• Lionel Maurel : « On doit pouvoir quitter Facebook sans perdre les liens qu’on y a créés »
    https://www.liberation.fr/debats/2018/11/29/lionel-maurel-on-doit-pouvoir-quitter-facebook-sans-perdre-les-liens-qu-o

    Pour le juriste Lionel Maurel, l’approche individualiste de la protection des données personnelles ne permet pas d’appréhender la dimension sociale qu’exploitent les grandes plateformes du Net. Il appelle à la mise en place d’un droit à la migration collective. En 1978, la loi informatique et libertés introduisait dans le droit français la notion de « donnée à caractère personnel ». Quarante ans plus tard, l’entrée en application, en mai dernier, du règlement général sur la protection des données (RGPD) a (...)

    #Airbnb #Facebook #algorithme #domination #LaQuadratureduNet #Mastodon_ #OiseauxDePassage


  • How to build an app like #airbnb ?
    https://hackernoon.com/how-to-build-an-app-like-airbnb-405f3c5872f9?source=rss----3a8144eabfe3-

    Image Source: Photo by Sonnie Hiles on UnsplashWhat do we look for while traveling to a new place? We look forward to a new thrilling experience but at the most economical rate. Imagine that you can find all of it on one platform, A Home away from Home.Airbnb is a travel app which provides a platform for apartment rental opportunities all over the world. Airbnb serves as a tempting marketplace for owners of property and people seeking short-term accommodation. Airbnb has changed the way people tend to look for apartments. It provides captivating opportunities for property owners and travelers. This digital platform serves as an interactive environment for people i.e. the Hosts who earn by renting their property to guests who are looking for affordable accommodation. Airbnb is functional (...)

    #airbnb-clone #homestay #airbnb-india #hotel


  • Former #airbnb #blockchain Leader Focuses on Mainstreaming #crypto
    https://hackernoon.com/former-airbnb-blockchain-leader-focuses-on-mainstreaming-crypto-8f09bf43

    Sida Wang creator of Airbnb’s Blockchain community, BlockbnbI recently had the opportunity to interview the founder of blockchain-based Partiko, Sida Wang, who you might be surprised to find out worked for Airbnb as a software engineer. Not only that, but Sida was also the founder of Airbnb’s blockchain community, Blockbnb.Sida Wang worked as a software engineer for Airbnb in San Francisco until fairly recently, when he decided to go full force with his blockchain-based #startup, Partiko.I was curious what he learned while working for Airbnb:Stellabelle: What was the first program you built and how old were you?Sida: I was 15 years old when I made my first computer program with a language called GV Basics, and it was a snake game. The game got popular among my classmates, which motivated me (...)

    #bitcoin


  • 3 Methods to Conduct an #airdrop — Intro to Batch Transfers & the Unsung Heroes of #blockchain
    https://hackernoon.com/3-methods-to-conduct-an-airdrop-intro-to-batch-transfers-the-unsung-hero

    3 Methods to Conduct an Airdrop — Intro to Batch Transfers & the Unsung Heroes of BlockchainWhat are batch transfers, why they matter, and how they can help spur adoption.Most of the media focusing on blockchain and #cryptocurrency these days focuses on institutional players entering the space; whether it be through the upcoming launch of Bakkt or companies like Fidelity opening up digital asset management branches. An often overlooked area of development is the B2B landscape.Basically, what tools are being created to help developers and business owners in the space.Bakkt is an incredibly exciting development, don’t get me wrong. However when we’re thinking about blockchain mass adoption, it’s infrastructure that’s needed to help move it along. Bakkt helps bring digital assets as a new (...)

    #ethereum #bitcoin


  • Gafams : et si la révolution venait de l’intérieur ?
    http://www.internetactu.net/a-lire-ailleurs/gafams-et-si-la-revolution-venait-de-linterieur

    Présenter de vraies excuses nécessite d’apporter une modification réelle à ce qui a provoqué le problème à l’origine de son remords. Mais pour les entreprises de technologie, présenter des excuses tient plutôt du stratagème pour ne rien faire. C’est ce que dit en substance Josh Constine (@joshconstine) sur TechCrunch, qui n’est pas vraiment la publication la plus critique de l’innovation. Les modèles commerciaux des entreprises sont souvent en conflit avec la façon dont nous souhaitons qu’elles agissent, (...)

    #Google #Airbnb #eBay #Facebook #GoogleSearch #Lyft #Uber #Dragonfly #drone #données #publicité #BigData #GAFAM #profiling #ProjectMaven #bénéfices #censure #militarisation (...)

    ##publicité ##domination
    /assets/images/logo_ia.png


    • 1) il faudra vérifier qu’ils tiennent promesse
      2) il faudra leur expliquer que Jérusalem Est et le Golan sont tout aussi illégalement occupés
      3) il faudra leur expliquer que la campagne BDS s’applique aussi aux investissements dans les frontières de 1948 !


