• Tesla needs graphite. #Alaska has plenty. But mining it raises fears in nearby villages.

    Ducks and swans flew overhead as Sylvester Ayek, 82, and his daughter Kimberly, 35, hauled rocks to anchor their small salmon net on the bank of a deep, tidal channel — 25 miles inland from the open Bering Sea coast.

    Nearby on that July day, MaryJane Litchard, Ayek’s partner, picked wild celery and set out a lunch of past subsistence harvests: a blue-shelled seabird egg, dried beluga whale meat and red salmon dipped in seal oil.

    Then, as they waited for fish to fill the net, the family motored Ayek’s skiff up the channel, known as the Tuksuk, spotting birds and seals and passing family fish camps where drying salmon hung on racks. Soon, the steep channel walls gave way to a huge estuary: the Imuruk Basin, flanked by the snow-dotted peaks of the Kigluaik Mountains.

    Ayek describes the basin as a “traditional hunting and gathering place” for the local Iñupiat, who have long sustained themselves on the area’s bounty of fish, berries and wildlife.

    But despite a long Indigenous history, and a brief settler boom during the Gold Rush more than a century ago, a couple of weather-beaten cabins were the only obvious signs of human impact as Ayek’s boat idled — save for a set of tiny, beige specks at the foot of the mountains.

    Those specks were a camp run by a Canadian exploration company, Graphite One. And they marked the prospective site of a mile-wide open pit mine that could reach deep below the tundra — into the largest known deposit of graphite in the U.S.

    The mine could help power America’s electric vehicle revolution, and it’s drawing enthusiastic support from powerful government officials in both Alaska and Washington, D.C. That includes the Biden administration, which recently announced up to $37.5 million in subsidies for Graphite One through the U.S. Department of Defense.

    So far, the announcements from the project’s politically connected boosters have received far more attention than the several hundred Alaskans whose lives would be affected directly by Graphite One’s mine.

    While opinions in the nearby Alaska Native villages of Brevig Mission and Teller are mixed, there are significant pockets of opposition, particularly among the area’s tribal leaders. Many residents worry the project will harm the subsistence harvests that make life possible in a place where the nearest well-stocked grocery store is a two-hour drive away, in Nome.

    “The further they go with the mine, our subsistence will just move further and further away from us,” Gilbert Tocktoo, president of Brevig Mission’s tribal government, said over a dinner of boiled salmon at his home. “And sooner or later, it’s going to become a question of: Do I want to live here anymore?”

    Despite those concerns, Graphite One is gathering local support: Earlier this month, the board of the region’s Indigenous-owned, for-profit corporation unanimously endorsed the project.

    The Nome-based corporation, Bering Straits Native Corp., also agreed to invest $2 million in Graphite One, in return for commitments related to jobs and scholarships for shareholders.

    The tensions surrounding Graphite One’s project underscore how the rush to bolster domestic manufacturing of electric vehicles threatens a new round of disruption to tribal communities and landscapes that have already borne huge costs from past mining booms.

    Across the American West, companies are vying to extract the minerals needed to power electric vehicles and other green technologies. Proposed mines for lithium, antimony and copper are chasing some of the same generous federal tax credits as Graphite One — and some are advancing in spite of objections from Indigenous people who have already seen their lands taken and resources diminished over more than a century of mining.

    The Seward Peninsula’s history is a case in point: Thousands of non-Native prospectors came here during the Gold Rush, which began in 1898. The era brought devastating bouts of pandemic disease and displacement for the Iñupiat, and today, that history weighs on some as they consider how Graphite One could affect their lives.

    “A lot of people like to say that our culture is lost. But we didn’t just go out there and lose it: It was taken from us,” said Taluvaaq Qiñuġana, a 24-year-old Iñupiaq resident of Brevig Mission. A new mining project in her people’s traditional harvesting grounds, she said, “feels like continuous colonization.”

    But other Indigenous residents of Brevig Mission and Teller say the villages would benefit from well-paying jobs that could come with the mine. Cash income could help people sustain their households in the two communities, where full-time work is otherwise scarce.

    Graphite One executives say one of their highest priorities, as they advance their project toward permitting and construction, is protecting village residents’ harvests of fish, wildlife and berries. They say they fully appreciate the essential nature of that food supply.

    “This is very real to them,” said Mike Schaffner, Graphite One’s senior vice president of mining. “We completely understand that we can’t come in there and hurt the subsistence, and we can’t hurt how their lifestyle is.”

    U.S. produces no domestic graphite

    Graphite is simply carbon — like a diamond but far softer, because of its different crystal structure. Graphite is used as a lubricant, in industrial steelmaking, for brake linings in automobiles and as pencil lead.

    It’s also a key component of the high-powered lithium batteries that propel electric cars.

    Once mined and concentrated, graphite is processed into a powder that’s mixed with a binder, then rolled flat and curled into the hundreds of AA-battery-sized cylinders that make up the battery pack.

    America hasn’t mined any graphite in decades, having been undercut by countries where it’s extracted at a lower cost.

    China currently produces more than half of the world’s mined graphite and nearly all of the highly processed type needed for batteries. The country so dominates the supply chain that global prices typically rise each winter when cold temperatures force a single region, Heilongjiang, to shut down production, said Tony Alderson, an analyst at a price tracking firm called Benchmark Mineral Intelligence.

    Some forecasts say graphite demand, driven by growth in electric vehicles, could rise 25-fold by 2040. Amid growing U.S.-China political tensions, supply chain experts have warned about the need to diversify America’s sources of graphite.

    Last year’s climate-focused Inflation Reduction Act, written in part to wrest control of electric vehicle manufacturing from China, is accelerating that search.

    For new electric cars to qualify for a $3,750 tax credit under the act, at least 40% of the value of the “critical minerals” that go into their batteries must be extracted or processed domestically, or in countries such as Canada or Mexico that have free-trade agreements with the United States.

    That fraction rises to 80% in four years.

    Graphite One is one of just three companies currently advancing graphite mining projects in the United States, according to the U.S. Geological Survey. And company officials are already marketing their graphite to global electric vehicle makers.

    But when they presented their preliminary plans to Tesla, “they said, ‘That’s great, we are interested in buying them, but we would need to write 40 contracts of this size to meet our need,’” Schaffner, the Graphite One vice president, said at a community meeting this year, according to the Nome Nugget.

    In response, Graphite One is now studying a mine that could be substantially larger than its original proposal.

