• Observatoire des #non-recours aux droits et services

    Objectifs

    Dans les domaines des #prestations_sociales, de la #santé, de l’insertion sociale et professionnelle, de l’#autonomie, de la #médiation_sociale, des déplacements, de la lutte contre les #discriminations

    - Observer des situations de non-recours, mesurer leur importance, caractériser les populations concernées, enquêter sur les causes.
    – Analyser les limites de l’#intégration_sociale par les politiques publiques au regard des phénomènes de non-recours.
    – Diffuser les connaissances, les données et les méthodes d’identification et d’évaluation du non-recours.
    – Accueillir la réalisation de stages, de mémoires de Master et de recherches doctorales ; servir de support à des séjours scientifiques dans le cadre de collaborations internationales.

    Une observation productrice d’#outils utiles pour la #recherche et l’#action

    – Requêtes #statistiques sur des bases de données constituées.
    - Dispositifs ad hoc de suivi/évaluation au sein de structures administratives ou associatives.
    - Enquêtes qualitatives suivant plusieurs techniques : entretien individuel ou collectif, focus group, groupe de qualification mutuelle.
    – Ateliers de #témoignages.

    Une #observation articulée à des recherches pour de nombreux organismes

    le CNRS, l’ANR, la CNAMTS, la CNSA, la DGCS, la DREES-MIRe/ONPES, le PUCA, l’INPES, le PREDIT, l’INCA, …

    Axes de questionnement

    Pourquoi des individus ou des populations ne recourent pas, volontairement ou non, à l’#offre_publique.
    Que ce soit dans des rapports directs aux services prestataires (services publics, associations, entreprises), à des acteurs intermédiaires (organisés ou non organisés) ou dans la participation à des actions collectives soutenant l’accès aux droits.

    Pourquoi et comment les institutions se saisissent des phénomènes de non recours à l’offre publique. Renouvellement du contenu de l’offre publique et organisation spatiale des pratiques sociales (autour de logiques de contrat, d’incitation et de responsabilisation, de proximité, d’accessibilité et de mobilité) ; développement d’outils de connaissance des phénomènes de non-recours ; mise en œuvre de dispositifs d’information, d’expression de la demande sociale, de (re)mise en capacité des individus, de lutte contre les discriminations, de construction d’intérêts collectifs.

    Une démarche scientifique fondée sur l’observation

    L’#invisibilité des phénomènes de non-recours demande d’articuler trois types de recherche dans une démarche scientifique interdisciplinaire.


    https://odenore.msh-alpes.fr
    #précarité #recherche-action #droits #accès_aux_droits

    • Collectif SOIF de connaissances

      Renforcer les liens entre la recherche, la formation des professionnels et les #pratiques de terrain dans le champ sanitaire et social

      Le secteur de l’#action_sociale connaît actuellement de profondes évolutions et remises en question, illustrées notamment par les débats menés dans le cadre des Etats Généraux du #Travail_Social. L’une des questions centrales concerne l’articulation, au niveau des territoires, entre les pratiques de terrain, la formation – continue ou initiale – des professionnels, et la recherche scientifique dans les différents domaines d’intervention. Le cloisonnement trop souvent observé des divers acteurs concernés mène en effet à une certaine incohérence entre les besoins identifiés, les réponses apportées par les structures, et les contenus de formation.

      Le Plan d’action en faveur du travail social et de l’#intervention_sociale présenté en conseil des ministres le 21 octobre 2015 prend en compte ces enjeux, en fixant notamment les objectifs suivants :

      – Inscrire progressivement le travail social dans un parcours conduisant à des grades universitaires.
      - Reconnaître l’intervention sociale comme un champ de recherche.
      - Garantir la qualité des formations et des diplômes d’Etat, via notamment un cahier des charges partagé Etat-Régions.

      http://www.collectif-soif.fr/le-collectif

  • Accès aux Master : un étudiant en grève de la faim

    En grève de la faim depuis vendredi 18 septembre pour faire appliquer son #droit_à_la_poursuite_d’études, #Mehdi, étudiant de la Faculté de Droit à besoin de notre soutien !

    Au delà de la situation dramatique de Mehdi, le problème est aussi collectif.
    Cette année, de nombreux étudiants refusés en #Master n’ont eu aucune proposition du Rectorat, alors que c’est une #obligation_légale.

    Nous donnons rendez-vous à tous les étudiants sans réponse du Rectorat, et à tous les gens touchés par la situation de Mehdi, à venir lundi 21 septembre à 8h devant le Rectorat de Montpellier (rue de l’université, tramway Louis Blanc).


    https://academia.hypotheses.org/25857
    #grève_de_la_faim #études #France #accès_aux_études

    • #Montpellier : un étudiant en droit entame une grève de la faim

      Un étudiant en droit privé qui se voit refuser un Master a entamé une grève de la faim, ce vendredi, à Montpellier.

      Depuis ce vendredi matin, un étudiant en droit privé a entamé une grève de la faim devant le Rectorat de Montpellier, dans l’Ecusson, révèle le Syndicat de combat universitaire de Montpellier, le Scum.
      Refusé en Master

      « Titulaire d’une licence de Droit Privé à la faculté de droit de Montpellier, Mehdi a été de façon incompréhensible refusé en Master droit des affaires dans cette même faculté. Il est désespéré, car, il risque d’être jeté à la rue de sa cité universitaire, faute d’inscription acceptée », assure le Scum, qui dénonce que, « Ni le Crous, ni l’Université, ni le Rectorat n’ont répondu à ses sollicitations et recours ». Un rendez-vous demandé au rectorat n’a pas eu de suite, toujours selon le Scum.

      Démenti du Rectorat

      Une version démentie : « L’étudiant évoqué a saisi les services académiques dans le cadre du dispositif « trouver mon master », dans l’objectif d’identifier une solution de poursuite d’études au sein d’un diplôme national de master. Les services du Rectorat de la région académique ont été alertés sur sa situation et les difficultés qu’il rencontre. Ils sont en lien avec lui et le tiennent très régulièrement informé de l’état d’avancement de la procédure. Ils sont également en lien avec le Crous, qu’ils ont informé de sa situation et de la procédure en cours », assure ce vendredi soir à Métropolitain, le cabinet de la Rectrice de Montpellier.

      « Les services académiques mesurent pleinement les enjeux de poursuites d’étude et s’attèlent, dans le cadre des démarches engagées et qui se poursuivent, à proposer à cet étudiant des réponses adaptées à sa situation » – Le cabinet de la Rectrice de Montpellier.

      « Au travers de cette démarche, cet étudiant bénéficie d’un accompagnement par les services rectoraux qui ont formulé des propositions de poursuites d’études en Master auprès de différentes universités, dont les retours sont attendus. Les services académiques mesurent pleinement les enjeux de poursuites d’étude et s’attèlent, dans le cadre des démarches engagées et qui se poursuivent, à proposer à cet étudiant des réponses adaptées à sa situation », ajoute le Rectorat.
      L’étudiant témoigne

      Mehdi a cessé de s’alimenter et de s’hydrater depuis ce vendredi matin. Ce soir, il précise qu’il poursuit son action : « Pour des raisons médicales, en accord avec mon médecin, et, vu la gravité d’une telle grève et surtout de mon état de santé, je serais alité dès ce soir et surveillé toute la nuit, je ne dormirais donc pas devant le Rectorat. Je suis en contact avec le Rectorat depuis jeudi seulement. L’Université de Montpellier a répondu à mes recours, mais, pas celle de Toulouse ».

