutte.
La #Pologne et la #Hongrie refuse alors l’idée de répartition obligatoire, le premier ministre hongrois
Victor #Orban déclare : « Ils forcent ce plan pour faire de l’Europe un continent mixte, seulement nous, nous résistons encore ».
Le 28 juin 2018, lors d’un sommet, les 28 tentent de s’accorder sur les migrations afin de répartir les personnes réfugiées arrivant en Italie et en Grèce dans les autres pays de l’Union européenne. Mais au terme de ce sommet, de nombreuses questions restent en suspend, les ONG sont consternées. La politique migratoire se durcit.
Juillet 2018, le ministre italien Matteo #Salvini fraîchement élu annonce, en totale violation du droit maritime, la #fermeture_des_ports italiens où étaient débarquées les personnes rescapées par différentes entités transitant en #Méditerranée dont les #ONG humanitaires comme #SOS_Méditerranée et son bateau l’#Aquarius. Les bateaux de huit ONG se retrouvent sans port d’accueil alors que le droit maritime prévoit que toute personne se trouvant en danger en mer doit être secourue par les bateaux les plus proches et être débarquées dans un port sûr (où assistance, logement, hygiène et sécurité sont assurés). Malgré la condition posée par l’Italie de ré-ouvrir ses ports si les autres États européens prennent en charge une part des migrants arrivant sur son sol, aucun d’entre eux ne s’est manifesté. Ils font aujourd’hui attendre plusieurs jours, voir semaines, les bateaux d’ONG ayant à leur bord seulement des dizaines de rescapés avant de se décider enfin à en accueillir quelques uns.
Les 28 proposent des #zones_de_débarquement hors Europe, dans des pays comme la Libye, la Turquie, le Maroc, le Niger où seraient mis en place des centres fermés ou ouverts dans lesquels serait établie la différence entre migrants irréguliers à expulser et les demandeurs d’asile légitimes à répartir en Europe, avec le risque que nombre d’entre eux restent en réalité bloqués dans ces pays. Des pays où les droits de l’homme et le droit à la sécurité des migrants en situation de vulnérabilité, droits protégés en principe par les conventions dont les Européens sont signataires, risquent de ne pas d’être respectés. Des représentants du Maroc, de la Tunisie et d’Albanie, pays également évoqués par les Européens ont déjà fait savoir qu’ils ne sont pas favorables à une telle décision.
#plateformes_de_désembarquement #disembarkation_paltforms #plateformes_de_débarquement #regional_disembarkation_platforms
Malgré les rapports des ONG, Médecins sans frontières, Oxfam, LDH, Amnesty International et les rappels à l’ordre des Nations Unies sur les conditions de vie inhumaines vécues par les exilés retenus en Grèce, en Libye, au Niger, les pays de l’Union européenne, ne bougent pas d’un millimètre et campent sur la #fermeture_des_frontières, avec des hommes politiques attachés à l’opinion publique qui suit dangereusement le jeu xénophobe de la Hongrie et de la Pologne, chefs de file et principaux instigateurs de la peur de l’étranger.
Réticences européennes contre mobilisations citoyennes :
Malgré les positions strictes de l’Europe, les citoyens partout en Europe poursuivent leurs actions, leurs soutiens et solidarités envers les ONG. SOS Méditerranée active en France, Allemagne, Italie, et Suisse est à la recherche d’une nouveau bateau et armateur, les bateaux des ONG Sea Watch et Sea Eye tentent leur retour en mer, des pilotes solidaires originaires de Chamonix proposent un soutien d’observation aérienne, la ligne de l’association Alarm Phone gérée par des bénévoles continue de recevoir des appels de détresse venant de la Méditerranée, ils sont ensuite transmis aux bateaux présents sur zone. Partout en Europe, des citoyens organisent la solidarité et des espaces de sécurité pour les exilés en mal d’humanité.
« L’école française du Mime »
Je viens de découvrir la fiche « L’école française du Mime » répertoriée par le Ministère de la Culture dans « Expressions et traditions orales »… le Mime dans « les traditions orales » ? Admettons. Ne cherchons pas à comprendre, c’est le Ministère de la Culture. Le problème, quand on fait une liste, est qu’il ne faut surtout pas oublier une personne. Au risque de passer pour un approximatif, un négligeant. Et de surcroît, on peut vexer la dite personne. Ici, le grand absent est un grande absente. Elle ne pourra pas se vexer car il s’agit de... Suzanne Bing. Il est vrai que le document date de juin 2017, mais tout même, soyons sensibles et reconnaissants à la place de la femme dans l’art du Mime. Jacques Copeau y est cité sept fois et Suzanne Bing : zéro ! Qu’aurait été l’École du Vieux Colombier, si elle n’avait pas concrétisé les idées du « Maître » ? Comme, on pourrait dire également : Qu’aurait-été en 1913 la troupe du Vieux Colombier sans le régisseur Louis Jouvet ? Mais je digresse… Donc je l’affirme : Sans Suzanne Bing, il n’y aurait pas eu d’École du Vieux Colombier. Il n’y aurait pas eu cette source de pédagogie, de recherche, de pratique artistique qui a donnée naissance à Charles Dullin et Étienne Decroux. Un peu de reconnaissance quand même ! Après dans cette liste, il manque de nombreuses personnes qui font vivre le Mime en France. Par exemple, le Mime Hervé Demet qui n’est pas cité et qui fait un travail « remarquable ». Il y a aussi toute la promotion de 1996 de l’École Internationale de Mimodrame de Paris – MARCEL MARCEAU. Aucun n’y figure ! Bon en même temps, on n’était que six. Et ne décelez pas chez moi de l’amertume, jalousie et autre vexation. Je ne tiens surtout pas à figurer dans une liste de l’état français. On est suffisamment fichés comme ça. Et un état qui mutile ses opposants politiques ne me plaît pas…
Source : ▻https://www.silencecommunity.com/file/view/47236/« l’ecole-francaise-du-mime »
#France #Culture #Ministère_de_la_Culture #fiche #Mime #artiste_mime #école #école_française #école_française_du_Mime #Jacques_Copeau #Marcel_Marceau #Charles_Dullin #Étienne_Decroux #Suzanne_Bing #Bing #Louis_Jouvet #Hervé_Demet #Sylvie_Grenet #2017 #Grenet
Les Italiens quittent en masse leur pays, mais on n’en parle pas...
Les chiffres du Sud de l’Italie :
Les migrants quittent aussi l’Italie :
Nel 2002, più italiani tornavano in Italia di quanti se ne andavano. Fino al 2010, bilancio quasi in pari.
Oggi «perdiamo» quasi 80.000 italiani l’anno.
28mila laureati se ne vanno ogni anno. E no, non è retorica: è la prima emergenza dell’Italia
Le baromètre des villes cyclables #2017 ouvre ses données
A l’occasion de la stratégie gouvernementale d’épuisement de l’insurrection en court, la Fédération française des usagers de la bicyclette (FUB) met en open-data l’ensemble des réponses libres issues du baromètre Lire la suite...
Réfugiés afghans en France, #taux_de_protection
En étudiant les statistiques d’Eurostat je constate quelque chose d’étonnant : le pourcentage d’accord de protection baisse étrangement sur les 2e et 3e trimestre 2018, en France.
Le taux de reconnaissance en France est stable depuis plusieurs années, entre 80 et 85%, mais au 2e trimestre 2018 il baisse à 79%, et descend jusqu’à 59% au 3e trimestre. Pas de statistiques encore dispo pour le 4e trimestre.
Je joins le graphique réalisé à partir des données Eurostat, avez-vous une idée pour expliquer ça ?
J’ai vérifié, à l’échelle européenne je ne constate pas de baisse similaire, au 3e trimestre 2018 il y a même plutôt une augmentation (54%, alors qu’on est plutôt dans les 46% de taux moyens sur les 10 précédents trimestres.
En Allemagne, le taux d’obtention est lui aussi assez stable (dans les 45%), malgré une baisse énorme des demandes pour les afghans (46 745 demandes au premier trimestre 2017, et 2890 demandes au 4e trimestre 2018).
–-> Email de David Torondel, reçu via la mailing-list Migreurp
Canarias recibió el año pasado 1.307 inmigrantes llegados en patera o cayuco, el triple que en 2017, cuando se registraron 425 (+207,5 %), según el balance del ejercicio que acaba de publicar el Ministerio del Interior.
A lo largo de 2018, llegaron a las islas o fueron socorridas en su ámbito de influencia 69 embarcaciones con inmigrantes irregulares, 49 más que el año anterior (+245,0 %).
El pasado año llegaron 57.498 inmigrantes irregulares a las costas españolas por medio de embarcaciones, lo que supone un incremento del 161,7 por ciento respecto a los 21.971 que entraron por esa vía en 2017 (2,6 veces más).
Según el último balance provisional del Ministerio del Interior, el total de inmigrantes que entraron a España entre el 1 de enero y el 31 de diciembre pasados, tanto en patera como por las fronteras de Ceuta y Melilla, asciende a 64.298, un 131 % más que en 2017.
La mayoría de las entradas por mar han sido a través de las costas peninsulares y Baleares, en concreto, 54.703 en 1.955 pateras, frente a los 20.611 de 2017 (un 165,4 % más).
Por la ciudad autónoma de Melilla han entrado 918 personas en 34 pateras y por Ceuta 570 en 51 barcazas (678 y 257 inmigrantes en 2017, respectivamente).
Interior ha registrado, además, otras 6.800 llegadas por vía terrestre: 4.821 a Melilla (un 24 % más que en 2017) y 1.979 a Ceuta (1,1 % menos que un año antes).
Sbarchi e accoglienza dei migranti : tutti i dati
Document en pdf à télécharger :
Les graphiques :
Arrivées le 3 janvier 2018, comparé au 3 janvier 2017 et 2016 (donc juste un jour) :
Arrivées, comparatif années 2018-2017-2016 :
#Ports d’arrivée :
#Nationalité des migrants :
Accelerated remittances growth to low- and middle-income countries in 2018
Remittances to low- and middle-income countries grew rapidly and are projected to reach a new record in 2018, says the latest edition of the World Bank’s Migration and Development Brief, released today.