    It’s too early to know how, exactly, the mine’s construction could affect the surrounding watershed. One reason is that the level of risk it poses is linked to its size, and Graphite One has not yet determined how big its project will be.

    While graphite itself is nontoxic and inert, the company also hasn’t finished studying the acid-generating potential of the rock that its mine could expose — another key indicator of the project’s level of risk. Stronger acid is more likely to release toxic metals into water that Graphite One would have to contain and treat before releasing back into the environment.

    One fish biologist in the region has also said he fears the mine’s construction could negatively affect streams flowing out of the Kigluaik Mountains, though Graphite One officials disagree. The streams’ cool water, according to Charlie Lean, keeps temperatures in the shallow Imuruk Basin low enough to sustain spawning salmon — a critical source of abundant, healthy food for Brevig Mission and Teller residents.

    Graphite One plans to store its waste rock and depleted ore in what’s known as a “dry stack,” on top of the ground — rather than in a pond behind a dam, a common industry practice that can risk a major breach if the dam fails.

    But experts say smaller-scale spills or leaks from the mine could still drain into the basin and harm fish and wildlife.

    “There is always a possibility for some sort of catastrophic failure. But that doesn’t happen very often,” said Dave Chambers, president of the nonprofit Center for Science in Public Participation, which advises advocacy and tribal groups across the country on mining and water quality. “There’s also a possibility there will be no impact. That doesn’t happen very often, either.”

    Anthony Huston, Graphite One’s chief executive, said his project will incorporate local knowledge and protect residents’ subsistence harvests.

    “We are completely focused on making sure that we create a stronger economy, and the entire Bering Straits region, and all of Alaska, for that matter. And that’s something that this project will bring,” he said in an interview. “But it will never bring it at the expense of the traditional lifestyle of Alaska Native people.

    A way of life at stake

    There are no Teslas in Brevig Mission or Teller, the two Alaska Native villages closest to the proposed mine.

    To get to the communities from the nearest American Tesla dealership, you’d first board a jet in Seattle. Then, you’d fly 1,400 miles to Anchorage, where you’d climb on to another jet and fly 500 more miles northwest to Nome, the former Gold Rush town known as the finish line of the Iditarod sled dog race.

    A 70-mile gravel road winds northwest through tundra and mountains before dipping back down to a narrow spit on the Bering Sea coast. The road ends in Teller, population 235, where most residents lack in-home plumbing — let alone own electric cars.

    If you need a bathroom here, you’ll use what’s known as a honey bucket.

    Brevig Mission, population 435, is even more remote than Teller. It sits across a narrow strait and is accessible only by boat or plane.

    The region’s Indigenous history is memorialized in the 1973 book “People of Kauwerak,” written by local elder William Oquilluk. It documents the founding of Kauwerak, an Iñupiaq village by a sandbar near the Imuruk Basin’s innermost reaches.

    The area was chosen, according to the book, for the same reasons it’s treasured now: abundant fish and birds, berries and moose, even beluga whales. Kauwerak became one of the Seward Peninsula’s largest villages before it was abandoned in the 19th century, as residents left for jobs and schools.

    Whalers, then gold miners, brought profound changes to the Indigenous way of life on the Seward Peninsula, especially through the introduction of pandemic diseases. One outbreak of measles and flu, in 1900, is thought to have killed up to one-third of residents in one of the region’s villages. In Brevig Mission, 72 of 80 Native residents died from the 1918 Spanish flu.

    Today, the miners and whalers are gone. In Teller, the population of 250 is 99% Alaska Native.

    Four in 10 residents there live below the poverty level, and a typical household, with an average of three people, survives on just $32,000 a year, according to census data.

    At the community’s main store, the shelves are completely barren of fresh fruits and vegetables. A box of Corn Chex costs $9.55, and a bottle of Coffee-Mate runs $11.85 — more than twice the Anchorage price.

    Residents can buy cheaper groceries in Nome. But gas for the 70-mile drive costs $6.30 a gallon, down from $7 in July.

    The high cost of goods combined with the few available jobs helps explain why some Teller and Brevig Mission residents are open to Graphite One’s planned mine, and the cash income it could generate.

    As Ayek, the 82-year-old subsistence fisherman, pulled his skiff back into Teller with a cooler of fish, another man was slicing fresh sides of salmon a little ways down the beach.

    Nick Topkok, 56, has worked as a contractor for Graphite One, taking workers out in his boat. As he hung his fish to dry on a wood rack, he said few people in the area can find steady jobs.

    “The rest are living off welfare,” Topkok said. The mine, he said, would generate money for decades, and it also might help get the village water and sewer systems.

    “I’ll be dead by then, but it’ll impact my kids, financially,” he said. “If it’s good and clean, so be it.”

    Topkok also acknowledged, however, that a catastrophic accident would “impact us all.”

    Many village residents’ summer fishing camps sit along the Tuksuk Channel, below the mine site. Harvests from the basin and its surroundings feed families in Brevig Mission and Teller year-round.

    “It’s my freezer,” said Dolly Kugzruk, president of Teller’s tribal government and an opponent of the mine.

    Researchers have found all five species of Pacific salmon in and around the Imuruk Basin. Harvests in the area have hit 20,000 fish in some years — roughly 30 per fishing family, according to state data.

    At a legislative hearing several years ago on a proposal to support Graphite One’s project, one Teller resident, Tanya Ablowaluk, neatly summed up opponents’ fears: “Will the state keep our freezers full in the event of a spill?”

    Gold Rush prospector’s descendants would reap royalties

    Elsewhere in rural Alaska, Indigenous people have consented to resource extraction on their ancestral lands on the basis of compromise: They accept environmental risks in exchange for a direct stake in the profits.

    Two hundred miles north of the Imuruk Basin, zinc and lead unearthed at Red Dog Mine have generated more than $1 billion in royalties for local Native residents and their descendants, including $172 million last year. On the North Slope, the regional Iñupiat-owned corporation receives oil worth tens of millions of dollars a year from developments on its traditional land.

    The new Manh Choh mine in Alaska’s Interior will also pay royalties to Native landowners, as would the proposed Donlin mine in Southwest Alaska.

    No such royalties would go to the Iñupiaq residents of Brevig Mission and Teller, based on the way Graphite One’s project is currently structured.

    The proposed mine sits exclusively on state land. And Graphite One would pay royalties to the descendants of a Gold Rush-era prospector — a legacy of the not-so-distant American past when white settlers could freely claim land and resources that had been used for thousands of years by Indigenous people.

