• During and After Crisis : Evros Border Monitoring Report

    #HumanRights360 documents the recent developments in the European land border of Evros as a result of the ongoing policy of externalization and militarization of border security of the EU member States. The report analyses the current state of play, in conjunction with the constant amendments of the Greek legislation amid the discussions pertaining to the reform of the Common European Asylum System (CEAS) and the Return Directive.

    https://www.humanrights360.org/during-and-after-crisis-evros-border-monitoring-report

    #rapport #Evros #migrations #réfugiés #Grèce #frontières #2019 #militarisation_des_frontières #loi_sur_l'asile #Kleidi #Serres #covid-19 #coronavirus #Turquie #push-backs #refoulements #refoulement #push-back #statistiques #passages #chiffres #frontière_terrestre #murs #barrières_frontalières #Kastanies #violence #Komotini #enfermement #détention #rétention_administrative #Thiva #Fylakio #transferts

    –------
    Pour télécharger le rapport


    https://www.humanrights360.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/During-After-Crisis-Evros.pdf

    ping @luciebacon

  • Let’s Call it a Wall

    The border between the US and Mexico was first defined by the “United States and Mexican Boundary Survey” (1848–1855) in accordance with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which ended the Mexican–American War.

    About forty years later, the first border control point was installed, in 1896 at Eagle Pass, Texas. In 1918, the first recorded border fence was built at Nogales, Arizona. Its construction was ordered by Felix B. Peñaloza, the mayor, of Nogales, Mexico. In his opinion, the fence would help to “direct the flow of people crossing the border through two gateways, to make it easier for a growing number of soldiers, customs agents, and other officials to oversee transborder movement.”

    But soon after fence was erected, a conflict broke that resulted in a two-hour shootout between officers on both sides. “At least twelve Mexicans and Americans had been killed, including Peñaloza, who had built the fence precisely to minimize the risk of conflict between the nations.”

    Despite the fact that this first fence building activity was not very successful in negotiating conflicts, the fence in Nogales remained, and more barriers were about to come. Yet it was not until the 1990s that signs of serious barrier construction appeared. The most significant fence building activity before the 1990s was a five-mile chain-link fence in 1945 and twenty-seven miles of punched-out-metal fence during the Carter era in the late 1970s dubbed the “Tortilla Curtain.”

    Most fences during the postwar period were erected on both sides of border at crossing points to prevent vehicles and people from circumventing controls.

    In the 1990s, first fences separate from border crossing points were erected out of portable Marston Mats (M8A1).

    These ten-foot-long, fifteen-inches-thick corrugated metal panels were originally used during the Vietnam War as landing pads for aircraft and parking areas for vehicles. Yet at the border, supported by metal studs, they formed a ten-foot-high steel wall. Marston Mat walls can still be found along large parts of the border today, in every state except Texas.

    Until the mid-2000s, border fence construction remained rather marginal. Only fifty miles of the 1,954-mile-long border were fenced by the end of the 1990s. The annual budget for “Tactical Infrastructure” (the bureaucratic term for border barriers) was $6 million in 2002, and still as low as $15 million in 2005.
    In 2007, however, the budget skyrocketed to $647 million. This sudden increase was a result of the “Secure Fence Act of 2006,” which authorized and partially funded the construction of 700 miles of fencing along the US-Mexican border. The Act was signed into law on October 26, 2006, by US President George W. Bush, with wide bipartisan support (including senators Obama, Clinton, Schumer, and Biden).
    https://vimeo.com/400921834#at=8

    Until the Secure Fence Act, there were no clear design guidelines for border barriers, which resulted in a large variety of fence typologies. We have identified eight barrier and wall typologies, plus eleven fence typologies. Of these nineteen typologies, many varieties in topping, foundation, and dimension exist, which is the result of differences in terrain, year of construction, and different contractors. From this large diversity of border barrier typologies, one particular fence has recently come to the fore: Personnel-Vehicle Fence Type 1 (PV-1).

