• Rapid Response : Decolonizing Italian Cities

    Anti-racism is a battle for memory. Enzo Traverso well underlined how statues brought down in the last year show “the contrast between the status of blacks and postcolonial subjects as stigmatised and brutalised minorities and the symbolic place given in the public space to their oppressors”.

    Material traces of colonialism are in almost every city in Italy, but finally streets, squares, monuments are giving us the chance to start a public debate on a silenced colonial history.

    Igiaba Scego, Italian writer and journalist of Somali origins, is well aware of the racist and sexist violence of Italian colonialism and she points out the lack of knowledge on colonial history.

    “No one tells Italian girls and boys about the squad massacres in Addis Ababa, the concentration camps in Somalia, the gases used by Mussolini against defenseless populations. There is no mention of Italian apartheid (…), segregation was applied in the cities under Italian control. In Asmara the inhabitants of the village of Beit Mekae, who occupied the highest hill of the city, were chased away to create the fenced field, or the first nucleus of the colonial city, an area off-limits to Eritreans. An area only for whites. How many know about Italian apartheid?” (Scego 2014, p. 105).

    In her book, Roma negata. Percorsi postcoloniali nella città (2014), she invites us to visually represent the historical connections between Europe and Africa, in creative ways; for instance, she worked with photographer Rino Bianchi to portray Afro-descendants in places marked by fascism such as Cinema Impero, Palazzo della Civiltà Italiana and Dogali’s stele in Rome.

    Inspired by her book, we decided to go further, giving life to ‘Decolonizing the city. Visual Dialogues in Padova’. Our goal was to question ourselves statues and street names in order to challenge the worldviews and social hierarchies that have made it possible to celebrate/forget the racist and sexist violence of colonialism. The colonial streets of Padova have been re-appropriated by the bodies, voices and gazes of six Italian Afro-descendants who took part in a participatory video, taking urban traces of colonialism out of insignificance and re-signifying them in a creative way.

    Wissal Houbabi, artist “daughter of the diaspora and the sea in between“, moves with the soundtrack by Amir Issa Non respiro (2020), leaving her poetry scattered between Via Cirenaica and Via Libia.

    “The past is here, insidious in our minds, and the future may have passed.

    The past is here, even if you forget it, even if you ignore it, even if you do everything to deny the squalor of what it was, the State that preserves the status of frontiers and jus sanguinis.

    If my people wanted to be free one day, even destiny would have to bend”.

    Cadigia Hassan shares the photos of her Italian-Somali family with a friend of hers and then goes to via Somalia, where she meets a resident living there who has never understood the reason behind the name of that street. That’s why Cadigia has returned to via Somalia: she wants to leave traces of herself, of her family history, of historical intertwining and to make visible the important connections that exist between the two countries.

    Ilaria Zorzan questions the colonial past through her Italo-Eritrean family photographic archive. The Italians in Eritrea made space, building roads, cableways, railways, buildings… And her grandfather worked as a driver and transporter, while her Eritrean grandmother, before marrying her grandfather, had been his maid. Ilaria conceals her face behind old photographs to reveal herself in Via Asmara through a mirror.

    Emmanuel M’bayo Mertens is an activist of the Arising Africans association. In the video we see him conducting a tour in the historic center of Padova, in Piazza Antenore, formerly Piazza 9 Maggio. Emmanuel cites the resolution by which the municipality of Padova dedicated the square to the day of the “proclamation of the empire” by Mussolini (1936). According to Emmanuel, fascism has never completely disappeared, as the Italian citizenship law mainly based on jus sanguinis shows in the racist idea of ​​Italianness transmitted ‘by blood’. Instead, Italy is built upon migration processes, as the story of Antenor, Padova’s legendary founder and refugee, clearly shows.

    Mackda Ghebremariam Tesfau’ questions the colonial map in Piazza delle Erbe where Libya, Albania, Ethiopia and Eritrea are marked as part of a white empire. She says that if people ignore this map it is because Italy’s colonial history is ignored. Moreover, today these same countries, marked in white on the map, are part of the Sub-saharan and Mediterranean migrant routes. Referring then to the bilateral agreements between Italy and Libya to prevent “irregular migrants” from reaching Europe, she argues that neocolonialism is alive. Quoting Aimé Césaire, she declares that “Europe is indefensible”.

    The video ends with Viviana Zorzato, a painter of Eritrean origin. Her house, full of paintings inspired by Ethiopian iconography, overlooks Via Amba Aradam. Viviana tells us about the ‘Portrait of a N-word Woman’, which she has repainted numerous times over the years. Doing so meant taking care of herself, an Afro-descendant Italian woman. Reflecting on the colonial streets she crosses daily, she argues that it is important to know the history but also to remember the beauty. Amba Alagi or Amba Aradam cannot be reduced to colonial violence, they are also names of mountains, and Viviana possesses a free gaze that sees beauty. Like Giorgio Marincola, Viviana will continue to “feel her homeland as a culture” and she will have no flags to bow her head to.

    The way in which Italy lost the colonies – that is with the fall of fascism instead of going through a formal decolonization process – prevented Italy from being aware of the role it played during colonialism. Alessandra Ferrini, in her ‘Negotiating amnesia‘,refers to an ideological collective amnesia: the sentiment of an unjust defeat fostered a sense of self-victimisation for Italians, removing the responsibility from them as they portrayed themselves as “brava gente” (good people). This fact, as scholars such as Nicola Labanca have explained, has erased the colonial period from the collective memory and public sphere, leaving colonial and racist culture in school textbooks, as the historian Gianluca Gabrielli (2015) has shown.

    This difficulty in coming to terms with the colonial past was clearly visible in the way several white journalists and politicians reacted to antiracist and feminist movements’ request to remove the statue of journalist Indro Montanelli in Milan throughout the BLM wave. During the African campaign, Montanelli bought the young 12-year-old-girl “Destà” under colonial concubinage (the so‑called madamato), boasting about it even after being accused by feminist Elvira Banotti of being a rapist. The issue of Montanelli’s highlights Italy’s need to think critically over not only colonial but also race and gender violence which are embedded in it.

    Despite this repressed colonial past, in the last decade Italy has witnessed a renewed interest stemming from bottom-up local movements dealing with colonial legacy in the urban space. Two examples are worth mentioning: Resistenze in Cirenaica (Resistances in Cyrenaica) in Bologna and the project “W Menilicchi!” (Long live Menilicchi) in Palermo. These instances, along with other contributions were collected in the Roots§Routes 2020 spring issue, “Even statues die”.

    Resistenze in Cirenaica has been working in the Cyrenaica neighbourhood, named so in the past due to the high presence of colonial roads. In the aftermath of the second world war the city council decided unanimously to rename the roads carrying fascist and colonial street signs (except for via Libya, left as a memorial marker) with partisans’ names, honouring the city at the centre of the resistance movement during the fascist and Nazi occupation. Since 2015, the collective has made this place the centre of an ongoing laboratory including urban walks, readings and storytelling aiming to “deprovincialize resistances”, considering the battles in the ex-colonies as well as in Europe, against the nazi-fascist forces, as antiracist struggles. The publishing of Quaderni di Cirene (Cyrene’s notebooks) brought together local and overseas stories of people who resisted fascist and colonial occupation, with the fourth book addressing the lives of fighter and partisan women through a gender lens.

    In October 2018, thanks to the confluence of Wu Ming 2, writer and storyteller from Resistenze in Cirenaica, and the Sicilian Fare Ala collective, a public urban walk across several parts of the city was organized, with the name “Viva Menilicchi!”. The itinerary (19 kms long) reached several spots carrying names of Italian colonial figures and battles, explaining them through short readings and theatrical sketches, adding road signs including stories of those who have been marginalized and exploited. Significantly, W Menilicchi! refers to Palermitan socialists and communists’ battle cry supporting king Menelik II who defeated the Italian troops in Aduwa in 1896, thus establishing a transnational bond among people subjected to Italian invasion (as Jane Schneider explores in Italy’s ‘Southern Question’: Orientalism in One Country, South Italy underwent a socio-economic occupation driven by imperial/colonial logics by the north-based Kingdom of Italy) . Furthermore, the urban walk drew attention to the linkage of racist violence perpetrated by Italians during colonialism with the killings of African migrants in the streets of Palermo, denouncing the white superiority on which Italy thrived since its birth (which run parallel with the invasion of Africa).

    These experiences of “odonomastic guerrillas” (street-name activists) have found creative ways of decolonising Italian history inscribed in cities, being aware that a structural change requires not only time but also a wide bottom-up involvement of inhabitants willing to deal with the past. New alliances are developing as different groups network and coordinate in view of several upcoming dates, such as February 19th, which marks the anniversary of the massacre of Addis Ababa which occurred in 1937 at the hands of Italian viceroy Rodolfo Graziani.

    Gabrielli G. (2015), Il curriculo “razziale”: la costruzione dell’alterità di “razza” e coloniale nella scuola italiana (1860-1950), Macerata: Edizioni Università di Macerata.
    Labanca, N. (2002) Oltremare. Storia dell’espansione coloniale italiana, Bologna: Il Mulino.
    Scego, I. (2014) Roma negata. Percorsi postcoloniali nella città, Roma: Ediesse.
    Schneider J (ed.) (1998) Italy’s ‘Southern Question’: Orientalism in One Country, London: Routledge.


    #décolonisation #décolonial #colonialisme #traces_coloniales #Italie #Italie_coloniale #colonialisme_italien #statues #Padova #Padoue #afro-descendants #Cadigia_Hassan #via_Somalia #Ilaria_Zorzan #Emmanuel_M’bayo_Mertens #Mackda_Ghebremariam_Tesfau #Piazza_delle_erbe #Viviana_Zorzato #Via_Amba_Aradam #Giorgio_Marincola #Alessandra_Ferrini

    ping @postcolonial @cede


    ajouté à la métaliste sur l’Italie coloniale :

    • #Negotiating_Amnesia

      Negotiating Amnesia is an essay film based on research conducted at the Alinari Archive and the National Library in Florence. It focuses on the Ethiopian War of 1935-36 and the legacy of the fascist, imperial drive in Italy. Through interviews, archival images and the analysis of high-school textbooks employed in Italy since 1946, the film shifts through different historical and personal anecdotes, modes and technologies of representation.