    Nicholas Tweet was a 23-year-old fortune seeker when he left Minnesota for Alaska in the late 1800s. His quest for gold, over several years, took him hiking over mountain ranges, floating down the Yukon River by steamboat, walking hundreds miles across beaches and, finally, rowing more than 100 miles from Nome in a boat he built himself.

    Tweet settled in Teller with his family, initially prospecting for gold.

    As graphite demand spiked during World War I, Tweet staked claims along the Kigluaik Mountains, and he worked with a company that shipped the mineral to San Francisco until the war ended and demand dried up.

    Today, Tweet’s descendants are still in the mining business on the Seward Peninsula. And they still controlled graphite claims in the area a little more than a decade ago. That’s when Huston, a Vancouver entrepreneur, was drawn into the global graphite trade through his interest in Tesla and his own graphite-based golf clubs.

    News of a possible deal with Huston’s company arrived at one of the Tweets’ remote mining operations via a note dropped by a bush plane. They reached an agreement after months of discussions — sometimes, according to Huston, with 16 relatives in the room.

    So far, the Tweet family, whose members did not respond to requests for comment, has received $370,000 in lease fees. If the project is built, the family would receive additional payments tied to the value of graphite mined by Graphite One, and members could ultimately collect millions of dollars.

    Bering Straits Native Corp., owned by more than 8,000 Indigenous shareholders with ties to the region, recently acquired a stake Graphite One’s project — but only by buying its way in.

    The company announced its $2 million investment this month. The deal includes commitments by Graphite One to support scholarships, hire Bering Straits’ shareholders and give opportunities to the Native-owned corporation’s subsidiary companies, according to Dan Graham, Bering Straits’ interim chief executive. He declined to release details, saying they have not yet been finalized.

    As it considered the investment, Bering Straits board members held meetings with Brevig Mission and Teller residents, where they heard “a lot of concerns,” Graham said. Those concerns “were very well thought through at the board level” before the corporation offered its support for the project, he added.

    “Graphite One is very committed to employing local workers from those villages, to being as transparent as possible on what the development is,” Graham said.

    Graphite One officials say they have work to do to ensure the region’s residents are trained for mining jobs in time for the start of construction. The company had a maximum of 71 people working at its camp this summer, but Graphite One and its contractors hired just eight people from Teller and Brevig Mission. Sixteen more were from Nome and other villages in the region, according to Graphite One.

    Company officials say they have no choice but to develop a local workforce. Because of graphite’s relatively low value in raw form, compared to gold or copper, they say the company can’t afford to fly workers in from outside the region.

    Graphite One says it’s also taking direction from members of a committee of local residents it’s appointed to provide advice on environmental issues. In response to the committee’s feedback, the company chose not to barge its fuel through the Imuruk Basin earlier this year; instead, it flew it in, at an added cost of $4 a gallon.

    Since Graphite One acquired the Tweets’ graphite claims, progress on the development has been slow. But now, escalating tensions with China and the national push to Americanize the electric vehicle supply chain are putting Huston’s project on the political fast track.

    ‘We don’t have a choice’

    In July, U.S. Sen. Lisa Murkowski boarded a helicopter in Nome and flew to Graphite One’s remote exploration camp overlooking the Imuruk Basin.

    A few days later, the Alaska Republican stood on the Senate floor and brandished what she described as a hunk of graphite from an “absolutely massive,” world-class deposit.

    “After my site visit there on Saturday, I’m convinced that this is a project that every one of us — those of us here in the Congress, the Biden administration — all of us need to support,” she said. “This project will give us a significant domestic supply, breaking our wholesale dependence on imports.”

    U.S. Sen. Dan Sullivan, R-Alaska, U.S. Rep. Mary Peltola, D-Alaska, and GOP Gov. Mike Dunleavy have all expressed support for the project.

    Graphite One has enlisted consultants and lobbyists to advance its interests, according to disclosure filings and emails obtained through public records requests.

    They include Clark Penney, an Anchorage-based consultant and financial advisor with ties to the Dunleavy administration, and Nate Adams, a former employee of Murkowski and Sullivan who’s worked as a lobbyist in Washington, D.C.

    Murkowski has said the mine will reduce dependence on foreign countries that lack America’s environmental and human rights safeguards.

    “Security of supply would be assured from day one, and the standards for the mine’s development and operation would be both exceedingly high and fully transparent,” Murkowski wrote in a letter to the Biden administration in 2022.

    The Defense Department, meanwhile, announced its grant of up to $37.5 million for Graphite One in July. This month, the company also announced it had received a $4.7 million Defense Department contract to develop a graphite-based firefighting foam.

    In a statement, a department spokesman said the July agreement “aims to strengthen the domestic industrial base to make a secure, U.S.-based supply of graphite available for both Department of Defense and consumer markets.”

    In Teller and Brevig Mission, Graphite One’s opponents have noticed how the electrical vehicle transition seems to be driving interest in the mine planned for nearby.

    As the project gathers outside political support, some village residents said that local attitudes have been shifting, too, in response to the company’s offers of jobs and perks.

    Tocktoo, the chief of Brevig Mission’s tribal council, said resistance in his community has diminished as Graphite One “tries to buy their way in.”

    The company awards door prizes at meetings and distributes free turkeys, he said. Two years ago, the company gave each household in Brevig Mission and Teller a $50 credit on their electrical bills.

    The project, though, remains years away from construction, with production starting no earlier than 2029.

    Before it can be built, Graphite One will have to obtain an array of permits, including a major authorization under the federal Clean Water Act that will allow it to do construction around wetlands.

    And the project also faces geopolitical and economic uncertainties.

    At least last year, Graphite One was tight on cash. It had to slightly shorten its summer exploration season because it didn’t have the money to finish it, company officials said at a public meeting this year.

    And while Graphite One is counting on a partnership with a Chinese business to help set up its graphite processing and manufacturing infrastructure, the partner company’s top executive has said publicly that U.S.-China political tensions may thwart the transfer of necessary technologies.

    Murkowski, in an interview at the Nome airport on her way home from her visit to Graphite One’s camp, stressed that the project is still in its very early stages.

    The permitting process and the substantial environmental reviews that will accompany it, she added, will give concerned residents a chance to pose questions and raise objections.

    “There’s no process right now for the public to weigh in. And it’s all so preliminary,” she said. “When you don’t know, the default position is, ‘I don’t think this should happen.’”

    But opponents of the project in Brevig Mission and Teller say they fear their objections won’t be heard. Lucy Oquilluk, head of a Teller-based tribal government, said she feels a sense of inevitability.