The Bank estimates that officially recorded remittances to developing countries will increase by 10.8 percent to reach $528 billion in 2018. This new record level follows robust growth of 7.8 percent in 2017. Global remittances, which include flows to high-income countries, are projected to grow by 10.3 percent to $689 billion.
Remittance flows rose in all regions, most notably in Europe and Central Asia (20 percent) and South Asia (13.5 percent), followed by Sub-Saharan Africa (9.8 percent), Latin America and the Caribbean (9.3 percent), the Middle East and North Africa (9.1 percent), and East Asia and the Pacific (6.6 percent). Growth was driven by a stronger economy and employment situation in the United States and a rebound in outward flows from Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries and the Russian Federation.
Among major remittance recipients, India retains its top spot, with remittances expected to total $80 billion this year, followed by China ($67 billion), Mexico and the Philippines ($34 billion each), and Egypt ($26 billion).
As global growth is projected to moderate, future remittances to low- and middle-income countries are expected to grow moderately by 4 percent to reach $549 billion in 2019. Global remittances are expected to grow 3.7 percent to $715 billion in 2019.
The Brief notes that the global average cost of sending $200 remains high at 6.9 percent in the third quarter of 2018. Reducing remittance costs to 3 percent by 2030 is a global target under #Sustainable_Development_Goals (SDG) 10.7. Increasing the volume of remittances is also a global goal under the proposals for raising financing for the SDGs.
#Rapport : Migration and Remittances
This Migration and Development Brief reports global trends in migration and remittance flows. It highlights developments connected to migration-related Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) indicators for which the World Bank is a custodian: increasing the volume of remittances as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) (SDG indicator 17.3.2), reducing remittance costs (SDG indicator 10.c.1), and reducing recruitment costs for migrant workers (SDG indicator 10.7.1). This Brief also presents recent developments on the Global Compact on Migration (GCM) and proposes an implementation and review mechanism.
Pour télécharger le rapport :
International Remittances Headline ACP-EU-IOM Discussions in #Ghana
In Sub-Saharan Africa, the flow of remittances is on the rise, but the cost to transfer these funds is far higher than the global average, making the region the most expensive place in the world to send money.
The International Organization for Migration (IOM) and partners focused on improving the use of migrant remittances, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa at a three-day regional thematic meeting starting today (19/02) in Accra, Ghana.
International remittances have been taking on increasing weight in the global policy agenda in recent years according to Jeffrey Labovitz, IOM Regional Director for East and Horn of Africa, who is speaking at the event.
“This in part reflects the growing understanding that improving and harnessing the flow of remittances can have a substantial impact on development,” he said.
Remittances to Sub-Saharan Africa grew from USD 34 billion in 2016 to USD 38 billion in 2017, an increase of over 11 per cent. Despite this increase – a trend which is expected to continue through 2019 – Sub-Saharan Africa remains the most expensive place in the world to send money with an average cost of 9.4 per cent of the transfer amount, a figure that was 29 per cent above the world average in 2017. This is far short of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) target 10.C.3 to reduce the transaction costs of migrant remittances to less than 3 per cent by 2030.
“Almost 75 per cent of remittances are spent on consumption which greatly benefit the receiving households and communities,” said Claudia Natali, Regional Specialist on Labour Mobility and Development at the IOM Regional Office for West and Central Africa.
“But more could be done to maximize the remaining 25 per cent. Fostering financial inclusion and promoting initiatives that help people manage the funds can go a long way to harness development impacts of remittances,” she added.
The meeting, which runs through Thursday (21/02), is providing a platform for communication, exchange and learning for 80 participants involved in IOM’s “ACP-EU Migration Action", including migration experts and representatives from African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) governments, regional organizations, the European Union (EU), UN agencies and NGOs working in remittances and diaspora mobilization.
Given that remittances are at the heart of the joint ACP Group of States and European Union Dialogue’s recommendations on migration, discussions also aim to generate thematic recommendations for the Sub-Saharan region and establish links between the outcomes of the ACP-EU Migration Action programme, and processes relevant to the ACP-EU Dialogue on Migration and Development at the regional and global levels.
The meeting is organized by IOM’s country office for Ghana and the IOM Regional Office in Brussels in partnership with the African Institute for Remittances (AIR) and Making Finance Work for Africa Partnership (MFW4A).
IOM’s ACP-EU Migration Action, launched in June 2014, provides tailored technical support on migration to ACP countries and regional organizations. To date it has received 74 technical assistance requests from 67 ACP governments and 7 regional organizations, a third of which directly concern remittances.
The programme is financed by the 10th European Development Fund (EDF) and supported by the ACP Secretariat and the EU. For more information on the ACP-EU Migration Action, go to: www.acpeumigrationaction.iom.int.
The cost of cross-border payments needs to drop
FOR MOST of human history, sending money across borders has cost the earth. Thankfully for globetrotters and e-shoppers in the rich world, that has changed in the past decade. A shift from cash and travellers’ cheques towards digital payments has cut the cost of moving funds around. And a new generation of fintech firms has broken the stranglehold that big banks used to have on money transfers (see article). As a result, fees have fallen. The cost of a transfer between consumers or small firms who are both in G7 countries can now cost 2% or less. This year some $10trn will pass across borders. As prices fall further, the sums will grow.
#ILO Global Estimates on International Migrant Workers – Results and Methodology
If the right policies are in place, labour migration can help countries respond to shifts in labour supply and demand, stimulate innovation and sustainable development, and transfer and update skills. However, a lack of international standards regarding concepts, definitions and methodologies for measuring labour migration data still needs to be addressed.
This report gives global and regional estimates, broken down by income group, gender and age. It also describes the data, sources and methodology used, as well as the corresponding limitations.
The report seeks to contribute to the 2018 Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration and to achieving SDG targets 8.8 and 10.7.
Global migrant numbers up 20 percent
Migrants of working age make up 4.2 percent of the global population, and the number is growing. A UN report notes how poorer countries are increasingly supplying labor to richer ones to their own detriment.
There are 277 million international migrants, 234 million migrants of working age (15 and older) and 164 million migrant workers worldwide, according to a UN report.
Figures for 2017 from the United Nations’ Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN/DESA) published on Wednesday show that migrants of working age make up 4.2 percent of the global population aged 15 and older, while migrant workers constitute 4.7 percent of all workers.
The numbers rose by almost 20 percent between 2013 and 2017 for international migrants, 13 percent for migrants of working age and 9 percent for migrant workers.
Of the 164 million migrant workers worldwide, 111.2 million (67.9 percent) are employed in high-income countries, 30.5 million (18.6 percent) in upper middle-income countries, 16.6 million (10.1 percent) in lower middle- income countries and 5.6 million (3.4 percent) in low-income countries.
From 2013 to 2017, the concentration of migrant workers in high-income countries fell from 74.7 to 67.9 percent, while their share in upper middle-income countries increased, suggesting a shift in the number of migrant workers from high-income to lower-income countries.
The report noted that this growing number could be attributed to the economic development of some lower-income nations, particularly if these countries are in close proximity to migrant origin countries with close social networks.
The share of migrant workers in the labor force of destination countries has increased in all income groups except for lower middle-income countries.
In high-income countries, falling numbers of migrant workers were observed simultaneously with a higher share in the labor force as a result of the sharp fall in the labor force participation of non-migrants, due to a variety of factors such as changes in demographics, technology and immigration policies.
“Stricter migration policies in high-income countries and stronger economic growth among upper middle-income countries may also contribute to the trends observed,” the report noted.
Some 60.8 percent of all migrant workers are found in three subregions: Northern America (23.0 percent), Northern, Southern and Western Europe (23.9 percent) and Arab States (13.9 percent). The lowest number of migrant workers is hosted by Northern Africa (less than 1 percent).
The subregion with the largest share of migrant workers as a proportion of all workers is Arab States (40.8 percent), followed by Northern America (20.6 percent) and Northern, Southern and Western Europe (17.8 percent).
In nine out of 11 subregions, the labor force participation rate of migrants is higher than that of non-migrants. The largest difference is in the Arab States, where the labor force participation rate of migrants (75.4 percent) is substantially higher than that of non-migrants (42.2 percent).
Among migrant workers, 96 million are men and 68 million are women. In 2017, the stock of male migrant workers was estimated to be 95.7 million, while the corresponding estimate for female migrant workers was 68.1 million.
“The higher proportion of men among migrant workers may also be explained by...the higher likelihood of women to migrate for reasons other than employment (for instance, for family reunification), as well as by possible discrimination against women that reduces their employment opportunities in destination countries,” the report noted.
It added that societal stigmatization, the discriminatory impacts of policies and legislation and violence and harassment undermine women’s access to decent work and can result in low pay, the absence of equal pay and the undervaluation of female-dominated sectors.
Prime-age adults (ages 25-64) constitute nearly 87 percent of migrant workers. Youth workers (aged 15-24) and older workers (aged 65 plus) constitute 8.3 percent and 5.2 percent, respectively, of migrant workers. This age composition holds for male and female migrant workers alike.
“The fact that the overwhelming majority of migrant workers consist of prime-age adults suggests that some countries of origin are losing the most productive part of their workforce, which could have a negative impact on their economic growth,” the report noted, but it added that emigration of prime-age individuals may also provide a source of remittances for countries of origin.
Destination countries, meanwhile, benefit from receiving prime-age workers as they are increasingly faced with demographic pressures.
Labor shortage in Germany
Germany’s BDI industry association said skilled labor from abroad was key to Germany’s future economic success. “The integration of skilled workers from other countries contributes significantly to growth and jobs,” BDI President Dieter Kempf said.
The country’s VDE association of electrical, electronic and IT engineering was the latest group in Germany to point to the growing need for foreign experts. Emphasizing that Germany itself was training too few engineers, VDE said there would be a shortage of 100,000 electrical engineers over the next 10 years.
“We will strive to increase the number of engineers by means of migration,” VDE President Gunther Kegel noted.
Al menos uno de cada cuatro movimientos migratorios son retornos a los países de origen
Un estudio estima que entre el 26% y el 31% de los flujos de migración mundiales consisten en regresos a los lugares de partida. En los últimos 25 años apenas ha habido cambios en la proporción de población migrante mundial
GLOBAL MIGRATION INDICATORS
Préparé par le Centre mondial d’analyse des données sur la migration (CMADM) de l’OIM, le rapport 2018 sur les indicateurs de la migration dans le monde résume les principales tendances mondiales en fonction des dernières statistiques, présentant 21 indicateurs dans 17 domaines relatifs à la migration.