      En un coup d’oeil, l’expansion coloniale italienne :

      #amnésie #film #fascisme #impérialisme #Mussolini #Benito_Mussolini #déni #héritage #mémoire #guerre #guerre_d'Ethiopie #violence #Istrie #photographie #askaris #askari #campagna_d'Africa #Tito_Pittana #Mariano_Pittana #mémoire #prostitution #madamato #madamisme #monuments #Romano_Romanelli #commémoration #mémoriel #Siracusa #Syracuse #nostalgie #célébration #Axum #obélisque #Nuovo_Impero_Romano #Affile #Rodolfo_Graziani #Pietro_Badoglio #Uomo_Nuovo #manuels_scolaires #un_posto_al_sole #colonialismo_straccione #italiani_brava_gente #armes_chimiques #armes_bactériologiques #idéologie

    • My Heritage ?

      My Heritage? (2020) is a site-specific intervention within the vestibule of the former Casa d’Italia in Marseille, inaugurated in 1935 and now housing the Italian Cultural Institute. The installation focuses on the historical and ideological context that the building incarnates: the intensification of Fascist imperial aspirations that culminated in the fascistization of the Italian diaspora and the establishment of the Empire in 1936, as a result of the occupation of Ethiopia. As the League of Nations failed to intervene in a war involving two of its members, the so-called Abyssinian Crisis gave rise to a series of conflicts that eventually led to the WW2: a ‘cascade effect’. On the other hand, the attack on the ‘black man’s last citadel’ (Ras Makonnen), together with the brutality of Italian warfare, caused widespread protests and support to the Ethiopian resistance, especially from Pan-African movements.

      Placed by the entrance of the exhibition Rue d’Alger, it includes a prominent and inescapable sound piece featuring collaged extracts from texts by members of the London-based Pan-African association International African Friends of Ethiopia - CLR James, Ras Makonnen, Amy Ashwood Garvey - intertwined with those of British suffragette Sylvia Pankhurst and Italian anarchist Silvio Corio, founders of the newspaper New Times and Ethiopian News in London.

      Through handwritten notes and the use of my own voice, the installation is a personal musing on heritage as historical responsibility, based on a self-reflective process. My voice is used to highlight such personal process, its arbitrary choice of sources (related to my position as Italian migrant in London), almost appropriated here as an act of thinking aloud and thinking with these militant voices. Heritage is therefore intended as a choice, questioning its nationalist uses and the everlasting and catastrophic effects of Fascist foreign politics. With its loudness and placement, it wishes to affect the visitors, confronting them with the systemic violence that this Fascist architecture outside Italy embodies and to inhibit the possibility of being seduced by its aesthetic.



    • "Decolonizziamo le città": il progetto per una riflessione collettiva sulla storia coloniale italiana

      Un video dal basso in cui ogni partecipante produce una riflessione attraverso forme artistiche differenti, come l’arte figurativa, la slam poetry, interrogando questi luoghi e con essi “noi” e la storia italiana

      Via Eritrea, Viale Somalia, Via Amba Aradam, via Tembien, via Adua, via Agordat. Sono nomi di strade presenti in molte città italiane che rimandano al colonialismo italiano nel Corno d’Africa. Ci passiamo davanti molto spesso senza sapere il significato di quei nomi.

      A Padova è nato un progetto che vuole «decolonizzare la città». L’idea è quella di realizzare un video partecipativo in cui ogni partecipante produca una riflessione attraverso forme artistiche differenti, come l’arte figurativa, la slam poetry, interrogando questi luoghi e con essi “noi” e la storia italiana. Saranno coinvolti gli studenti del laboratorio “Visual Research Methods”, nel corso di laurea magistrale “Culture, formazione e società globale” dell’Università di Padova e artisti e attivisti afrodiscendenti, legati alla diaspora delle ex-colonie italiane e non.

      «Stavamo preparando questo laboratorio da marzo», racconta Elisabetta Campagni, che si è laureata in Sociologia a marzo 2020 e sta organizzando il progetto insieme alla sua ex relatrice del corso di Sociologia Visuale Annalisa Frisina, «già molto prima che il movimento Black Lives Matter riportasse l’attenzione su questi temi».

      Riscrivere la storia insieme

      «Il dibattito sul passato coloniale italiano è stato ampiamente ignorato nei dibattiti pubblici e troppo poco trattato nei luoghi di formazione ed educazione civica come le scuole», si legge nella presentazione del laboratorio, che sarà realizzato a partire dall’autunno 2020. «C’è una rimozione grandissima nella nostra storia di quello che ricordano questi nomi, battaglie, persone che hanno partecipato a massacri nelle ex colonie italiane. Pochi lo sanno. Ma per le persone che arrivano da questi paesi questi nomi sono offensivi».

      Da qui l’idea di riscrivere una storia negata, di «rinarrare delle vicende che nascondono deportazioni e uccisioni di massa, luoghi di dolore, per costruire narrazioni dove i protagonisti e le protagoniste sono coloro che tradizionalmente sono stati messi a tacere o sono rimasti inascoltati», affermano le organizzatrici.

      Le strade «rinarrate»

      I luoghi del video a Padova saranno soprattutto nella zona del quartiere Palestro, dove c’è una grande concentrazione di strade con nomi che rimandano al colonialismo. Si andrà in via Amba Aradam, il cui nome riporta all’altipiano etiope dove nel febbraio 1936 venne combattuta una battaglia coloniale dove gli etiopi vennero massacrati e in via Amba Alagi.

      Una tappa sarà nell’ex piazza Pietro Toselli, ora dedicata ai caduti della resistenza, che ci interroga sul legame tra le forme di resistenza al fascismo e al razzismo, che unisce le ex-colonie all’Italia. In Italia il dibattito si è concentrato sulla statua a Indro Montanelli, ma la toponomastica che ricorda il colonialismo è molta e varia. Oltre alle strade, sarà oggetto di discussione la mappa dell’impero coloniale italiano situata proprio nel cuore della città, in Piazza delle Erbe, ma che passa spesso inosservata.

      Da un’idea di Igiaba Scego

      Come ci spiega Elisabetta Campagni, l’idea nasce da un libro di Igiaba Scego che anni fa ha pubblicato alcune foto con afrodiscendenti che posano davanti ai luoghi che celebrano il colonialismo a Roma come la stele di Dogali, vicino alla stazione Termini, in viale Luigi Einaudi.

      Non è il primo progetto di questo tipo: il collettivo Wu Ming ha lanciato la guerriglia odonomastica, con azioni e performance per reintitolare dal basso vie e piazze delle città o aggiungere informazioni ai loro nomi per cambiare senso all’intitolazione. La guerriglia è iniziata a Bologna nel quartiere della Cirenaica e il progetto è stato poi realizzato anche a Palermo. Un esempio per il laboratorio «Decolonizzare la città» è stato anche «Berlin post colonial», l’iniziativa nata da anni per rititolare le strade e creare percorsi di turismo consapevole.

      Il progetto «Decolonizzare la città» sta raccogliendo i voti sulla piattaforma Zaalab (https://cinemavivo.zalab.org/progetti/decolonizzare-la-citta-dialoghi-visuali-a-padova), con l’obiettivo di raccogliere fondi per la realizzazione del laboratorio.


      #histoire_niée #storia_negata #récit #contre-récit

    • Decolonizzare la città. Dialoghi Visuali a Padova


      Via Amba Alagi, via Tembien, via Adua, via Agordat. Via Eritrea, via Libia, via Bengasi, via Tripoli, Via Somalia, piazza Toselli… via Amba Aradam. Diversi sono i nomi di luoghi, eventi e personaggi storici del colonialismo italiano in città attraversate in modo distratto, senza prestare attenzione alle tracce di un passato che in realtà non è ancora del tutto passato. Che cosa significa la loro presenza oggi, nello spazio postcoloniale urbano? Se la loro origine affonda le radici in un misto di celebrazione coloniale e nazionalismo, per capire il significato della loro permanenza si deve guardare alla società contemporanea e alle metamorfosi del razzismo.

      Il dibattito sul passato coloniale italiano è stato ampiamente ignorato nei dibattiti pubblici e troppo poco trattato nei luoghi di formazione ed educazione civica come le scuole. L’esistenza di scritti, memorie biografiche e racconti, pur presente in Italia, non ha cambiato la narrazione dominante del colonialismo italiano nell’immaginario pubblico, dipinto come una breve parentesi storica che ha portato civiltà e miglioramenti nei territori occupati (“italiani brava gente”). Tale passato, però, è iscritto nella toponomastica delle città italiane e ciò ci spinge a confrontarci con il significato di tali vie e con la loro indiscussa presenza. Per questo vogliamo partire da questi luoghi, e in particolare da alcune strade, per costruire una narrazione dal basso che sia frutto di una ricerca partecipata e condivisa, per decolonizzare la città, per reclamare una lettura diversa e critica dello spazio urbano e resistere alle politiche che riproducono strutture (neo)coloniali di razzializzazione degli “altri”.

      Il progetto allora intende sviluppare una riflessione collettiva sulla storia coloniale italiana, il razzismo, l’antirazzismo, la resistenza di ieri e di oggi attraverso la realizzazione di un video partecipativo.

      Esso è organizzato in forma laboratoriale e vuole coinvolgere studenti/studentesse del laboratorio “Visual Research Methods” (corso di laurea magistrale “Culture, formazione e società globale”) dell’Università di Padova e gli/le artisti/e ed attivisti/e afrodiscendenti, legati alla diaspora delle ex-colonie italiane e non.