      À suivre.

      https://actu.fr/occitanie/montpellier_34172/montpellier-un-etudiant-en-droit-entame-une-greve-de-la-faim-et-de-la-soif_3622

  • La justice européenne consacre « la neutralité du Net » dans l’UE
    https://www.lemonde.fr/pixels/article/2020/09/15/la-justice-europeenne-consacre-la-neutralite-du-net-dans-l-ue_6052269_440899

    L’arrêt de la Cour de justice de l’Union européenne consacre mardi le principe d’égalité de traitement et d’accès des contenus en ligne. La Cour de justice de l’Union européenne a consacré dans un arrêt, mardi 15 septembre, le principe d’égalité de traitement et d’accès des contenus en ligne, dit de « neutralité du Net ». La cour considère dans sa décision qu’un fournisseur d’accès ne peut pas privilégier certaines applications ou certains services en leur accordant un accès illimité, quand les services (...)

    #Telenor #neutralité #AccessNow #CJUE

    ##neutralité

  • Coronavirus kills far more Hispanic and Black children than White youths, CDC study finds - The Washington Post
    https://www.washingtonpost.com/health/2020/09/15/covid-deaths-hispanic-black-children

    The coronavirus is killing Hispanic, Black and American Indian children at much higher numbers than their White peers, according to federal statistics released Tuesday.
    The numbers — the most comprehensive U.S. accounting to date of pediatric infections and fatalities — show there have been 391,814 known cases and 121 deaths among people under the age of 21 from February to July.Of those killed by covid-19, the illness caused by the coronavirus, more than 75 percent have been Hispanic, Black and American Indian children, even though they represent 41 percent of the U.S. population, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The federal agency collected data from health departments throughout the country.The disproportionate deaths among youths echo pandemic disparities well-documented among adults. Previous studies have found the virus’s death toll is twice as high among people of color under age 65 as for White Americans. People of color also disproportionately make up “excess deaths” — those killed by the virus without being diagnosed or those killed indirectly by the virus’s wide effects on the health-care system. The racial disparities among children are in some ways even more stark. Of the children and teens killed, 45 percent were Hispanic, 29 Black and 4 percent American Indian. “This is the strongest evidence yet that there are deep racial disparities in children just like there are in adults,” said John Williams, chief of pediatric infectious diseases at UPMC Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh. “What that should mean for people is steps like wearing a mask are not just about protecting your family and yourself. It is about racial equity.”

    #Covid-19#migrant#migration#etatsunis#sante#minorité#inegalite#accessante#race#surmortalite

  • Les #bains-douches, au croisement des questions migratoires et d’une politique de l’#hygiène Un projet de recherche en Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes

    Répondant à la nécessité d’un #accès_à_l’eau et à la #santé pour les plus #précaires, le maintien des bains-douches fait écho aux mesures hygiénistes et sociales qui ont permis leur création à partir du XIXème siècle en Europe et en Amérique du Nord. Symboles de modernité et produits de la politique municipale d’#hygiène et de #santé_publique, les bains-douches ont souvent été associés à la construction de logements sociaux mais aussi à des piscines, dans une vision associant hygiène et pratique sportive. De leur apparition jusqu’à nos jours, les bains-douches sont révélateurs des « #techniques_du_corps » qui concernent l’entretien physique, la santé comme l’apparence, ainsi que des discours normatifs qui les accompagnent.

    https://lecpa.hypotheses.org/1828

  • Virus refugees fleeing Myanmar for Thailand - Asia Times
    https://asiatimes.com/2020/09/virus-refugees-fleeing-myanmar-for-thailand

    CHIANG MAI – Thailand’s security forces on the Myanmar border are on high alert to prevent an influx of a new breed of migrants which if some reports are accurate may turn into a flood: health refugees fleeing a surge of Covid-19 infections.Thai authorities are reportedly on the lookout for a large but unspecified number of Myanmar people trying to cross the border. Rather than looking for work, as in the recent past, the new wave of Myanmar migrants are seeking to escape a seemingly uncontrolled outbreak of Covid-19 infections in their country.“They know Thailand has medical facilities where they could get help if they are infected or, if they are not, just seek shelter from what appears to be a wave of infections in Myanmar, a country with grossly inadequate health services for the general public,” said a source who has just returned from the border.

    #Covid-19#migrant#migration#thailande#myanmar#refugie#sante#politique#accessanté

  • No new normal for Asia’s virally unwanted migrants - Asia Times
    https://asiatimes.com/2020/09/no-new-normal-for-asias-virally-unwanted-migrants

    The pandemic-induced economic crisis has hit Southeast Asia especially hard, with most regional economies expected to record negative growth and record recessions in 2020.But while analysts weigh which industries will be harder than others, often overlooked is the impact on the region’s migrants, the hidden labor that fuels the usually dynamic region’s growth.Some 9.9 million Southeast Asians worked outside of their home countries in the region in 2016, according to World Economic Forum data.Those footloose workers, including from the Philippines, Indonesia and Myanmar, send home remittances that boost household incomes and fuel consumption in their home economies.In 2019, Philippine migrant remittances hit $25.6 billion, accounting for 9.3% of gross domestic product (GDP). Remittances were worth US$77 billion in Southeast Asia last year. The World Bank reckons that global remittances will fall by at least one-fifth this year.
    But the pandemic has sent many migrants home without work or incomes. Others have remained abroad trying to eke out a living while waiting so far vainly for a post-pandemic recovery, according to monitoring groups and reports. Civil society organizations say migrants stuck abroad receive few government rescue handouts, while those who returned home often live under crippling debt while fighting for payments owed by their overseas employers. Migrant worker rights groups in Singapore have protested over draconian laws, including emergency government rules that allow employers to severely restrict the free movement of migrant workers, including by not allowing employees to leave dormitories without permission. Malaysia has likewise come under fire for rounding up foreign migrants as part of its coronavirus containment measures. When Al Jazeera reported on alleged abuses of the migrant community, authorities lodged sedition charges against its reporters and refused to renew the Australian nationals’ visas.An International Labor Organization survey in July of returning Cambodian migrants from Thailand found a quarter went home because of coronavirus fears. But while more than two-thirds of respondents said they wanted to re-migrate, almost all saying they would do so after the pandemic is over, only 3% said they would return abroad that month. It’s not clear that they did, though, as Thailand keeps its borders closed to prevent a new viral wave.The prolonged health crisis is already raising questions about whether migration will return to normal when the pandemic eventually ends, whenever that may be. In lte July, Thai authorities said that some migrants could return because of demand in some low-paying sectors, but limited the number to around 100,000. But with reports of a surging Covid outbreak in Myanmar, Thai authorities are now closely guarding the border to block a wave of so-called “health refugees.” On the one hand, it isn’t difficult to imagine less migration and opportunities for migrants in the coming months and years as the global and regional economy stagger back to health. One issue will be unemployment, now at almost historic rates across the region, especially in the informal sectors where most migrant workers are employed.
    While it’s unlikely that Singaporeans will want to compete for the low-paying manual jobs typically occupied by migrant workers, some suggest unemployed Thais may vie for the same jobs traditionally done by Cambodian or Myanmar migrants. Migrants are gathered outside their residences by health workers and police officers before they undergo
    Another issue is how people view migrants as racial prejudices surge across the region amid perceptions foreign migrants carry the virus more than locals.“Migrant workers are already facing discrimination in their destination countries and when they return home as suspected virus carriers,” says Guna Subramaniam, who leads Institute for Human Rights and Business’ Migrant Workers programme in Southeast Asia. “They may continue to experience such discrimination in the future.” The Cambodian government is using the pandemic to revamp its immigration laws, while Vietnam’s communist government has ramped up its people-trafficking crackdowns, in part because Hanoi says that undocumented arrivals can be “super-spreaders.” There’s also the case of whether migrant workers, despite their traditionally low wages, will be too expensive to hire as employers are compelled to deploy new health safety standards by regional governments.
    When the Thai government last month said it would allow more than 100,000 migrant workers to return, it conditioned their entry on meeting arduous requirements. All returning migrants would need to show medical certificates, which are prohibitively expensive and difficult to obtain in their home nations.Returnees were also told they needed to quarantine for two weeks at state centers, which according to several reports costs at least 20,000 baht ($640), a prohibitive amount for most migrants. Reports suggest that more scrupulous employers are paying these fees upfront but then deducting the costs from the wages of migrant workers. Employers have also been told they need to pay for new safety measures at workplaces.Then there’s fear of another wave of the virus, which, if it leads to similar lockdown measures and border closures as the first, would leave returned migrants and employers in the same situation they found themselves in March, only with the additional financial outlay already spent.