  • Is wearing a face mask the new normal for Californians? TreeHugger
    https://www.treehugger.com/climate-change/wearing-face-mask-new-normal-californians.html

    It seems almost petty to be complaining about air quality in San Francisco when so many people are dead or missing from the actual Camp Fire in California. However, the fact remains that, right now, the air quality in the City is the worst in the world, worse than Delhi, worse than Beijing.

    #air #Californie


  • Airbnb to remove listings in Jewish West Bank settlements
    Noa Landau, Yotam Berger, Jack Khoury and Reuters Nov 19, 2018 6:11 PM
    https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/airbnb-to-remove-listings-in-jewish-west-bank-settlements-1.6662443

    Home-renting company Airbnb Inc said on Monday that it had decided to remove its listings in Jewish settlements in the West Bank, enclaves that most world powers consider illegal for taking up land where Palestinians seek statehood. In response, Israel’s Tourism Minister Yariv Levin instructed the ministry to restrict the company’s operations across the country.

    A statement on Airbnb’s website said: “We concluded that we should remove listings in Israeli settlements in the occupied West Bank that are at the core of the dispute between Israelis and Palestinians.”

    It did not say when the decision, which according to Airbnb affects some 200 listings, would take effect. (...)

    #BDS

    • Airbnb se retire des colonies de Cisjordanie, menaces de sanctions israéliennes
      Par AFP — 19 novembre 2018 à 19:09 (mis à jour à 21:05)
      https://www.liberation.fr/planete/2018/11/19/airbnb-se-retire-des-colonies-de-cisjordanie-menaces-de-sanctions-israeli

      La plateforme de réservation de logements en ligne Airbnb a annoncé lundi qu’elle renonçait à faire des offres dans les colonies israéliennes de Cisjordanie occupée, provoquant des menaces de sanctions de la part d’Israël.

      La Cisjordanie est un territoire palestinien occupé par l’armée israélienne depuis plus de 50 ans. Les colonies qui y sont construites par Israël sont considérées comme illégales par la communauté internationale qui les voient comme l’un des principaux obstacles à la paix. Le gouvernement israélien conteste cette vision.

      « Nous avons conclu que nous devrions retirer de nos listes les logements dans les colonies israéliennes en Cisjordanie occupée qui sont au cœur de la dispute entre Israéliens et Palestiniens », a indiqué dans un communiqué Airbnb.

      « Nous savons que des gens vont être en désaccord avec cette décision et nous respectons leur perspective. C’est une question controversée », a ajouté le texte.

      La plateforme indique que 200 logements sont répertoriés dans les colonies, mais ne précise pas quand cette mesure entrera en vigueur.

      Le ministre israélien du Tourisme Yariv Levin a immédiatement dénoncé dans un communiqué la décision « honteuse et malheureuse » d’Airbnb. « Notre ministère a commencé à préparer des mesures immédiates pour limiter les activités d’Airbnb » en Israël.

      Il a ajouté qu’il comptait lancer un programme pour encourager la location de courte durée de logements dans les colonies de Cisjordanie.

    • Airbnb n’offrira plus de locations dans les colonies juives de Cisjordanie
      Par Piotr Smolar Publié le 19 novembre à 22h03, mis à jour le 20 novembre 2018 à 08h59
      https://www.lemonde.fr/proche-orient/article/2018/11/19/airbnb-supprime-les-locations-dans-les-colonies-juives-de-cisjordanie-israel

      La chambre est vraiment peu séduisante mais le prix attractif – 36 euros la nuit – et les collines environnantes offrent un cadre naturel magnifique. Il était encore possible de la louer, mardi 20 novembre, sur le site d’Airbnb.

      Située dans la colonie juive d’Itamar au nord de la Cisjordanie, à proximité de Naplouse, cette offre doit pourtant être retirée, à une date inconnue. La célèbre plate-forme de location a choisi d’anticiper la publication d’un rapport de l’ONG Human Rights Watch (HRW) et s’est engagée dans un communiqué, publié le 19 novembre, à ne plus proposer de logements sis dans les colonies, soit environ 200 annonces.

      « Il existe des opinions opposées pour savoir si les entreprises devraient conduire des activités dans les territoires occupés qui sont soumis à des disputes historiques entre Israéliens et Palestiniens », commence prudemment le texte. Après une longue réflexion, l’entreprise a décidé de ne pas se réfugier uniquement derrière la loi américaine, qui l’autorise à mener ses activités en Cisjordanie.

      Elle évoque, parmi les motifs de son choix, les « souffrances humaines » que ces annonces peuvent susciter et leur lien avec le conflit. En revanche, Airbnb ne précise pas si Jérusalem-Est et le plateau du Golan, annexés par Israël sans reconnaissance internationale, étaient concernés par sa mesure.(...)

    • Airbnb efface de son site les propositions de location dans les colonies israéliennes
      19 novembre 2019 – Al Jazeera – Traduction : Chronique de Palestine
      http://www.chroniquepalestine.com/airbnb-efface-de-son-site-les-propositions-de-location-dans-les-

      Al Jazeera – Le service mondial de location en ligne, Airbnb, a annoncé qu’il supprimerait ses annonces dans les colonies israéliennes illégales en Cisjordanie occupée.