    “It just feels like we have nothing to say about it. We don’t have a choice,” Oquilluk said. “They’re going to do it anyways, no matter what we say.”


    #Tesla #graphite #extractivisme #terres_rares #voitures_électriques #mines #peuples_autochtones #USA #Etats-Unis #Canada #Graphite_One #Brevig_Mission #Teller

  • Arctic Report Card : Update for 2023

    More frequent extreme weather and climate events are transforming the Arctic, yet resiliency and opportunity lie within diverse partnerships.


    Arctic Essays

    More frequent extreme weather and climate events are transforming the Arctic, yet resiliency and opportunity lie within diverse partnerships

    The Arctic is increasingly warmer, less frozen, and wetter, with regional extremes in weather, climate patterns, and ecosystem responses. Centering locally and internationally-focused partnerships, long-term observations, and equitable climate solutions provides Arctic communities and nations as well as society-at-large with information and mechanisms to cope with a rapidly changing Arctic.

    In the air

    - Average surface air temperatures for the Arctic in the past year were the sixth warmest since 1900.
    - Summer surface air temperatures were the warmest on record.
    - Summer high-pressure systems brought warm temperatures, widespread melting, and exceptional rainfall volumes across the Greenland Ice Sheet.

    In the ocean

    – Sea ice extent continues to decline, with the last 17 September extents (2007-23) as the lowest on record. Sea ice extent was 6th lowest in the satellite record, since 1979.
    - August mean sea surface temperatures show continued warming trends for 1982-2023 in almost all Arctic Ocean regions that are ice-free in August. Mean sea surface temperature over regions between 65° N and 80° N is increasing at a rate of ~0.9°F (~0.5°C) per decade.
    - Arctic regions, except for the Chukchi Sea, Beaufort Sea, and Canadian Archipelago, continue to show increased ocean phytoplankton blooms, or ocean primary productivity, with the largest percent change in the Eurasian Arctic and Barents Sea.
    - Since the end of the Last Glacial Maximum, rising sea levels have inundated terrestrial permafrost surrounding the Arctic Ocean, resulting in nearly 1 million square miles (~2.5 million square km) of subsea permafrost that is at risk of thawing. International research collaboration is needed to address critical questions regarding the extent and current state of subsea permafrost and to estimate the potential release of greenhouse gasses (carbon dioxide and methane) as it thaws.

    On the land

    - North American snow cover extent set a record low in May 2023, while snow accumulation during the 2022/23 winter was above average across both North America and Eurasia.
    - Heavy precipitation events broke existing records at various locations across the Arctic and the Pan-Arctic precipitation for 2022-23 was the sixth highest on record.
    - On 26 June 2023, Summit Station, Greenland reached 32.7°F (0.4°C) and experienced melt for only the fifth time in its 34-year observational history.
    – The Greenland Ice Sheet lost roughly 350 trillion pounds (156 ± 22 Gt) of mass from 1 September 2022 to 31 August 2023 because discharge and melting exceeded accumulation.
    - The 2023 circumpolar average peak tundra greenness, which is the overall vegetation, including plants, shrubs, and trees taking over grassland and tundra, as measured by satellite, was the third highest in the 24-year record.
    – In Finland, peatland restoration and rewilding demonstrate a globally relevant climate solution of carbon sinks and point to a need for replication across impacted sites. Rewilding requires partnership, recognition of Indigenous and community rights, and the use of Indigenous knowledge alongside science to succeed and avoid replication of past inequities.

    Nunaaqqit Savaqatigivlugich: Working with communities to observe the Arctic

    - The Alaska Arctic Observatory and Knowledge Hub (AAOKH) works with a network of coastal Indigenous observers to document long-term and holistic observations of environmental change and impacts in northern Alaska.
    - Recently, Indigenous observers have noted sea ice loss, warmer air and ocean temperatures, changing wind patterns, and increased intensity and frequency of coastal storms that contribute to flooding and erosion.
    - Indigenous observers also document local-scale impacts of environmental changes to community and cultural infrastructure, traditional harvests and activities, and travel safety across the land and sea.
    - Applying and centering Indigenous perspectives and observations of Arctic change in decision-making can lead to more inclusive, equitable, and community-led responses.

    Divergent responses of western Alaska salmon to a changing climate

    - Western Alaska salmon abundance reached historic extremes during 2021-22, with record lows for Chinook and chum salmon (81% and 92% below the 30-year mean, respectively) and record highs for sockeye salmon (98% above the 30-year mean).
    - Salmon are maturing at smaller sizes. Since the 1970s, Yukon River Chinook salmon have decreased an estimated 6% in mean adult body length and 15% in fecundity, or ability to produce offspring, likely exacerbating population declines.
    – Salmon population declines have led to fishery closures, worsened user conflicts, and had profound cultural and food security impacts in Indigenous communities that have been tied to salmon for millennia.
    – Changes in salmon abundance and size are associated with climatic changes in freshwater and marine ecosystems and competition in the ocean. Changes in predators, food supply, and disease are also likely important drivers.

    #arctique #2023 #rapport #glace #peuples_autochtones #climat #changement_climatique #saumons #Alaska #Finlande #Groenlande

  • #Alaska : des cours d’eau virent à l’orange, conséquence possible du réchauffement – Regard sur l’Arctique

    Lorsque le #pergélisol fond, les sédiments, qui peuvent contenir beaucoup de matière organique, mais aussi des minéraux et des métaux, dont du fer, entrent en contact avec l’eau et l’air environnant. Il se produit alors un phénomène d’oxydation. Le fer, lorsqu’oxydé, prend cette couleur orangée et est ensuite transporté par les cours d’eau. Les réactions chimiques entre l’eau et des minéraux contenus dans les sédiments peuvent aussi rendre les rivières plus acides.

    Alaska’s Arctic Waterways Are Turning a Foreboding Orange | WIRED

    For now, the researchers don’t know for sure whether the orange streams and rivers are an anomalous occurrence, coinciding with a handful of unseasonably warm seasons followed by high snow pack. And only time will tell how long it might continue.


  • CNES Géoimage Nouvelles ressources

    Dans une situation difficile, tendue et régressive, les cours en présentiel sont impossibles, les bibliothèques, universitaires en particulier, et les librairies sont fermées et les risques de décrochages se multiplient. Dans ce contexte, le site Géoimage du CNES (Centre Nat. d’Etudes Spatiales) met à disposition en ligne plus de 300 dossiers réalisés par 165 auteurs sur 86 pays et territoires. Pour votre information, voici les derniers dossiers réalisés ces deux derniers mois. Ils constituent peut être une ressource utile pour vos étudiants. En restant a votre disposition.

