• La Nation de l’enfant unique

    Portée par une propagande massive, la politique de l’enfant unique en Chine a été appliquée de 1979 à 2015 avec intransigeance. Terrifiant les parents pendant plus de trois décennies, les sanctions et les punitions ont eu un impact désastreux sur le taux de natalité. Rompant le silence, les réalisatrices américaines Nanfu Wang et Jialing Zhang dévoilent le sort de dizaines de milliers d’enfants tués, abandonnés ou enlevés, ainsi que l’ampleur du traumatisme.

    http://www.film-documentaire.fr/4DACTION/w_fiche_film/56894_1

    #Chine #propagande #politique_de_l'enfant_unique #représentation #stérilisation_forcée #planning_familial #théâtre #art #avortement_forcé #violence #guerre_démographique #démographie #endoctrinement #déchets_médicaux #brutalité #sexisme #abandon #trafic_d'enfants #trafic_d'êtres_humains #orphelinat #adoption #programme_d'adoption_internationale #infanticide #patriotisme #nationalisme #impuissance #responsabilité #planification_familiale
    #film #film_documentaire #documentaire
    « Nous menons une #guerre_démographique » —> #Peng_Wang, artiste

    • "The Orphans of #Shao"

      The story started as a small notice on a remote Hunan government website detailing a lawsuit filed by families in a small Hunan village against the Family Planning Bureau in their area. While researching the Hunan scandal, we discovered this story of Family Planning confiscations in #Gaoping Village, #Shaoyang_City. After writing about the story in 2006 in the context of the Hunan scandal, we were contacted to cooperate on a Dutch documentary in 2008 about twelve families that lost their children to Family Planning officials. These children were sent to the Shaoyang orphanage, renamed “Shao” and adopted internationally.

      Now, the Chinese journalist that first broadcast the story inside China has published an in-depth book on the event, providing valuable background context to a story that has deep and profound implications to China’s international adoption program. “The Orphans of Shao” "consists of case studies that exemplify more than 35-year long-lasting policy in China, the One-Child Policy. Due to the effect that the National Law has created, Mr. Pang exposed the corrupted adoption system in China. The farmers in many villages are forced to fines that they cannot afford to pay so the officials take their children away. The officials then sell the children for a low price to government orphanages. The orphanages then put these children up for international adoptions and collect the high prices fees for these adoptions. The international adoptions are usually in Europe and in the United States. These families that adopted these children truly believe that the children are orphans. After their children were kidnapped by the officials, the parents embarked on a long and draining odyssey to recover them. After searching fruitlessly for many years, the heartbroken and desperate parents were on the verge of losing all hope."

      These stories must be heard, as painful as they are for most to read. Purchase of the book benefits “Women’s Rights in China,” an NGO dedicated to prevent such stories from happening again.


      http://research-china.blogspot.com/2014/10/the-orphans-of-shao.html
      #livre #Pang_Jiaoming

    • The Consequences Of One Child Nation

      The new documentary ONE CHILD NATION is Chinese-born filmmakers Nanfu Wang (HOOLIGAN SPARROW) and Jialing Zhang’s investigation into the human consequences of China’s One-Child Policy, and the hidden economic incentives that helped to fuel it. The One-Child Policy was written into China’s constitution in 1982 and was in effect until 2015. We spoke with director Nanfu Wang–who also served as the film’s producer, cinematographer, editor, and subject–in New York on July 24. ONE CHILD NATION, which won the U.S. Grand Jury Prize at the 2019 Sundance Film Festival, is now in theaters.

      Science & Film: In your film, you show how government propaganda encouraged people to adhere to the One-Child Policy for the good of the country. Why do you think that was such a persuasive argument?

      Nanfu Wang: For any people, any country, “Make America Great”… collectivism and altruism are ways of getting people to do things–patriotism especially. That’s the way a government makes people forget about their rights, forget about their individuality, and follow the national agenda.

      S&F: One of the shocking parts of ONE CHILD NATION is the revelation of how Chinese adoption agencies took advantage of the One-Child Policy. When and how did you learn about that?