Le rapport s’appuie sur des statistiques provenant de sources diverses facilement accessibles sur le Global Migration Data Portal.
Le rapport regroupe les statistiques les plus récentes dans des domaines comme la migration de main-d’œuvre, les réfugiés, les étudiants internationaux, les envois de fonds, le trafic illicite de migrants, la gouvernance des migrations et bien d’autres, permettant aux responsables politiques et au grand public d’avoir un aperçu de l’ampleur et des dynamiques de la migration à travers le monde.
Par ailleurs, le rapport est le premier à faire le lien entre le programme mondial de gouvernance des migrations et les débats sur les données migratoires. Les thèmes choisis sont particulièrement pertinents pour le Pacte mondial pour des migrations sûres, ordonnées et régulières et pour les Objectifs de développement durable (ODD). Le rapport fait un état des lieux des données sur chaque thème et propose des solutions pour les améliorer.
« Bien que le Pacte mondial sur la migration et les ODD soient des cadres importants pour améliorer la façon dont nous gérons les migrations, des données plus précises et fiables sur les sujets relatifs à la migration sont nécessaires pour tirer parti de cette opportunité. Ce rapport donne un aperçu global de ce que nous savons et ne savons pas sur les tendances de la migration dans le monde », a déclaré Frank Laczko, Directeur du CMADM.
« La communauté internationale prend des mesures pour renforcer la collecte et la gestion des données sur la migration mais il reste beaucoup à faire. Une base de données solide est essentielle pour éclairer les politiques nationales sur la migration et seront plus que jamais nécessaires à la lumière du Pacte mondial pour des migrations sûres, ordonnées et régulières », a déclaré Antonio Vitorino, le nouveau Directeur général de l’Organisation internationale pour les migrations.
Pour télécharger le rapport :
Quelques éléments-clé :
Atlante #Sprar: presentati i dati degli 877 Sprar in Italia
Oggi la Rete Sprar è costituita da 877 progetti territoriali di accoglienza, con 1.825 comuni interessati. I posti di accoglienza sono 35.881, di cui 3.500 per minori stranieri non accompagnati e 734 per persone con disagio mentale o disabilità.
Nel corso del 2017 nei 31.340 posti disponibili sono stati accolti 36.995 beneficiari, 2.117 i nuclei familiari composti da 6.346 persone in totale. 4.584 i minori, di cui 3.127 senza famiglia (MSNA). 7.800 le persone con esigenze particolari perché vittime di tortura e di violenze, vittime di tratta di esseri umani, donne sole in stato di gravidanza, con problemi di carattere sanitario.
Il 70% delle persone uscite dallo Sprar nel 2017 (oltre 9.000) ha terminato il percorso di accoglienza avendo acquisito gli strumenti per una propria autonomia.
25.480 adulti hanno frequentato almeno un corso di lingua, 15.976 un corso di formazione professionale e svolto un tirocinio formativo. 4.265 i beneficiari che hanno trovato un’occupazione lavorativa.
“I dati presentati oggi confermano ancora una volta che la rete dei Comuni è, in termini di servizi, capacità di integrare, sostenibilità per le comunità residenti, di gran lunga la migliore esperienza che l’Italia abbia prodotto, oltre che una delle migliori d’Europa” dichiara Matteo Biffoni, delegato dell’Anci per l’immigrazione. “Per questo è del tutto comprensibile e condivisibile la preoccupazione che tanti Comuni hanno espresso in queste settimane a proposito del decreto Salvini”.
“Gli emendamenti definiti in Commissione immigrazione di Anci” continua Biffoni “pur non intaccando l’impianto complessivo, potrebbero mitigare molto l’impatto critico della riforma, perché permetterebbero ai Comuni di continuare ad occuparsi dei casi più vulnerabili nell’ambito dello SPRAR e non a esclusivo carico dei servizi locali. Ci sono ancora i margini per un miglioramento del testo in Parlamento e siamo fiduciosi in possibili aperture”.
“Stiamo registrando negli ultimi giorni, a partire dall’incontro con il sottosegretario Molteni al Tavolo di coordinamento nazionale, un’apertura, una disponibilità al dialogo da parte del Governo con i Comuni” riferisce il presidente dell’Anci e sindaco di Bari, Antonio Decaro. “Come abbiamo detto più volte – continua Decaro – se noi sindaci ci siamo impegnati per l’accoglienza diffusa dei migranti, pur non avendo una responsabilità diretta, per legge, è stato sempre per evitare che la concentrazione di un gran numero di stranieri in paesi anche piccoli creasse tensioni sociali, per collaborare, quindi, a un’integrazione possibile nell’interesse di ospiti e residenti, della pace sociale e di chi deve assicurarla. Ora vogliamo essere fiduciosi che i contatti avviati a livello tecnico con il ministero si concretizzino in una riorganizzazione sì dell’accoglienza, ma senza rinunciare a quel principio che si è realizzato negli Sprar. Deve essere chiaro a tutti che i migranti lasciati senza protezione, non spariranno dal nostro territorio. Ma rischieranno di diventare irregolari, occupanti abusivi nella migliore delle ipotesi, o braccia a disposizione della criminalità, nella peggiore”.
Pour télécharger le rapport:
56,800 migrant dead and missing : ’They are human beings’
One by one, five to a grave, the coffins are buried in the red earth of this ill-kept corner of a South African cemetery. The scrawl on the cheap wood attests to their anonymity: “Unknown B/Male.”
These men were migrants from elsewhere in Africa with next to nothing who sought a living in the thriving underground economy of Gauteng province, a name that roughly translates to “land of gold.” Instead of fortune, many found death, their bodies unnamed and unclaimed — more than 4,300 in Gauteng between 2014 and 2017 alone.
Some of those lives ended here at the Olifantsvlei cemetery, in silence, among tufts of grass growing over tiny placards that read: Pauper Block. There are coffins so tiny that they could belong only to children.
As migration worldwide soars to record highs, far less visible has been its toll: The tens of thousands of people who die or simply disappear during their journeys, never to be seen again. In most cases, nobody is keeping track: Barely counted in life, these people don’t register in death , as if they never lived at all.
An Associated Press tally has documented at least 56,800 migrants dead or missing worldwide since 2014 — almost double the number found in the world’s only official attempt to try to count them, by the U.N.’s International Organization for Migration. The IOM toll as of Oct. 1 was more than 28,500. The AP came up with almost 28,300 additional dead or missing migrants by compiling information from other international groups, requesting forensic records, missing persons reports and death records, and sifting through data from thousands of interviews with migrants.
The toll is the result of migration that is up 49 percent since the turn of the century, with more than 258 million international migrants in 2017, according to the United Nations. A growing number have drowned, died in deserts or fallen prey to traffickers, leaving their families to wonder what on earth happened to them. At the same time, anonymous bodies are filling cemeteries around the world, like the one in Gauteng.
The AP’s tally is still low. More bodies of migrants lie undiscovered in desert sands or at the bottom of the sea. And families don’t always report loved ones as missing because they migrated illegally, or because they left home without saying exactly where they were headed.
The official U.N. toll focuses mostly on Europe, but even there cases fall through the cracks. The political tide is turning against migrants in Europe just as in the United States, where the government is cracking down heavily on caravans of Central Americans trying to get in . One result is that money is drying up for projects to track migration and its costs.
For example, when more than 800 people died in an April 2015 shipwreck off the coast of Italy, Europe’s deadliest migrant sea disaster, Italian investigators pledged to identify them and find their families. More than three years later, under a new populist government, funding for this work is being cut off.
Beyond Europe, information is even more scarce. Little is known about the toll in South America, where the Venezuelan migration is among the world’s biggest today, and in Asia, the top region for numbers of migrants.
The result is that governments vastly underestimate the toll of migration, a major political and social issue in most of the world today.
“No matter where you stand on the whole migration management debate....these are still human beings on the move,” said Bram Frouws, the head of the Mixed Migration Centre , based in Geneva, which has done surveys of more than 20,000 migrants in its 4Mi project since 2014. “Whether it’s refugees or people moving for jobs, they are human beings.”
They leave behind families caught between hope and mourning, like that of Safi al-Bahri. Her son, Majdi Barhoumi, left their hometown of Ras Jebel, Tunisia, on May 7, 2011, headed for Europe in a small boat with a dozen other migrants. The boat sank and Barhoumi hasn’t been heard from since. In a sign of faith that he is still alive, his parents built an animal pen with a brood of hens, a few cows and a dog to stand watch until he returns.
“I just wait for him. I always imagine him behind me, at home, in the market, everywhere,” said al-Bahari. “When I hear a voice at night, I think he’s come back. When I hear the sound of a motorcycle, I think my son is back.”
EUROPE: BOATS THAT NEVER ARRIVE
Of the world’s migration crises, Europe’s has been the most cruelly visible. Images of the lifeless body of a Kurdish toddler on a beach, frozen tent camps in Eastern Europe, and a nearly numbing succession of deadly shipwrecks have been transmitted around the world, adding to the furor over migration.
In the Mediterranean, scores of tankers, cargo boats, cruise ships and military vessels tower over tiny, crowded rafts powered by an outboard motor for a one-way trip. Even larger boats carrying hundreds of migrants may go down when soft breezes turn into battering winds and thrashing waves further from shore.
Two shipwrecks and the deaths of at least 368 people off the coast of Italy in October 2013 prompted the IOM’s research into migrant deaths. The organization has focused on deaths in the Mediterranean, although its researchers plead for more data from elsewhere in the world. This year alone, the IOM has found more than 1,700 deaths in the waters that divide Africa and Europe.
Like the lost Tunisians of Ras Jebel, most of them set off to look for work. Barhoumi, his friends, cousins and other would-be migrants camped in the seaside brush the night before their departure, listening to the crash of the waves that ultimately would sink their raft.
Khalid Arfaoui had planned to be among them. When the group knocked at his door, it wasn’t fear that held him back, but a lack of cash. Everyone needed to chip in to pay for the boat, gas and supplies, and he was short about $100. So he sat inside and watched as they left for the beachside campsite where even today locals spend the night before embarking to Europe.
Propelled by a feeble outboard motor and overburdened with its passengers, the rubber raft flipped, possibly after grazing rocks below the surface on an uninhabited island just offshore. Two bodies were retrieved. The lone survivor was found clinging to debris eight hours later.