      Il progetto si propone di creare una narrazione visuale partecipata, in cui progettazione, riprese e contenuti siano discussi in maniera orizzontale e collaborativa tra i e le partecipanti. Gli/Le attivisti/e e artisti/e afrodiscendenti con i/le quali studenti e studentesse svolgeranno le riprese provengono in parte da diverse città italiane e in parte vivono a Padova, proprio nel quartiere in questione. Ognuno/a di loro produrrà insieme agli studenti e alle studentesse una riflessione attraverso forme artistiche differenti (come l’arte figurativa, la slam poetry…), interrogando tali luoghi e con essi “noi” e la storia italiana. I partecipanti intrecciano così le loro storie personali e familiari, la storia passata dell’Italia e il loro attivismo quotidiano, espresso con l’associazionismo o con diverse espressioni artistiche (Mackda Ghebremariam Tesfaù, Wissal Houbabi, Theophilus Marboah, Cadigia Hassan, Enrico e Viviana Zorzato, Ilaria Zorzan, Ada Ugo Abara ed Emanuel M’bayo Mertens di Arising Africans). I processi di discussione, scrittura, ripresa, selezione e montaggio verranno documentati attraverso l’utilizzo di foto e filmati volti a mostrare la meta-ricerca, il processo attraverso cui viene realizzato il video finale, e le scelte, di contenuto e stilistiche, negoziate tra i diversi attori. Questi materiali verranno condivisi attraverso i canali online, con il fine di portare a tutti coloro che sostengono il progetto una prima piccola restituzione che renda conto dello svolgimento del lavoro.

      Le strade sono un punto focale della narrazione: oggetto dei discorsi propagandistici di Benito Mussolini, fulcro ed emblema del presunto e mitologico progetto di civilizzazione italiana in Africa, sono proprio le strade dedicate a luoghi e alle battaglie dove si sono consumate le atrocità italiane che sono oggi presenze fisiche e allo stesso tempo continuano ad essere invisibilizzate; e i nomi che portano sono oggi largamente dei riferimenti sconosciuti. Ripercorrere questi luoghi fisici dando vita a dialoghi visuali significa riappropriarsi di una storia negata, rinarrare delle vicende che nascondono deportazioni e uccisioni di massa, luoghi di dolore, per costruire narrazioni dove i protagonisti e le protagoniste sono coloro che tradizionalmente sono stati messi a tacere o sono rimasti inascoltati.

      La narrazione visuale partirà da alcuni luoghi – come via Amba Aradam e via lago Ascianghi – della città di Padova intitolati alla storia coloniale italiana, in cui i protagonisti e le protagoniste del progetto daranno vita a racconti e performances artistiche finalizzate a decostruire la storia egemonica coloniale, troppo spesso edulcorata e minimizzata. L’obiettivo è quello di favorire il prodursi di narrazioni dal basso, provenienti dalle soggettività in passato rese marginali e che oggi mettono in scena nuove narrazioni resistenti. La riappropriazione di tali luoghi, fisica e simbolica, è volta ad aprire una riflessione dapprima all’interno del gruppo e successivamente ad un pubblico esterno, al fine di coinvolgere enti, come scuole, associazioni e altre realtà che si occupano di questi temi sul territorio nazionale. Oltre alle strade, saranno oggetto di discussione la mappa dell’impero coloniale italiano situata proprio nel cuore della città, in Piazza delle Erbe, e l’ex piazza Toselli, ora dedicata ai caduti della resistenza, che ci interroga sul legame tra le forme di resistenza al fascismo e al razzismo, che unisce le ex-colonie all’Italia.

      Rinarrare la storia passata è un impegno civile e politico verso la società contemporanea. Se anche oggi il razzismo ha assunto nuove forme, esso affonda le sue radici nella storia nazionale e coloniale italiana. Questa storia va rielaborata criticamente per costruire nuove alleanze antirazziste e anticolonialiste.

      Il video partecipativo, ispirato al progetto “Roma Negata” della scrittrice Igiaba Scego e di Rino Bianchi, ha l’obiettivo di mostrare questi luoghi attraverso narrazioni visuali contro-egemoniche, per mettere in discussione una storia ufficiale, modi di dire e falsi miti, per contribuire a dare vita ad una memoria critica del colonialismo italiano e costruire insieme percorsi riflessivi nuovi. Se, come sostiene Scego, occupare uno spazio è un grido di esistenza, con il nostro progetto vogliamo affermare che lo spazio può essere rinarrato, riletto e riattraversato.

      Il progetto vuole porsi in continuità con quanto avvenuto sabato 20 giugno, quando a Padova, nel quartiere Palestro, si è tenuta una manifestazione organizzata dall’associazione Quadrato Meticcio a cui hanno aderito diverse realtà locali, randunatesi per affermare la necessita’ di decolonizzare il nostro sguardo. Gli interventi che si sono susseguiti hanno voluto riflettere sulla toponomastica coloniale del quartiere Palestro, problematizzandone la presenza e invitando tutti e tutte a proporre alternative possibili.



    • Trigger Warnings | Centre for Teaching Excellence

      A trigger warning is a statement made prior to sharing potentially disturbing content. That content might include graphic references to topics such as #sexual_abuse, #self-harm, #violence, #eating_disorders, and so on, and can take the form of an #image, #video_clip, #audio_clip, or piece of #text. In an #academic_context, the #instructor delivers these messages in order to allow students to prepare emotionally for the content or to decide to forgo interacting with the content.

      Proponents of trigger warnings contend that certain course content can impact the #wellbeing and #academic_performance of students who have experienced corresponding #traumas in their own lives. Such students might not yet be ready to confront a personal #trauma in an academic context. They choose to #avoid it now so that they can deal with it more effectively at a later date – perhaps after they have set up necessary #resources, #supports, or #counselling. Other students might indeed be ready to #confront a personal trauma in an academic context but will benefit from a #forewarning of certain topics so that they can brace themselves prior to (for example) participating in a #classroom discussion about it. Considered from this perspective, trigger warnings give students increased #autonomy over their learning, and are an affirmation that the instructor #cares about their wellbeing.

      However, not everyone agrees that trigger warnings are #necessary or #helpful. For example, some fear that trigger warnings unnecessarily #insulate students from the often harsh #realities of the world with which academics need to engage. Others are concerned that trigger warnings establish a precedent of making instructors or universities legally #responsible for protecting students from #emotional_trauma. Still others argue that it is impossible to anticipate all the topics that might be potentially triggering for students.

      Trigger warnings do not mean that students can exempt themselves from completing parts of the coursework. Ideally, a student who is genuinely concerned about being #re-traumatized by forthcoming course content would privately inform the instructor of this concern. The instructor would then accommodate the student by proposing #alternative_content or an alternative learning activity, as with an accommodation necessitated by a learning disability or physical disability.

      The decision to preface potentially disturbing content with a trigger warning is ultimately up to the instructor. An instructor who does so might want to include in the course syllabus a preliminary statement (also known as a “#content_note”), such as the following:

      Our classroom provides an open space for the critical and civil exchange of ideas. Some readings and other content in this course will include topics that some students may find offensive and/or traumatizing. I’ll aim to #forewarn students about potentially disturbing content and I ask all students to help to create an #atmosphere of #mutual_respect and #sensitivity.

      Prior to introducing a potentially disturbing topic in class, an instructor might articulate a #verbal_trigger_warning such as the following:

      Next class our discussion will probably touch on the sexual assault that is depicted in the second last chapter of The White Hotel. This content is disturbing, so I encourage you to prepare yourself emotionally beforehand. If you believe that you will find the discussion to be traumatizing, you may choose to not participate in the discussion or to leave the classroom. You will still, however, be responsible for material that you miss, so if you leave the room for a significant time, please arrange to get notes from another student or see me individually.

      A version of the foregoing trigger warning might also preface written materials:

      The following reading includes a discussion of the harsh treatment experienced by First Nations children in residential schools in the 1950s. This content is disturbing, so I encourage everyone to prepare themselves emotionally before proceeding. If you believe that the reading will be traumatizing for you, then you may choose to forgo it. You will still, however, be responsible for material that you miss, so please arrange to get notes from another student or see me individually.

      Trigger warnings, of course, are not the only answer to disturbing content. Instructional #strategies such as the following can also help students approach challenging material:

      – Give your students as much #advance_notice as possible about potentially disturbing content. A day’s notice might not be enough for a student to prepare emotionally, but two weeks might be.

      – Try to “scaffold” a disturbing topic to students. For example, when beginning a history unit on the Holocaust, don’t start with graphic photographs from Auschwitz. Instead, begin by explaining the historical context, then verbally describe the conditions within the concentration camps, and then introduce the photographic record as needed. Whenever possible, allow students to progress through upsetting material at their own pace.

      – Allow students to interact with disturbing material outside of class. A student might feel more vulnerable watching a documentary about sexual assault while in a classroom than in the security of his or her #home.

      – Provide captions when using video materials: some content is easier to watch while reading captions than while listening to the audio.

      – When necessary, provide written descriptions of graphic images as a substitute for the actual visual content.

      – When disturbing content is under discussion, check in with your students from time to time: #ask them how they are doing, whether they need a #break, and so on. Let them know that you are aware that the material in question is emotionally challenging.

      – Advise students to be #sensitive to their classmates’ #vulnerabilities when they are preparing class presentations.

      – Help your students understand the difference between emotional trauma and #intellectual_discomfort: the former is harmful, as is triggering it in the wrong context (such as in a classroom rather than in therapy); the latter is fundamental to a university education – it means our ideas are being challenged as we struggle to resolve cognitive dissonance.


    • Why Trigger Warnings Don’t Work

      Because trauma #survivors’ #memories are so specific, increasingly used “trigger warnings” are largely #ineffective.

      Fair warning labels at the beginning of movie and book reviews alert the reader that continuing may reveal critical plot points that spoil the story. The acronym NSFW alerts those reading emails or social media posts that the material is not suitable for work. The Motion Picture Association of America provides film ratings to advise about content so that moviegoers can make informed entertainment choices for themselves and their children.

      Enter stage right: Trigger warning.

      A trigger warning, most often found on #social_media and internet sites, alerts the reader that potentially upsetting information may follow. The words trigger warning are often followed by a subtitle such as *Trigger warning: This may be triggering to those who have struggled with _________. Fill in the blank. #Domestic_abuse. #Rape. #Body_image. #Needles. #Pregnancy.