      La décision de lundi entraînera la suppression d’environ 200 annonces du site Web populaire d’hébergement, qui permet aux propriétaires de louer des chambres, des appartements et des maisons à des individus.

      « Nous avons conclu que nous devrions supprimer les inscriptions dans les colonies de peuplement israéliennes situées en Cisjordanie occupée qui sont au cœur du différend entre Israéliens et Palestiniens », indique un communiqué publié sur le site Internet d’Airbnb.

      La suppression des inscriptions aura lieu dans les prochains jours, a déclaré un porte-parole d’Airbnb à l’agence de presse Reuters.

      La société a déclaré être parvenue à cette conclusion sur la base d’un rapport interne servant à évaluer la manière dont elle gère les propositions dans les territoires occupés du monde entier.

      « La législation américaine autorise des sociétés telles qu’Airbnb à exercer des activités sur ces territoires. Parallèlement, de nombreux membres de la communauté internationale ont déclaré que les sociétés ne devraient pas y exercer leurs activités, estimant qu’elles ne devraient pas tirer profit de terres accaparées », dit la déclaration.

      « D’autres pensent que les entreprises ne devraient pas retirer leurs activités de ces zones », a ajouté le responsable.

      « Nous savons que des gens ne seront pas d’accord avec cette décision et tiendront à leur point de vue. C’est une question controversée. »

      Toutes les colonies israéliennes sont illégales au regard du droit international.

      Les listes d’hébergement de Airbnb en Cisjordanie occupée ont longtemps été critiquées par la communauté palestinienne et les défenseurs des droits de l’homme.


  • Square, Airbnb, And eBay Just Said They Would End Forced Arbitration For Sexual Harassment Claims
    https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/daveyalba/tech-companies-end-forced-arbitration-airbnb-ebay

    Tesla and Netflix declined to comment. Slack said it was “undertaking a careful review” of its policies. Many major tech companies have long preferred to force employees to settle sexual harassment claims in private arbitration — a policy that shields firms from the embarrassing prospect of workers airing their grievances in open court, and also tends to result in lower-cost settlements. In the past, mandated arbitration has effectively silenced women speaking out about their experiences of (...)

    #Google #Airbnb #eBay #Facebook #Square #travail #harcèlement


  • Harcèlement sexuel : dans la foulée de Google, Facebook, eBay et Airbnb changent leurs règles
    https://www.lemonde.fr/pixels/article/2018/11/13/harcelement-sexuel-dans-la-foulee-de-google-facebook-ebay-et-airbnb-changent

    Ces entreprises ont mis fin à la « clause d’arbitrage » obligatoire, qui impose aux employés de régler les affaires de harcèlement sexuel en interne, plutôt que devant les tribunaux. La grande mobilisation des employés de Google, le 1er novembre, contre le harcèlement sexuel, a donné des résultats au-delà des frontières de l’entreprise. Lundi 12 novembre, Airbnb et eBay, deux énormes plates-formes du Web, ont annoncé dans les colonnes de Buzzfeed qu’elles mettaient fin à la « clause d’arbitrage » (...)

    #Google #Airbnb #eBay #Facebook #travail #harcèlement



  • Amazonisme : le travail à la tâche est-il un projet d’avenir ?
    https://usbeketrica.com/article/amazonisme-le-travail-a-la-tache-est-il-un-projet-d-avenir

    Après la fin de la civilisation de l’écrit, la fin de l’école de masse, la fin du respect de la vie privée et la fin de l’acceptation de la mort, voici le cinquième volet de la série sur les « parenthèses refermées » par la révolution numérique. Jean-Dominique Séval, directeur général adjoint de l’IDATE Digiworld, think tank européen spécialisé dans l’économie numérique, explore cette fois la façon dont le numérique referme la parenthèse du travail salarié. Un statut qui n’aura duré finalement qu’à peine deux (...)

    #Airbnb #Alibaba.com #Amazon #AmazonMechanicalTurk #Uber #Deliveroo #travail #DidiChuxing


  • Brazil new President will open Amazon indigenous reserves to mining and farming

    Indigenous People Bolsonaro has vowed that no more indigenous reserves will be demarcated and existing reserves will be opened up to mining, raising the alarm among indigenous leaders. “We are in a state of alert,” said Beto Marubo, an indigenous leader from the Javari Valley reserve.

    Dinamam Tuxá, the executive coordinator of the Indigenous People of Brazil Liaison, said indigenous people did not want mining and farming on their reserves, which are some of the best protected areas in the Amazon. “He does not respect the indigenous peoples’ traditions” he said.

    The Amazon and the environment Bolsonaro campaigned on a pledge to combine Brazil’s environment ministry with the agriculture ministry – under control of allies from the agribusiness lobby. He has attacked environmental agencies for running a “fines industry” and argued for simplifying environmental licences for development projects. His chief of staff, Onyx Lorenzoni, and other allies have challenged global warming science.

    “He intends that Amazon stays Brazilian and the source of our progress and our riches,” said Ribeiro Souto in an interview. Ferreira has also said Bolsonaro wants to restart discussions over controversial hydroelectric dams in the Amazon, which were stalled over environmental concerns.