      NW: I learned as we were making the film that something was happening around adoption and that children were being confiscated. Someone introduced me to journalist Jiaoming Pang’s book, The Orphans of Shao, which is about that. It was shocking. I didn’t know any of those things were happening in China. I think because the book was self-published by a very small non-profit organization there wasn’t much readership—even I hadn’t read it before I was making the film. What was even more shocking were the details. For example, there was a family whose first-born child was confiscated and adopted by an American family. There was no violation of the one-child policy [by the family]. The reason that they confiscated the first-born child goes back to when in rural areas when people get married they don’t register for marriage in the courthouse. For thousands of years, the Chinese tradition is that when you get married you have a banquet, two families in the village eat together, celebrate, and then you are officially married. Marriage law was new in the 1940s when the new China was established. In rural areas, a lot of people still don’t get a marriage certificate. So this couple got married that way: the whole village ate together, and they had their first son. Then the government came and said, you don’t have your official marriage certificate, your marriage is illegal, and therefore we are taking your child. That’s how their child was taken away and eventually got adopted here [in America].

      S&F: Do you think there was an economic incentive from the government to confiscate children?

      NW: All orphanages were state owned. When we met the [child] trafficker, he told us how the orphanages hired him. For the international adoption program to work there are several legal steps. Each adoptive family has to get a certificate saying this child was abandoned and is an official orphan. This certificate has to be stamped by the police. The trafficker told us that when he was hired he would get a stack of already stamped blank certificates which left the location out and the name blank; it was all blank paperwork that they made up and submitted.

      S&F: You interviewed one of the women who performed abortions. She said that even in retrospect she would probably do the same thing again. What was that interview like for you?

      NW: My co-director and I watched that and we both felt a lot of empathy towards her because we don’t see her as an evil person–the opposite. We wanted to make it clear that there is no perpetrator in this story; everyone is a victim. We wanted to make it clear the sympathy and empathy we felt for her. We also asked ourselves, what if we were her? What choices would we have made? When I was living in China before I left for the U.S., the last job I had was working at a university as a staffer and one aspect of my job was writing propaganda articles for the university. I aspired to be a good staffer. I aspired to be a good writer. I aspired to be seen as useful and a good worker, so that made me work really hard and be creative. If you are in the position of working for the government and you just want to be a good worker, very likely the person would do the work that is against their own morality simply because that was what they were told was the right thing to do. For someone who grew up in a country and educational system that taught that the collective is always above the individual, you believe that you can’t be selfish. So thinking about that, it’s likely that if I were her I would have made the same decisions. That was scary but definitely made us much more empathetic towards her.

      S&F: This makes me think about the Nazis and soldiers during World War II.

      NW: Similar. The ideology and mindset of following orders is all about how you make a good person do evil things.

      S&F: What do you think about the way that other countries are now talking about population control because of climate change?

      NW: It’s ironic. A lot of countries right now are saying that we have an overpopulation problem, which is true, but they are saying we should do a similar policy to China’s One-Child Policy. [In the film,] we wanted to show that the policy had huge consequences. It’s not up to the government to control how many children one can have. That’s basic human rights.

      I believe the Chinese leaders who initiated the policy thought, yeah let’s do this, this is a great policy. There were direct consequences: they knew that in order to enforce the policy they would have to use violence. But there were also indirect consequences. All of the consequences they hadn’t foreseen are showing up [now]: the aging society, the gender imbalance, and even the psychological trauma that generations are experiencing including the adopted children who are growing up and are going to become parents. That’s when they will truly reflect and want to know the answers to their own life stories.

      S&F: Have any government officials in China seen the film?

      NW: No, I don’t think they have.

      We showed the film in Hong Kong and it will be shown in Taiwan soon and some other Asian countries. In China, there was interest from an underground festival but we haven’t [pursued that] for a few reasons. We want to wait until the release is done here and see what we want to do.