The Tunisian government has never tallied its missing, and the group never made it close enough to Europe to catch the attention of authorities there. So these migrants never have been counted among the dead and missing.
“If I had gone with them, I’d be lost like the others,” Arfaoui said recently, standing on the rocky shoreline with a group of friends, all of whom vaguely planned to leave for Europe. “If I get the chance, I’ll do it. Even if I fear the sea and I know I might die, I’ll do it.”
With him that day was 30-year-old Mounir Aguida, who had already made the trip once, drifting for 19 hours after the boat engine cut out. In late August this year, he crammed into another raft with seven friends, feeling the waves slam the flimsy bow. At the last minute he and another young man jumped out.
“It didn’t feel right,” Aguida said.
There has been no word from the other six — yet another group of Ras Jebel’s youth lost to the sea. With no shipwreck reported, no survivors to rescue and no bodies to identify, the six young men are not counted in any toll.
In addition to watching its own youth flee, Tunisia and to a lesser degree neighboring Algeria are transit points for other Africans north bound for Europe. Tunisia has its own cemetery for unidentified migrants, as do Greece, Italy and Turkey. The one at Tunisia’s southern coast is tended by an unemployed sailor named Chamseddin Marzouk.
Of around 400 bodies interred in the coastal graveyard since it opened in 2005, only one has ever been identified. As for the others who lie beneath piles of dirt, Marzouk couldn’t imagine how their families would ever learn their fate.
“Their families may think that the person is still alive, or that he’ll return one day to visit,” Marzouk said. “They don’t know that those they await are buried here, in Zarzis, Tunisia.”
AFRICA: VANISHING WITHOUT A TRACE
Despite talk of the ’waves’ of African migrants trying to cross the Mediterranean, as many migrate within Africa — 16 million — as leave for Europe. In all, since 2014, at least 18,400 African migrants have died traveling within Africa, according to the figures compiled from AP and IOM records. That includes more than 4,300 unidentified bodies in a single South African province, and 8,700 whose traveling companions reported their disappearance en route out of the Horn of Africa in interviews with 4Mi.
When people vanish while migrating in Africa, it is often without a trace. The IOM says the Sahara Desert may well have killed more migrants than the Mediterranean. But no one will ever know for sure in a region where borders are little more than lines drawn on maps and no government is searching an expanse as large as the continental United States. The harsh sun and swirling desert sands quickly decompose and bury bodies of migrants, so that even when they turn up, they are usually impossible to identify .
With a prosperous economy and stable government, South Africa draws more migrants than any other country in Africa. The government is a meticulous collector of fingerprints — nearly every legal resident and citizen has a file somewhere — so bodies without any records are assumed to have been living and working in the country illegally. The corpses are fingerprinted when possible, but there is no regular DNA collection.
South Africa also has one of the world’s highest rates of violent crime and police are more focused on solving domestic cases than identifying migrants.
“There’s logic to that, as sad as it is....You want to find the killer if you’re a policeman, because the killer could kill more people,” said Jeanine Vellema, the chief specialist of the province’s eight mortuaries. Migrant identification, meanwhile, is largely an issue for foreign families — and poor ones at that.
Vellema has tried to patch into the police missing persons system, to build a system of electronic mortuary records and to establish a protocol where a DNA sample is taken from every set of remains that arrive at the morgue. She sighs: “Resources.” It’s a word that comes up 10 times in a half-hour conversation.
So the bodies end up at Olifantsvlei or a cemetery like it, in unnamed graves. On a recent visit by AP, a series of open rectangles awaited the bodies of the unidentified and unclaimed. They did not wait long: a pickup truck drove up, piled with about 10 coffins, five per grave. There were at least 180 grave markers for the anonymous dead, with multiple bodies in each grave.
The International Committee of the Red Cross, which is working with Vellema, has started a pilot project with one Gauteng morgue to take detailed photos, fingerprints, dental information and DNA samples of unidentified bodies. That information goes to a database where, in theory, the bodies can be traced.
“Every person has a right to their dignity. And to their identity,” said Stephen Fonseca, the ICRC regional forensic manager.
THE UNITED STATES: “THAT’S HOW MY BROTHER USED TO SLEEP”
More than 6,000 miles (9,000 kilometers) away, in the deserts that straddle the U.S.-Mexico border, lie the bodies of migrants who perished trying to cross land as unforgiving as the waters of the Mediterranean. Many fled the violence and poverty of Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador or Mexico. Some are found months or years later as mere skeletons. Others make a last, desperate phone call and are never heard from again.
In 2010 the Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team and the local morgue in Pima County, Ariz., began to organize efforts to put names to the anonymous bodies found on both sides of the border. The “Border Project” has since identified more than 183 people — a fraction of the total.
At least 3,861 migrants are dead and missing on the route from Mexico to the United States since 2014, according to the combined AP and IOM total. The tally includes missing person reports from the Colibri Center for Human Rights on the U.S. side as well as the Argentine group’s data from the Mexican side. The painstaking work of identification can take years, hampered by a lack of resources, official records and coordination between countries — and even between states.
For many families of the missing, it is their only hope, but for the families of Juan Lorenzo Luna and Armando Reyes, that hope is fading.
Luna, 27, and Reyes, 22, were brothers-in-law who left their small northern Mexico town of Gomez Palacio in August 2016. They had tried to cross to the U.S. four months earlier, but surrendered to border patrol agents in exhaustion and were deported.
They knew they were risking their lives — Reyes’ father died migrating in 1995, and an uncle went missing in 2004. But Luna, a quiet family man, wanted to make enough money to buy a pickup truck and then return to his wife and two children. Reyes wanted a job where he wouldn’t get his shoes dirty and could give his newborn daughter a better life.
Of the five who left Gomez Palacio together, two men made it to safety, and one man turned back. The only information he gave was that the brothers-in-law had stopped walking and planned to turn themselves in again. That is the last that is known of them.
Officials told their families that they had scoured prisons and detention centers, but there was no sign of the missing men. Cesaria Orona even consulted a fortune teller about her missing son, Armando, and was told he had died in the desert.
One weekend in June 2017, volunteers found eight bodies next to a military area of the Arizona desert and posted the images online in the hopes of finding family. Maria Elena Luna came across a Facebook photo of a decaying body found in an arid landscape dotted with cactus and shrubs, lying face-up with one leg bent outward. There was something horribly familiar about the pose.
“That’s how my brother used to sleep,” she whispered.
Along with the bodies, the volunteers found a credential of a boy from Guatemala, a photo and a piece of paper with a number written on it. The photo was of Juan Lorenzo Luna, and the number on the paper was for cousins of the family. But investigators warned that a wallet or credential could have been stolen, as migrants are frequently robbed.
“We all cried,” Luna recalled. “But I said, we cannot be sure until we have the DNA test. Let’s wait.”
Luna and Orona gave DNA samples to the Mexican government and the Argentine group. In November 2017, Orona received a letter from the Mexican government saying that there was the possibility of a match for Armando with some bone remains found in Nuevo Leon, a state that borders Texas. But the test was negative.
The women are still waiting for results from the Argentine pathologists. Until then, their relatives remain among the uncounted.
Orona holds out hope that the men may be locked up, or held by “bad people.” Every time Luna hears about clandestine graves or unidentified bodies in the news, the anguish is sharp.
“Suddenly all the memories come back,” she said. “I do not want to think.”
SOUTH AMERICA: “NO ONE WANTS TO ADMIT THIS IS A REALITY”
The toll of the dead and the missing has been all but ignored in one of the largest population movements in the world today — that of nearly 2 million Venezuelans fleeing from their country’s collapse. These migrants have hopped buses across the borders, boarded flimsy boats in the Caribbean, and — when all else failed — walked for days along scorching highways and freezing mountain trails. Vulnerable to violence from drug cartels, hunger and illness that lingers even after reaching their destination, they have disappeared or died by the hundreds.
“They can’t withstand a trip that hard, because the journey is very long,” said Carlos Valdes, director of neighboring Colombia’s national forensic institute. “And many times, they only eat once a day. They don’t eat. And they die.” Valdes said authorities don’t always recover the bodies of those who die, as some migrants who have entered the country illegally are afraid to seek help.
Valdes believes hypothermia has killed some as they trek through the mountain tundra region, but he had no idea how many. One migrant told the AP he saw a family burying someone wrapped in a white blanket with red flowers along the frigid journey.
Marta Duque, 55, has had a front seat to the Venezuela migration crisis from her home in Pamplona, Colombia. She opens her doors nightly to provide shelter for families with young children. Pamplona is one of the last cities migrants reach before venturing up a frigid mountain paramo, one of the most dangerous parts of the trip for migrants traveling by foot. Temperatures dip well below freezing.
She said inaction from authorities has forced citizens like her to step in.
“Everyone just seems to pass the ball,” she said. “No one wants to admit this is a reality.”
Those deaths are uncounted, as are dozens in the sea. Also uncounted are those reported missing in Colombia, Peru and Ecuador. In all at least 3,410 Venezuelans have been reported missing or dead in a migration within Latin America whose dangers have gone relatively unnoticed; many of the dead perished from illnesses on the rise in Venezuela that easily would have found treatment in better times.
Among the missing is Randy Javier Gutierrez, who was walking through Colombia with a cousin and his aunt in hopes of reaching Peru to reunite with his mother.
Gutierrez’s mother, Mariela Gamboa, said that a driver offered a ride to the two women, but refused to take her son. The women agreed to wait for him at the bus station in Cali, about 160 miles (257 kilometers) ahead, but he never arrived. Messages sent to his phone since that day four months ago have gone unread.
“I’m very worried,” his mother said. “I don’t even know what to do.”
ASIA: A VAST UNKNOWN
The region with the largest overall migration, Asia, also has the least information on the fate of those who disappear after leaving their homelands. Governments are unwilling or unable to account for citizens who leave for elsewhere in the region or in the Mideast, two of the most common destinations, although there’s a growing push to do so.
Asians make up 40 percent of the world’s migrants, and more than half of them never leave the region. The Associated Press was able to document more than 8,200 migrants who disappeared or died after leaving home in Asia and the Mideast, including thousands in the Philippines and Indonesia.