    Bolsonaro’s announcement last week that he would no longer seek to withdraw Brazil from the Paris climate agreement has done little to assuage environmentalists’ fears.

    http://www.whitewolfpack.com/2018/10/brazil-new-president-will-open-amazon.html
    #réserves #Amazonie #Brésil #extractivisme #mines #agriculture #forêt #déforestation (probablement pour amener ENFIN la #modernité et le #progrès, n’est-ce pas ?) #aires_protégées #peuples_autochtones #barrages_hydroélectriques


  • Le gouvernement des playgrounds
    Histoire fragmentée des aires de jeux, 1770-2010

    Par Ferdinand Cazalis

    https://jefklak.org/le-gouvernement-des-playgrounds

    Sols absorbants, formes arrondies et couleurs vives, les aires de jeux standardisées font désormais partie du paysage urbain. Toujours les mêmes toboggans sécurisés, châteaux forts en bois et animaux à ressort. Ces non-lieux qu’on finit par ne plus voir ont une histoire, parallèle à celle des différentes visions portées sur l’enfant et l’éducation. En retournant jouer au XIXe siècle, sur les premiers playgrounds des États-Unis, on assiste à la construction d’une nation – et à des jeux de société qui changent notre vision sur les balançoires du capitalisme.


  • Pourquoi le Bassin Pacifique est-il un centre du nouvel « ordre » mondial ? Entretien exclusif Diploweb.com

    https://www.diploweb.com/Pourquoi-le-Bassin-Pacifique-est-il-un-centre-du-nouvel-ordre-mondial.html

    Par quel enchaînement le Bassin Pacifique est-il progressivement devenu le centre du nouvel ordre mondial ? D’Obama à Trump, quid du "pivot" américain sur le Pacifique ? Comment fonctionnent les organisations régionales au sein de la zone Bassin Pacifique ? L’UE peut-elle résister au processus de marginalisation qui semble à l’oeuvre ? Voici les questions posées à Jean-Louis Guibert, Daniel Haber qui viennent de publier « Le Bassin Pacifique. Centre du nouvel ordre mondial », Paris, éd. L’Harmattan, 2018.


    Carte : Philippe Rekacewicz, 2006.

    #pacifique #aire_pacifique #géopolitique #états_unis #chine #japon


  • How to Find Hidden Cameras in Your #Airbnb Rental | Digital Trends
    https://www.digitaltrends.com/home/how-to-find-hidden-cameras

    Voyeurism isn’t all that unheard of though. In Toronto, a couple recently found a hidden camera inside of an alarm clock in their Airbnb rental. The camera was pointing toward the bed. The couple’s experience is just one of many, as several reports of Airbnb hidden cameras have surfaced over the past few years.


  • #Niger suppresses dissent as US leads influx of foreign armies

    The western presence in one of the most militarised countries in Africa has sparked frustration and fear in locals.

    The demonstration was planned for 4pm on 15 April, a warm Sunday afternoon in the somnolent Nigerien capital. The protesters had two main complaints: rising taxes and the fact that, in recent years, some of the world’s most powerful armies had descended on their country.

    But before the civil society leaders could even get to the march, they were arrested.

    When a group of heavily armed men on motorbikes killed four American special ops soldiers in remote Niger last October, it was the first many had heard of the war the US was helping fight against a local branch of Isis.

    But their involvement in that fight represents only a fraction of the US presence in the west African country, poor but strategically located in the middle of the Sahel, its borders crisscrossed by extremists and traffickers.

    And the 800 US defence personnel in Niger are not alone. They are one of four western armies that have installed themselves in the vast desert landscape, variously flying armed drones, hunting militants, building vast bases, controlling migration and collecting intelligence from the region.

    This is what the April protest was about.

    Ibrahim Diori was arrested at home, and Maïkou Zodi in his car, both charged with participation in a banned demonstration and destruction of public property, even though they were not present. Today, they are in jail awaiting trial, along with colleagues arrested over previous marches.

    The Nigerien government allows foreign powers free rein to build military bases and send soldiers to defend their interests in the region, while suppressing any dissent, according to those civil society leaders not in jail, and key opposition figures.

    “Today there’s terrible repression of those who are against the government line. They put seven of my colleagues in prison because we said no to foreign bases,” said Mariama Bayard, leader of the opposition. She said that the government was “illegitimate” because the main challenger, Hama Amadou, was in jail at the time of the last election, and that it was being propped up by foreigners in the absence of domestic support.

    “Dictatorship is taking hold of this country. The people don’t want the bases. But the Sahel has become an important geo-strategic space for the great powers,” she said.

    According to Bayard, foreign powers do not have permission to build bases in their country.

    “Our constitution says that before a base can be installed, parliament has to accept it. It’s a deal between the government and these foreign powers. It’s illegal, the bases are illegal.”

    With Boko Haram in the south-east, Isis-linked ISGS on the Malian border, and a chaotic Libya to the north, Niger is surrounded by violent extremists.