    #covid-19#migrant#migration#asie#sante#sigmatisation#retour#transfert#accessante#supercontaminateur#economie#politiquemigratoire

  • Human rights groups ask U.N. to intervene in U.S. crackdown on racial justice protesters
    https://www.accessnow.org/human-rights-groups-ask-u-n-to-intervene-in-u-s-crackdown-on-racial-justi

    This week, Access Now and the USC Gould School of Law’s International Human Rights Clinic (USC IHRC) – with the support of the international law firm Foley Hoag LLP (on behalf of Access Now) – submitted an Urgent Appeal to the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Rights to Freedoms of Peaceful Assembly and of Association, Mr. Clement Nyaletossi Voule. The Urgent Appeal – an emergency U.N. Human Rights Council’s Special Procedures mechanism that raises attention to human rights violations by (...)

    #ICE #CBP #CCTV #smartphone #activisme #racisme #militaire #aérien #vidéo-surveillance #BlackLivesMatter #écoutes #surveillance (...)

    ##AccessNow

  • Une étude de l’OIM met en lumière l’impact de la COVID-19 sur la population migrante en Amérique centrale et au Mexique | Organisation internationale pour les migrations
    https://www.iom.int/fr/news/une-etude-de-loim-met-en-lumiere-limpact-de-la-covid-19-sur-la-population-migra

    Près de 60 pour cent des personnes ayant l’intention de migrer ont décidé de reporter ou d’annuler leurs projets en raison de la pandémie. Plus de 20 pour cent des migrants existants envisagent de retourner dans leur pays d’origine dès que leur situation économique ou les mesures sanitaires adoptées par leur pays le leur permettront. Environ la moitié des migrants en Amérique centrale et au Mexique ont perdu leur emploi en raison de la pandémie. Ce sont là quelques-unes des conclusions mises en lumière cette semaine dans une étude menée par l’Organisation internationale pour les migrations (OIM). Plus de 1 600 personnes ont participé à cette étude organisée par l’OIM, qui a été lancée en juin pour mesurer et comprendre l’impact de la pandémie sur les intentions de migration. L’étude a également porté sur la situation socioéconomique, la santé physique et mentale et les facteurs de risque auxquels sont confrontés les migrants de la région.Alors que plus de la moitié des migrants ayant participé au sondage ont effectivement perdu leur emploi en raison de la pandémie, seuls 20 pour cent des migrants environ travaillent actuellement, ce qui suggère qu’un tiers de tous les migrants de la région ne parviennent pas à trouver un emploi pendant leur séjour. Dans le même temps, quatre migrants sur dix ayant un emploi ont vu leurs heures de travail ou leur salaire réduits. Près de la moitié (48 pour cent) des participants ont indiqué que leurs salaires et revenus ont diminué en raison de la COVID-19. Concernant l’accès à la santé, presque tous les migrants ont déclaré qu’ils se conformaient aux mesures préventives de santé contre la COVID-19. Moins de 10 pour cent d’entre eux soupçonnent d’avoir contracté la maladie à un moment donné, mais seulement un tiers environ de ces derniers ont eu recours aux services de santé. Cette constatation renforce l’importance de garantir aux migrants l’accès aux services de santé.

    #Covid-19#migrant#migration#ameriquelatine#sante#economie#accessante#chomage#santementale#vulnerabilite

  • #CoronaCapitalism and the European #Border_Regime

    As the coronavirus pandemic continues to affect people’s lives all over the world, the violence against migrants and refugees has intensified. This article explores #CoronaCapitalism and the Border Regime in a European context. Corporate Watch uses the term “border regime” as a shorthand to mean all of the many different institutions, people, systems and processes involved in trying to control migrants.

    This article only shares the tip-of-the-iceberg of migrant experiences during the coronavirus pandemic and we know there are many other untold stories. If you would like to share your news or experiences, please contact us.

    Mass Containment Camps

    As the world descended into lockdowns in an attempt to prevent the spread of the virus, tens of thousands of people have been confined in camps in the Western Balkans and Greece, as well as smaller accommodation centres across Europe. New and existing camps were also essentially locked down and the movement of people in and out of camps began to be heavily controlled by police and/or the military.

    The Border Violence Monitoring Network (BVMN) has been trying to track what is happening across the Balkans. They write that in Bosnia-Herzegovina, “more than 5,000 people were detained in existing temporary refugee reception centres. They include about 500 unaccompanied minors and several hundred children with families. Persons in need of special care, patients, victims of torture, members of the LGBTQ population, persons diagnosed with mental disorders, and victims of domestic violence have also been locked down into ‘EU-funded’ camps.” Police officers guard the centres and emergency legislation enables them the right to ‘physically force persons trying to leave the centres to return.’

    120,000 people are locked down in containment camps across Greece and the Greek Islands. Disturbing accounts of refugee camps are ever-present but the pandemic has worsened already unbearable conditions. 17,000 refugees live at Moira Refugee Camp where there are 210 people per toilet and 630 people per shower. Coronavirus, uncertainty over suspended asylum applications and the terrible living conditions are all contributing to escalating violence.

    In detention centres in Drama and Athens in Greece, the BVMN report that, “Respondents describe a lack of basic amenities such as running water, showers, or soap. Cramped and overcrowded conditions, with up to 13 inmates housed in one caravan with one, usually non-functioning, toilet. Requests for better services are met with violence at the hands of officers and riot police. On top of this, there have been complaints that no special precautions for COVID-19 are being taken, residents inside told BVMN reporters that sick individuals are not isolated, and are dismissed as having ‘the flu’.”

    While movement restrictions were lifted for Greek residents on 4th May, lockdown is still extended for all camps and centres across Greece and the Islands. This decision triggered thousands of people to protest in Athens. Emergency legislation adopted at the start of March in Greece effectively suspended the registration of asylum applications and implied immediate deportation for those entering the Greek territory, without registration, to their countries of origin or to Turkey.

    Detention and the deportation regime

    While major country-wide lockdowns are an unusual form of restriction of movement, for decades European states have been locking people seeking safety in detention centres. Immigration Removal Centres are essentially prisons for migrants in which people are locked up without trial or time-limit. In the UK the detention system is mostly run for profit by private companies, as detailed in our UK Border Regime book.

    Despite preparing for a pandemic scenario in January 2020, it took public pressure and legal action before the British government released nearly 1000 people from detention centres. As of the end of May, 368 people were still locked up in the profit-making detention centres and many more are living in ‘accommodation centres’ where they have been unable to access coronavirus testing.

    During the pandemic, people have been revolting in several detention centres across France and Belgium. Residents at a refugee centre in Saxony-Anhalt in Germany went on a hunger strike in April to protest against a lack of disinfectant. Hunger strikes have also taken place at detention centres in Tunisia, Cyprus and France.