Thirteen of the top 20 migration pathways from Asia take place within the region. These include Indian workers heading to the United Arab Emirates, Bangladeshis heading to India, Rohingya Muslims escaping persecution in Myanmar, and Afghans crossing the nearest border to escape war. But with large-scale smuggling and trafficking of labor, and violent displacements, the low numbers of dead and missing indicate not safe travel but rather a vast unknown.
Almass was just 14 when his widowed mother reluctantly sent him and his 11-year-old brother from their home in Khost, Afghanistan, into that unknown. The payment for their trip was supposed to get them away from the Taliban and all the way to Germany via a chain of smugglers. The pair crammed first into a pickup with around 40 people, walked for a few days at the border, crammed into a car, waited a bit in Tehran, and walked a few more days.
His brother Murtaza was exhausted by the time they reached the Iran-Turkey border. But the smuggler said it wasn’t the time to rest — there were at least two border posts nearby and the risk that children far younger travelling with them would make noise.
Almass was carrying a baby in his arms and holding his brother’s hand when they heard the shout of Iranian guards. Bullets whistled past as he tumbled head over heels into a ravine and lost consciousness.
Alone all that day and the next, Almass stumbled upon three other boys in the ravine who had also become separated from the group, then another four. No one had seen his brother. And although the younger boy had his ID, it had been up to Almass to memorize the crucial contact information for the smuggler.
When Almass eventually called home, from Turkey, he couldn’t bear to tell his mother what had happened. He said Murtaza couldn’t come to the phone but sent his love.
That was in early 2014. Almass, who is now 18, hasn’t spoken to his family since.
Almass said he searched for his brother among the 2,773 children reported to the Red Cross as missing en route to Europe. He also looked for himself among the 2,097 adults reported missing by children. They weren’t on the list.
With one of the world’s longest-running exoduses, Afghans face particular dangers in bordering countries that are neither safe nor welcoming. Over a period of 10 months from June 2017 to April 2018, 4Mi carried out a total of 962 interviews with Afghan migrants and refugees in their native languages around the world, systematically asking a series of questions about the specific dangers they had faced and what they had witnessed.
A total of 247 migrant deaths were witnessed by the interviewed migrants, who reported seeing people killed in violence from security forces or starving to death. The effort is the first time any organization has successfully captured the perils facing Afghans in transit to destinations in Asia and Europe.
Almass made it from Asia to Europe and speaks halting French now to the woman who has given him a home in a drafty 400-year-old farmhouse in France’s Limousin region. But his family is lost to him. Their phone number in Afghanistan no longer works, their village is overrun with Taliban, and he has no idea how to find them — or the child whose hand slipped from his grasp four years ago.
“I don’t know now where they are,” he said, his face anguished, as he sat on a sun-dappled bench. “They also don’t know where I am.”
#décès #morts #migrations #réfugiés #asile #statistiques #chiffres #monde #Europe #Asie #Amérique_latine #Afrique #USA #Etats-Unis #2014 #2015 #2016 #2017 #2018
ping @reka @simplicissimus
Fakten, Zahlen und Argumente
Wie viele Flüchtlinge gibt es weltweit? Wie viele suchen Asyl in Deutschland? Aus welchen Ländern kommen sie? Wie viele werden anerkannt? Hier finden Sie die wichtigsten Zahlen und Fakten zur Asyldebatte - und eine Entgegnung auf die verbreitetsten Vorurteile.
Non è un Paese per donne. Italia, patria del gender gap
L’Italia in tre anni è passata dal 41° all’82° posto nella classifica mondiale. Pesa l’assenza di servizi familiari che si ripercuote sui tassi di occupazione femminile
Tiré de :
Global Gender Gap Report 2017
Gender parity is fundamental to whether and how economies and societies thrive. Ensuring the full development and appropriate deployment of half of the world’s total talent pool has a vast bearing on the growth, competitiveness and future-readiness of economies and businesses worldwide. This year’s edition of the report dives into the dynamics of gender gaps across industry talent pools and occupations. The Global Gender Gap Report benchmarks 144 countries on their progress towards gender parity across four thematic dimensions: Economic Participation and Opportunity, Educational Attainment, Health and Survival, and Political Empowerment.
International Migration Report
#migrations #migrations_internationales #statistiques #2017 #âge #sexe #monde #chiffres #rapport
Global migration figures higher than previously thought, study finds
US researchers reveal that up to 87 million people migrate every five years.
Over a five-year period, about one in 80 people around the world migrate to another country, researchers have revealed, in a study that shows more than a quarter of that movement is down to people returning to their country of birth.
Global migration is difficult to measure, with data often lacking for developing countries and inaccurate for others.
But a pair of researchers in the US say they have come up with a model that provides the most reliable “big picture” view of human migration yet. Crucially, they say, it takes into account the “churn” of people moving into and out of countries, something previous global estimates had not included.
“Policies that are set based on a quota of a number of people who enter the country miss out on the fact that you should also be expecting a lot of the existing migrant population to be leaving the country,” said Dr Jonathan Azose, a co-author of the study from the University of Washington.
The study, published in the journal PNAS, reveals a model for estimating migration around the world between 1990 and 2015, broken down into five-year chunks. The team say they were able to show the model worked by comparing its results with high-quality migration data from Europe.
A key problem with the previous leading global migration estimates, says Azose, is that the approach looked at overall changes in the net number of immigrants in a country over time, without taking into account that many individuals left and others arrived, resulting in underestimates of movement, something the new model tackles.
It suggests that between 67 million and 87 million people, including refugees, migrated for each five-year chunk – far higher than previous global estimates of 34m-46 m migrations – and corresponding to 1.13%-1.29% of the global population.
The team note that while absolute numbers of people migrating appear to have risen, there has been little change in the proportion of the world’s population who are on the move. That said, key origins and destinations change over time: for example,movement of Syrians in Saudi Arabia to Turkey between 2010 and 2015 were a leading contributor to “transit” migrations, while migration of Syrians from Syria to Turkey and Lebanon were among the largest emigration movements in that period.
The new study suggests that while migration to a new country makes up the biggest proportion of human movement, return migration – in which individuals return to their country of birth – accounted for between 26% and 31% of migration in each five-year period.
However, the team admit the new model has limitations, including the fact that different countries require individuals to stay there for different lengths of time to be registered as a migrant, and figures for the total number of migrants in each country might not be accurate to start with, meaning possible errors in the data used.
But the team say their work could help researchers delve deeper into what causes people to migrate and help them build predictive models for this.
Dr Nando Sigona, an expert in international migration and forced displacement at the University of Birmingham, who was not involved in the research, welcomed the study.
“Estimating migration flows is extremely difficult. Data are limited and incomplete, especially in less economically developed countries. This contributes to a perception in the west that all migration flows are directed towards the global north,” he said.
While the new model had limitations, he added, it offered a more rounded view of global migration, including showing movements between countries in the south and highlighting the large proportion of return journeys. “Finally,” he said, “it shows a world which is more dynamic and on the move than previously thought.”
Lien vers l’article/étude:
Il faudrait trouver les liens vers les statistiques des années précédentes (mais hélas pas le temps maintenant...)
Un bon article de #Matteo_Villa qui résume ces questions, paru en septembre 2018 :
Outsourcing European Border Control : Recent Trends in Departures, Deaths and Search and Rescue Activities in the Central Mediterranean
In our previous blog post ‘Border Deaths in the Mediterranean: what we can learn from the latest data?’ on Border Criminologies (March 2017) we discussed the existing data sources on Mediterranean Sea migration and provided an analysis of key patterns and trends. We found that Search and Rescue (SAR) has little or no effect on the number of arrivals, and it is rather the absence of SAR that leads to more deaths. These results, which are in line with other research, were covered by various European media outlets and also resulted in a peer reviewed publication in Sociology (also available as a free preprint).
These findings covered the period until December 2016. Since then, however, the context of European border policy has changed considerably:
Through a mix of political pressure, financial incentives and military assistance, the EU has tried to induce transit countries in the Sahel to close their borders to Europe-bound migrants. According to European parliament president Tajani, this resulted in a 95% drop in crossings through Niger, a key transition point for migrants on the way to Libya, although it cannot be excluded that migrants are taking different, more dangerous routes in order to reach Northern African countries (either via Niger or through Algeria).
From the beginning of 2017 onwards, the Italian government backed by the EU has increasingly cooperated with Libyan authorities to block depatures in exchange for financial and logistical support. The UN-backed government in Libya in turn, has allegedly forged deals with a number of militias.
Increased European support for the Libyan Coast Guard (LCG), resulting in an increase in interceptions and the declaration of a Libyan SAR zone.
Increasing legal and political attacks on NGOs engaged in SAR have culminated in Italy’s decision to declare its ports to be “closed” to NGO vessels and (temporarily) to EU rescue ships in June 2018.
Each of these developments can be seen as part of a broader strategy to close the European borders by externalizing border control to third countries, a practice that was tried earlier with Turkey, and to relax commitments enshrined in international law, such as search and rescue at sea and non refoulement.
In view of these recent developments, we document estimated trends in arrivals, deaths, mortality rates and rescue activities covering the most recent period, between January 2016 and July 2018. In doing so, we strongly rely on detailed statistical analyses conducted by the Italian research institute ISPI. Our analyses are based on publicly available data from the IOM and the UNHCR for arrivals and interceptions, and IOM’s Missing Migrants Project for deaths. It is important to note that recorded deaths are a lower bound estimate of the actual death toll, because some deaths are likely to remain unreported. We provide an extensive discussion of data sources, data quality and challenges for their interpretation in our academic article on the issue. Since most of the above developments relate to the situation in Libya, we focus on migrants departing from that country. Libya is also the only Northern African country where interceptions at sea by the Coast Guard are independently monitored by both IOM and UNHCR personnel at disembarkation points.
Although each of these individual developments have been reported elsewhere, together they paint a picture of Europe’s resolve to close its external borders and deter irregular migration, regardless of the (human) cost.