    The first mentioning of the Personnel-Vehicle Fence Type 1 (PV-1) is issued in a document by the Department of Homeland Security dated May 2008, a few months before the completion of the first segment using PV-1 fencing. The fence consists of vertical steel bollards with a six-by-six-inch square profile filled with concrete. The distance between the vertical bollards is about five inches (the original sketch in the 2008 document shows less distance between the bollards, but an opening for cats to pass through instead). Nine vertical bollards are mounted together to form one fence element which is placed in an in-situ concrete foundation. At the top, the PV-1 finishes with a five-foot-high steel plate, but occasionally, this plate is omitted. The first PV-1, built in August 2008, is still standing at Andrade, California, between Boundary Monument 210 and 207.PV-1 became “the fence,” or better known as “the wall,” in Donald Trump’s presidential campaign, and who later downgraded it to “steel slats.” The PV-1’s breakthrough moment was on October 26, 2018, in Calexico, California when the president mounted a plaque on it to commemorate the erection of his first section of the border wall. Yet the wall was not a wall, but a fence, one that was designed during the George W. Bush administration, and the particular section in Calexico being commemorated was in fact a replacement of an existing structure that was already approved and built by the Obama administration in 2009.

    There is little known about the person, or team behind the design of PV-1, but the 2008 brief exists and states clearly that the fence must:

    extend fifteen-to-eighteen feet above ground and be supported in subsurface footers at depths deemed necessary;
    be capable of withstanding an impact from a 10,000-pound gross weight vehicle traveling at forty miles per hour;
    be semi-transparent, as dictated by operational need;
    be designed to survive extreme climate changes of a desert environment;
    be designed to allow movement of small animals from one side to the other; and
    not impede the natural flow of water.

    The only difference between the initial design and the current version of PV-1 is height. While the 2008 brief mentions fifteen-to-eighteen feet, its current design is eighteen-to-thirty feet.

    After Trump spent $3.3 million on the construction of eight new border wall prototypes, the final success of the PV-1 was ultimately decided upon by Congress. In approving the budget for the 2017–2019 fiscal years, Congress included a note in the Department of Homeland Security Appropriations bill that the apportioned money has to be used on “previously deployed and operationally effective designs, such as currently deployed steel bollard designs, that prioritize agent safety.”

    Additionally, it was stated that the money only can be spent on barrier replacement, not new barrier construction.

    While this might have been seen as a blow for Trump and his promised wall, in July 2017, a year before the eight prototypes have been completed, he already mentioned that PV-1 might be the “wall” he always had in mind. Yet the war of words continued. The Congressional Research Service mentioned in its January 2020 “DHS Border Barrier Funding” report that “News stories indicate that the White House has reportedly asked CBP [Customs and Border Protection] to stop using the term “replacement barrier” because it sounds like a lesser accomplishment.” The White House prefers to use the term “new border wall system.”
    PV-1 construction continues. In December 2019, two companies were commissioned with PV-1 construction: $789 million is being paid to the Galveston, Texas-based general contractors SLSCO Ltd., which will replace forty-six miles of vehicle barriers along the New Mexico border; and the Bozeman, Montana-based construction company Barnard Construction Co. received a $187 million contract to build eleven miles of fencing in three separate segments along the Yuma County border in southwestern Arizona.PV-1 is slowly turning into an iconic structure, symbolizing the border between the US and Mexico, not unlike how the concrete wall with its rounded top symbolized the Berlin Wall. Yet no barrier is unsurmountable.

    https://www.e-flux.com/architecture/at-the-border/325750/let-s-call-it-a-wall
    #murs #chronologie #visualisation #frontières #migrations #barrières_frontalières #USA #Etats-Unis #Mexique #graphique #cartographie #prototypes #architecture

    via @isskein
    ping @reka @mobileborders

  • La #Slovénie érige de nouvelles barrières à sa frontière avec la #Croatie


    https://www.infomigrants.net/fr/post/24082/la-slovenie-erige-de-nouvelles-barrieres-a-sa-frontiere-avec-la-croati

    La Slovénie a décidé de renforcer sa frontière avec la Croatie afin d’éviter des franchissements illégaux par des migrants, a annoncé mardi le ministère de l’Intérieur. En cinq ans, près de 200 kilomètres de clôtures ont déjà été construits dans cette zone.