    As part of its counter-terrorism mission Operation Barkhane, France has 500 soldiers on its base in Niamey, and more on its bases in Madama and Aguelal. Germany has 50 soldiers in Niamey to support the UN peacekeeping force in Mali, and is expanding accommodation to cater for more on the airbase it shares with France. Canadian soldiers come and go.

    Italy has an advance team of 40 soldiers in the country, preparing for the arrival of up to 430 more troops who will “train, advise and assist” local forces to fight illicit trafficking, mostly of migrants. Many of the 640,000 refugees who have arrived in Italy since 2014 came through Niger.

    But it is the US, with its armed drones targeting militants including al-Qaeda leaders in Libya, that has attracted the most attention.
    Niger is the perfect example of the US state of perma-war
    Trevor Timm
    Trevor Timm
    Read more

    The three giant white hangars of Airbase 201, the new US base near the centuries-old city of Agadez, which is costing $100m (£78m) to build, stand on a long stretch of sand that is prone to puddles ; local herders used to take their goats to drink there in rainy season.

    Some of these herders, living a few hundred metres away from the base’s new fences, said they had never met their new neighbours, though they often saw them whizzing past in air-conditioned SUVs, or by night, the shadow of their aircraft crossing the moon.

    “They don’t help us. I’ve always been poor, and I’m still poor,” said Sedefiou Abdou, who had never heard of America until the base came to his neighbourhood. References to Obama, Trump and Coca Cola drew a blank. Then he was played a snippet of a French cover of the wildly popular Latin hit Despacito, and his face finally lit up in recognition. Apart from the airbase, this was the closest America came to penetrating into his corner of the Sahel.

    Abdou had no more need of this knowledge than most Americans do for Niger’s rich and complex culture; the two countries are thousands of miles apart. But his government and theirs were firm friends, as the Nigerien president said in an interview at his palace in Niamey, where former presidents deposed in Niger’s many coups gaze down from their portraits on the building’s high white arches.

    “I don’t like the term ‘foreign forces’ – they’re friendly forces, who will leave as soon as we want them to,” said Mahamadou Issoufou. “They’re here at our request, and once the need for them disappears, they’ll leave.”

    Issoufou recognised that they were also looking after their own interests, however.

    “They’re not just here for us. They do it for themselves. The countries who have sent their armies know that once the Sahel is conquered, the threat will concern them, will concern Europe. It’s a way of preventing that threat from spreading into their territory.”

    Niger is one of the most militarised countries in Africa. The government spends 21% of its small budget on defence, which means there is much less to spend on things like health and education. Hence the need for higher taxes, which the government says do not affect the poor but which have nevertheless sparked fierce opposition.

    Civil society leaders and rights groups say protests against this and any controversial government policies have been “almost systematically denied”, while pro-government marches are allowed. Detained civil society leaders have been spread out in jails across the country, meaning their families struggle to visit and feed them; several were convicted of instigating an unarmed, banned gathering last month, and released having already served their time.

    According to Boulama Hamadou Tcherno, one of the few civil society leaders who was not arrested in the March and April crackdowns, there has been silence from the nations in a position to put pressure on the government.

    “We’re very worried about what will happen in the next few years. Freedom to demonstrate, freedom of religion – even praying to God is forbidden. And all the big democratic powers turn their gaze away.”

    The Guardian put the allegations that America is in effect propping up an illegitimate and repressive government to Thomas Waldhauser, the head of US Africa Command, in an interview at a small American base in Senegal last week.
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    “They [Niger] have been a good partner of ours now for many years,” he said.

    He emphasised that there had been “a lot of aid and security force assistance” in recent years and said that was why the US was there, as well as to help the country maintain its borders.

    Speaking more generally about the US presence in Africa, he said US troops were trying to “prevent something from spreading and happening before it actually does”.

    According to opponents of the foreign bases, however, they do not stop terrorists but attract them.

    “We see no results from their presence on the ground; in fact we have the impression that terrorism has increased since they arrived. Are they really here to help our soldiers?” Tcherno asked.

    Bayard agreed. “They are creating the conditions for the Sahel to blow up,” she said. “They say that the bases are here for our security, but the opposite is true.”


    https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/aug/14/niger-suppresses-dissent-as-us-leads-influx-of-foreign-armies
    #militarisation #Italie #USA #Etats-Unis #terrorisme #sécurité #Airbase_201

    • Perché in Niger ci sono militari da tutto il mondo

      Il Niger è uno dei paesi più militarizzati dell’Africa. Nell’ottobre del 2017 questo dato è salito all’attenzione di tutti quando quattro soldati delle forze speciali statunitensi e almeno quattro militari nigerini sono rimasti uccisi in un’imboscata. Da allora la presenza militare straniera non ha fatto che intensificarsi. Cosa fanno in Niger tutte queste forze armate? Che interessi hanno? Stanno raggiungendo i loro obiettivi?

      Gli Stati Uniti non sono l’unico paese presente ad avere truppe in Niger: ci sono anche i soldati di Francia, Germania, Canada e Italia.