      Trigger warnings have become prevalent online since about 2012. Victim advocate Gayle Crabtree reports that they were in use as early as 1996 in chat rooms she moderated. “We used the words ‘trigger warning,’ ‘#tw,’ ‘#TW,’ and ‘trigger’ early on. …This meant the survivor could see the warning and then decide if she or he wanted to scroll down for the message or not.” Eventually, trigger warnings spread to social media sites including #Tumblr, #Twitter, and #Facebook.

      The term seems to have originated from the use of the word “trigger” to indicate something that cues a #physiological_response, the way pollen may trigger an allergy attack. A trigger in a firearm is a lever that activates the sequence of firing a gun, so it is not surprising that the word was commandeered by those working in the field of #psychology to indicate objects and sensations that cause neurological firing in the brain, which in turn cause #feelings and #thoughts to occur.

      Spoiler alerts allow us to enjoy the movie or book as it unfolds without being influenced by knowledge about what comes next. The NSFW label helps employees comply with workplace policies that prohibit viewing sexually explicit or profane material. Motion picture ratings enable viewers to select movies they are most likely to find entertaining. Trigger warnings, on the other hand, are “designed to prevent people who have an extremely strong and damaging emotional response… to certain subjects from encountering them unaware.”

      Say what?

      Say hogwash!

      Discussions about trigger warnings have made headlines in the New Yorker, the Los Angeles Times, the Guardian, the New Republic, and various other online and print publications. Erin Dean writes that a trigger “is not something that offends one, troubles one, or angers one; it is something that causes an extreme involuntary reaction in which the individual re-experiences past trauma.”

      For those individuals, it is probably true that coming across material that reminds them of a traumatic event is going to be disturbing. Dean’s definition refers to involuntary fear and stress responses common in individuals with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder characterized by intrusive memories, thoughts, or dreams; intense distress at cues that remind the individual of the event; and reactivity to situations, people, or objects that symbolize the event. PTSD can result from personal victimization, accidents, incarceration, natural disasters, or any unexpected injury or threat of injury or death. Research suggests that it results from a combination of genetic predisposition, fear conditioning, and neural and physiological responses that incorporate the body systems and immunological responses. Current theories suggest that PTSD represents “the failure to recover from the normal effects of trauma.” In other words, anyone would be adversely affected by trauma, but natural mechanisms for healing take place in the majority of individuals. The prevalence of PTSD ranges from 1.9 percent in Europe to 3.5 percent in the United States.

      The notion that trigger warnings should be generalized to all social media sites, online journals, and discussion boards is erroneous.

      Some discussions have asserted that because between one in four and one in five women have been sexually abused, trigger warnings are necessary to protect vast numbers of victims from being re-traumatized. However, research shows that the majority of trauma-exposed persons do not develop PTSD. This does not mean they aren’t affected by trauma, but that they do not develop clinically significant symptoms, distress, or impairment in daily functioning. The notion that trigger warnings should be generalized to all social media sites, online journals, and discussion boards is erroneous. Now some students are pushing for trigger warnings on college class syllabi and reading lists.

      But what?


      But wait, before people get all riled up, I’d like to say that yes, I have experienced trauma in my life.

      I wore a skirt the first time George hit me. I know this because I remember scrunching my skirt around my waist and balancing in heels while I squatted over a hole in the concrete floor to take a piss. We were in Tijuana. The stench of excrement made my stomach queasy with too much tequila. I wanted to retch.

      We returned to our hotel room. I slid out of my blouse and skirt. He stripped to nothing and lay on the double bed. He was drinking Rompope from the bottle, a kind of Mexican eggnog: strong, sweet, and marketed for its excellent spunk. It’s a thick yellow rum concoction with eggs, sugar, and almond side notes. George wanted to have sex. We bickered and argued as drunks sometimes do. I said something — I know this because I always said something — and he hit me. He grabbed me by the hair and hit me again. “We’re going dancing,” he said.

      “I don’t feel like dancing — “

      “Fine. Stay.”

      The world was tilting at an angle I didn’t recognize. The mathematician Matt Tweed writes that atoms are made up of almost completely empty space. To grasp the vast nothingness, he asks the reader to imagine a cat twirling a bumblebee on the end of a half-mile long string. That’s how much emptiness there is between the nucleus and the electron. There was more space than that between George and me. I remember thinking: I am in a foreign country. I don’t speak Spanish. I have no money. We went dancing.

      Labeling a topic or theme is useless because of the way our brains work. The labels that we give trauma (assault, sexual abuse, rape) are not the primary source of triggers. Memories are, and not just memories, but very specific, insidious, and personally individualized details lodged in our brain at the time of the trauma encoded as memory. Details can include faces, places, sounds, smells, tastes, voices, body positions, time of day, or any other sensate qualities that were present during a traumatic incident.

      If I see a particular shade of yellow or smell a sickly sweet rum drink, I’m reminded of my head being yanked by someone who held a handful of my hair in his fist. A forest green Plymouth Duster (the car we drove) will too. The word assault does not. The words domestic violence don’t either. The specificity of details seared in my mind invokes memory.

      Last year a driver slammed into the back of my car on the freeway. The word tailgate is not a trigger. Nor is the word accident. The flash of another car suddenly encroaching in my rearview mirror is. In my mid-20s, I drove my younger sister (sobbing, wrapped in a bed sheet) to the hospital where two male officers explained they were going to pluck her pubic hair for a rape kit. When I see tweezers in a hospital, I flash back to that awful moment. For my sister, other things may be triggers: the moonlight shining on the edge of a knife. The shadow of a person back lit in a doorway. An Hispanic man’s accent. If we were going to insist on trigger warnings that work, they would need to look something like this:

      Trigger warning: Rompope.

      Trigger warning: a woman wrapped in a bed sheet.

      Trigger warning: the blade of a knife.

      The variability of human #perception and traumatic recall makes it impossible to provide the necessary specificity for trigger warnings to be effective. The nature of specificity is, in part, one reason that treatment for traumatic memories involves safely re-engaging with the images that populate the survivor’s memory of the event. According to Dr. Mark Beuger, an addiction psychiatrist at Deerfield Behavioral Health of Warren (PA), the goal of PTSD treatment is “to allow for processing of the traumatic experience without becoming so emotional that processing is impossible.” By creating a coherent narrative of the past event through telling and retelling the story to a clinician, survivors confront their fears and gain mastery over their thoughts and feelings.

      If a survivor has had adequate clinical support, they could engage online with thoughts or ideas that previously had been avoided.

      According to the National Center for Health, “#Avoidance is a maladaptive #control_strategy… resulting in maintenance of perceived current threat. In line with this, trauma-focused treatments stress the role of avoidance in the maintenance of PTSD. Prolonged exposure to safe but anxiety-provoking trauma-related stimuli is considered a treatment of choice for PTSD.” Avoidance involves distancing oneself from cues, reminders, or situations that remind one of the event that can result in increased #social_withdrawal. Trigger warnings increase social withdrawal, which contributes to feelings of #isolation. If a survivor who suffers from PTSD has had adequate clinical support, they could engage online with thoughts or ideas that previously had been avoided. The individual is in charge of each word he or she reads. At any time, one may close a book or click a screen shut on the computer. What is safer than that? Conversely, trigger warnings perpetuate avoidance. Because the intrusive memories and thoughts are internal, trigger warnings suggest, “Wait! Don’t go here. I need to protect you from yourself.”

      The argument that trigger warnings help to protect those who have suffered trauma is false. Most people who have experienced trauma do not require preemptive protection. Some may argue that it would be kind to avoid causing others distress with upsetting language and images. But is it? Doesn’t it sometimes take facing the horrific images encountered in trauma to effect change in ourselves and in the world?

      A few weeks ago, I came across a video about Boko Haram’s treatment of a kidnapped schoolgirl. The girl was blindfolded. A man was digging a hole in dry soil. It quickly became evident, as he ushered the girl into the hole, that this would not end well. I felt anxious as several men began shoveling soil in around her while she spoke to them in a language I could not understand. I considered clicking away as my unease and horror grew. But I also felt compelled to know what happened to this girl. In the 11-minute video, she is buried up to her neck.

      All the while, she speaks to her captors, who eventually move out of the frame of the scene. Rocks begin pelting the girl’s head. One after the other strikes her as I stared, horrified, until finally, her head lay motionless at an angle that could only imply death. That video (now confirmed to be a stoning in Somalia rather than by Boko Haram) forever changed my level of concern about young girls kidnapped in other countries.

      We are changed by what we #witness. Had the video contained a trigger warning about gruesome death, I would not have watched it. Weeks later, I would have been spared the rush of feelings I felt when a friend posted a photo of her daughter playfully buried by her brothers in the sand. I would have been spared knowing such horrors occur. But would the world be a better place for my not knowing? Knowledge helps us prioritize our responsibilities in the world. Don’t we want engaged, knowledgeable citizens striving for a better world?

      Recently, the idea of trigger warnings has leapt the gulch between social media and academic settings. #Universities are dabbling with #policies that encourage professors to provide trigger warnings for their classes because of #complaints filed by students. Isn’t the syllabus warning enough? Can’t individual students be responsible for researching the class content and reading #materials before they enroll? One of the benefits of broad exposure to literature and art in education is Theory of Mind, the idea that human beings have the capacity to recognize and understand that other people have thoughts and desires that are different from one’s own. Do we want #higher_education to comprise solely literature and ideas that feel safe to everyone? Could we even agree on what that would be?

      Art occurs at the intersection of experience and danger. It can be risky, subversive, and offensive. Literature encompasses ideas both repugnant and redemptive. News about very difficult subjects is worth sharing. As writers, don’t we want our readers to have the space to respond authentically to the story? As human beings, don’t we want others to understand that we can empathize without sharing the same points of view?

      Trigger warnings fail to warn us of the very things that might cause us to remember our trauma. They insulate. They cause isolation. A trigger warning says, “Be careful. This might be too much for you.” It says, “I don’t trust you can handle it.” As a reader, that’s not a message I want to encounter. As a writer, that is not the message I want to convey.

      Trigger warnings?



    • Essay on why a professor is adding a trigger warning to his #syllabus

      Trigger warnings in the classroom have been the subject of tremendous #debate in recent weeks, but it’s striking how little the discussion has contemplated what actual trigger warnings in actual classrooms might plausibly look like.