    Women in a police holding centre for migrants in Greece went on hunger strike in June. In a statement, they wrote: “We will continue the hunger strike until we are free from this captivity. They will either set us free or we shall die”.

    People staged a rooftop protest at a detention centre in Madrid at the start of the outbreak. This was before all the detention centres in Spain were, for the first time in their history, completely emptied. To put this into context, Spain had 6,473 detainees in 2019. Legal challenges have been leveraging the EU Returns Directive which allows detention pending deportation for up to 18 months, but stipulates that if “a reasonable prospect of removal no longer exists…detention ceases to be justified and the person concerned shall be released immediately”.

    With a worldwide reduction in flights, deportations became unfeasible, however, many are afraid that the deportation machine will restart as things “return to normal”.

    Worsening life in the ‘jungle’

    People living in squats and other improvised accommodation have also faced sweeping operations, with people being rounded up and taken to containment camps.

    For those that remained on the street, pandemic restrictions took their toll. In Greece, movement amidst the pandemic was permitted via letters and text messages. For people who did not have the right paperwork, they were fined 150 euros, sometimes multiple times.

    Similarly, in the French city of Calais, people who did not have the right paperwork were commonly denied access to shops and supermarkets, where they may have previously used the bathrooms or bought food to cook. With many volunteer groups unable to operate due to movement restrictions, the availability of food dramatically reduced overnight. Access to services such as showers, phone charging and healthcare also rapidly reduced.

    People in Calais also faced a rise in evictions: 45 evictions were recorded in the first two weeks of lockdown. These expulsions have continued throughout the pandemic. On Friday 10th July 2020, a major police raid in Calais forced more than 500 people onto buses to be taken to ‘reception centres’ across the region.

    In Amsterdam in the Netherlands, some migrants were forced to live in night shelters and made to leave during the daytime – facing constant risks of contracting COVID-19 and police harassment in the city. They protested “I would stay at home if I had one”.

    Many migrant solidarity groups working on the ground lost huge numbers of volunteers due to travel restrictions and health concerns. Access to material donations such as tents, which are commonly collected at the end of festivals, also reduced. A constant supply of these resources is needed because the police routinely take the migrants’ tents away.

    Militarisation of borders

    The pandemic has seen an increase in military forces at borders and camps, persistent police violence and the suspension of ‘rights’ or legal processes. Using ‘State of Emergency’ legislation, the health crisis has been effectively weaponised.

    In March at the beginning of the pandemic in Europe, FRONTEX, the European Border and Coast Guard Agency deployed an additional 100 guards at the Greek Land Border. This is in addition to the agency’s core of 10,000 officers working around Europe.

    In their 2020 Risk Analysis Report, FRONTEX wrote that “the closing of internal borders is binding border guard personnel, which some border authorities have long stopped planning for”. This illuminates a key complexity in border control. For years, Europe has shifted to policing the wider borders of the Schengen Area. As the virus spread between countries within that area, however, states have tried to shut down their own borders.

    Police forces and militaries have become increasingly mobilised to “protect these national borders”. In Slovenia, this meant the military was granted authority to ‘process civilians’ at the border through the government’s activation of Article 37a of the Defence Act. While in Serbia, the army was deployed around border camps to ensure mass containment. 400 new border guards were also dispatched to the Evros land border between Greece and Turkey in addition to an increase in fencing and surveillance technologies.

    Escalating Police Violence

    Although migrants are no strangers to police brutality, national states of emergency have enabled an escalation in police violence. In mid-April an open letter was published by the Eritrean community of the Calais jungle reporting escalating police brutality. It describes the actions of the CRS police (Compagnies républicaines de sécurité); the general guard of the French police, infamous for riot control and repression:

    “They don’t see us as human beings. They insult us with names such as monkey, bitch etc. And for the past few weeks, they have started to threaten our lives by beating us as soon as the opportunity arises. When for example they found a group of two or three people walking towards the food distribution, or in our tents, when we were sleeping. They accelerate in their vehicles while driving in our direction, as if they wanted to crush us. They also took people with them to places far from Calais, and beat them until they lost consciousness.”

    The statement continues with a chronological list of events whereby people were beaten up, hit, gassed, had their arms broken, and were struck on the head so hard they lost consciousness and were taken to hospital by ambulance.

    With fewer people on the streets during the pandemic, police evictions that were not previously possible due to street-level resistance became successful. This was evidenced in the eviction of the Gini occupation at the Polytechnic University in Exarchia, Greece, a location that the police have not dared enter for decades. Dozens of migrant families were rounded up and taken to a detention centre.

    Violent pushbacks across borders

    There has also been an increase in illegal and violent pushbacks. Pushbacks are the informal expulsion (without due process) of individuals or groups to another country. This commonly involves the violent removal of people across a border.

    For example, on April 22nd in North Macedonia, a group of people from Palestine, Morocco and Egypt were pushed back into Greece. Two men were approached by officers in army uniforms and forced onto a bus where officers began to beat them with batons and guns. So much force was used that one man’s arm was fractured. The other members of the small group were later found and abruptly woken by officers. One man was stamped on and kicked across his body and head. Their shoes were removed and they were told to walk the 2km back to the border where they were met with the other group that had been taken there.

    A group of 16 people in Serbia (including one minor) were told they were being taken to a new camp for COVID prevention. They were then forced into a van and driven for nine hours with no stops, toilet or water. They were released at a remote area of hills and told to leave and cross the border to North Macedonia by the officers with guns. When found attempting to cross again days later they were told by police officers, “Don’t come again, we will kill you”.

    In Croatia, police have also started tagging people that they have pushed back with orange spray paint.

    There are also reports that Greek authorities are pushing people back to Turkey. According to the Border Violence Monitoring Network, many people shared experiences of being beaten, robbed and detained before being driven to the border area where military personnel used boats to return them to Turkey across the Evros river. In mid April in Greece, approximately 50 people were taken from Diavata camp in the morning and removed to a nearby police station where they were ordered to lie on the ground – “Sleep here, don’t move”. They were then beaten with batons. Some were also attacked with electric tasers. They were held overnight in a detention space near the border, and beaten further by Greek military officers. The next day they were boated across the river to Turkey by authorities with military uniforms. Another group were taken to the river in the dark and ordered to strip to their underwear.

    As pushbacks continue, people are forced to take even more dangerous routes. In Romania in mid-April, a group were found drowning in the Danube River after their boat capsized. One person was found dead and eight are still missing, while the survivors suffered from hypothermia.

    Danger at Sea

    During the pandemic, increasing numbers of disturbing accounts have been shared by migrants experiencing violence at sea. Between mid March and mid May, Alarm Phone (a hotline for boat people in distress) received 28 emergency calls from the Aegean Sea.

    On the 29th April, a boat carrying 48 refugees from Afghanistan, Congo and Iran, including 18 children, tried to reach Lesvos Island in the early hours of the day. They were pushed back to Turkish waters:

    “We were very scared. We tried to continue towards Lesvos Island. It was only 20 minutes more driving to reach the Greek coast. The big boat let a highspeed boat down, which hunted us down. There were six masked men in black clothes. They stopped us and made many waves. With a long stick they took away our petrol and they broke our engine. They had guns and knives. Then they threw a rope to us and ordered us to fix it on our boat. Then they started pulling us back towards Turkey. After a while they stopped and cut the rope. They returned to the big boat and took distance from us. It was around 6am.