      Nell’aprile di quest’anno il Niger ha ospitato le esercitazioni militari congiunte Flintlock, che hanno coinvolto 1.900 soldati di una ventina di paesi. L’obiettivo delle esercitazioni, patrocinate dagli Stati Uniti, era rafforzare la collaborazione tra le forze di sicurezza africane per proteggere i civili dalle violenze legate all’estremismo religioso.

      La presenza militare straniera in Niger viene generalmente motivata in tre modi: lottare contro il terrorismo, prevenire le migrazioni degli africani in Europa e proteggere gli investimenti stranieri.

      Il terrorismo nel Sahel
      Nella regione del Sahel, che comprende anche il Niger, sono attivi alcuni gruppi estremisti islamici e per questo l’area è considerata la “nuova frontiera” delle operazioni della lotta globale al terrorismo. Oltre al Niger, gli Stati Uniti hanno una presenza militare in Mauritania, in Senegal, in Mali, in Burkina Faso, in Nigeria e in Ciad. Per quanto ne sappiamo, solo il Sudan e l’Eritrea non ospitano truppe statunitensi. Nel Sahel operano inoltre “attori esterni di secondo piano”, tra cui le forze armate dell’Unione europea, di Israele, della Colombia e del Giappone.

      Il coinvolgimento statunitense nel Sahel risale ai tempi della guerra al terrorismo lanciata da Washington dopo gli attentati dell’11 settembre 2001. Nel 2003 gli Stati Uniti crearono la Pan Sahel initiative, coinvolgendo il Ciad, il Mali, la Mauritania e il Niger nell’addestramento di unità dell’esercito specializzate nel contrastare le minacce terroristiche e la diffusione del radicalismo. Nel 2004 l’iniziativa è stata sostituita dalla Trans-Sahara counterterrorism partnership, un’alleanza più ampia che comprende anche l’Algeria, il Burkina Faso, il Camerun, il Marocco, la Nigeria, il Senegal e la Tunisia.

      Nel 2014 i capi di stato di Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, Niger e Ciad hanno firmato una convenzione per istituire il G5 Sahel, con l’obiettivo di garantire “sviluppo e sicurezza per migliorare la qualità della vita della gente”. Nel 2017 gli stessi capi di stato hanno dato vita alla forza congiunta del G5 Sahel, con il benestare dell’Unione africana e delle Nazioni Unite. Lo scopo di questa forza armata, il cui presidente di turno è il nigerino Mahamadou Issoufou, è più ampio rispetto a quello di altre operazioni in corso nella regione: oltre a migliorare la sicurezza lungo i confini condivisi, i suoi uomini devono anche promuovere la cosiddetta soft security (”sicurezza morbida”, cioè quelle misure – anche di natura preventiva – che servono a riportare la stabilità e un senso di normalità nelle aree colpite da conflitti).

      Gli Stati Uniti hanno fornito supporto militare a ognuno degli stati del G5 Sahel e hanno promesso 60 milioni di dollari di aiuti bilaterali all’iniziativa.

      Il Niger è circondato da paesi che sono focolai di instabilità

      Il Niger si trova nel centro del Sahel. Purtroppo per i suoi abitanti, è circondato da paesi che sono focolai di instabilità. Storicamente il Niger è sempre stato la porta d’accesso al Nordafrica per i migranti originari dell’Africa subsahariana e negli ultimi anni è diventato uno dei più importanti paesi di transito per chi va in cerca di opportunità in Europa. È per questo che paesi come l’Italia hanno inviato le loro truppe in Niger, con l’obiettivo di fermare i migranti.

      Le forze armate straniere in Niger addestrano soldati africani, fanno volare droni, costruiscono basi, compiono incursioni oltre frontiera e raccolgono informazioni. Queste attività sono finalizzate alla lotta al terrorismo e al controllo dei flussi migratori. Tuttavia l’Africa è considerata anche uno dei mercati dalle potenzialità maggiori, cosa che spiega l’espansione dei rapporti economici e commerciali, e questa può essere un’ulteriore motivazione per la presenza militare straniera sempre più diversificata in Niger e, più in generale, nella regione.

      Dal canto suo, il governo di Niamey ha accolto a braccia aperte le truppe straniere. Il presidente Issoufou è felice di sostenere gli interessi di Washington nella regione finché gli Stati Uniti saranno disposti a sostenere il suo governo e ad addestrare le sue forze armate. Con l’aiuto statunitense Issoufou pensa di poter mantenere la promessa fatta in campagna elettorale di “sconfiggere i militanti estremisti islamici”.

      I rapporti amichevoli tra Niger e Stati Uniti assumono un significato particolare anche alla luce delle tensioni tra Washington e il Ciad, vicino del Niger. Alla fine del 2017 il presidente statunitense Donald Trump aveva inserito il Ciad nella
      lista di paesi colpiti dal divieto di viaggiare negli Stati Uniti, una mossa che ha stupito molti esperti di politica estera e ha evidentemente suscitato le ire del governo ciadiano. In seguito il divieto è stato abolito.