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gMcJVoLwyD0&feature=emb_logo


      http://www.scienceandfilm.org/articles/3240/the-consequences-of-one-child-nation

    • Dans le film documentaire, le travail artistique de Peng Wang est présenté... mais je ne trouve pas beaucoup d’informations sur internet.
      Voici ce que j’ai trouvé :

      “One Child Nation,” Reviewed : A Powerful Investigation of a Chinese Policy’s Personal Toll

      Wang interviews an artist, #Peng_Wang, who, two decades ago, was working on a project that involved garbage, and, as he rummaged through an alley where it was dumped, he found the discarded body of a female baby. He then looked at other dumping grounds and found many fetuses; he photographed them, and in some cases even brought them home and preserved them. As he described one corpse, an infant that seemed to be smiling, he imagined the meaning of that smile: “It’s as if he knew it’d be miserable to be alive in China, and he was happy to have avoided it.” For that matter, Wang interviews her own aunt and uncle, who describe in detail their abandonment of their own newborn daughter, nearly thirty years ago; the baby died in two days. (Wang also likens China’s policy of forced abortion to American restrictions on abortion—assimilating both countries’ policies to “the control of a woman’s body.”)

      Source https://www.newyorker.com/culture/the-front-row/one-child-nation-reviewed-a-powerful-investigation-of-a-chinese-policys-p

      –----------

      So it was that in Wild Field, Wang Peng’s Ruins (2010) and Grove Monument (2014) attracted the attention of the censors, as they counter-memorialised the aborted 400 million foetuses resulting from the One Child Policy. This was mainly directed at Han couples, who after 1978 were only allowed to have one child if the couple were residing in the countryside. This rule applied unless they had a girl who had reached seven years of age, in which case the couple were permitted to have another child. The One Child Policy was brutal, cruel and bloody. If the authorities discovered a pregnant woman who already had one or more children the government forced her to have an abortion, no matter what stage of the pregnancy, and had her permanently sterilised. The most cruel moment in the history of the One Child Policy was probably Zeng Zhaoqi’s “No children within 100 days (白日无孩运动)” policy, that is also known as the “Lambs Massacre.” This took place in the Guan and Shen counties of ShanDong province in 1991. No children were allowed to be born for 100 days (from 1 May to 10 August) and during that period any child, whether first or second in the family, was to be aborted.

      After some negotiation, Wang’s works were permitted but had to change their name to Life. The work originally named Grove Monument also had to be covered in fabric, because it was carved with the impacting words, “the spiritual monument of the children who died from the One Child Policy.” On the opening day of the exhibition the officials went one step further, forcing the gallery to remove the monument, leaving just the base. Ruins, a series of photographs of aborted foetuses left on rubbish dumps, were also removed and replaced by colourful scenery. While the Western artworld has become jaded with political art, incorporating risk into its own modes of art consumption, Chinese artists are working in a very different situation. Wang, one of the student protestors at Tiananmen Square, made these works because he had seen foetuses in a hospital rubbish bin during the time of the One Child Policy. His artist’s statement gives some sense of the mood with which many Chinese artists make work: “During the enforcement of 37 years One Child Policy, the distorted system has revealed the cruelty and ignorance of humanity, plus the long-term brain-washing education that make me feel nihilistic to life. The nihilistic feeling made me question the meaning of lives.”[10]

      Source : https://www.artlink.com.au/articles/4700/inhuman-flow-censorship-and-art-in-the-two-chinas

      #art #art_et_politique

    • « Jeune paysanne née au coeur de la Chine rurale, Meili est mariée à Kongzi, l’instituteur du village, lointain descendant de Confucius. Ensemble, ils ont une fille, mais Kongzi, qui veut à tout prix un fils pour poursuivre la lignée de sa célèbre famille, met à nouveau Meili enceinte, sans attendre la permission légale. Lorsque les agents de contrôle des naissances envahissent le village pour arrêter ceux qui ont transgressé les règles, père, mère et fille fuient vers le fleuve Yangtze. Ils commencent alors une longue cavale vers le Sud, à travers les paysages dévastés de la Chine, trouvant de menus travaux au passage, parfois réduits à mendier et obligés de se cacher des forces de l’ordre. Alors que le corps de Meili continue d’être pris d’assaut par son mari et que l’État cherche à le contrôler, elle se bat pour reprendre en main sa vie et celle de l’enfant à naître.
      Avec La route sombre, Ma Jian, célèbre dissident chinois, signe un roman bouleversant où la violence du contrôle social vous saisit de plein fouet. »