      The debate began with demands for trigger warnings by student governments with no power to compel them and suggestions by #administrators (made and retracted) that #faculty consider them. From there the ball was picked up mostly by observers outside higher ed who presented various #arguments for and against, and by professors who repudiated the whole idea.

      What we haven’t heard much of so far are the voices of professors who are sympathetic to the idea of such warnings talking about what they might look like and how they might operate.

      As it turns out, I’m one of those professors, and I think that discussion is long overdue. I teach history at Hostos Community College of the City University of New York, and starting this summer I’m going to be including a trigger warning in my syllabus.

      I’d like to say a few things about why.

      An Alternative Point of View

      To start off, I think it’s important to be clear about what trigger warnings are, and what purpose they’re intended to serve. Such warnings are often framed — and not just by critics — as a “you may not want to read this” notice, one that’s directed specifically at survivors of trauma. But their actual #purpose is considerably broader.

      Part of the confusion arises from the word “trigger” itself. Originating in the psychological literature, the #term can be misleading in a #non-clinical context, and indeed many people who favor such warnings prefer to call them “#content_warnings” for that reason. It’s not just trauma survivors who may be distracted or derailed by shocking or troubling material, after all. It’s any of us, and a significant part of the distraction comes not from the material itself but from the context in which it’s presented.

      In the original cut of the 1933 version of the film “King Kong,” there was a scene (depicting an attack by a giant spider) that was so graphic that the director removed it before release. He took it out, it’s said, not because of concerns about excessive violence, but because the intensity of the scene ruined the movie — once you saw the sailors get eaten by the spider, the rest of the film passed by you in a haze.

      A similar concern provides a big part of the impetus for content warnings. These warnings prepare the reader for what’s coming, so their #attention isn’t hijacked when it arrives. Even a pleasant surprise can be #distracting, and if the surprise is unpleasant the distraction will be that much more severe.

      I write quite a bit online, and I hardly ever use content warnings myself. I respect the impulse to provide them, but in my experience a well-written title and lead paragraph can usually do the job more effectively and less obtrusively.

      A classroom environment is different, though, for a few reasons. First, it’s a shared space — for the 75 minutes of the class session and the 15 weeks of the semester, we’re pretty much all #stuck with one another, and that fact imposes #interpersonal_obligations on us that don’t exist between writer and reader. Second, it’s an interactive space — it’s a #conversation, not a monologue, and I have a #responsibility to encourage that conversation as best I can. Finally, it’s an unpredictable space — a lot of my students have never previously encountered some of the material we cover in my classes, or haven’t encountered it in the way it’s taught at the college level, and don’t have any clear sense of what to expect.

      For all these reasons, I’ve concluded that it would be sound #pedagogy for me to give my students notice about some of the #challenging_material we’ll be covering in class — material relating to racial and sexual oppression, for instance, and to ethnic and religious conflict — as well as some information about their rights and responsibilities in responding to it. Starting with the summer semester, as a result, I’ll be discussing these issues during the first class meeting and including a notice about them in the syllabus.

      My current draft of that notice reads as follows:

      Course Content Note

      At times this semester we will be discussing historical events that may be disturbing, even traumatizing, to some students. If you ever feel the need to step outside during one of these discussions, either for a short time or for the rest of the class session, you may always do so without academic penalty. (You will, however, be responsible for any material you miss. If you do leave the room for a significant time, please make arrangements to get notes from another student or see me individually.)

      If you ever wish to discuss your personal reactions to this material, either with the class or with me afterwards, I welcome such discussion as an appropriate part of our coursework.

      That’s it. That’s my content warning. That’s all it is.

      I should say as well that nothing in these two paragraphs represents a change in my teaching practice. I have always assumed that if a student steps out of the classroom they’ve got a good reason, and I don’t keep tabs on them when they do. If a student is made uncomfortable by something that happens in class, I’m always glad when they come talk to me about it — I’ve found we usually both learn something from such exchanges. And of course students are still responsible for mastering all the course material, just as they’ve always been.

      So why the note, if everything in it reflects the rules of my classroom as they’ve always existed? Because, again, it’s my job as a professor to facilitate class discussion.

      A few years ago one of my students came to talk to me after class, distraught. She was a student teacher in a New York City junior high school, working with a social studies teacher. The teacher was white, and almost all of his students were, like my student, black. That week, she said, one of the classes had arrived at the point in the semester given over to the discussion of slavery, and at the start of the class the teacher had gotten up, buried his nose in his notes, and started into the lecture without any introduction. The students were visibly upset by what they were hearing, but the teacher just kept going until the end of the period, at which point he finished the lecture, put down his papers, and sent them on to math class.

      My student was appalled. She liked these kids, and she could see that they were hurting. They were angry, they were confused, and they had been given nothing to do with their #emotions. She asked me for advice, and I had very little to offer, but I left our meeting thinking that it would have been better for the teacher to have skipped that material entirely than to have taught it the way he did.

      History is often ugly. History is often troubling. History is often heartbreaking. As a professor, I have an #obligation to my students to raise those difficult subjects, but I also have an obligation to raise them in a way that provokes a productive reckoning with the material.

      And that reckoning can only take place if my students know that I understand that this material is not merely academic, that they are coming to it as whole people with a wide range of experiences, and that the journey we’re going on #together may at times be #painful.

      It’s not coddling them to acknowledge that. In fact, it’s just the opposite.


  • Lampedusa e la Madonna di Porto Salvo.

    A partire dal 2009 il #collettivo_Askavusa ha recuperato nella discarica dell’isola e nei vari “cimiteri dei barconi” tantissimi oggetti appartenuti alle persone di passaggio dall’isola che provenivano e provengono da diversi paesi dell’Africa e non solo. Tra questi oggetti: testi sacri, fotografie, lettere, oggetti di varia natura. Con questi oggetti #Askavusa ha realizzato #PortoM un luogo polifunzionale di memoria e riflessione storico/politica su #Lampedusa e sulla questione delle migrazioni, inserendo il discorso in una cornice più ampia a partire da due domande: “Perchè le persone sono costrette a lasciare il proprio paese?” e “Perchè la maggior parte della popolazione mondiale non può viaggiare in maniera regolare senza rischiare la vita e senza essere criminalizzata?”. Da queste due domande si articola un ragionamento con cui i visitatori di PortoM sono chiamati ad interagire.

    Da quest’anno il collettivo Askavusa vuole praticare la diffusione sul territorio di questi oggetti con l’obbiettivo di stimolare il ragionamento sulle migrazioni nella comunità lampedusana e in tutte le persone che l’attraversano, cercando di mantenere viva la memoria di quello che è accaduto in questi anni. Grazie alla sensibilità ed alla collaborazione di Don Carmelo La Magra il primo luogo che ospiterà uno di questi oggetti è il Santuario della Madonna di Porto Salvo di Lampedusa, luogo che è la spina dorsale della storia dell’isola e che ha visto pregare vicini Cristiani e Musulmani, rifugio di schiavi e naufraghi ed eremitaggio in varie epoche.

    Giorno 18 settembre alle ore 18.00 verrà collocata in una nicchia del Santuario una statuetta in legno raffigurante la Madonna con il Bambino arrivata su un barcone insieme a persone migranti nei primi anni del 2000, una statuetta che probabilmente proviene dall’Etiopia. La statuetta era stata regalata al maestro d’ascia Giuseppe Balistreri da alcuni pescatori che l’avevano ritrovata su un “barcone”. Balistreri a sua volta la donò al collettivo Askavusa.

    Per l’occasione il cantautore e attivista lampedusano Giacomo Sferlazzo racconterà servendosi di un cartellone da cantastorie realizzato grazie alla collaborazione del Forum Lampedusa Solidale la “Leggenda di Andrea Anfossi” accompagnato dal polistrumentista Jacopo Andreini, dal percussionista Giovanni Costantino e da uno dei massimi virtuosi di oud, il tunisino Achref Chargui. In seguito verranno esposti una serie di testi sacri, principalmente Bibbie, anche queste ritrovate dal collettivo Askavusa.

    La solidarietà deve essere necessariamente accompagnata dalla riflessione storico/politica e dall’esercizio della memoria e in questo senso Lampedusa può divenire un laboratorio privilegiato nel mediterraneo. La storia delle immagini della Madonna di Porto Salvo di Lampedusa è legata a quella del Mediterraneo, sono state diverse le effige che l’hanno rappresentata, dal quadro con la Madonna il Bambino e Santa Caterina d’Alessandria che probabilmente proviene dal Monastero di Santa Caterina in Egitto alla copia della statua della Madonna di Trapani che venne fatta realizzare per ricordarne la fuga dalla “terra santa” e il passaggio da Lampedusa prima di essere collocata definitivamente nella cattedrale di Trapani.

    Da sempre il santuario dell’isola è stato legato agli schiavi, ai naufraghi e al dialogo interreligioso, una sorta di porto franco in cui vi erano: attrezzi per la navigazione, biscotti secchi, vestiti e tutto quello che poteva servire a chi sbarcava a Lampedusa, svariate leggende narrano di come chi non ne avesse bisogno e rubasse qualcosa veniva intrappolato dalle tempeste che si scatenavano attorno ai mari dell’isola fino a quando la refurtiva non fosse stata restituita.

    A partire dai primi anni novanta l’isola è stata travolta dalle politiche della frontiera UE subendo un’enorme pressione di tipo politico/mediatico che insieme al turismo di massa e alla militarizzazione ha aperto tensioni profonde all’interno della comunità.

    Riteniamo che a partire dalla figura della Madonna di Porto Salvo di Lampedusa che unisce tutti gli isolani, la comunità debba riflettere e confrontarsi sul ruolo che vuole avere nel Mediterraneo, sugli errori commessi e sull’uso che il potere ne ha fatto fino ad oggi in un clima di dialogo e serenità e per trovare una posizione condivisa. Per questo giorno 20 alle ore 18.00 presso l’Area Marina Protetta si terrà un’assemblea pubblica per aprire un dibattito nella comunità sul tema: “Lampedusa nel Mediterraneo, nella storia e nel contemporaneo a partire dalla figura della #Madonna_di_Porto_Salvo e dall’uso che ne ha fatto il potere dominante”.