      Conseguenze indesiderate
      La presenza di forze militari straniere in Niger ha davvero permesso di contrastare il terrorismo e i flussi migratori? A che prezzo? Ci sono state ricadute impreviste e potenzialmente dannose? Alcuni sostengono che la presenza delle truppe straniere abbia avuto conseguenze negative sulla politica interna del Niger e che abbia favorito l’affermazione di un clima politico sempre più oppressivo.

      Alcuni rappresentanti della società civile e i leader dell’opposizione politica denunciano la costruzione di nuove basi militari straniere, denunciando delle violazioni della costituzione. Secondo loro, la presenza militare straniera e la centralità attribuita al tema della sicurezza sono strumenti che servono a rafforzare un governo che non ha più sostegno interno. Le elezioni nigerine del 2016, in cui Issoufou ha conquistato un secondo mandato, pare siano state “caratterizzate da gravi irregolarità”.

      La corsa alla militarizzazione del Niger desta ancora più preoccupazione in un paese dove le forze armate sono considerate “un’organizzazione profondamente politicizzata” e ostile al controllo delle autorità civili. Un esercito del genere potrebbe rivelarsi utile a un presidente che desideri consolidare il suo potere al di là di quanto concesso dagli strumenti democratici.

      Nel febbraio di quest’anno i nigerini sono scesi in piazza scandendo slogan come: “Eserciti francesi, americani e tedeschi, andate via!”. Issoufou ha risposto bloccando altre manifestazioni simili nel mese di marzo. Ha difeso la misura affermando l’importanza di uno stato “democratico, ma forte”.

      Non è ancora chiaro cosa succederà in futuro, soprattutto se – come rivela un articolo del New York Times – Washington starebbe valutando se ritirare la maggior parte delle truppe. Per chi si oppone alla presenza militare straniera in Niger non sarà mai troppo presto.

      (Traduzione di Giusy Muzzopappa)

      Da sapere

      Nel gennaio del 2018 è stata approvata dal parlamento italiano una missione militare in Niger (Misin), che dovrebbe occuparsi di addestramento e supporto dell’esercito nigerino nel contrasto di traffici illegali. I primi quaranta soldati italiani arrivati a marzo sono però rimasti accampati in una base statunitense a poche centinaia di metri dall’aeroporto di Niamey, senza avere ancora ricevuto il via libera dalle autorità del paese per operare. Il 20 settembre è stato reso noto da alcune agenzie di stampa, non smentite dal ministero, che il contingente è stato sbloccato e che entro novembre partiranno altri trenta militari italiani.
      Nella notte tra il 17 e il 18 settembre in Niger un gruppo armato ha rapito il religioso italiano Pierluigi Maccalli, della Società delle missioni africane (Sma). Il sequestro è stato inizialmente attribuito a miliziani jihadisti provenienti da oltre frontiera, ma potrebbe anche essere opera di gruppi peul radicalizzati, precisa un missionario della Sma.

      https://www.internazionale.it/notizie/craig-bailie/2018/09/20/niger-militari-mondo

    • La mission militaire italienne au Niger débute finalement

      La mission militaire italienne au Niger, visant à aider les autorités locales à contrôler les flux migratoires, va finalement débuter, huit mois après avoir été votée par le Parlement italien, a annoncé jeudi la ministre de la Défense Elisabetta Trenta.

      « Après huit mois d’impasse, nous avons débloqué la mission au Niger pour le contrôle des flux migratoires », a écrit Mme Trenta sur Facebook, sans préciser ce qui avait bloqué, puis débloqué, la situation.

      « L’Italie interviendra en soutien du gouvernement nigérien et assistera les autorités locales à travers des unités chargées de la formation (...) des forces nigériennes pour renforcer le contrôle du territoire », a poursuivi Mme Trenta sans préciser la date du début de cette mission.

      « Concrètement, l’objectif est de lutter, ensemble, contre la traite d’êtres humains et le trafic des migrants qui traversent le pays et se dirigent vers la Libye pour finalement s’embarquer en direction de nos côtes », a-t-elle ajouté.

      L’ancien chef du gouvernement italien, Paolo Gentiloni (centre gauche), avait annoncé l’envoi de cette mission lors du G5 Sahel (Mali, Tchad, Burkina Faso, Niger, Mauritanie) qui s’était tenu mi-décembre 2017 à la Celle-Saint-Cloud, près de Paris.

      Selon M. Gentiloni, il s’agissait de répondre à une demande des autorités locales, même si ces dernières avaient alors démenti avoir formulé une requête de ce type.

      En janvier, les députés italiens avaient entériné l’envoi de cette mission militaire au Niger, un pays d’origine mais surtout de transit pour les migrants souhaitant se rendre en Europe.

      La ministre de la Défense de l’époque, Roberta Pinotti, avait expliqué que cette mission devait compter dans un premier temps 120 militaires, avant de monter progressivement à 470.


      https://www.voaafrique.com/a/la-mission-militaire-italienne-au-niger-d%C3%A9bute-finalement/4580034.html


  • Cornell professor resigns after review questions his food studies | syracuse.com
    http://www.syracuse.com/state/index.ssf/2018/09/cornell_professor_resigns_food_research.html

    A Cornell professor whose attention-getting food studies made him a media darling has submitted his resignation, the school said Thursday, a dramatic fall for a scholar whose work increasingly came under question in recent years.