    1. Nouveaux dossiers en ligne

    #Frontières : entre #guerres, #tensions et #coopérations

    #Pakistan-#Inde-#Chine. Le massif du #K2 et le #Glacier_Siachen : #conflits_frontaliers et affrontements militaires sur le « toit du monde » (L. Carroué )


    Pakistan-Chine. La #Karakoram_Highway : un axe transfrontalier géostratégique à travers l’#Himalaya (L. Carroué)


    #Afghanistan/ #Pakistan/ #Tadjikistan - Le corridor de #Wakhan : une zone tampon transfrontalière en plein Himalaya (L. Carroué)


    Affrontement aux sommets sur la frontière sino-indienne, autour du #Lac_Pangong_Tso dans l’Himalaya (F. Vergez)


    #Brésil - #Argentine#Paraguay. La triple frontière autour d’#Iguazu : un des territoires transfrontaliers les plus actifs au monde (C. Loïzzo)


    #Grèce#Turquie. Les îles grecques de #Samos et #Lesbos en #mer_Egée : tensions géopolitiques frontalières et flux migratoires (F. Vergez)


    #Jordanie/ #Syrie : guerre civile, frontière militarisée et #camps_de_réfugiés de #Zaatari (L. Carroué)


    Frontières : France métropolitaine et outre-mer

    #Calais : un port de la façade maritime européenne aux fonctions transfrontalières transmanches (L. Carbonnier et A. Gack)


    L’Est-#Maralpin : un territoire transfrontalier franco-italo-monégaste au cœur de l’arc méditerranéen (F. Boizet et L. Clerc)


    La principauté de #Monaco : le défi du territoire, entre limite frontalière, densification et extensions urbaines maritimes (P. Briand)


    #Guyane_française/ Brésil. La frontière : d’un territoire longtemps contesté à une difficile coopération régionale transfrontalière (P. Blancodini )


    (Frontières. Pages concours - Capes, Agrégations)


    Enjeux géostratégiques et géopolitiques

    Pakistan. #Gwadar : un port chinois des Nouvelles Routes de la Soie dans un #Baloutchistan désertique et instable (C. Loïzzo)


    #Chine. L’archipel des #Paracels : construire des #îles pour projeter sa puissance et contrôler la #Mer_de_Chine méridionale (L. Carroué)

    Chine - L’archipel des Paracels : construire des îles pour projeter sa puissance et contrôler la Mer de Chine méridionale

    #Kings_Bay : la grande base sous-marine nucléaire stratégique de l’#Atlantique (L. Carroué)


    #Kitsap - #Bangor : la plus grande #base_sous-marine nucléaire stratégique au monde (L. Carroué)


    #Djibouti / #Yémen. Le détroit de #Bab_el-Mandeb : un verrou maritime géostratégique entre la #mer_Rouge et l’#océan_Indien (E. Dallier et P. Denmat)


    #Abu_Dhabi : une ville capitale, entre mer et désert (F. Tétart)


    France et #DROM : dynamiques et mutations

    Languedoc. #Cap_d’Agde : une station touristique au sein d’un littoral très aménagé en région viticole (Y. Clavé)


    Le sud-est de la #Grande-Terre : les plages touristiques et les #Grands_Fonds, entre survalorisation, inégalités et développement durable (J. Fieschi et E. Mephara)


    #Normandie. #Lyons-la-Forêt et son environnement : entre #Rouen et Paris, un espace rural sous emprise forestière (T. Puigventos)


    #PACA. L’agglomération de #Fréjus - #Saint-Raphaël : un #littoral méditerranéen touristique urbanisé (S. Revert)


    #Tourisme et #patrimonialisation dans le monde

    #Portugal#Lisbonne : la capitale portugaise aux défis d’une #touristification accélérée et d’une patrimonialisation accrue (J. Picollier)

    Portugal - Lisbonne : la capitale portugaise aux défis d’une touristification accélérée et d’une patrimonialisation accrue

    #Floride : le Sud-Ouest, un nouveau corridor touristique et urbain (J.F. Arnal)


    #Alaska. Le #Mont_Denali : glaciers, #parc_national, #wilderness et changement climatique (A. Poiret)


    #Ile_Maurice. Le miracle de l’émergence d’une petite île de l’#océan_Indien (M. Lachenal)


    Le #Grand-Prismatic du Parc National du #Yellowstone : entre wilderness, protection, patrimonialisation et tourisme de masse (S. Sangarne et N. Vermersch)


    #Maroc. Contraintes, défis et potentialités d’un espace désertique marocain en bordure du Sahara : Ouarzazate (M. Lachenal)


    2. Nouvelle rubrique : « Images A la Une »

    La rubrique Image A La Une a pour objectif de mettre en ligne une image satellite accompagnée d’un commentaire en lien avec un point d’actualité et qui peut donc être facilement mobilisée en cours (cf. incendies de forêt en Australie en janv./ 2020, impact du Coronavirus en avril 2020).

    Fabien Vergez : Affrontements aux sommets sur la frontière sino-indienne, sur le lac Pangong Tso dans l’Himalaya


    Virginie Estève : Les "#Incendies_zombies" en #Arctique : un phénomène surmédiatisé qui alerte sur le réchauffement climatique.


    3. Ouverture d’une nouvelle rubrique : « La satellithèque »

    Le site Géoimage du CNES se dote d’une nouvelle rubrique afin d’enrichir son offre. A côté des images déjà proposées dans les rubriques "dossiers thématiques" ou "Images A la Une", le site Géoimage du CNES met en ligne comme autres ressources des images brutes non accompagnées d’un commentaire ou d’une analyse.

    L’objectif de cette #Satellithèque est d’offrir au plus grand nombre - enseignants, universitaires, chercheurs, étudiants, grand public... - de nombreuses images de la France et du monde. Ainsi, progressivement, dans les mois qui viennent des centaines d’images nouvelles seront disponibles et téléchargeable directement et gratuitement en ligne afin d’accompagner leurs travaux, recherches ou voyages.