    Then two other boats of the Greek coastguard arrived which were white and grey and drove very fast towards us, starting to make circles around our boat. They created big waves which were pushing us in the direction of Turkish waters. Our boat was taking in water and the kids were screaming. Our boat started breaking from the bottom. We were taking out the water with our boots. We threw all our belongings in the sea to make our boat lighter. Many of us had no life vests. A pregnant lady fainted. The Greeks continued making waves for a long period. A Turkish coastguard boat arrived and stood aside watching and taking photos and videos for more than six hours. Only after 13:30 o’clock the Turkish coastguard boat finally saved us. We were brought to Çanakalle police station and detained for five days.”

    During two months of lockdown, civil monitoring ships (volunteers who monitor the Aegean sea for migrants arriving via boat) were not permitted. In Italy, ports were closed to rescue ships, with many feared lost at sea as a result. Allegations have also emerged that Greece has been using inflatable rafts to deport asylum seekers. These are rafts without motors or propellers that cannot be steered.

    The Maltese Army also hit the headlines after turning away a boat of migrants by gunpoint and giving them the GPS coordinates for Italy. This is after recent reports of sabotaging migrant vessels, and pushing back migrant boats to Libya resulting in 12 people dying. The Maltese government recently signed a deal with the Libyan government to “to coordinate operations against illegal migration”. This includes training the Libyan coastguards and funding for “reception camps”.

    The threat of the virus and worsening conditions have also contributed to a record number of attempts to cross the Channel. The courage and commitment to overcome borders is inspiring, and more successful crossings have taken place during the pandemic. Between March 23rd (when the UK coronavirus lockdown began) and May 11th at least 853 migrants managed to cross the Channel in dinghies and small boats.

    State Scapegoating and the empowerment of the far right

    Far-right politicians and fascist activists have used the pandemic as an opportunity to push for closed borders.

    The election of a new Far Right government in Slovenia in March brought with it the scapegoating of refugees as coronavirus vectors. News conglomerate, NOVA24, heavily publicised a fake news story that the first COVID-19 patient in Italy was a Pakistani person who came via the Balkan route.

    Meanwhile, Hungary’s Government led by Vicktor Orbán moved to deport resident Iranians after claiming they were responsible for the country’s first coronavirus outbreak.

    In Italy, Matteo Salvini, the populist leader of the opposition Lega party tried to blame the movement of migrants from Africa across the Mediterranean as a “major infection threat” shortly before the country was overwhelmed with the pandemic and its rising death toll.

    The racist scapegoating ignores data that proves that initially the virus was transmited predominatnly by tourists’ and business people’s globe-trotting in the service of global capitalism and the fact that those whose movement is restricted, controlled and perilous, who do not have the power and wealth, are the most likely to suffer from the worst effects of both the virus itself and the shut downs.

    The Aftermath of Asylum suspension

    Access to asylum has drastically shifted across Europe with the suspension of many face-to-face application processing centres and appeal hearings. This ‘legal limbo’ is having a severe impact on people’s lives.

    Many people remain housed in temporary accommodation like hotels while they wait for their claim to be processed. This accommodation is often overcrowded and social-distancing guidelines are impossible to follow there. One asylum seeker in South London even shared to The Guardian how two strangers were made to share his double bed for a week in one room. One of the people was later taken to hospital with coronavirus.

    Closed-conditions at Skellig Accomodation Centre, a former hotel in Cahersiveen, Co. Kerry, Ireland enabled the rapid spread of the virus between the 100 people living there. Misha, an asylum seeker confined there, said she watched in horror as people started falling sick around her.

    “We were sharing bedrooms with strangers. We were sharing the dining room. We were sharing the salt shakers. We were sharing the lobby. We were sharing everything. And if you looked at the whole situation, you cannot really say that it was fit for purpose.”

    People were ordered to stay inside, and meanwhile coronavirus testing was delayed. Protests took place inside and locals demonstrated in solidarity outside.

    Asylum seekers in Glasgow have been protesting their accommodation conditions provided by the Mears Group, who Corporate Watch profiled in 2019. Mears Group won a £1.15 billion contract to run the refugee accommodation system in Scotland, Northern Ireland and much of the north of England. Their profiteering, slum landlord conditions and involvement in mass evictions have been met with anger and resistance. The pandemic has only worsened the experiences of people forced to live in Mears’ accommodation through terrible sanitation and medical neglect. Read our 2020 update on the Mears Group here.

    In the UK, the Home Office put a hold on evictions of asylum seekers during lockdown. The Red Cross stated this spared 50,000 people from the threat of losing their accommodation. Campaigners and tenants fear what will happen post-corona and how many people will face destitution when the ban on evictions lifts this August.

    In addition, a face-to-face screening interview is still needed for new asylum claims. This creates an awful choice for asylum seekers between shielding from the virus (and facing destitution) or going to the interviews in order to access emergency asylum support and begin the formal process. While meagre, the £37.75 per week is essential for survival. One of the reasons the Home Office make face-to-face applications compulsory is because of biometric data harvesting e.g. taking fingerprints of asylum seekers. One asylum seeker with serious health problems has had to make three journeys from Glasgow to Liverpool in the midst of the pandemic to submit paperwork.

    Access to food and other support is also very difficult as many centres and support services are closed.

    Barriers to Healthcare

    It is widely recognised that systemic racism has led to the disproportionate deaths of Black, Asian and minority ethnic people throughout the pandemic. Research has shown Black people are four times more likely to die than white people, and Bangladeshi or Pakistani groups are three times more likely. Many people from these communities are migrants, and many work in the National Health Service and social care sector.

    Research by Patients not Passports, Medact, Migrants Organise and the New Economics Foundation has shown that many migrants are avoiding seeking healthcare. 57% of respondents in their research report that they have avoided seeking healthcare because of fears of being charged for NHS care, data sharing and other migration enforcement concerns. Most people are unaware that treatment for coronavirus is exempt from charging. They also often experience additional barriers including the absence of translation and interpretation services, digital exclusions, housing and long distances from care services.

    Undocumented migrants are incredibly precarious. A project worker interviewed for the Patients not Passports Report shared that:

    “One client lived in a care home where she does live-in care and she has been exposed to Corona but has stated that she will not seek treatment and would rather die there than be detained.”

    Elvis, an undocumented migrant from the Philippines, died at home with suspected coronavirus because he was so scared by the hostility of Government policies that he did not seek any help from the NHS.

    For those that do try to access healthcare, issues such as not having enough phone credit or mobile data, not having wifi or laptops for video appointments, and simply not being able to navigate automated telephone and online systems because of language barriers and non-existent or poor translation, are having a very real impact on people’s ability to receive support. Fears of poor treatment because of people’s past experiences of discrimination and racism even if they access the services is another barrier.

    Exploiting Migrant Labour

    The exploitation of migrant labour has always been essential to sustaining capitalist economies. The pandemic generated contradictory responses from politicians and capitalists alike. Germany’s agricultural sector lobbied hard for opening the border after they were closed, leading the country to lift its ban and let in over 80,000 seasonal workers from Eastern Europe. Yet dilapidated living conditions and overcrowding are sparking new COVID-19 outbreaks, such as the 200 workers that contracted the virus at a slaughterhouse in western Germany.

    In mid May, the Italian government passed a law regularising undocumented migrants, whereby undocumented workers have been encouraged to apply for six-month legal residency permits. There are believed to be about 600,000 undocumented workers in Italy but only people doing ‘essential’ work during the pandemic can apply, mostly in the agricultural sector. Thousands of people live in makeshift encampments near fruit and vegetable farms with no access to running water or electricity.

    Working conditions carry risks of violence. On 18 May, five days after Italy’s regularisation law passed, a 33-year old Indian migrant working in a field outside of Rome was fired after asking his employer for a face mask for protection while at work. When the worker requested his daily wage, he was beaten up and thrown in a nearby canal.