    La Slovénie a déclaré, mardi 14 avril, qu’elle allait ajouter 40 kilomètres de nouvelles barrières à sa frontière avec la Croatie afin d’empêcher des migrants de la franchir clandestinement, rapporte l’agence de presse Reuters. Depuis 2015, le pays a fait construire progressivement quelque 196 kilomètres de clôtures sur les 670 kilomètres de frontière commune entre la Slovénie et la Croatie.

    Le ministère n’a pas précisé où les nouvelles barrières seront installées, mais a indiqué que leur construction serait effective dans le courant de l’année. Une annonce similaire portant également sur 40 kilomètres de nouvelles barrières avait été faite en juillet dernier pour l’année 2019.

    Bien que la Croatie et la Slovénie soient membres de l’Union européenne, la première n’appartient pas à l’espace Schengen de libre circulation. Les autorités slovènes ont donc expliqué l’an dernier qu’elles comptaient installer de nouvelles clôtures « dans les zones où il est urgent d’empêcher le franchissement illégal des frontières et de protéger les citoyens et leurs biens ».

    Explosion du nombre de tentatives de franchissement de la frontière

    Sur les deux premiers mois de l’année 2020, la police slovène a dénombré 1 165 tentatives de passage clandestin, soit près de 80% de plus qu’à la même période l’an dernier. Elle avait notamment annoncé, le mois dernier, avoir découvert une trentaine de migrants cachés dans un train de marchandises (https://www.infomigrants.net/fr/post/23225/slovenie-la-police-decouvre-trente-migrants-caches-sous-de-l-argile-da).

    Revenu fin février dans le fauteuil de Premier ministre, Janez Jansa avait promis lors de sa campagne de durcir sa politique en matière d’asile, d’ajouter de nouvelles barrières frontalières et de renforcer les contrôles aux frontières de ce petit pays de deux millions d’habitants situé sur le route migratoire des Balkans (https://www.infomigrants.net/fr/post/23045/slovenie-le-conservateur-janez-jansa-revient-au-pouvoir-en-durcissant-).

    Durant le pic de la crise migratoire en 2015 et 2016, un demi million de migrants clandestins avait traversé la Slovénie en six mois afin d’atteindre les pays d’Europe occidentale plus riches, comme la France, l’Allemagne ou le Royaume-Uni.

    #barrières_frontalières #asile #migrations #réfugiés #murs #route_des_balkans #frontière_sud-alpine #frontières #clôture

    • C’était 2019...
      En Slovénie, une clôture « de la honte » à la frontière croate (1/3)

      Depuis 2015, le gouvernement slovène érige le long de sa frontière sud une clôture de #barbelés pour tenter d’endiguer le flux de migrants en provenance de la Croatie voisine. Les villages slovènes traversés par les fils barbelés supportent mal l’installation de ce grillage qui, selon eux, abîme le #paysage et n’empêche pas la traversée des migrants.

      « Qui aime se réveiller le matin avec des #fils_barbelés devant sa fenêtre ? » Rudy ne décolère pas. Cet habitant de #Slavski_Laz, un village perdu dans les #montagnes slovènes, frontalier avec la Croatie, ne s’explique toujours pas pourquoi le gouvernement a construit, ici, au bord de la #rivière_Kolpa, une clôture de barbelés.

      « Ils disent que ce grillage est fait pour nous protéger… Mais nous protéger de quoi ? Je n’ai #peur de rien… », continue ce retraité qui vit depuis des années dans la région encore largement sauvage. L’argument de « l’#invasion_migratoire » brandi par le gouvernement pour justifier la construction de ce mur de métal ne le convainc pas.

      « Les migrants ici, ils passent, c’est tout », explique-t-il. « Ils transitent par la Slovénie et puis s’en vont vers d’autres pays, vers le nord de l’Europe généralement ».