    4. Ouverture de comptes Twitter et Instagram

    Suivez et partagez l’actualité du site GeoImage à travers Twitter / Instagram, que ce soit de nouvelles mises en ligne ou des évènements autour de ce projet. La publication de nouveaux dossiers et leurs référencements, tout comme la publication de notules dans images à la une est accompagnée de brèves sur ces réseaux sociaux

    Ci-dessous les identifiants pour s’abonner aux comptes Twitter et Instagram

    Compte twitter : @Geoimage_ed

    Compte Instagram : geoimage_ed

    #images_satellitaires #visualisation


  • Unheard

    Alaska has the highest rate of sexual assault in the nation. These women and men did not choose to be violated, but they now choose to speak about what happened.
    By Adriana Gallardo, Nadia Sussman and Agnes Chang, ProPublica, and Kyle Hopkins and Michelle Theriault Boots, Anchorage Daily News Photography by Anne Raup, Loren Holmes and Marc Lester, Anchorage Daily News
    June 1, 2020
    This story was co-published with the Anchorage Daily News, a member of the ProPublica Local Reporting Network.

    ProPublica is a nonprofit newsroom that investigates abuses of power. Sign up to receive our biggest stories as soon as they’re published.

    Alaska has the highest rate of sexual assault in the nation, nearly four times the national average. About one third of women in Alaska have experienced sexual violence in their lifetime. Yet it is a secret so steeped into everyday life that to discuss it is to disrupt the norm.

    These 29 women and men did not choose to be violated, but they now are choosing to speak about what happened to them.

    Last year, the Anchorage Daily News partnered with ProPublica to investigate sexual violence in Alaska, and explore why the situation isn’t getting better. We continue that work this year.

    The profiles below reflect the urgent and everyday wounds borne by people all over the state. Many have parents and grandparents who are also survivors. Many have been repeatedly abused, often by different perpetrators. Some have chosen careers at the front lines of sexual assault response.

    Most of the people included here responded to our joint callout. The more than 300 responses we received inspired a collaborative approach to storytelling.

    Some told us that giving words to what happened is a form of justice. Some said they chose to speak so others might feel less alone. They recalled moments of brutality and callousness, but also transformation, rebellion and renewal.

    Each person spoke to their individual experience, but taken together, their words reflect common themes found throughout our reporting.

    It was important that each person sharing their story had input on how to tell it. This project is not only about what has happened to them, but also who they are today. Each chose how to be publicly identified and how their experiences — related and unrelated to abuse — would be represented.

    They worked with Daily News photographers to make portraits that are true to them. They chose to be photographed in meaningful locations, alongside the people they love or dressed to represent a source of strength. Read more about the portrait-making process here.

    We understand that not everyone is ready to share their story. We’ve made space for you, too, here and in the pages of the newspaper. For those ready to share their story, you can do so here.

    We welcome your thoughts and feedback at alaska@propublica.org.

    Read more about our reporting process, fact-checking and collaborative process in our methodology. If you’re looking for resources, we’ve put together this guide.

    (Some of the quotations below have been condensed for clarity.)


    #alaska #usa #violence #féminicide #genre #violence #violencesexuelle

  • The Natural Experiment - 99% Invisible

    Every summer Fournet travels to Glacier Bay to drop a hydrophone in the water and listen in on what the whales are saying, and how it’s affected by ship noise. This year she was preparing for her annual trip to Southeast Alaska when the COVID-19 shutdowns were announced. Although it meant that her research trip was canceled, she realized it was an incredible opportunity. For the first time in decades, the ocean would be quiet for an entire summer, “What that means for somebody like me as a researcher, is that we have the opportunity to listen to undisturbed behavior for the first time,” explains Fournet.

    Deuxième temps...

    The shutdowns have also been incredible to researchers who study air pollution, researchers like Sarath Guttikunda. Guttikunda says that in their work they are always looking to understand the baseline air quality, like what a clean air scenario looks like. Usually, they use rainy days to do this, but the problem with rain is that it doesn’t last. “When it rains, it’s clean for one day and then the build-up starts again. But what we are seeing here is a sustained period of low numbers.” And so this shutdown feels like the entire country is running an experiment for him… a forced experiment that shows what happens if you turn many of the major sources of pollution down basically to zero.

    Having this extended period of clean air is also allowing them to do more fine-tuned research experiments. Some of those experiments are chemistry experiments looking at particular pollutants like ozone. But they’re also trying to do a forensic accounting of where all this pollution is coming from because there’s actually a lot of confusion about that. And a big question people have is: is the pollution being generated inside the city, by things like cars, trash burning, and dirty cookstoves? Or is it floating in from outside sources, things like power plants and heavy industry outside the city, or farmers in the countryside who burn their fields before they replant? All of those sources are contributing to the problem but the uncertainty has allowed cities to throw up their hands and say this isn’t a problem we can solve. It allows people in power to pass the buck of responsibility.

    #son #nature #audio #pollution #Inde #Alaska

  • #Russie : #Arctique, la nouvelle frontière

    La fonte de la #banquise et le dégel des terres offrent des perspectives de navigation permanente sur l’océan Arctique, dernière grande réserve mondiale d’hydrocarbures. La région attise les convoitises territoriales des grandes compagnies pétrolières et des Etats riverains, - le Groenland, les Etats-Unis, la Norvège - quitte à se disputer le tracé des frontières…

    La Russie montre sa toute puissance militaire pour exploiter un sous-sol riche en hydrocarbures et minerais rares. Construction de ports maritimes en eau profonde, développement d’énormes complexes destinés à l’exploitation et au transport du gaz naturel et de pétrole. Éternels oubliés des enjeux environnementaux et géostratégiques, les peuples indigènes voient leurs conditions de vie totalement bouleversées par cette conquête de l’Arctique. Voyage entre un ancien monde préservé et un nouveau monde industriel en train d’émerger.

    #film_documentaire #géographie_politique

    #transport_maritime #Russie #pétrole #énergie #Sibérie #gaz #minerai #extractivisme #cobalt #nickel #passage_du_Nord-Est #changement_climatique #climat #Baie_d'Huston #hydrocarbures #Yamal #Total #Novatec #Chine #ports #Christophe_de_Margerie #infrastructures #aéroports #investissements #conquête_territoriale #conquête_économique #peuples_autochtones #Nénètses #Nenets #terre #sédentarisation #nomadisme #armée #présence_militaire #force_spéciale_arctique #marine_militaire #militarisation_de_l'arctique #bases_navales #Grand_Nord #économie_polaire #USA #Etats-Unis #Alaska #ressources #Canada #Norvège #OTAN #tourisme #Groenland #croisières #tourisme_de_masse #tourisme

    ping @reka @simplicissimus

  • In Alaska, a summer of extreme weather continues - The Washington Post

    #Alaska is having a rough summer. Following a July that was Alaska’s hottest month on record, erratic and unusual precipitation totals have caused downpours in some parts of the state and sparked fires and water restrictions in others.