    Conclusion

    The coronavirus crisis has exposed and intensified the brutality required to sustain capitalism – from systemic racism, to violent border controls, to slave labour for industrial agriculture, the list goes on. Despite extremely difficult conditions, undocumented migrants have formed strong movements of solidarity and collective struggle in many European countries. From revolts in detention centres to legal actions to empty them, people are continually resisting the border regime. As people reject a ‘return to normal’ post pandemic, the fall of the border regime must be part of a vision for freedom and liberation in a world beyond capitalism.

    https://corporatewatch.org/coronaborderregime
    #capitalisme #covid-19 #coronavirus #frontières #Europe #migrations #violence #asile #réfugiés #camps #camps_de_réfugiés #containment #rétention #campements #technologie #militarisation_des_frontières #Grèce #Turquie #violences_policières #police #refoulements #push-backs #Balkans #route_des_Balkans #santé #accès_aux_soins #travail #exploitation #pandémie #Frontex #confinement #grève_de_la_faim #fermeture_des_frontières

    ping @isskein @karine4 @rhoumour @_kg_ @thomas_lacroix

  • Coronavirus: Canada to offer residency to asylum seekers on pandemic front lines | South China Morning Post
    https://www.scmp.com/news/world/united-states-canada/article/3097485/coronavirus-canada-offer-residency-asylum-seekers

    Canada is to offer permanent residency to asylum seekers who put themselves at risk to care for coronavirus patients, Immigration Minister Marco Mendicino said on Friday. They will be able to apply for residency for themselves and their families if they had submitted their application by March 2020, even if their demand had already been rejected. The measure will apply to asylum seekers who have helped directly care for the sick in a health clinic, a nursing home or a household, Mendicino told a news conference.“As these individuals face an uncertain future in Canada, the current circumstances merit exceptional measures, in recognition of their exceptional service during the pandemic,” Mendicino said

    #Covid-19#migrant#migration#canada#demandeurdasile#accessante#sante

  • 1,200 Missing Migrants Recorded Thus Far in 2020 May Well Undercount Totals Since Covid-19 Outbreak | International Organization for Migration
    https://www.iom.int/news/1200-missing-migrants-recorded-thus-far-2020-may-well-undercount-totals-covid-1

    Despite the mobility restrictions put in place in the wake of the COVID-19 outbreak, over 1,200 migrants lost their lives during migration in the first half of 2020, according to data from IOM’s IOM’s Missing Migrants Project.
    Responses to COVID-19, including border closures and other measures, have increased the risks of migratory journeys by pushing people into more perilous and deadly situations where humanitarian support and rescue is increasingly unavailable. Many migrants have been stranded due to border closures and are unable to reach safety. They lack access to health services. The difficulty of social distancing for migrants in transit and destination countries may also mean that people trying to migrate irregularly during this time are at a higher risk of contracting the virus. Yet data collection on deaths and disappearances during migration are increasingly difficult amid the pandemic. Therefore, the 1,200 figure above does not include what IOM estimates are many more deaths linked to COVID-19 cases among migrant workers due to mobility restrictions and lockdowns. “The lack of focus on migration-related issues means that the true number of migrant deaths is likely much higher,” said Frank Laczko, director of IOM’s Global Migration Data Analysis Centre (GMDAC). “The fact that these numbers do not include deaths of foreign workers due to COVID-19 – which few countries currently publish – makes it difficult to know the true impact of the pandemic on migrants.”

    #Covid-19#migrant#migration#mortalité#statistique#travailleurmigrant#confinement#accessante#sante#frontiere

  • Welcome to the ’splinternet’ : Trump adds to fractures in worldwide web
    https://www.nbcnews.com/tech/internet/welcome-splinternet-trump-adds-fractures-worldwide-web-n1236203

    The U.S. has mostly opposed the balkanization of the internet into global factions, but experts said two new executive orders may help change that. It may not be possible to have a worldwide internet, after all. Tech policy experts said Friday that the idea of the internet as one global, unifying phenomenon was at stake after President Donald Trump took the sudden step of announcing bans on two popular Chinese apps, TikTok and WeChat, calling them security risks. It was an extreme (...)

    #TikTok #WeChat #domination #lutte #AccessNow

  • #Handicap : le #contrat_social invalide #Datagueule_97
    https://peertube.datagueule.tv/videos/watch/1c3ec9fc-d0f8-41bb-a70f-8ebb80e03c18

    En 2018, en France : 2,8 millions d’handicapés reconnus + 2,3 millions non reconnus ; 400 millions de pénalités versées à l’#agefiph
    19 % de #chômage
    #aah : 900 €/ mois c/ 1026 €/mois pour le seuil de #pauvreté
    MDPH : délai moyen de 16 moisx
    80 % des #femmes en situation de handicap sont victimes de violences.

    Entretien avec Mme Anne-Sarah Kerdudo, directrice de l’association Droits pluriels.

    #invalidité #handicap_invisible #espaces_de_travail #espace_public #accessibilité #logement_accessible #loi_élan #ségrégation #inclusion #éducation_inclusive #établissements_médico-sociaux #discrimination #égalité des #droits

  • Pacific Islanders in US hospitalised with Covid-19 at up to 10 times the rate of other groups | World news | The Guardian
    https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jul/27/system-is-so-broken-covid-19-devastates-pacific-islander-communities-in
    https://i.guim.co.uk/img/media/125164888c486de65c17643ba967ea56d38237f9/0_128_4142_2487/master/4142.jpg?width=1200&height=630&quality=85&auto=format&fit=crop&overlay-ali

    Health authorities argue that there are a number of factors driving up Pacific islander infection and hospitalisation rates. These factors include that islanders tend to live in large family groups and close-knit communities and have higher rates of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, which can complicate Covid-19. Experts say islanders are also more likely than others to be un- or under-insured, or excluded from Medicaid because of their immigration status, and are more likely to perform frontline essential work, such as serving in the military or working in the security and service industries, which increases their risk of exposure to Covid-19.
    Dr Nia Aitaoto, from the Pacific Islands Center of Primary Care Excellence, said cultural practices also contributed.“We live in large families, if one family gets infected they can pass to another. And we celebrate and gather, that’s just our nature and that does not help,” Aitaoto, a member of the center’s Pacific islander Covid-19 response team, said.

    #Covid-19#migration#migrant#etatsunis#ilepacifique#sante#minorité#inégalité#travailleurmigrant#accessante

  • « Des #émojis accessibles »

    "La synthèse vocale de mon téléphone le lit ainsi : « Singe qui se cache les yeux main avec index et majeur croisé teint clair main avec index et majeur croisé teint clair main avec index et majeur croisé teint clair okok bon bah bon courage visage envoyant un baiser visage envoyant un baiser visage envoyant une baiser »."

    https://blog.hello-bokeh.fr/2020/07/23/des-emoji-accessibles

    #accessibilité #a11y #Unicode

  • Barrage illégal : la chambre d’agriculture et ses dirigeants condamnés
    https://www.bastamag.net/Barrage-de-Caussade-justice-acces-a-l-eau-irrigation-prison-ferme-dirigean

    Les président et vice-président de la chambre d’agriculture du Lot-et-Garonne viennent d’écoper de peines de prison ferme pour avoir construit illégalement une immense retenue d’eau au profit de quelques exploitations agricoles. Malgré les interdictions, le barrage de Caussade dans le Lot-et-Garonne – un ouvrage de 378 mètres de large et 12,5 mètres de haut – a tout de même été creusé sous la pression de la chambre d’agriculture [1]. Ce 10 juillet, le tribunal correctionnel d’Agen a condamné les (...) En bref