Trend #1: A sharp drop in departures
Figure 1 plots trends in the number of migrants departing irregularly from Libya by sea since January 2016. Until mid-2017, migrant departures show a remarkably regular seasonal pattern, with around 20,000 departures during the summer months. As of July 2017, however, the number of arrivals dropped dramatically, and it has stayed at comparatively low levels up to the present. The decrease in arrivals occurred after alleged ’deals’ between Libyan authorities and the militias in Western Libya that control the smuggling networks, and a few months after the signing of a memorandum of understanding between Italy and Libya. Convergent diplomatic action induced some militias to switch from smuggling to preventing departures. Other factors, such as the activity of the LCG, private and public SAR providers, or dynamics in the rate of dead and missing along the route, are relevant per se but appear to play no significant role in the decrease in arrivals to Europe. Europe’s efforts to block migrants passing though transit countries may have played a role as well, but evidence is still too sparse to be reliably assessed.
Trend #2: An increased risk of interception by the Libyan Coast Guard
The Libyan Coast Guard plays a pivotal role in Europe’s strategy of externalizing migration control to third countries. A report by Human Rights Watch suggests that in recent months “the Italian Maritime Rescue Coordination Center (IMRCC) has routinized a practice, tested since at least May 2017, of transferring responsibility to Libyan coast guard forces in international waters even when there are other, better-equipped vessels, including its own patrol boats or Italian navy vessels, closer to the scene.” This practice has been termed ’refoulement by proxy’ because the LCG is financed, equipped and instructed by the Italian and European authorities, as described in this recent investigative report. Migrants who are forcibly returned to Libya are imprisoned in detention centres for indefinite periods, and they face systematic violence—including torture and rape—as has been documented in numerous reports.
The new Italian government intensified and formalized the policy of transferring responsibility to the LCG. Since June, it has instructed ships undertaking rescues in the Libyan SAR zone to refer all emergency calls to the Libyan authorities, who will then arrange their interception and pull-back to Libya. The declarations that Italian ports are “closed” to NGO ships are also part of this strategy, as their operations are considered to interfere with LCG interceptions. In late July, this practice resulted in the first instance of a non-Libyan vessel, the Asso Ventotto, being instructed to coordinate with the Tripoli Joint Rescue Co-ordination Centre (JRCC). The ship ultimately disembarked the rescued persons on Libyan territory and thus effectively engaged in refoulement and collective expulsion of migrants.
The practice of outsourcing European border control to the Libyan Coast Guard has brought about a sharp increase in its activity: by the end of July 2018, the LCG had intercepted 12,490 migrants at sea compared to 8,851 during the same period in the previous year, which amounts to a 41% increase. In combination with the drop in departures, this policy has resulted in a rapid increase in the risk of interception. To illustrate this fact, in July 2017 just 6% of migrants leaving Libya by sea ended up being caught and brought back, while almost 94% made it to Europe. In July 2018, instead, 71% of migrants leaving Libya’s shores were intercepted and brought back, while just 24% arrived safely in a European country (see Figure 2).
Trend #3: An increase in the absolute and relative mortality rate between mid-June and July 2018
In this section, we look at trends in absolute mortality (the number of dead and missing people at sea) and relative mortality (the risk of crossing) of migrants departing from Libya. In particular, we analyse the widely reported spike in deaths that occurred in late June 2018, after virtually all SAR NGOs had been prevented from operating as a result of policies introduced by the new Italian Minister of Interior Salvini from the far-right Lega and the continued denial by the Maltese authorities to offer Valetta as a port of entry. On June 10, Italy unilaterally decided to declare its ports to be “closed” to NGO rescue ships, as well as (temporarily) to commercial and EU vessels carrying rescued migrants. Also Malta tightened its position on rescue activities and cracked down on two SAR NGOs in early July. Since then, rescue operations close to the Libyan coast have been almost entirely delegated to the LCG.
First, we look at trends in the absolute mortality rate. Figure 3 shows a reduction in the monthly number of deaths since July 2017, commensurate with the reduction in the number of departures described above. For example, 20 deaths were recorded in April 2018, and 11 in May (Figure 3). In June, however, an estimated 451 migrants died on their way from Libya to Europe—of which 370 between 16 and 30 June. It is important to note that these deaths occurred during a time when departures were comparatively low. As a result, the risk of crossing has increased from 2.8% in the previous months to a staggering 7% since mid-June 2018 (Figure 4). These findings are also robust to using different time frames for the pre-NGO absence period, including the entire period since the drop of arrivals in July 2017 until the NGO ban. Whereas relative mortality has fluctuated in recent years, 7% constitute an extraordinary spike.
Figure 5 maps shipwreck events occurring between 16 June and 31 July 2018 with at least estimated 15 dead or missing persons, using geocoded data provided by IOM’s Missing Migrants Project. While the precise location of each shipwreck is only an estimate, as “precise locations are not often known” (as explained in the “Methodology” section of the Missing Migrants Project), such estimates do provide an indication of where such shipwrecks have taken place. In particular, IOM data shows that shipwrecks between 16 June and 31 July took place well within 50 nautical miles from Libya’s shores, an area which used to be patrolled by either the LCG or NGO vessels. Yet, during the time when deaths spiked, only two NGO vessels had been operating, and only discontinuously.
These observations are reminiscent of what happened in 2015, when the withdrawal of competent SAR providers (the Italian mission Mare Nostrum) similarly created the conditions for avoidable loss of life. Although these findings are based on a relatively short time period, they are suggestive of the risk of leaving the Libyan SAR zone to the operations of the LCG alone. Continuous monitoring of the situation remains of utmost importance.
In combination, the three trends described above highlight the harsh realities of recent European migration policies, which seek to limit irregular migration regardless of the moral, legal and humanitarian consequences. The current European obsession with reducing migration at all costs is even less comprehensible when considering that arrivals decreased drastically prior to the most recent escalation of rhetoric and externalization of migration control. Arrivals to Italy in the first half of 2018 were down by 79% compared to the same time frame in 2017. Although increasingly inhumane policies are often cloaked in a rhetoric about reducing deaths at sea, it is important to remember that those who are prevented from crossing or forcibly returned are generally not safe but remain subject to precarious and often lethal conditions in countries of transit. Rather than providing a sustainable response to the complex challenges involved in irregular migration, Europe has outsourced the management of its migration ’problem’ to countries like Libya and Niger, where violence and death often remains hidden from the public view.
Arrivées en Europe via la Méditerranée :
Arrivées en Europe toute frontière confondue :
–-> attention, c’est les « crossings »... rappelez-vous de la question des doubles/triples contages des passages :
Pour #2016 #2017 et #2018, chiffres de Matteo Villa :
database : ►https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1ncHxOHIx4ptt4YFXgGi9TIbwd53HaR3oFbrfBm67ak4/edit#gid=0
Départs de Libye (ou non-départs car refoulements et interceptions par les gardes-côtes libyens) :
–-> à mettre en lien avec les politiques d’#externalisation en Libye :
Selon l’Agence des Nations Unies pour les migrations (OIM ), les arrivées de migrants en Méditerranée ont dépassé le seuil des 21.000, ce qui constitue une baisse d’environ un tiers par rapport aux 32.070 arrivés au cours de la même période l’an dernier.
Ce sont exactement 21.301 migrants et réfugiés qui sont entrés en Europe par voie maritime à la date du 29 mai. Les arrivées en Espagne et en Grèce représentent 85% du total des arrivées, le reste des migrants et réfugiés de cette année ont pris la direction de l’Italie, de Malte et de Chypre.
La Grèce a désormais surpassé l’Espagne au titre de première destination des migrants et des réfugiés rejoignant l’Europe via la Méditerranée. Selon l’Organisation internationale pour les migrations (OIM), le nombre total d’arrivées par mer cette année est de 10.200 dont 2.483 arrivées signalées entre le 1er et le 29 mai dernier.
Le Bureau de l’OIM en Grèce a indiqué mercredi dernier que les garde-côtes helléniques ont confirmé que pendant plus de 48 heures entre le 28 et le 29 mai, il y eu sept incidents nécessitant des opérations de recherche et sauvetage au large des îles de Lesbos, Leros, Samos, Symi Kos et le port d’Alexandroupolis. Ils ont ainsi sauvé 191 migrants qui ont été transférés par la suite dans les ports respectifs grecs.
De plus, à la date du 30 avril, ce sont 3.497 migrants qui ont réussi à atteindre la Grèce via sa frontière terrestre avec la Turquie.
519 décès de migrants, dont plus de la moitié sur la route de la Méditerranée centrale
L’Espagne reste la deuxième porte d’entrée des réfugiés en Méditerranée, avec 7.876 arrivées dont 1.160 hommes, femmes et enfants pour le seul mois de mai. Sur la même période l’an dernier, Madrid a comptabilisé 8.150 migrants et réfugiés ayant réussi à franchir la route de la Méditerranée occidentale. En outre, plus de 2.100 ont atteint l’Espagne via sa frontière terrestre avec le Maroc.
Par ailleurs, l’OIM rappelle que les arrivées ont considérablement baissé en Italie où seuls 1.561 migrants ont réussi à franchir les côtes siciliennes.
Mais la route de la Méditerranée centrale (Italie et Malte) reste tout de même la plus meurtrière avec 321 décès, soit plus de la moitié du total de migrants et réfugiés ayant péri en tentant d’atteindre l’Europe. Les décès enregistrés sur les trois principales routes de la mer Méditerranée pendant près de cinq mois en 2019 s’élèvent à 519 personnes, soit un quart de moins que les 662 décès confirmés au cours de la même période en 2018.
A cet égard, l’OIM rappelle que dans l’ouest de la Méditerranée, l’organisation non gouvernementale Alarme Phone a signalé qu’un jeune Camerounais avait disparu le 21 mai dernier. Selon les témoignages des huit survivants qui l’accompagnaient, il serait tombé en mer avant que leur navire ne soit intercepté par la marine marocaine. Son corps n’a pas été retrouvé.
En Méditerranée centrale, des migrants interceptés et renvoyés en Libye le 23 mai ont également indiqué aux équipes de l’OIM que cinq hommes s’étaient noyés au cours de leur voyage. « Aucun autre détail concernant l’identité, le pays d’origine ou d’autres informations personnelles concernant les disparus n’est disponible », a souligné l’OIM dans une note à la presse.
Pour la première fois depuis 2009, un navire italien ramène des migrants en Libye
Une embarcation de migrants secourue par un navire de ravitaillement italien a été renvoyée en Libye lundi 30 juillet. Le HCR a annoncé mardi l’ouverture d’une enquête et s’inquiète d’une violation du droit international.