  • Françoise Vergès : « Les féministes blanches n’ont pas intégré dans leur histoire les avortements forcés de la Réunion » - Libération
    http://www.liberation.fr/debats/2017/04/14/francoise-verges-les-feministes-blanches-n-ont-pas-integre-dans-leur-hist

    Un procès s’ouvre en 1971. Trente femmes ont porté plainte et viennent témoigner : elles sont noires. Les médecins sont en majorité des hommes blancs venus de France, un seul est d’origine marocaine. La fraude à la Sécurité sociale ne sera jamais évoquée : la direction locale refusera de porter plainte. Les médecins ne seront pas condamnés, sauf le professionnel d’origine marocaine, interdit de pratiquer et condamné à payer une amende, ainsi que l’infirmier-chef réunionnais, d’origine indienne. Les femmes ne recevront aucune réparation.

    #histoire #femmes #avortement_forcé #racisme #France

    • #ventre_des_femmes #féminisme_blanc #histoire_féminisme

      La gestion différente du ventre des femmes, à Paris ou à Saint-Denis de la Réunion, démontrait que le patriarcat n’est pas le même partout, qu’il n’est pas universel. Et que la liberté des femmes ne peut pas être déclinée de la même manière partout : sur certains territoires, le passé esclavagiste et colonial apporte d’autres dimensions, et l’écrasement des femmes doit aussi intégrer le racisme. Le féminisme français a manqué l’occasion d’être aussi riche et divers qu’il l’est aux Etats-Unis, plus apaisé aussi. Il y aurait certainement beaucoup moins d’incompréhension et de conflits aujourd’hui autour de la question du voile notamment, et de savoir qui est une « bonne » féministe et qui ne l’est pas. Au contraire, le féminisme français s’est « blanchi ».

      et je note aussi

      … en France, la publicité pour les contraceptifs est interdite [elle ne sera légale qu’en 1987, ndlr]

      et à lire …
      la Parole aux Négresses, de la Sénégalaise Awa Thiam

      J’ai un peu du mal avec l’explication courte de la guerre d’Algérie pour justifier l’omerta. Qui disait « pour penser le monde, il faut avoir le ventre plein » pour expliquer que ce sont le plus souvent les classes sociales les plus aisées qui mènent les -ismes ?

    • Oui @touti ; il suffirait d’écrire « devraient intégrer » ou « n’ont pas encore intégré » pour donner une perspective un peu plus constructive à l’article, plutôt qu’en faire une énième condamnation « du féminisme français » (sic).

  • Chinese officials apologise to woman in forced abortion
    http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-china-18453995

    City officials in China have apologised to a woman who was forced to have an abortion and suspended three people responsible, state media reports.

    This came after photos showing a foetus and the mother, Feng Jiamei, shocked web users.

    She was made to undergo the procedure in Shaanxi province in the seventh month of pregnancy, local officials said after investigating.

    Chinese law clearly prohibits abortions beyond six months.

    http://seenthis.net/messages/76363

    #chine #avortement_forcé #enfant_unique

  • Chinese abortion death due to birth quota enforcement, family claims | World news | The Guardian
    http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/oct/21/chinese-abortion-death-birth-quota-claims

    When Ma Jihong became pregnant for a third time, she looked forward to expanding her family. So many neighbours had broken China’s strict birth quotas she thought she could too. But six months later she died in panic on an operating table after officials in Lijin, Shandong province, forced her into a late-term abortion, relatives have said.

    Beijing has sought to move away from coercive enforcement of its one-child policy. Forced abortions and sterilisations are illegal, but experts say abuses continue as local officials strive to meet birth targets.

    “Although the policies are less extreme than in previous decades, it is a mistake to think these issues have disappeared,” said Nicholas Bequelin, the senior Asia researcher at Human Rights Watch. “Sanctions, fines and forced abortions continue to be imposed on rural women.”

    #Chine #enfant_unique #avortement_forcé