    / #Agriculture, #Accès_à_l'eau, #Justice

  • En pleine pandémie, des millions d’américains privés d’eau potable
    https://www.bastamag.net/Etats-Unis-covid-Trump-eau-potable-pollutions-petrole-clean-water-act

    Selon plusieurs études et enquêtes, les services d’eau américains sont comparables à ceux des régions du monde les plus défavorisées. La dégradation des infrastructures, la pollution des nappes phréatiques et des réserves naturelles, ainsi que la forte augmentation du prix de l’eau mettent désormais en péril la vie de plusieurs millions de personnes. Au moins 30 millions d’américains vivent dans des zones où l’eau ne respecte pas les normes de salubrité imposées. Et plus de 2 millions de foyers n’ont pas (...) #Décrypter

    / A la une, Pollutions , #Accès_à_l'eau

    #Pollutions_

  • Etats-Unis : coup d’arrêt au projet d’oléoduc menaçant les Sioux
    https://www.bastamag.net/Etats-Unis-Trump-supension-exploitation-oleoduc-Dakota-Access-NoDAPL-victo

    Un tribunal vient d’ordonner la fermeture temporaire du gigantesque oléoduc du Dakota du Nord, gelé sous Obama puis relancé par Donald Trump. Les communautés amérindiennes sont à l’origine de cette victoire juridique fondée sur le respect de l’environnement. C’est un énorme revers pour l’administration Trump, mais surtout une immense victoire pour les tribus amérindiennes et les défenseurs de l’environnement. Un juge du District de Columbia aux États-Unis a ordonné, le 6 juillet, que l’oléoduc Dakota (...) En bref

    / #Accès_à_l'eau, #Droit_à_la_terre, #Multinationales

    https://www.bastamag.net/IMG/pdf/standing_rock_sioux_tribe_v._army_corps_of_engineers.pdf

  • Le projet de Center Parks à Roybon est abandonné, face aux mobilisations
    https://www.bastamag.net/abandon-projet-center-parks-roybon-groupe-pierre-et-vacances-isere-victoir

    Les différentes procédures judiciaires combinées à l’occupation du chantier par une « zone à défendre » ont finalement eu raison du projet de Center Parks à Roybon en Isère et à la bétonisation des terres qu’il engendrait. C’est une victoire pour les opposants au projet de Center Parcs de Roybon, en Isère, dans la lutte qui les oppose depuis plus de dix ans au groupe Pierre et Vacances. Ce dernier a annoncé, le 8 juillet, l’abandon de son projet, bloqué par de multiples recours et procédures judiciaires (...) En bref

    / Des grands projets... inutiles ?, #Accès_à_l'eau, #ZAD, Biodiversité

    #Des_grands_projets..._inutiles_ ? #Biodiversité

  • Des terrasses partout, une fausse bonne idée ?
    https://ieb.be/Des-terrasses-partout-une-fausse-bonne-idee?suivi=2020-07-02&noix=45229

    Ces dernières semaines, une idée a circulé dans les médias, puis a été lentement mise en œuvre. Face à la crise sanitaire et économique, pourquoi ne pas étendre les terrasses pour permettre aux établissements de reprendre enfin leurs activités économiques. Ce nouveau principe d’aménagement de l’espace semble mettre tout le monde d’accord : les travailleur·euse·s pourraient récupérer l’ensemble de leurs revenu, certains tenancier·e·s pourraient éviter la faillite tandis que le/la flâneur·euse, en manque de contact social, pourrait à nouveau profiter des douceurs de la vie. Mais derrière cette image d’Épinal, se cache sans doute une réalité plus complexe. L’espace public est un territoire où les usages rentrent en concurrence et un arbitrage spécifique peut engendrer l’exclusion de certain·e·s. Sans avoir la prétention de trancher la question, ce texte envisage certains risques et tente de les illustrer.

    #espace_public #post-confinement #déconfinement #crise #lamerdedapres

    • Je suis allée en ville tout à l’heure et j’ai constaté que les tables des cafés de la Place du Jet d’eau s’étalaient largement sur la place jusqu’à obstruer l’accès à l’escalier qui mène au Vieux-Mans. Je me suis faufilée entre les tables en râlant ! Je suis redescendue par une autre rue, dite à une époque « Rue de la soif », pareil, c’est une ruelle déjà étroite et là, à la hauteur d’un des cafés, il y a juste la place pour une personne de passer. Grrr

    • Bel arbitrage ! En France les terrasses ont plutôt pris de la place au stationnement automobile. Mais aller jusqu’à prendre l’espace de circulation piétonne et qu’il n’en reste plus...

      Penser l’espace public au-delà de l’économique

      D’une certaine façon, l’extension de l’horeca dans l’espace public est la poursuite de décisions politiques gouvernementales actuelles qui ont permis de se rassembler dans les centres commerciaux avant de revoir sa famille. C’est faire le choix de ce qui semble nécessaire parce que cela rapporte des points de PIB, sans que soit discuté ce qui apparaît indispensable aux personnes qui seront impactées par ces décisions.

    • En fait, c’est les deux. Quand il y a de la place sur la chaussée, c’est sur la chaussée que les terrasses s’étalent. Mais souvent, ce n’est pas le choix qui est fait. Dans certaines rues, c’est à devenir dingue, entre les chaises et les gens, impossible par exemple, de passer en fauteuil. L’autre jour, je me suis engueulée avec des gens qui râlaient après un livreur...

  • Ce jour-là à #Vintimille. Retour d’un lieu d’exil sans cesse confiné

    Chaque nuit, des dizaines de personnes en situation d’exil dorment dans les rues de Vintimille. Laissées à l’abandon par les pouvoirs publics depuis la fermeture du principal camp d’hébergement, elles sont repoussées du centre-ville par les forces de police. De retour de cette frontière, nous publions ce texte de témoignage afin d’alerter sur la mise en danger institutionnelle des personnes en migration.

    Chaque nuit, des dizaines de personnes en situation d’exil dorment dans les rues de Vintimille. Laissées à l’abandon par les pouvoirs publics depuis la fermeture du principal camp d’hébergement, elles sont repoussées du centre-ville par les forces de police alors que la municipalité prépare la reprise des activités touristiques au lendemain du confinement. De retour de cette frontière franco-italienne, nous publions ce texte de témoignage afin d’alerter sur la mise en danger institutionnelle des personnes en migration.

    Depuis la fin du confinement en Italie, on peut estimer que 200 personnes en migration sont quotidiennement livrées à elles-mêmes à Vintimille. La plupart sont originaires d’Afghanistan, d’Iran, du Pakistan, dans une moindre mesure de pays africains. Nous avons également rencontré une famille kurde accompagnant une femme enceinte. "Bonjour, ça va ?". Suivant les mots que nous adressons à leur rencontre, les discussions s’ouvrent sur les projets passés et présents. La principale destination évoquée à cette étape des parcours est la France. Marseille, Porte de la Chapelle... Certains ont passé plusieurs années dans le pays d’où nous venons, avant de se faire renvoyer vers l’Italie. "Ništa !" : au détour d’une conversation en Pachtoune, on reconnait une expression ramenée des routes balkaniques, qui signifie qu’il n’y a rien à trouver ici. "Racist", "police", "violent" sont d’autres mots transparents que nous glanons en parcourant les rues de Vintimille, ce jeudi 11 juin.