Lundi 30 juillet, un navire battant pavillon italien, l’Asso Ventotto, a ramené des migrants en Libye après les avoir secourus dans les eaux internationales – en 2012 déjà l’Italie a été condamnée par la Cour européenne des droits de l’Homme pour avoir reconduit en Libye des migrants secourus en pleine mer en 2009.
L’information a été donnée lundi soir sur Twitter par Oscar Camps, le fondateur de l’ONG espagnole Proactiva Open Arms, avant d’être reprise par Nicola Fratoianni, un député de la gauche italienne qui est actuellement à bord du bateau humanitaire espagnol qui sillonne en ce moment les côtes libyennes.
Selon le quotidien italien La Repubblica, 108 migrants à bord d’une embarcation de fortune ont été pris en charge en mer Méditerranée par l’Asso Ventotto lundi 30 juillet. L’équipage du navire de ravitaillement italien a alors contacté le MRCC à Rome - centre de coordination des secours maritimes – qui les a orienté vers le centre de commandement maritime libyen. La Libye leur a ensuite donné l’instruction de ramener les migrants au port de Tripoli.
En effet depuis le 28 juin, sur décision européenne, la gestion des secours des migrants en mer Méditerranée dépend des autorités libyennes et non plus de l’Italie. Concrètement, cela signifie que les opérations de sauvetage menées dans la « SAR zone » - zone de recherche et de sauvetage au large de la Libye - sont désormais coordonnées par les Libyens, depuis Tripoli. Mais le porte-parole du Conseil de l’Europe a réaffirmé ces dernières semaines qu’"aucun navire européen ne peut ramener des migrants en Libye car cela serait contraire à nos principes".
Violation du droit international
La Libye ne peut être considérée comme un « port sûr » pour le débarquement des migrants. « C’est une violation du droit international qui stipule que les personnes sauvées en mer doivent être amenées dans un ‘port sûr’. Malgré ce que dit le gouvernement italien, les ports libyens ne peuvent être considérés comme tels », a déclaré sur Twitter le député Nicola Fratoianni. « Les migrants se sont vus refuser la possibilité de demander l’asile, ce qui constitue une violation des accords de Genève sur les sauvetages en mer », dit-il encore dans le quotidien italien La Stampa.
Sur Facebook, le ministre italien de l’Intérieur, Matteo Salvini, nie toutes entraves au droit international. « La garde-côtière italienne n’a ni coordonné, ni participé à cette opération, comme l’a faussement déclarée une ONG et un député de gauche mal informé ».
Le Haut-Commissariat des Nations unies pour les réfugiés (HCR) a de son côté annoncé mardi 31 juillet l’ouverture d’une enquête. « Nous recueillons toutes les informations nécessaires sur le cas du remorqueur italien Asso Ventotto qui aurait ramené en Libye 108 personnes sauvées en Méditerranée. La Libye n’est pas un ‘port sûr’ et cet acte pourrait constituer une violation du droit international », dit l’agence onusienne sur Twitter.
Nave italiana soccorre e riporta in Libia 108 migranti. Salvini: «Nostra Guardia costiera non coinvolta»
L’atto in violazione della legislazione internazionale che garantisce il diritto d’asilo e che non riconosce la Libia come un porto sicuro. Il vicepremier: «Nostre navi non sono intervenute nelle operazioni». Fratoianni (LeU): «Ci sono le prove della violazione»
Commentaire de Sara Prestianni, via la mailing-list de Migreurop:
Le navire commerciale qui opere autour des plateformes de pétrole, battant pavillon italien - ASSO 28 - a ramené 108 migrants vers le port de Tripoli suite à une opération de sauvetage- Les premiers reconstructions faites par Open Arms et le parlementaire Fratoianni qui se trouve à bord de Open Arms parlent d’une interception en eaux internationales à la quelle a suivi le refoulement. Le journal La Repubblica dit que les Gardes Cotes Italiennes auraient invité Asso28 à se coordonner avec les Gardes Cotes Libyennes (comme font habituellement dans les derniers mois. Invitation déclinés justement par les ong qui opèrent en mer afin de éviter de proceder à un refoulement interdit par loi). Le Ministre de l’Interieur nie une implication des Gardes Cotes Italiens et cyniquement twitte “Le Garde cotes libyenne dans les derniers heures ont sauvé et ramené à terre 611 migrants. Les Ong protestent les passeurs font des affaires ? C’est bien. Nous continuons ainsi”
Départs de migrants depuis la Libye :
Libya : outcomes of the sea journey
Migrants intercepted /rescued by the Libyan coast guard
Lieux de désembarquement :
–-> Graphiques de #Matteo_Villa, posté sur twitter :
source : ►https://twitter.com/emmevilla/status/1036892919964286976
Libyan Coast Guard Takes 611 Migrants Back to Africa
Between Monday and Tuesday, the Libyan Coast Guard reportedly rescued 611 migrants aboard several dinghies off the coast and took them back to the African mainland.
Along with the Libyan search and rescue operation, an Italian vessel, following indications from the Libyan Coast Guard, rescued 108 migrants aboard a rubber dinghy and delivered them back to the port of Tripoli. The vessel, called La Asso 28, was a support boat for an oil platform.
Italian mainstream media have echoed complaints of NGOs claiming that in taking migrants back to Libya the Italian vessel would have violated international law that guarantees the right to asylum and does not recognize Libya as a safe haven.
In recent weeks, a spokesman for the Council of Europe had stated that “no European ship can bring migrants back to Libya because it is contrary to our principles.”
Twenty days ago, another ship supporting an oil rig, the Vos Thalassa, after rescuing a group of migrants, was preparing to deliver them to a Libyan patrol boat when an attempt to revolt among the migrants convinced the commander to reverse the route and ask the help of the Italian Coast Guard. The migrants were loaded aboard the ship Diciotti and taken to Trapani, Sicily, after the intervention of the President of the Republic Sergio Mattarella.
On the contrary, Deputy Prime Minister Matteo Salvini has declared Tuesday’s operation to be a victory for efforts to curb illegal immigration. The decision to take migrants back to Africa rather than transporting them to Europe reflects an accord between Italy and Libya that has greatly reduced the numbers of African migrants reaching Italian shores.
Commenting on the news, Mr. Salvini tweeted: “The Libyan Coast Guard has rescued and taken back to land 611 immigrants in recent hours. The NGOs protest and the traffickers lose their business? Great, this is how we make progress,” followed by hashtags announcing “closed ports” and “open hearts.”
Parliamentarian Nicola Fratoianni of the left-wing Liberi and Uguali (Free and Equal) party and secretary of the Italian Left, presently aboard the Spanish NGO ship Open Arms, denounced the move.
“We do not yet know whether this operation was carried out on the instructions of the Italian Coast Guard, but if so it would be a very serious precedent, a real collective rejection for which Italy and the ship’s captain will answer before a court,” he said.
“International law requires that people rescued at sea must be taken to a safe haven and the Libyan ports, despite the mystification of reality by the Italian government, cannot be considered as such,” he added.
The United Nations immigration office (UNHCR) has threatened Italy for the incident involving the 108 migrants taken to Tripoli, insisting that Libya is not a safe port and that the episode could represent a breach of international law.
“We are collecting all the necessary information,” UNHCR tweeted.
Libya rescued 10,000 migrants this year, says Germany
Libyan coast guards have saved some 10,000 migrants at sea since the start of this year, according to German authorities. The figure was provided by the foreign ministry during a debate in parliament over what the Left party said were “inhumane conditions” of returns of migrants to Libya. Libyan coast guards are trained by the EU to stop migrants crossing to Europe.
UNHCR Flash Update Libya (9 - 15 November 2018) [EN/AR]
As of 14 November, the Libyan Coast Guard (LCG) has rescued/intercepted 14,595 refugees and migrants (10,184 men, 2,147 women and 1,408 children) at sea. On 10 November, a commercial vessel reached the port of Misrata (187 km east of Tripoli) carrying 95 refugees and migrants who refused to disembark the boat. The individuals on board comprise of Ethiopian, Eritrean, South Sudanese, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and Somali nationals. UNHCR is closely following-up on the situation of the 14 individuals who have already disembarked and ensuring the necessary assistance is provided and screening is conducted for solutions. Since the onset, UNHCR has advocated for a peaceful resolution of the situation and provided food, water and core relief items (CRIs) to alleviate the suffering of individuals onboard the vessel.
Rescued at sea, locked up, then sold to smugglers
In Libya, refugees returned by EU-funded ships are thrust back into a world of exploitation.
The Souq al Khamis detention centre in Khoms, Libya, is so close to the sea that migrants and refugees can hear waves crashing on the shore. Its detainees – hundreds of men, women and children – were among 15,000 people caught trying to cross the Mediterranean in flimsy boats in 2018, after attempting to reach Italy and the safety of Europe.
They’re now locked in rooms covered in graffiti, including warnings that refugees may be sold to smugglers by the guards that watch them.https://www.irishtimes.com/polopoly_fs/1.3758900!/image/image.jpg_gen/derivatives/landscape_620/image.jpg
This detention centre is run by the UN-backed Libyan government’s department for combatting illegal migration (DCIM). Events here over the last few weeks show how a hardening of European migration policy is leaving desperate refugees with little room to escape from networks ready to exploit them.
Since 2014, the EU has allocated more than €300 million to Libya with the aim of stopping migration. Funnelled through the Trust Fund for Africa, this includes roughly €40 million for the Libyan coast guard, which intercepts boats in the Mediterranean. Ireland’s contribution to the trust fund will be €15 million between 2016 and 2020.
One of the last 2018 sea interceptions happened on December 29th, when, the UN says, 286 people were returned to Khoms. According to two current detainees, who message using hidden phones, the returned migrants arrived at Souq al Khamis with scabies and other health problems, and were desperate for medical attention.https://www.irishtimes.com/polopoly_fs/1.3759177!/image/image.jpg_gen/derivatives/landscape_620/image.jpg
On New Year’s Eve, a detainee messaged to say the guards in the centre had tried to force an Eritrean man to return to smugglers, but others managed to break down the door and save him.
On Sunday, January 5th, detainees said, the Libyan guards were pressurising the still-unregistered arrivals to leave by beating them with guns. “The leaders are trying to push them [to] get out every day,” one said.