      Les amis de Rudy acquiescent, tous attablés dans le seul café encore ouvert à 19h de #Kostel, un village de moins de 650 habitants non loin d’une des rares routes menant à la Croatie. Selon eux, la clôture est inutile, elle abîme le paysage, et son rôle de #dissuasion est largement surestimé. « Ils disent que les barbelés vont empêcher le passage de migrants… Mais tout le monde passe quand même ! », sourit Marco, un ami de Rudy, habitant dans le village voisin de Fara, en déclenchant l’hilarité de l’assemblée.

      « Par exemple, en ce moment, avec l’hiver et les forts courants, les rivages sont boueux, poreux, alors, les terrains bougent, la clôture s’effondre. Les migrants qui veulent passer n’ont même pas besoin de se fatiguer, ils ont juste à l’#enjamber », continue Marco en riant. « Il y a des endroits où des sillons se sont creusés. Ils peuvent aussi passer sous la barrière ! »

      116 km de #grillages

      Près de 14 000 migrants ont traversé la frontière depuis le début de l’année, « soit 70% de plus que l’année dernière », à la même période, affirment les autorités slovènes à InfoMigrants.

      Cet été, 40 km supplémentaires de grillages ont donc été construits à la frontière sud, le long de la rivière Kolpa. « Il faut empêcher le franchissement illégal des frontières », a indiqué le ministère de l’Intérieur dans un communiqué. En tout, depuis 2015, Ljulbjana a déjà érigé 116 km de grillages le long de la Kolpa qui parcourt les 670 km de frontière avec la Croatie.

      « Ces clôtures ne sont pas une baguette magique mais elles nous aident », ajoute, de son côté, un commandant de police slovène.

      Khaled, un demandeur d’asile érythréen, aujourd’hui à Ljubljana, a tenté trois fois le passage de la frontière slovène avant de réussir à entrer dans le pays. La clôture, il s’en souvient très bien. « J’ai traversé la frontière au mois de mai, quelque part vers #Ribnica. Je me souviens qu’une fois la rivière franchie, il a fallu passer ces barbelés. Alors j’ai grimpé, je me suis déchiré les mains, elles étaient pleines de sang, mais je suis passé ».

      Montagnes dangereuses, présence d’#ours, eau glaciale

      Au delà de sa dangerosité, Rudy, le villageois, voit dans cet alignement de barbelés, une « #clôture_de_la_honte » qui, selon lui, stigmatise les migrants. « On voit arriver des familles, parfois des enfants. Je ne vois pas bien en quoi, ce sont des ennemis », continue le retraité.

      « Cette barrière, c’est le début de l’enfer », explique à son tour une jeune fille qui énumère les dangers qui attendent les migrants juste après son franchissement : la montagne « très dangereuse quand on s’y perd », les températures « glaciales » et les ours, nombreux dans le pays. « Parfois, on entend des cris là-haut. Ce sont des migrants qui hurlent pour effrayer les animaux ».

      Ces dernières semaines, deux migrants sont décédés par #noyade dans la Kolpa et un autre a été retrouvé mort de froid et d’#épuisement dans la #forêt.

      Surtout, les migrants doivent éviter les patrouilles de #police. « La nuit, quand nous tentons la traversée, nous voyons les lumières des lampes torche, derrière la clôture. Les #policiers sont partout. C’est ça qui nous effraie le plus », se souvient Khaled. « On fait tout pour les éviter. Quand la police vous attrape, elle vous renvoie en Croatie. Elle vous emmène rarement jusqu’à la capitale pour demander l’asile ».

      Depuis le début de l’année, sur les 14 000 entrées illégales, plus de 8 000 renvois – aussi appelés « pushbacks » - ont été effectués depuis les frontières slovènes, affirment les autorités.

      Patrouille de miliciens d’extrême-droite

      « C’est une #honte, il y a la police, l’armée, maintenant cette clôture et il y a même une milice ! », fulmine à son tour Katarina Bernad Sterva, directrice de l’association slovène d’aide aux réfugiés, qui se désespère de la situation à la frontière.