    Surimpressions

    À la veille de la reprise officielle de la saison touristique, plusieurs réalités se superposent. Les arrivées de touristes tant attendues par la municipalité coïncident avec celles de groupes considérés comme irréguliers. Les usagers des terrasses à nouveau animées côtoient les déambulations quotidiennes des personnes exilées pour trouver une stratégie de passage. Les camions de nettoyage sillonnent les rues ; les fourgons des marchands du célèbre marché de Vintimille reprennent place. Cette soudaine effervescence économique est traversée par le ballet des forces de l’ordre : militaires, police municipale, guardia di finanza et carabinieri quadrillent la ville. Nous nous étonnons de voir la police nationale française stationnée devant la gare. La stratégie des autorités italiennes semble moins correspondre à une logique de contrôle de l’immigration qu’à un impératif de tenir à l’écart du centre-ville les migrant-tes indésirables. C’est-à-dire celles et ceux qu’il ne faut pas voir dans ce paysage renaissant de la consommation.

    Ce jour-là, le 12 juin, alors que les interdictions liées aux rassemblements dans les centres commerciaux et lieux de restauration sont progressivement levées, le maire a explicitement interdit aux ONG présentes à la frontière de fournir toute aide matérielle aux personnes exilées.

    Invisibilisations

    Sur cette portion du territoire transalpin, le confinement décidé en mars 2020 a signifié l’arrêt des activités humanitaires, en raison de la fermeture officielle de la frontière et des interdictions de rassemblement en Italie. Les volontaires du collectif Kesha Niya et de Roya Citoyenne ont dû mettre fin aux distributions alimentaires groupées — une activité essentielle pour les personnes exilées en transit dans les rues de Vintimille, assurée quotidiennement depuis trois ans. Alors que de nouvelles arrivées ont été constatées depuis la fin du confinement, les distributions doivent s’effectuer en discrétion.

    Les paquets alimentaires, kits d’hygiène et masques sont fournis aléatoirement, en fonction du nombre de personnes exilées rencontrées au cours des maraudes. Cette situation délétère n’est pas sans rappeler le contexte de l’année 2016, alors qu’un arrêté municipal de la commune de Vintimille interdisait les distributions de repas pour cause de risques sanitaires[I]. Inique autant que cynique, l’argument de la salubrité publique est à nouveau le levier d’une mise en danger des personnes exilées. Bien que l’ONG Médecins du Monde ait constaté en juin des besoins médicaux auprès des personnes en errance dans la ville (tels que des problématiques respiratoires connues pour leur propension à entrainer une forme grave de COVID-19), aucun accès aux soins n’est organisé par les institutions locales ou nationales. Sur la seule après-midi du 18 juin 2020, deux patients ont été admis en hospitalisation d’urgence suite à des signalements de l’ONG (urgence obstétricale et détresse cardiaque).

    Cette nuit-là, le vent est levé. Venus pour assurer une distribution de sacs de couchage et de masques, mis en difficulté dans cet acte simple, nous ressentons l’hypocrisie d’une frontière qui crée ses propres marges. Avec quelques autres volontaires qui tentent d’assurer un relai social et médical, nous devons nous aussi nous cacher, nous rendre invisibles.

    Épuisements

    Il y a quelques semaines, le camp de la Croix-Rouge assurait encore la mise à l’abri d’individus sans papiers. Institué comme bras humanitaire de la Préfecture d’Imperia en 2016, cet établissement situé à 4 kilomètres du centre-ville centralisait l’hébergement des personnes en transit, autant que leur contrôle[II]. Depuis la détection d’un cas de coronavirus le 18 avril, le campo a été fermé aux nouvelles arrivées[III]. Seuls les petits-déjeuners et un service de douche délivrés par Caritas sont assurés aux personnes recalées, ainsi qu’une assistance juridique répartie entre plusieurs associations locales[IV].

    Désormais, pour celles et ceux qui arrivent sur ce territoire, les rares lieux de répit se situent à l’abri des regards, dans quelques marges urbaines tolérées. Corollaire du droit à la mobilité, le droit à la ville est mis à mal dans les interstices urbains de Vintimille. Ces rues sont le théâtre d’un nouveau « game », selon le nom donné dans les Balkans aux tentatives répétées de traversée des frontières, suivies de refoulements violents[V].

    À cette étape des parcours, la France demeure le seul horizon envisageable : tous et toutes parviennent finalement à passer, mais au prix d’épuisements multiples et de nouveaux dangers.

    Ce jour-là, sous le pont de Vintimille, une laie ballade ses marcassins à la recherche de nourriture, à proximité immédiate d’un lieu de campement régulièrement sujet aux déguerpissements policiers. Les voyages nous sont contés avec des mots et des blessures, souvent ramenées de la traversée des Balkans. À cette frontière intérieure de l’Europe, aucun moyen médical institutionnel n’est disponible pour les soigner.

    Des corps confinés

    Confiner, c’est aussi étymologiquement toucher une limite. Bloquées à la frontière italo-française, les personnes exilées se heurtent à des confins au cœur de l’espace Schengen dit « de libre circulation ». Seuls les chiffres de l’activité policière communiqués par la Préfecture des Alpes-Maritimes permettent d’évaluer numériquement l’évolution des arrivées ces derniers mois : alors que 107 refus d’entrée[VI] ont été enregistrés côté français entre le 15 mars et le 15 avril, ce sont environ cinquante personnes qui seraient refoulées chaque jour de la France vers l’Italie, depuis la fin du confinement officiel. Toutefois, ces statistiques n’intègrent ni les tentatives de traversées répétées par une même personne, ni les refoulements non enregistrés par la police française, en dépit des lois en vigueur[VII]. C’est pourquoi le regard d’acteurs non étatiques s’avère nécessaire dans cette phase de déconfinement. Salariée humanitaire, universitaire ou volontaire bénévole, notre présence à Vintimille tient à des raisons diverses, mais nos mots dessinent une même idée : « impératif de mise à l’abri », « inégalité des vies »[VIII], « acharnement dissuasif » …

    Ces deux derniers mois ont fourni l’opportunité de comprendre le caractère essentiel du droit à la mobilité — en particulier pour les personnes qui ont pu se confiner dans des conditions dignes et qui retrouvent depuis le mois de mai les délices de la liberté de circulation[IX]. Que reste-t-il de cette expérience collective ?

    La période post-confinement signale plutôt le renforcement des inégalités à la mobilité. Non seulement la « crise sanitaire » n’a pas amené de véritable réflexion sur la précarité des personnes bloquées aux frontières, mais elle a de plus permis la poursuite des activités de contrôle mortifères à l’écart de l’attention médiatique. C’est le cas en Libye et en Méditerranée[X], mais aussi au cœur de l’Union européenne, à cette frontière franco-italienne.

    Ce jour-là, le train de voyageurs internationaux Vintimille-Cannes fait à nouveau vibrer les rails, à côté du campement improvisé pour la nuit par les exilé-e-s. Le lendemain, nous rejoindrons le bivouac de notre choix sans le moindre contrôle, reconnus à nouveau aptes à circuler, contrairement à ces corps confinés.

    https://blogs.mediapart.fr/mdmonde/blog/240620/ce-jour-la-vintimille-retour-d-un-lieu-d-exil-sans-cesse-confine
    #campement #asile #migrations #réfugiés #frontières #Italie #France #frontière_sud-alpine #SDF #sans-abrisme #in/visibilité #invisibilisation #écart #solidarité #Kesha_Niya #Roya_Citoyenne #distributions_alimentaires #salubrité_publique #accès_aux_soins #hypocrisie #Croix-Rouge #camp #campement #mise_à_l'abri #hébergement #campo #marges #droit_à_l'abri #interstices_urbains #game #the_game #épuisement #droit_à_la_mobilité #libre_circulation #liberté_de_mouvement #liberté_de_circulation #post-covid-19 #post-confinement