    The university said in a statement that a year-long review found that Brian Wansink “committed academic misconduct in his research and scholarship, including misreporting of research data, problematic statistical techniques, failure to properly document and preserve research results, and inappropriate authorship.”

    #autorité #expert #air_du_temps


  • Palantir : livre-t-on nos secrets à nos alliés américains ?
    https://www.franceculture.fr/numerique/palantir-livre-t-nos-secrets-a-nos-allies-americains

    Une société américaine d’analyse de données, Palantir, travaille pour le compte des services antiterroristes français, et des entreprises stratégiques, comme Airbus. Existe-t-il des risques de fuites de données vers les États-Unis ? Enquête sur l’une des start-up les plus puissantes du monde. 23 mai 2018. Une cinquantaine de patrons de géants du numérique sont invités par le chef de l’État, Emmanuel Macron, lors d’une réunion baptisée Tech for good. Parmi eux, un homme aux cheveux en bataille : Alexander (...)

    #Airbus #CambridgeAnalytica #Boeing #Palantir #Facebook #Paypal #algorithme #Predpol #criminalité #écoutes #données #métadonnées #web #surveillance #BigData #NSA #CIA (...)

    ##criminalité ##FBI


  • Un #TGV privé va desservir #Barcelone, #Perpignan et #Narbonne

    C’est une révolution dans le transport ferroviaire européen. A partir du 5 octobre prochain, la société #ILSA, filiale de la compagnie aérienne #Air_Nostrum, sera gestionnaire d’une liaison ferroviaire à grande vitesse entre #Madrid et #Montpellier, avec des arrêts à #Saragosse, Barcelone, #Figueres, Perpignan et Narbonne.

    https://www.midilibre.fr/2018/09/17/un-tgv-prive-va-desservir-barcelone-perpignan-et-narbonne,4699923.php
    #transports_publics (pas tant publics que ça... en fait) #France #Espagne #transport_ferroviaire #privatisation #compagnies_aériennes



  • Study finds first evidence of #air #pollution particles reaching mothers’ #placentas | Euronews
    http://www.euronews.com/2018/09/16/study-finds-first-evidence-of-air-pollution-particles-reaching-mothers-pla

    The study, conducted by researchers at Queen Mary University of London, adds to an existing body of evidence linking pregnant mothers’ exposure to air pollution with issues including premature birth and childhood respiratory problems.

    “We’ve known for a while that air pollution affects foetal development and can continue to affect babies after birth and throughout their lives… [But] until now, there has been very little evidence that inhaled particles get into the blood from the lung,” Dr Lisa Miyashita, who worked on the study, said in a statement.

    To conduct the study, the scientists used the placentas of five non-smoking women in London, who had all delivered healthy babies via planned caesarean sections.

    Using a high-powered microscope, they analysed 3,500 macrophage cells, which form part of the body’s immune system and engulf harmful particles such as air pollution.

    Within the cells, they found 72 small black areas that they believed to be carbon particles.

    “Our results provide the first evidence that inhaled pollution particles can move from the lungs into the circulation and then to the placenta,” said Dr Norrice Liu, who presented the research at the European Respiratory Society International Congress on Sunday.

    “We do not know whether the particles we found could also move across into the foetus, but our evidence suggests that this is indeed possible,” she added.

    Professor Mina Gaga, president of the European Respiratory Society, said the research, which she was not involved in, “suggests a possible mechanism of how babies are affected by pollution while being theoretically protected in the womb.”

    “This should raise awareness amongst clinicians and the public regarding the harmful effects of air pollution in pregnant women,” she added.

    #particules #santé



  • Quand la production #aéronautique échappe au #Sud-Ouest

    La filière aéronautique ne se porte pas si bien qu’on ne le croit dans le Sud-Ouest. Pour réduire le coût de la main d’oeuvre, les sous-traitants d’#Airbus délocalisent de plus en plus leur activité. Entre 2013 et 2016, la part de la production réalisée à l’étranger est ainsi passée de 26 à 39%, selon les chiffres obtenus par Mediacités.


    https://www.mediacites.fr/toulouse/enquete-toulouse/2018/09/11/quand-la-production-aeronautique-echappe-au-sud-ouest
    #France #délocalisation #industrie_aéronotique


  • Pourquoi la technologie n’est pas démocratique et comment elle peut le devenir
    http://maisouvaleweb.fr/technologie-nest-democratique-devenir

    « Les effets sociaux de la technologie sont-ils vraiment si complexes qu’absolument personne ne puisse les prévoir, et encore moins mener une action susceptible de les orienter ? » demande Richard Sclove, dans Choix technologiques, choix de société (Descartes & Cie). Le fondateur du Loka Institute, qui milite depuis plusieurs années en faveur de la démocratie technique livrait il y a quinze ans déjà une analyse profonde des technologies, ces institutions non élues qui structurent nos vies. (...)

    #Airbnb #Waze #domination #solutionnisme