    #naufrages #objets #mémoire #monument #sculpture #art #art_et_politique #Italie #migrations #asile #réfugiés
    ping @mobileborders

  • Grande Guerre : les batailles oubliées de l’Afrique - RFI

    Souvent méconnues, les batailles de la Première Guerre mondiale dans les colonies africaines allemandes ont pourtant fait de nombreuses victimes. Du Togo au Sud-Ouest africain allemand, en passant par le Cameroun, le Congo belge et l’Afrique orientale allemande, des Africains sont enrôlés pour se battre sur leur propre continent et servir une guerre qui n’est pas la leur, une guerre d’Européens. Si le nombre de soldats présents sur les fronts africains et le nombre de tranchées creusées paraissent dérisoire comparés à ceux des fronts européens, les affrontements sont d’une extrême violence et déciment aussi des civils, colons et colonisés. Enjeux stratégiques, riches de matières premières et de ressources minières, les colonies allemandes sont convoitées, dès le début du conflit, par les Alliés.

    #pgm #première_guerre_mondiale #1914-1918

  • In die Siegesallee bitte

    Haben sie heute wieder bis in die Puppen gefeiert ? Ganz schön viel Glück haben sie, ich sorge dafür, dass sie ganz schnell ihren Kater ausschlafen können. Vor hundert Jahren hätten sie noch selber durch die Puppen spazieren müssen, Kraftdroschken gab es da noch fast keine.

    Bis in die Puppen kennen sie nicht ? Ach so, sie sind erst seit zehn Jahren in Berlin, Opa war noch in Hannover ? Also mit den Puppen ist das so. Vor 120 Jahren hat Kaiser Wilhelm II., richtig, der mit dem Kanonenboot auf dem Tanganjikasee, also vor 121 Jahren hat der sich eine schicke Allee mit allen seinen Vorgängern in den Tiergarten bauen lasssen. Das waren dann die Puppen , die Statuen, zwischen Mitte und Moabit. Auf dem Weg nachts von der Feier in die Heia mußte man damals durch die Puppen wanken, wenn einen keiner fuhr. Daher kommt der Spruch.

    Ich als Taxifahrer muß die alle kennen, die Puppen , auch wenn die Siegesallee weg ist. Wieso ? Na weil nach fast allen eine Straße benannt ist, die Marmorfigürchen sind nur Kaisers Sahnehäubchen oben drauf. Réclame Royale hieß das. Wie heute, da ist Reklame auch nicht immer schön, nur weniger königlich.

    Sie glauben das nicht, na dann los, ich sage ihnen mal die Puppen mit und ohne Straße auf, nur so zum Spaß.

    Liste der Figurengruppen in der Berliner Siegesallee

    1 Albrecht I. (1157–1170, 1. Markgraf von Brandenburg, auch Albrecht der Bär, Askanier)

    Albrechtstraße in Steglitz
    Albrechtstraße in Tempelhof
    Markgraf-Albrecht-Straße am Kudamm

    2 Otto I. (1170–1184, 2. Markgraf von Brandenburg, Askanier)

    3 Otto II. (1184–1205, 3. Markgraf von Brandenburg, Askanier)

    Pech gehabt, die Ottos haben heute keine eigenen Straßen.

    Die Ottostraße in Moabit wurde 1867 dem Zimmermann und Bauunternehmer Johann Karl Otto gewidmet.
    Dafür teilen die sich den Askanierring in Spandau, den Askanischen Platz in Kreuzberg und das immer noch vorhandene Askanische Gymnasium, die ollen Askanier.

    4 Albrecht II. (1205–1220, 4. Markgraf von Brandenburg, Askanier)

    Dito Albrecht der Zwote.

    5 Johann I. und Otto III. (1220–1267, fünfter und sechster Markgraf von Brandenburg, Askanier)

    Für die hat es auch irgendwie nicht zur Straße gereicht.

    6 Johann II. (1266–1281, Markgraf von Brandenburg, Mitregent seines Bruders Otto IV., Askanier)

    Die Askanier sind den Berlinern der Gründerzeit wohl doch zu weit weg. Sie nennen Straßen lieber nach Toten, die sich noch warm anfühlen.

    7 Otto IV. (mit dem Pfeil) (1267–1308, Markgraf von Brandenburg, Askanier)

    Nix Straße, Askanierschicksal.

    8 Waldemar (der Große) (1308–1319, Markgraf von Brandenburg, Askanier)

    Waldemarstraße in Pankow-Niederschönhausen
    Die bekannte Waldemarstraße in Kreuzberg heißt nicht nach dem Askanier-Waldi sondern nach einem Tibetreisenden, dem Preußenprinzen Friedrich Wilhelm Waldemar, der 1849 in Münster als Folge seiner Indienreise das Zeitliche segnete.

    9 Heinrich II. (das Kind) (1308–1319, Markgraf von Brandenburg, Askanier)

    Leider leider ist diesem Heinrich kein Straßengedenken gegönnt, denn der Kreuzberger Heinrichplatz heißt nach einem der vielen langweiligen Preußenprinzen aus dem neunzehnten Jahrhundert, Friedrich Heinrich Karl, Sohn Königs Friedrich Wilhelms II., General der Infanterie und Chef des zweiten ostpreußischen Infanterie-Regiments, Kommandeur des Hammschen Bataillons des vierten Garde-Landwehr-Regiments, Großmeister des Johanniterordens zu Sonneburg und Großmeister des Königlichen preußischen Johanniterordens. Kann man mit den ganzen Titeln problemlos vergessen, den Heinrichplatz-Heini.

    Irgendwann war Ende mit den Askaniern und die Wittelsbacher schmissen den Laden eine Weile.

    Zwei Straßen haben sie auch:
    Wittelsbacherstraße in Wilmersdorf
    Wittelsbacherstraße in Lichtenrade

    10 Ludwig I. (der Brandenburger) (1323–1351, Markgraf von Brandenburg, Wittelsbacher)

    Verdamp lang her , sacht der Kölsche. erinnere ich mich nicht mehr so genau. Keine Straße.

    11 Ludwig II. (der Römer) (1351–1365, Markgraf von Brandenburg, 1356–1365 (erster) Kurfürst von Brandenburg, Wittelsbacher)

    Auch schon ganz kalt.

    12 Otto V. (der Faule) (1365–1373, Markgraf und Kurfürst von Brandenburg, Wittelsbacher)

    Dieser Otto war ein Bayer und hat deshalb keine Straße in Berlin. Nachträglich verpaßte man ihm den schönen Beinamen, der ihn den Professoren des Joachimthalschen Gymnasiums als Thema von Besinnungsaufsätzen geeignet erscheinen ließ.
    Die Beine der Hohenzollern

    Abgang der Wittelsbacher, Auftritt der Luxemburger

    Auch die kriegen ihre 1907 Straße in Berlin-Wedding:
    Luxemburger Straße im Wedding
    ... wobei ... das Jahr der Widmung und die Lage der Straße am Rand des Belgischen Viertels nahelegen, daß die Stadtoberen mehr vom Namen des bald zu erobernden Nachbarstaates inspiriert waren als von den alten luxemburgischen Markgrafen.

    13 Karl IV. (Kaiser) (1373–1378, keine Titel, Luxemburger)

    Karlplatz in Lichterfelde an Ring-, Baseler Straße und Kadettenweg, möglicherweise nach dem askanischen Karl, vielleicht aber einfach nach dem Männernamen benannt.

    14 Sigismund (Kaiser) (1378–1397, 1411–1415, Markgraf und Kurfürst von Brandenburg, römisch-deutscher Kaiser 1433–1437, Luxemburger)

    Als der adlige Bauspekulant und Immobilienpromoter Fürst Guido Henckel von Donnersmarck 1910 sein Entwicklungsprojekt Frohnau einweiht, sind die alten märkischen Herrscher willkommene Namensgeber für die Adresskarten der Villenbesitzer. So kommt auch Kaiser Sigismund zu seiner geschwungenen Allee mit dem hübschen Namen Sigismundkorso.

    Sigismundkorso in Berlin-Frohnau
    Die Sigismundstraße in Tiergarten hat nichts mit Kaiser Sigismund zu tun, die heißt nach einem Sohn des späteren Kaiser Friedrich III., Sigismund, Prinz von Preußen, der 1866 mit drei Jahren stirbt.

    Im Jahr 1415 ist Ende mit den Luxemburgern, weiter gehts mit den Hohenzollern.

    Hohenzollerndamm in Wilmersdorf
    Hohenzollernring in Spandau

    15 Friedrich I. (1415–1440, Markgraf und Kurfürst von Brandenburg, Hohenzollern)

    Der erste der Hohenzollern in Berlin hat keine Gedenkstraße. Warum ?

    16 Friedrich II. (der Eisenzahn) (1440–1470, Markgraf und Kurfürst von Brandenburg, Hohenzollern)

    Eisenzahnstraße am Kudamm

    17 Albrecht Achilles (1470–1486, Markgraf und Kurfürst von Brandenburg, Hohenzollern)

    Albrecht-Achilles-Straße am Kudamm

    18 Johann Cicero (1486–1499, Markgraf und Kurfürst von Brandenburg, Hohenzollern)

    Cicerostraße am Kudamm

    19 Joachim I. (Nestor) (1499–1535, Markgraf und Kurfürst von Brandenburg, Hohenzollern)

    Nestorstraße am Kudamm

    20 Joachim II. (Hektor) (1535–1571, Markgraf und Kurfürst von Brandenburg, Hohenzollern)

    Hektorstraße am Kudamm
    Der Kurfürstendamm war seit dem ollen Hektor der Knüppeldamm von Berlin zum 1542 erbauten Jagdschloß Grunewald.