      Depuis quelques jours en effet, des miliciens en treillis militaires, visages cachés derrière des cagoules noires, patrouillent aussi le long de la rivière Kolpa. Dirigée par le leader d’extrême-droite, Andrej Sisko,cette milice se veut un « renfort » à l’armée régulière pour « défendre la frontière » et intercepter les migrants. « Nous sommes le point d’entrée de l’espace Schengen », se justifie Andrej Sisko. « Nous voulons faire passer un message. Nous voulons dire aux étrangers de rester chez eux. La clôture est fragile, elle ne permet pas de stopper les migrants alors nous venons contrôler les abords de la rivière nous-mêmes ».

      La milice d’#Andrej_Sisko n’a aucun mandat légal. Et visiblement, les villageois s’expliquent mal leur présence.

      Si certains rient à leur passage - « C’est le carnaval quand ils sont là », entend-t-on ici et là dans les villages frontaliers – d’autres comme Katarina Bernad Sterva regarde cette armée parallèle avec une inquiétude grandissante. « Ce qui m’effraie, c’est qu’ils existent. Publiquement, le gouvernement a condamné leurs actions, mais, dans les faits, les autorités ne font rien. Ces hommes sont fous, nous nous attendions à une réaction forte du gouvernement, comme par exemple l’annonce de la dissolution de ces patrouilles ».
      https://twitter.com/sarecmarjan/status/1036914541693755400?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw%7Ctwcamp%5Etweetembed%7Ctwterm%5E10

      Interrogée par InfoMigrants, la police reste muette sur le sujet. « Je n’ai rien à dire sur ces hommes. Ils n’ont pas le soutien de la police », déclare simplement Vicjem Toskan, l’un des commandants en chef de la police de Koper, à l’ouest du pays.

      Ce soir-là, à Kostel, les amis du café s’interrogent surtout sur le sort réservé aux migrants interceptés par cette milice d’extrême-droite. « On a déjà la police et l’armée pour intercepter les migrants. On a une clôture pour les empêcher de continuer leur route. Eux, qu’est-ce qui vont leur faire, la nuit, dans la montagne ? », s’inquiète Rudy. « Ils portent des masques, ils marchent dans la forêt. J’ai plus peur d’eux que des immigrés qui traversent la rivière », chuchote à son tour, une jeune fille en bout de table. « Si j’étais migrante, je n’aimerais vraiment pas tomber sur eux ».

      https://www.infomigrants.net/fr/post/20807/en-slovenie-une-cloture-de-la-honte-a-la-frontiere-croate-1-3

      #milices #patrouilles #extrême_droite #Kolpa #efficacité #montagne #Alpes #décès #morts #mourir_aux_frontières #danger #dangers #push-back #refoulement #refoulements #militarisation_des_frontières #push-backs

      –---

      #Walls_don't_work :

      « Par exemple, en ce moment, avec l’hiver et les forts courants, les rivages sont boueux, poreux, alors, les terrains bougent, la clôture s’effondre. Les migrants qui veulent passer n’ont même pas besoin de se fatiguer, ils ont juste à l’#enjamber », continue Marco en riant. « Il y a des endroits où des sillons se sont creusés. Ils peuvent aussi passer sous la barrière ! »

      –-> voir la métaliste

  • WELCOME TO PRISON : We are treated like animals in the zoo !!!

    Tuesday, 17th march in the morning. Workers came with building equipment and started putting up a fence around Porin, one of the camps (prisons) for asylum seekers in Zagreb. What was until now a symbolic prison (the rules imposed on people forced to stay inside including no visiting rights from their friends or loved ones, limited exit, extreme surveillance with cameras, counting at bedtime, complete denial of autonomy to organize one’s everyday existence, apart from long and dehumanizing process of applying for asylum and waiting for an answer etc.) is now becoming, with every meter of the fence being built, a true gated prison. This is sending a very clear message reinforcing racist imaginary of the outside world: the camp is a space of Other, of danger and threat to the community, a space (and this sticks onto people that stay inside as well) that needs to be controlled, regulated, locked to protect the community. So even if people manage to avoid push back, survive the beatings, intimidation and other forms of violence and actually apply for asylum, they will be punished by staying behind a fence. Their only “crime” being freedom of movement. Financed with EU money, Croatia continues to fulfill perfectly its role of watchdog of fortress Europe.