    #climat #cartographie

  • Feeling the Heat in Winter | Hakai Magazine

    Declining sea ice and melting permafrost are having devastating impacts on Alaskan villages. Since 2003, the United States Government Accountability Office has identified at least 31 communities at risk, with erosion imperiling homes, roads, and drinking water sources. Three villages—Kivalina, Newtok, and Shishmaref—must relocate soon or cease to exist, a traumatic reality brought into sharper focus by the warm 2019 winter.

    In an added hardship, disappearing ice cuts off access to hunting and fishing routes, and the warming ocean is changing where fish and marine mammals can be found. This has real nutritional consequences in a land where many residents still rely on subsistence hunting and fishing. Commercial crab, cod, and pollock fleets also wrestle with the changes.

    Beyond the immediate impacts on people and infrastructure, less ice in the Bering and in the neighboring Chukchi Sea to the north have far-reaching atmospheric effects in Alaska. As Thoman explains, the massive area of newly open water creates warmer air temperatures and provides more moisture to storms. It can increase coastal erosion and winter rain or even produce heavier snow far inland. Researchers are also investigating whether disappearing sea ice is affecting continental weather patterns.

    In March 2019, the Bering Sea had much less ice than usual. Photos by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

    #climat #Alaska

  • Entretien avec Nastassja Martin
    « Le sentiment du sublime disparaît
    avec la sécurité de celui qui le regarde »

    Benoît Labre, Nastassja Martin


    Le Comptoir : Vous êtes partie en Alaska, synonyme de nature sauvage pour nous, de wilderness nord-américaine… Qu’avez-vous trouvé là-bas ?

    L’Alaska peut difficilement être pensé comme un territoire uniforme. Pour schématiser, disons que dans la première Alaska dans laquelle j’ai vécu, américaine, j’ai trouvé exactement cela : la wilderness vierge et sauvage telle que nous la fantasmons en Europe, les grands espaces pleins d’animaux et quasi vides d’humains. Pourtant j’ai été frappée, en arrivant sur mon terrain à Gwich’aazhee (Fort Yukon), de réaliser la perte de tous les éléments qui composaient pour moi le tableau de cette Grande Nature, extérieure, a-humaine et transcendante. Dans ce village Gwich’in délabré, pas le moindre signe d’animaux sauvages. Alors que partout sur les routes alaskiennes, on croise élans et caribous régulièrement, ici au beau milieu de la taïga subarctique, ils avaient disparu de la circulation. Ne semblaient subsister ici que ruines et left-overs d’un Occident arrivé trop vite et trop fort, déjà recrachés sur les berges de la rivière Yukon avant d’avoir pu être digérés. (...)

    #anthropologie #Alaska #entretien #nature #culture #Descola #Bruno_Latour #Edward_Tylor #animisme #écologie #Occident

  • RECIT. Le 24 mars 1989, l’"#Exxon_Valdez" noircit le golfe d’Alaska avec 39 000 tonnes de #pétrole

    C’était un écosystème extraordinaire, il faut imaginer cette immensité, des millions de poissons, des oiseaux par milliers, des loutres, des otaries, des baleines..." A qui n’a jamais posé un pied en #Alaska, Joe Banta décrit ainsi la baie du #Prince-William où il a grandi. Cette petite mer parsemée d’îles, cerclée de côtes déchiquetées, de montagnes boisées et de glaciers bleus est « différente à présent », regrette l’ancien pêcheur de harengs. « C’est toujours d’une grande beauté, bien sûr, mais l’#écosystème ne s’est jamais remis de la #marée_noire. »

    La baie du Prince-William et ses habitants ont « perdu leur innocence » le 24 mars 1989, résume Rick Steiner, expert en biologie marine. Cette nuit-là, le #supertanker Exxon Valdez déchire sa coque sur un récif. Près de 39 000 tonnes de pétrole brut se déversent alors dans les eaux glacées du Pacifique Nord. En quelques jours, la marée noire souille près de 2 000 km de côtes. Elle tue des centaines de milliers d’animaux et détruit le principal moyen de subsistance de milliers d’humains.

    #histoire #pollution

  • In the Middle of Winter, Bering Strait Sea Ice Is Disappearing - Bloomberg
    rubrique : Climate Changed

    Photographer: Yuri Smityuk/Getty Images

    Ice cover should be building, but instead it’s now at a record low for this time of year.

    The ice cover in the Bering Sea is at its lowest on record for this time of year after losing an area about the size of Montana at the height of winter.

    It’s the second consecutive year that the ice extent in the area has retreated at record pace. It shrank from 566,000 square kilometers (219,000 square miles) to 193,000 square kilometers between Jan. 27 and March 3, according to scientists at the National Snow and Ice Data Center in Colorado.

    Low ice levels impact local communities who rely on the ice to hunt for walrus and other wildlife during the winter, and the unprecedented change could also impact feeding habits of Arctic animals. And while that’s alarming to environmentalists concerned about global warming, ship owners carrying liquefied natural gas and other goods see it as an opportunity.

    The Bering Sea is more susceptible to temperature fluctuations during the winter when thin ice moves further south and melts, but this year has been “extreme,” the boffins said.

    “A major cause of the ice loss is the strong low pressure in the Bering Sea and the high pressure over northwestern Canada,” the researchers said. “Strong winds between these pressure centers drew warm air into the region from the south, inhibiting ice growth in the Bering Sea while also pushing ice to the north.”

    Elsewhere in the Arctic, sea-ice extent during February was at the seventh lowest on record and on a par with 2015 levels. But the scientists in Colorado aren’t ready yet to call the end of the growing season.

    Thinner ice allows Russia’s Novatek PJSC to transport LNG cargoes from its Yamal plant directly to Asia, the biggest consumer of the fuel, rather than sell or transfer them in western Europe.

  • Offshore drilling to begin in federal Arctic waters off Alaska

    The Trump administration has approved the first series of oil drilling in the Arctic Ocean. Critics say the move could pose serious environmental risks, while the oil company Hilcorp promises jobs and investment.

    #Arctique #Alaska #énergie #pétrole #extractivisme #exploitation_pétrolière #forages
    ping @reka

  • Bien choisir sa pointe en fonction du gibier.