    21 Johann Georg (1571–1598, Markgraf und Kurfürst von Brandenburg, Hohenzollern)

    Johann-Georg-Straße am Kudamm

    22 Joachim Friedrich (1598–1608, Markgraf und Kurfürst von Brandenburg, seit 1605 Regent des Herzogtums Preußen, Hohenzollern)

    Joachim-Friedrich-Straße am Kudamm
    Joachimstraße in Mitte

    23 Johann Sigismund (1608–1619, Markgraf und Kurfürst von Brandenburg; Herzog und Co-Regent in Preußen, Hohenzollern)

    Johann-Sigismund-Straße am Kudamm

    24 Georg Wilhelm (1619–1640, Markgraf und Kurfürst von Brandenburg; Herzog in Preußen, Hohenzollern)

    Georg-Wilhelm-Straße am Kudamm (Halensee)

    25 Friedrich Wilhelm (der Große Kurfürst) (1640–1688, Markgraf und Kurfürst von Brandenburg; Herzog in Preußen, Hohenzollern)

    Kurfürstenstraße in Lichterfelde-Ost, wobei die Straße wahrscheinlich die Billigausführung für alle Kurfürsten gemeinsam war, eine virtuelle Siegesallee würde man sowas heute nennen.
    Wer sich den Großen Kurfürst heute ansehen will, fährt zum Schloß Charlottenburg, da steht er im Hof rum, auf seinem Gaul und aus Blech.

    26 Friedrich I. (Preußen), Friedrich III. (Brandenburg) (1688–1713 als Markgraf und Kurfürst von Brandenburg sowie in Preußen bis 1701 als Herzog, dann bis 1713 als König im Gesamtstaat, Hohenzollern)

    Friedrichstraße in Kreuzberg und Mitte

    27 Friedrich Wilhelm I. (Soldatenkönig) (1713–1740, Markgraf und Kurfürst von Brandenburg, König in Preußen, Hohenzollern)

    Wilhelmstraße in Kreuzberg und Mitte

    28 Friedrich II. (der Große) (1740–1786, Markgraf und Kurfürst von Brandenburg, König in Preußen, Hohenzollern)
    Der Große Friedrich wollte mit Berlin nichts zu tun haben. Dem Berliner Stadtschloß entfloh er wie Ludwig der XIV. dem Louvre und baute sich in Potsdam sein Popelversailles namens Sorjenlos und weil er kaum Deutsch konnte, hieß das dann Sans Souci. Alles was mit Fridericus Rex zu tun hat, spielt sich ganz weit weg von Berlin ab und dafür gibt es keine Straße. Jawoll.
    Obwohl es nicht paßt hat man ihm dann doch ein Denkmal Unter den Linden hingestellt, nochmal Blech mit Pferd, wie man das Mitte des Neunzehnten so machte.

    29 Friedrich Wilhelm II. (Der dicke Lüderjahn) (1786–1797, Markgraf und Kurfürst von Brandenburg, König von Preußen, Hohenzollern)

    Nur fressen, rumhuren und den Spiritisten geben macht beleibt aber nicht beliebt. So gibts auch keine Straße, selbst wenn man König und Kurfürst ist. So wird man höchstens zum unbekanntesten Hohenzollern des 18. Jahrhunderts. Klappt prompt, ich kenne nicht eine Straße, die direkt oder indirekt mit diesem Friedrich Wilhelm zu tun hat. Aber eine Skulptur in der Puppenallee mußte einfach sein.

    30 Friedrich Wilhelm III. (1797–1840, bis 1806 Markgraf und Kurfürst von Brandenburg, König von Preußen, Hohenzollern)

    Man kennt ihn vor allem als Mann der preußischen Ikone Königin Luise, die Schadow gemeinsam mit ihrer Schwester Friederike stehend als Prinzessinnengruppe und Rauch als Schlafende für ihren Sarkophag porträtierten.

    In seine Regentschaft fielen die Niederlage gegen Napoleon, die Befeiungskriege und die ersten Reformen Preußens auf dem Weg in das Industriezeitalter.
    Friedrich-Wilhelm-Platz in Friedenau
    Kaiser-Friedrich-Straße in Charlottenburg
    Friedrichstraße in Lichterfelde-West
    Friedrichstraße in Spandau

    31 Friedrich Wilhelm IV. (1840–1861, König von Preußen, Hohenzollern)

    Irgenwie wurde er vergessen, der Romantiker auf dem Thron. Keine Straße und romantisch war er eigentlich auch nicht. Zitat: „zum Abschied die Wahrheit: Gegen Demokraten helfen nur Soldaten.“ Die Berliner Bürger liebten ihn und seinen ollen Papa Wrangel, obwohl der 1848 die Aufständischen Unter den Linden von der Kavallerie niederreiten ließ.
    Also keine Straße, dafür hat gefühlt die Hälfte aller Straßennamen Berlins irgendwie mit ihm zu tun.

    32 Wilhelm I. (1861–1888 als König von Preußen, 1871–1888 deutscher Kaiser, Hohenzollern)

    Friedrich-Wilhelm-Straße in Tempelhof

    33 Zwei ergänzende Gruppen am Brandenburger Tor

    33.1 Friedrich III. (1888, 99 Tage nach dem Tod Wilhelms I., König von Preußen und deutscher Kaiser, Hohenzollern)

    Nach 99 Tagen ist alles vorbei, zumindest für diesen wackeren Hohenzollern. Der zweite Kaiser des Jahres 1888 zieht kurz nach Übernahme der Amtsgeschäfte in die Ewigen Jagdgründe um, und der etwas behinderte Flottenfetischist Wilhelm II. übernimmt das Ruder.
    Dem 99-Tage-Kaiser Friedrich III. sind zwei Berliner Straßen gewidmet.
    Friedrichstraße in Lichterfelde-West
    Friedrichstraße in Spandau

    33.2 Kaiserin Friedrich (1888, 99 Tage nach dem Tod Wilhelms I., Kaiserin; Königin von Preußen; als Victoria von Großbritannien und Irland Princess Royal)

    Victoriastraße (1876 bis 1888)

    Victoria von Großbritannien und Irland lebte von 1840 bis 1901 und war im Drei-Kaiser-Jahr 1888 die 99-Tage-Kaiserin an der Seite ihren Mannes Friedrichs III. Warum man ihr die Straße im Todesjahr ihres Mannes weggenommen hat, weiß der Historiker-Teufel. Dafür bleiben ihr noch heute
    die Viktoriastraße in Tempelhof
    die Viktoriastraße in Lichterfelde-West
    mit dem Viktoriaplatz
    die Viktoriastraße in Pankow / Französisch Buchholz
    und das Viktoriaufer in der Altstadt-Spandau
    Vier lebendige Straße und noch mehr im virtuellen Stadtgedächtnis, das macht ein ganz schön fettes Gedenken für 99 Tage Regierungszeit, fast so gut wie die Bundespräsi-Apanage zum kurzfristigen Wulffabdanken 2012.

    Wilhelm II.

    Der Puppenallee-Auftraggeber Kriegskaiser Wilhelm II. hat auch noch seine Straße, nämlich den Kaiserdamm in Charlottenburg. 1967 war der auf Betreiben der CDU in Ademauerdamm umbenannt und, weil die Berliner das überhaupt nicht komisch fanden, 1968 wieder in Kaiserdamm rückbenannt worden. Wir woll unsan ollen Kaisa Willem wiedaham ... https://berlin.kauperts.de/Strassen/Kaiserdamm-14057-Berlin

    1918 will der Pazifist Hans Paasche die Puppen sprengen lassen, daraus wird aber nichts, dafür liebt Berlin seine Puppen viel zu sehr, auch wenn den Kaiser erstmal keiner mehr will. Das erledigt 27 Jahre später die Rote Armee, aber das ist eine andere Geschichte.
    Hans Paasche hat keine Straße, aber die Werkstatt der Kulturen will den Kolonialisten aus der Wissmannstraße weg haben und will lieber den Dichter und Kriesgegener in der Adresse führen.

    Unser aller Tucholsky ist 1918 jedenfalls gegen die Sprengung der Püppchen.

    Bruch heißt Tuchos das Gedicht dazu.

    Was aber wird nun aus der Siegsallee?
    Wird man dieselbe, weil zu royalistisch,
    zu autokratisch und zu monarchistisch,
    abfahren in den Neuen See?

    Läßt man bei jedem Denkmal die Statur?
    und setzt nur neue Köpfe auf die Hälse?
    Nun, sagen wir mal, den von Lüders Else
    und Brutus Molkenbuhr?

    Weckt man den schönen, weißen Marmor ein?
    Vor langen Jahren, damals, im Examen,
    wußt ich, wie alle nach der Reihe kamen ...
    Soll das umsonst gewesen sein?

    Und sie ist schön! – Laß uns vorübergehen
    und lächeln – denn wir wissen ja Bescheid.
    Ich glaub, wir lassen still die Puppen stehen
    als Dokumente einer großen Zeit.

    Das Schicksal der Siegesallee wird von den deutschen Niederlagen der folgenden fünfzig Jahre bestimmt.

    Zitadelle Spandau zeigt Denkmäler

    27. Januar 1895
    Kaiser Wilhelms II. beschließt in der Siegesallee im Tiergarten „Marmor-Standbilder der Fürsten Brandenburgs und Preußens als Geschenk an die Stadt Berlin aufzustellen.

    22. März 1898 – 18. Dezember 1901
    Enthüllung der 32 Denkmalgruppen der Siegesallee. Eine Gruppe bestand jeweils aus einem Herrscherstandbild flankiert von 2 Büsten, die je einen bedeutenden Mann aus der Zeit des Herrschers darstellen. Sie wurden von einer halbrunden Bank eingefaßt.

    14. Juni – 22. September 1938
    Abbruch und Wiederaufbau der Denkmalanlage in der Großen Sternallee im Tiergarten als „Neue Siegesallee“. Die Denkmäler mussten der von Albert Speer geplanten gigantischen Nord-Süd-Achse der Hauptstadt „Germania“ weichen.

    Zweiter Weltkrieg
    Starke Kriegsschäden an den Denkmalgruppen. 4 Standbilder und 8 Büsten werden völlig zerstört.

    7. Juli 1947
    Der Magistrat zu Berlin beschließt den Abbruch der Denkmäler der Siegesallee.

    11. Mai – 25. August 1950
    Abbruch der Reste der Siegesallee. 28 Standbilder und 52 Büsten werden am Meißnerflügel der Ruine des Schlosses Bellevue abgestellt.