    The erection of the fence is being done quietly, without notifying the people staying inside the camp or explaining to them what this will mean for their lives, without a sound of protest by local NGO’s (scared, not unjustified, of losing funding and possibility of continuing the support work), like it’s a reality we have to accept and can’t do anything about it. The timing could not be more perfect – with the health scare creating a state of emergency, it’s an ideal opportunity to divert attention from repressive and restrictive policies being carried out in the background (let’s not forget Greece suspending the right to apply for asylum, for example). Some lives are worth care and saving, others deserve to be left to die. One of our brothers in the camp who got deported to Croatia from Austria was infected with corona virus. Instead of providing him healthcare, they took him to detention center (closed camp) Ježevo, with pretext that there are empty rooms there where he can get better. White lives matter, others not so much.

    Even though we can not stop the fence from being built, we can at least raise our voice and not allow it to go completely unnoticed. We want to say that we noticed the workers coming, we noticed how they started to build the fence, dehumanizing and humiliating us again and to this we say WE ARE ANGRY and sick of being prisoners of racist Europe, sick of fences and violence and being treated like less than human.

    Some residents of Porin and their friends from the outside world.


    http://komunal.org/teksti/542-welcome-to-prison-we-are-treated-like-animals-in-the-zoo
    #murs_urbains #barrières #asile #migrations #réfugiés #coronavirus #Zagreb #Hotel_Porin #Serbie #confinement #hôtel_porin #clôture

    Sur cet hôtel transformé en centre d’accueil pour réfugiés, pas mal d’info sur seenthis :
    https://seenthis.net/tag/hotel_porin

    ping @luciebacon

    • Le coronavirus, double peine pour les réfugiés dans les Balkans

      À Zagreb, dans le quartier de Dugave, des barbelés ont été récemment installés autour de l’hôtel Porin, le centre d’accueil pour les demandeurs d’asile. La construction de cette clôture, pour un budget de 90 694 euros, était prévue de longue date. Le contexte de la #pandémie a permis d’accélérer sa réalisation sans faire de vagues. « Les ouvriers sont venus avec leur matériel et ont commencé à monter la clôture », expliquent des pensionnaires de Porin dans une lettre ouverte. « Ce qui était jusqu’à présent une prison symbolique est en train de devenir une véritable prison fermée. La construction de la clôture a lieu dans le silence, elle n’a pas été annoncée aux gens qui vivent dans le camp, on ne leur a pas expliqué ce que ça signifierait exactement pour leur vie quotidienne, et il n’y a pas eu la moindre protestation des ONG locales. Le timing est idéal : la menace sanitaire nécessite l’état d’urgence, l’occasion idéale de détourner l’attention des politiques répressives et restrictives qui sont menées à l’arrière-plan. »

      « Même si nous ne pouvons pas empêcher la construction de la clôture, nous pouvons au moins élever la voix et ne pas laisser ça se passer dans l’ignorance totale », conclut la lettre. « Nous voulons dire que nous avons bien vu les ouvriers, nous avons bien vu qu’ils construisaient une clôture. On nous déshumanise à nouveau, on nous humilie, nous sommes en colère et nous en avons plus qu’assez de tout ça, nous en avons assez d’être les prisonniers d’une Europe raciste, des barbelés, de la violence et d’être traités comme si nous n’étions pas des êtres humains. »

      L’un des pensionnaires de Porin, présentant des symptômes de coronavirus, a été placé à l’isolement dans le centre de détention de Ježevo. « Pourquoi cette personne, qui bénéficie en tant que réfugié de la protection internationale et donc de droits quasiment égaux à ceux des citoyens croates, n’a-t-elle pas été placée en isolement dans l’un des bâtiments prévu à cet effet mis à disposition par la ville de Zagreb ? », demande l’Initiative Bienvenue.