    Reconstructing an ancient lethal weapon | University of Washington, Seattle.

    Janice Wood, récente diplômée en anthropologie et Ben Fitzhugh, professeur d’anthropologie ont choisi d’étudier les armes de chasse d’il y a 10 à 14 000 ans en provenance de l’actuelle Alaska, une époque moins connue sur le plan archéologique et au moment où différents types de projectiles étaient utilisés.

    Ils ont conçu diverses expériences pour tester l’efficacité des différents types de pointes et en examinant et testant celles-ci ils ont acquis une nouvelle compréhension des choix technologiques que les gens ont faits à cette époque ; choix parfaitement adaptés en fonction du type de gibier recherché.

    Cette étude pourrait également éclairer les débats sur la question de savoir si les pratiques de chasse humaine ont conduit directement à l’extinction de certaines espèces.

    It could also inform debates on whether human hunting practices directly led to the extinction of some species. The team’s findings and other research show that our ancestors were thinking about effectiveness and efficiency, Wood said, which may have influenced which animals they targeted. An animal that was easier to kill may have been targeted more often, which could, along with changing climates, explain why animals such as the horse disappeared from the Arctic. A shot to the lung was lethal for early equines, Wood said, but a caribou could keep going.

    Les conclusions de l’équipe et d’autres recherches montrent que nos ancêtres pensaient à l’efficacité et à l’efficience, a dit Wood, ce qui a peut-être influencé les animaux qu’ils ciblaient. Un animal plus facile à tuer a peut-être été ciblé plus souvent, ce qui pourrait expliquer, avec l’évolution des climats, pourquoi des animaux tels que le cheval ont disparu de l’Arctique. Un tir dans le poumon était mortel pour les premiers équidés, a dit Wood, mais un caribou pouvait continuer de vivre.



    #préhistoire #technique #chasse #Alaska #10000-14 000BP

  • Une saison de chasse en Alaska


    Une saison de chasse en Alaska
    De Victor Gurrey
    Zoé Lamazou
    France, 2017, 50min

    Appartient au cycle : Nouvelles écritures documentaires

    Le géant pétrolier Shell prévoit de forer pour la première fois dans l’Océan Arctique, au large de l’Alaska, assurant maîtriser tout risque de marée noire.
    Les descendants du peuple Inupiat, occupants millénaires des terres arctiques des États-Unis, ont longtemps profité de la manne pétrolière.
    Pourtant, certains craignent aujourd’hui que l’exploitation offshore menace leur tradition de chasse à la baleine, dernier symbole vivant d’une culture en voie de disparition.

    Une enquête en immersion avec les derniers chasseurs de baleine d’Alaska.
    Un regard sensible sur les changements brutaux qui touchent les territoires arctiques.

    Une saison de chasse en Alaska on Vimeo

    Lux for Film présente :
    Un récit multimédia interactif de Zoé Lamazou et Victor Gurrey

    #alaska #documentaire #arctique #webdocumentaire

  • Une saison de chasse en Alaska - #webdocumentaire


    Une saison de chasse en #Alaska, c’est …

    Une histoire de cowboys et d’indiens dans le Grand Nord pétrolifère et sauvage de l’Alaska. Le reportage au long cours d’un dessinateur et d’une journaliste qui vous conduit du plus vaste gisement d’hydrocarbures des États-Unis aux rivages des derniers chasseurs de baleine, les Iñupiat, là où les pétroliers voudraient encore forer offshore...

    … Du livre au documentaire

    L’histoire, une partie du texte et des dessins sont tirés du livre Une saison de chasse en Alaska, paru aux éditions Paulsen en 2014.
    Pour le web, nous en avons fait un récit long format immersif, avec de la photo magnifique, des vidéos planantes et les voix de storytellers nés. L’ensemble porté par une création sonore originale à vous faire dresser le duvet dans le cou.

    Du bon reportage à l’ancienne pour le fond, du multimédia frissonnant dans la forme, entièrement home made et diffusé par nous même et Lucie Moreau (Lux for Film) notre chère productrice.

    Le 17 octobre sera pour nous l’aboutissement de trois années de lutte acharnée pour faire exister notre histoire de baleine et de pétrodollars sur le web, quand la plupart des diffuseurs traditionnels affichaient un désintérêt obstiné : « Votre histoire ne concerne pas assez le quotidien des français ! »

    Nous sommes convaincus au contraire que le sort des Iñupiat (Inuit de l’Alaska) et du Grand Nord nous concerne tous de très près.

  • Non à la #chasse aux #ours et loups ainsi que leurs bébés en #Alaska !

    Donald Trump a donné les pleins pouvoirs aux chasseurs d’Alaska pour traquer et tuer les ours et les loups jusque dans leurs tanières pendant les périodes d’hibernation, ainsi que leurs bébés. Cette nouvelle #loi concernant la régulation des pratiques de chasse de ces #animaux fait machine arrière sur toute une série de mesures prises par l’ancien président des Etats-Unis, Barack Obama... Depuis avril 2017, les loups et les ours pourront être à nouveau abattus en Alaska, y compris les bébés et les animaux hibernants, qui pourront être tués également par avion ou hélicoptère mais aussi directement dans leurs terriers, au moment où ils sont le plus vulnérables.Poussée par des sénateurs Républicains, cette loi a été approuvée par le congrès des Etats-Unis par 52 voix contre 47. Elle signe la fin de l’Alaska (...)


  • Opening Arctic for Drilling Is Trump Priority, Key Senator Says - Bloomberg

    Senator Lisa Murkowski said President Donald Trump is interested in opening up new coastal waters for oil and gas drilling and reversing Obama-era policies that restrict energy development in Alaska.

    Both Trump and Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke are weighing ways to expand opportunities to drill in Arctic waters though the changes could take years to accomplish administratively, Murkowski said in an interview on the sidelines of the CERAWeek conference in Houston. 

    It’s fair to say we are looking at how we might be able to — how the administration might be able to — allow for opportunities within this important area, offshore Alaska,” Murkowski said.
    Among her targets: making it easier to develop parcels in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, a 23-million-acre (9.3 million hectare) region set aside 94 years ago because of its oil and gas potential, and allowing the activity in part of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR).
    The Trump administration also is weighing how to undo an executive order that President Barack Obama used to withdraw almost all U.S. Arctic waters and underwater canyons in the Atlantic Ocean from future oil and gas leasing. Environmentalists say it would be unprecedented for any president to rescind such a designation, and the reversal would almost certainly be challenged in court.