Migranti, 100 persone trasferite su cargo e riportate in Libia. Alarm Phone: “Sono sotto choc, credevano di andare in Italia”
Dopo l’allarme delle scorse ore e la chiamata del premier Conte a Tripoli, le persone (tra cui venti donne e dodici bambini, uno dei quali potrebbe essere morto di stenti) sono state trasferite sull’imbarcazione che batte bandiera della Sierra Leone in direzione Misurata. Ma stando alle ultime informazioni, le tensioni a bordo rendono difficoltoso lo sbarco. Intanto l’ong Sea Watch ha salvato 47 persone e chiede un porto dove attraccare
Migrants calling us in distress from the Mediterranean returned to Libya by deadly ‘refoulement’ industry
When they called us from the sea, the 106 precarious travellers referred to their boat as a white balloon. This balloon, or rubber dinghy, was meant to carry them all the way to safety in Europe. The people on board – many men, about 20 women, and 12 children from central, west and north Africa – had left Khoms in Libya a day earlier, on the evening of January 19.
Though they survived the night at sea, many of passengers on the boat were unwell, seasick and freezing. They decided to call for help and used their satellite phone at approximately 11am the next day. They reached out to the Alarm Phone, a hotline operated by international activists situated in Europe and Africa, that can be called by migrants in distress at sea. Alongside my work as a researcher on migration and borders, I am also a member of this activist network, and on that day I supported our shift team who received and documented the direct calls from the people on the boat in distress.
The boat had been trying to get as far away as possible from the Libyan coast. Only then would the passengers stand a chance of escaping Libya’s coastguard. The European Union and Italy struck a deal in 2017 to train the Libyan coastguard in return for them stopping migrants reaching European shores. But a 2017 report by Amnesty International highlighted how the Libyan authorities operate in collusion with smuggling networks. Time and again, media reports suggest they have drastically violated the human rights of escaping migrants as well as the laws of the sea.
The migrant travellers knew that if they were detected and caught, they would be abducted back to Libya, or illegally “refouled”. But Libya is a dangerous place for migrants in transit – as well as for Libyan nationals – given the ongoing civil conflict between several warring factions. In all likelihood, being sent back to Libya would mean being sent to detention centres described as “concentration-camp like” by German diplomats.
The odds of reaching Europe were stacked against the people on the boat. Over the past year, the European-Libyan collaboration in containing migrants in North Africa, a research focus of mine, has resulted in a decrease of sea arrivals in Italy – from about 119,000 in 2017 to 23,000 in 2018. Precisely how many people were intercepted by the Libyan coastguards last year is unclear but the Libyan authorities have put the figure at around 15,000. The fact that this refoulement industry has led to a decrease in the number of migrant crossings in the central Mediterranean means that fewer people have been able to escape grave human rights violations and reach a place of safety.
In repeated conversations, the 106 people on the boat made clear to the Alarm Phone activists that they would rather move on and endanger their lives by continuing to Europe than be returned by the Libyan coastguards. The activists stayed in touch with them, and for transparency reasons, the distress situation was made public via Twitter.
Around noon, the situation on board deteriorated markedly and anxiety spread. With weather conditions worsening and after a boy had fallen unconscious, the people on the boat expressed for the first time their immediate fear of dying at sea and demanded Alarm Phone to alert all available authorities.
The activists swiftly notified the Italian coastguards. But both the Italian Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre, and in turn the Maltese authorities, suggested it was the Libyan coastguard’s responsibility to handle the distress call. And yet, eight different phone numbers of the Libyan coastguards could not be reached by the activists.
In the afternoon, the situation had come across the radar of the Italian media. When the Alarm Phone activists informed the people on board that the public had also been made aware of the situation by the media one person succinctly responded: “I don’t need to be on the news, I need to be rescued.”
And yet media attention catapulted the story into the highest political spheres in Italy. According to a report in the Italian national newspaper Corriere della Sera, the prime minister, Giuseppe Conte, took charge of the situation, stating that the fate of the migrant boat could not be left to Alarm Phone activists. Conte instructed the Italian foreign intelligence service to launch rapid negotiations with the Libyan coastguards. It took some time to persuade them, but eventually, the Libyans were convinced to take action.
In the meantime, the precarious passengers on the boat reported of water leaking into their boat, of the freezing cold, and their fear of drowning. The last time the Alarm Phone reached them, around 8pm, they could see a plane in the distance but were unable to forward their GPS coordinates to the Alarm Phone due to the failing battery of their satellite phone.
Sent back to Libya
About three hours later, the Italian coastguards issued a press release: the Libyans had assumed responsibility and co-ordinated the rescue of several boats. According to the press release, a merchant vessel had rescued the boat and the 106 people would be returned to Libya.
According to the survivors and Médecins Sans Frontières who treated them on arrival, at least six people appeared to have drowned during the voyage – presumably after the Alarm Phone lost contact with them. Another boy died after disembarkation.
A day later, on January 21, members of a second group of 144 people called the Alarm Phone from another merchant vessel. Just like the first group, they had been refouled to Libya, but they were still on board. Some still believed that they would be brought to Europe.
Speaking on the phone with the activists, they could see land but it was not European but Libyan land. Recognising they’d been returned to their place of torment, they panicked, cried and threatened collective suicide. The women were separated from the men – Alarm Phone activists could hear them shout in the background. In the evening, contact with this second group of migrants was lost.
During the evening of January 23, several of the women of the group reached out to the activists. They said that during the night, Libyan security forces boarded the merchant vessel and transported small groups into the harbour of Misrata, where they were taken to a detention centre. They said they’d been beaten when refusing to disembark. One of them, bleeding, feared that she had already lost her unborn child.
On the next day, the situation worsened further. The women told the activists that Libyan forces entered their cell in the morning, pointing guns at them, after some of the imprisoned had tried to escape. Reportedly, every man was beaten. The pictures they sent to the Alarm Phone made it into Italian news, showing unhygienic conditions, overcrowded cells, and bodies with torture marks.https://images.theconversation.com/files/257508/original/file-20190206-174873-zfk2c8.jpg?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&q=45&auto=format&w=600&h=360&fit=crop&dpr=1#.jpg
Just like the 106 travellers on the “white balloon”, this second group of 144 people had risked their lives but were now back in their hell.
It’s more than likely that for some of these migrant travellers, this was not their first attempt to escape Libya. The tens of thousands captured at sea and returned over the past years have found themselves entangled in the European-Libyan refoulement “industry”. Due to European promises of financial support or border technologies, regimes with often questionable human rights records have wilfully taken on the role as Europe’s frontier guards. In the Mediterranean, the Libyan coastguards are left to do the dirty work while European agencies – such as Frontex, Eunavfor Med as well as the Italian and Maltese coastguards – have withdrawn from the most contentious and deadly areas of the sea.
It’s sadly not surprising that flagrant human rights violations have become the norm rather than the exception. Quite cynically, several factions of the Libyan coastguards have profited not merely from Europe’s financial support but also from playing a “double game” in which they continue to be involved in human smuggling while, disguised as coastguards, clampdown on the trade of rival smuggling networks. This means that the Libyan coastguards profit often from both letting migrant boats leave and from subsequently recapturing them.
The detention camps in Libya, where torture and rape are everyday phenomena, are not merely containment zones of captured migrants – they form crucial extortion zones in this refoulement industry. Migrants are turned into “cash cows” and are repeatedly subjected to violent forms of extortion, often forced to call relatives at home and beg for their ransom.
Despite this systematic abuse, migrant voices cannot be completely drowned out. They continue to appear, rebelliously, from detention and even from the middle of the sea, reminding us all about Europe’s complicity in the production of their suffering.
Libya coast guard detains 113 migrants during lull in fighting
The Libyan coast guard has stopped 113 migrants trying to reach Italy over the past two days, the United Nations said on Wednesday, as boat departures resume following a lull in fighting between rival forces in Libya.
The western Libyan coast is a major departure point for mainly African migrants fleeing conflict and poverty and trying to reach Italy across the Mediterranean Sea with the help of human traffickers.
Smuggling activity had slowed when forces loyal to military commander Khalifa Haftar launched an offensive to take the capital Tripoli, home to Libya’s internationally recognized government.
But clashes eased on Tuesday after a push by Haftar’s Libyan National Army (LNA) back by artillery failed to make inroads toward the center.
Shelling audible in central Tripoli was less intense on Wednesday than on previous days. Three weeks of clashes had killed 376 as of Tuesday, the World Health Organization said.
The Libyan coast guard stopped two boats on Tuesday and one on Wednesday, carrying 113 migrants in all, and returned them to two western towns away from the Tripoli frontline, where they were put into detention centers, U.N. migration agency IOM said.
A coast guard spokesman said the migrants were from Arab and sub-Saharan African countries as well as Bangladesh.
Human rights groups have accused armed groups and members of the coast guard of being involved in human trafficking.
Officials have been accused in the past of mistreating detainees, who are being held in their thousands as part of European-backed efforts to curb smuggling. A U.N. report in December referred to a “terrible litany” of violations including unlawful killings, torture, gang rape and slavery.
Rights groups have also accused the European Union of complicity in the abuse as Italy and France have provided boats for the coast guard to step up patrols. That move has helped to reduce migrant departures.
Judgement in Italy recognizes that people rescued by #Vos_Thalassa acted lawfully when opposed disembarkation in #Libya. Two men spent months in prison, as Italian government had wished, till a judge established that they had acted in legitimate defence.
Also interesting that judge argues that Italy-Libya Bilateral agreement on migration control must be considered illegitimate as in breach of international, EU and domestic law.
The Commission and Italy tie themselves up in knots over Libya
–-> analyse de #Yasha_Maccanico sur la polémique entre Salvini et la Commission quand il a déclaré en mars que la Commission était tout a fait d’accord avec son approche (le retour des migrants aux champs logiques), la Commission l’a démenti et puis a sorti la lettre de Mme. Michou (JAI Commission) de laquelle provenaient les justifications utilisées par le ministre, qui disait à Leggeri que la collaboration avec la garde côtière libyenne des avions européennes était legale. Dans la lettre, elle admit que les italiens et la mission de Frontex font des activités qui devrait être capable de faire la Libye, si sa zone SAR fuisse authentique et pas une manière pour l’UE de se débarrasser de ses obligations légales et humanitaires. C’est un acte de auto-inculpation pour l’UE et pour l’Italie.