    September 1954
    26 Standbilder und der Großteil der Büsten werden am Südwestflügel des Schlosses Bellevue vergraben. Die Standbilder Albrecht der Bär und König Friedrich Wilhelm IV. sowie die nicht vergrabenen Büsten wurden später auf die Zitadelle Spandau gebracht. Einige Büsten finden anderweitig Aufstellung

    20. November 1978
    Die Siegesalleefiguren und -büsten werden im Zuge der Aktion des Berliner Senats „Rettung der Denkmäler“ ausgegraben und ab 1979 im Lapidarium, dem ehemaligen Pumpwerk, in Kreuzberg aufgestellt.

    Mai 2009
    Transport der Standbilder und Büsten der Siegesallee auf die Zitadelle in Vorbereitung der neuen Dauerausstellung Ausstellung „Enthüllt. Berlin und seine Denkmäler“ ab 2016 im ehemaligen Proviantmagazin.

    Der Wikipedia-Eintrag erzählt von der letzten Niederlage der Siegesallee. Nach dem Untergang Hitlerdeutschlands errichtet die Sowjetunion an Stelle der wilhelminischen Siegesallee ihr zentrales Berliner Denkmal für die im Kampf gegen die Naziarmeen gefallenen Rotarmisten.

    1947 dienten die stark beschädigten und noch vorhandenen Figuren für den Film Berliner Ballade als Kulisse. Der Kriegsheimkehrer Otto Normalverbraucher (gespielt von Gert Fröbe) spaziert hier durch die Trümmer Berlins, legt eine Rast bei der Siegesallee ein und salutiert reflexartig vor einigen Figuren. Kurze Zeit später, noch im selben Jahr, ordnete die Alliierte Kommandantur die Einebnung der Allee an. Auf der Trasse der ehemaligen Allee, an der Kreuzung der Siegesallee mit der Ost-West-Achse (Straße des 17. Juni) ließ die Rote Armee 1945 exakt mittig das Sowjetische Ehrenmal errichten, das deren Verlauf gezielt abriegelte. Die Trasse im Park wurde eingeebnet und durch Bepflanzung unkenntlich gemacht. Seit 2006 wurde der exakte Verlauf rekonstruiert und ist als Fußweg zwischen der Straße des 17. Juni und dem Kemperplatz begehbar.

    Berliner Ballade - Siegesallee bei 4:24



    Die Geschichte des deutschen Kanonenboots SMS Graf Goetzen auf dem Tanganjikasee
    Liemba (Schiff)

    Bereedert wird das Schiff seit 1977 von der Tanzania Railways Corporation (TRC). ... Die Liemba ist heute das einzige große Passagierschiff, das regelmäßig auf dem See verkehrt.

    #Deutschland #Berlin #Charlottenburg #Frohnau #Kreuzberg #Lichtenrade #Lichterfelde #Mitte #Moabit #Niederschönhausen #Spandau #Tempelhof #Tiergarten #Wedding #Wilmersdorf

    #Albrechtstraße #Askanierring #Askanischer_Platz #Heinrichplatz #Karlplatz #Luxemburger_Straße #Markgraf-Albrecht-Straße #Ottostraße #Sigismundkorso #Straße_des_17_Juni #Unter_den_Linden #Waldemarstraße #Wittelsbacherstraße

    #Straßenumbenennung #Siegesallee #Puppenallee

    #Geschichte #Askanier #Wittelsbacher #Luxemburger #Preußen #Kaiserreich #Hohenzollern

    #Kunst #Bildhauerei

  • 9e édition des Assises du #Journalisme les 9, 10 et 11 mars 2016 au Centre de congrès #Vinci de #Tours.

    Entre autre ce vendredi 11/03 :
    – 9h30 « Data Reporters, quelle plus-value pour une rédaction ? »
    – 9h30 « Actualité internationale : la nécessité de l’information citoyenne »
    – 11h00 « Médias des villes, médias des champs : les médias de proximité en zones urbaines et rurales »
    – 20h30 « Interview à front renversé : les politiques questionnent les journalistes »
    – ...


    #data #reporter #datareporter

  • Livres – Les bibliothécaires font des recommandations personnalisées sur Twitter | IDBOOX

    "Les bibliothécaires américains ont de la suite dans les idées. Library Journal et plusieurs professionnels des bibliothèques ont créé le mot dièse (hashtag) #AskaLibrarian pour inviter les lecteurs à demander des recommandations de livres. Sur le site de micro bloging les messages annoncent ce petit événement : « Vous avez besoin d’une recommandation de livre pour vous ou quelqu’un de votre entourage ? Demandez à un bibliothécaire » ou encore : « #AskaLibrarian (parce que les bibliothécaires savent tout) . » L’éditeur Penguin soutient l’opération sur le réseau social et renchérit en déclarant : « un véritable bibliothécaire va vous aider » faisant allusion aux algorithmes qui peuvent exister. (...)


  • What’s Your Gorgeous Hair Secret ? Feminism. - Bitch Media

    Actress Connie Britton is finally sharing the secret to her beautiful, lustrous hair: feminism.

    In a satirical short video from The Representation Project, the star of Friday Night Lights and Nashville explains how feminism is responsible for Title IX, the Violence Against Women Act, and her gorgeous locks. The video is part of The Representation Project’s #AskHerMore effort, which is pushing reporters on red carpet Hollywood events to ask actresses about more than just their hair and outfits and to instead focus on their talents and accomplishments.

    via @archiloque

    #féminisme #beauté #actrices

  • Xenophobia Faces the Plight of a Syrian Refugee Planning his Escape to Europe · Global Voices


    Hateful and xenophobic questions are facing a Syrian refugee, being interviewed live on Twitter now, who is planning his flight to Europe. Journalist Jenan Moussa is live-tweeting her interview with Abu Yazan, who is in Turkey, under the hashtag #AskAlaan. Moussa unleashed the monster when she tweeted to her 94K followers:

    At 21:00 Turkey time (20:00 Paris) Syrian refugee preparing for EU trip will answer you via my account. Send ur questions; hashtag #AskAlaan

    — Jenan Moussa (@jenanmoussa) September 2, 2015

    Here are some of the questions readers asked Abu Yazan, and the thousands of Syrian refugees making their way out of Syria, with the hope of resettling in Europe, as the war continues in their homeland for the fourth year. In response to Moussa’s question, Tarak blurts:

    #migrations #asile #réfugiés #syrie #xénophobie #racisme

  • RTS, Détours | Ces anonymes qui rendent #hommage aux migrants

    Des milliers de migrants clandestins ont perdu la vie en Méditerranée. Les naufrages se succèdent et se résument à des chiffres vite recouverts par d’autres informations.

    Premier épisode

    Avec Saida Zha aux pompes funèbres de Los Barrios en Andalousie, Ildefonso Sena, journaliste à Tarifa, Efi Latsoudi, fondatrice de l’association d’aide aux migrants « Le village de tous » à #Mytilène en #Grèce, et Lino Tumbiolo, responsable d’une des principales coopératives de pêche en haute mer à #Mazara_del_Vallo en #Sicile.

    Deuxième épisode

    Avec Domenico Asaro, dit Mimmo, pêcheur à Mazara del Vallo en Sicile, Roberto Ingarciola, armateur capitaine, Christos Manolelis, agent administratif et pêcheur amateur sur l’île de #Lesbos, et #Pavlos_Pavlidis, médecin légiste à #Alexandroupolis, en #Grèce.

    Troisième épisode

    Avec Mehmet Serif Damatoglou, imam de #Sidero près de la frontière gréco-turque, Marili Stroux, membre du collectif « Welcome To Europe » près de #Thermi, Annalisa D’Ancona, Gianpiero Caldarella, Giacomo Sferlazzo et Luca Vitale à #Lampedusa où le collectif #Askavusa – « Pieds nus » en sicilien – a créé le Porto M, un musée autogéré dédié aux migrants.

    #cadavres #tombes #mourir_en_mer #asile #réfugiés #Méditerranée #solidarité #enterrement #Grèce #Italie #Espagne

  • L’occupant allemand brouillait Radio Londres http://www.doctsf.com//sons/v.mp3
    Depuis, il y a eu du progrès : L’Israël lui, envoie ses hordes de hackers.
    La communication, selon le dernier état colonial de l’histoire, c’est aussi de nous couper de tout contact avec le colonisé.

    Flagrant délit :

    De la défensive à l’offensive - le Hamas frappe Israël là où ça fait le plus mal - cette fois ni avec des roquettes, ni avec des tunnels
    Par Palestine Info

    Mardi matin, le mouvement palestinien de résistance Hamas a annoncé qu’il allait amorcer une initiative pour parler aux occidentaux et répondre à leurs questions. Involontairement, ou du moins c’est ce qui nous a semblé, ils ont révélé le mot-dièse de la campagne, #AskHamas, bien avant le début de l’opération et les pro-Israêl ont mordu à l’hameçon.


  • Digital Archive No. 5–African Sources of Knowledge Digital Library

    Two weeks ago, I attended the African Studies Association Annual Meeting in Indianapolis, Indiana. As Sean mentioned in a previous post, a bunch of folks from #AFRICA_IS_A_COUNTRY.....


  • Comment faites-vous pour lire vos flux #SeenThis, #RSS, #Twitter, etc. ?

    Bon, pas d’url pour ce billet parce que c’est plutôt une #seenthis_question...

    Je me rends compte que je passe beaucoup de temps quotidiennement à suivre les différents flux d’infos auxquels je suis abonné. Voire que j’y passe trop de temps. Du coup je me demandais si les seenviseurs avaient des astuces / méthodes / logiciels / sites à conseiller ou partager autour de cette problématique ô combien pas originale.

    Bon, je me permets de décrire mon organisation actuelle juste pour donner une idée et lancer une éventuelle discussion :

    – Flux RSS dans Google Reader
    – Twitter dans un client desktop, dont je synchronise l’état entre mes deux PC au boulot et à la maison
    – et SeenThis que je lis directement sur le site Web, parce que je trouve que dans Google Reader ça le fait pas.

    Je ne lis pas tout ça en continu, mais plutôt entre une et trois fois par jour, en gros.

    Et vous, vous faites comment ?