      Pourquoi ? Parce que les réfugiés et les migrants, même quand ils bénéficient sur le papier de la protection internationale et des droits afférents, demeurent dans les faits des êtres humains de seconde zone. C’est que confirment de jour en jour les mesures prises contre eux dans les Balkans et le reste de l’Europe. Il y a quelques jours, des tentes ont été installées à Lipa, près de Bosanski Petrovac, afin d’y reloger une partie des migrants qui séjournent actuellement dans des bâtiments abandonnés ou dans les rues de Bihać.

      https://www.courrierdesbalkans.fr/Balkans-le-coronavirus-double-peine-pour-les-migrants

  • South Africa to build 40km fence along #Zimbabwe border

    Authorities say fence will stem irregular migration as well as spread of coronavirus in the country.

    Authorities in South Africa have said they will build a 40km (25 miles) fence along its border with Zimbabwe to prevent undocumented migrants from entering and spreading coronavirus - even though the neighbouring country has no confirmed cases.

    The planned fence is to be erected on either side of the Beitbridge Land Port of Entry to “ensure that no undocumented or infected persons cross into the country,” Patricia de Lille, the public works minister, said in a statement on Thursday.

    As of Friday, South Africa has reported 202 confirmed cases of the virus and no deaths. President Cyril Ramaphosa has already ordered 35 of 53 land entry points closed.

    “This measure will ... not be effective if the fences at the border are not secure, which in many places, they are not,” de Lille said in the statement.

    "All 40km of fence will be finished within one month. Local labour will be sourced by the contractor.

    “We are certainly not xenophobic. We have had thorough consultations with all the countries that are our neighbours. What is important for South Africa is to protect our own citizens and people coming into our country because at the border post now, you’ve got health inspectors and you’ve got environmental professionals and they are doing the testing and screening at the border. But if somebody just walks over the border, there are no such facilities,” she added.

    South Africa, the continent’s most industrialised country, has long sought to reduce irregular migration from Zimbabwe, which it sees as a threat to local jobs in a country with unemployment of around 30 percent.

    Countries around the world have been cancelling flights, banning travel from certain countries and tightening controls at borders to prevent the virus’s spread.

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 209,000 people have tested positive for COVID-19, the infection caused by the novel coronavirus, around the world.

    The virus has claimed the lives of at least 8,700, according to the UN health body.

    The outbreak reached Africa later than other continents, but at least 33 countries have now confirmed cases, with 13 reported deaths.

    https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/03/south-africa-build-40km-fence-zimbabwe-border-200320062936120.html
    #murs #frontières #Afrique_du_Sud #barrières_frontalières #migrations #asile #réfugiés #fermeture_des_frontières #coronavirus

    ping @fil @mobileborders @thomas_lacroix

  • Greece to extend border fence over migration surge

    Greece will extend its fence on the border with Turkey, a government source said Sunday (8 March), amid continuing efforts by migrants to break through in a surge enabled by Ankara.

    “We have decided to immediately extend the fence in three different areas,” the government source told AFP, adding that the new sections, to the south of the area now under pressure, would cover around 36 kilometres (22 miles).

    The current stretch of fence will also be upgraded, the official added.

    Tens of thousands of asylum-seekers have been trying to break through the land border from Turkey for a week after Ankara announced it would no longer prevent people from trying to cross into the European Union.

    A police source Sunday told AFP that riot police reinforcements from around the country had been sent to the border in recent days, in addition to drones and police dogs.

    There have been numerous exchanges of tear gas and stones between Greek riot police and migrants.

    Turkey has also bombarded Greek forces with tear gas at regular intervals, and Athens has accused Turkish police of handing out wire cutters to migrants to help them break through the border fence.

    The Greek government over the weekend also released footage which it said showed a Turkish armoured vehicle assisting efforts to bring down the fence.

    “Parts of the fence have been removed, both by the (Turkish) vehicle and with wire cutters, but they are constantly being repaired,” local police unionist Elias Akidis told Skai TV.

    Turkey has accused Greek border guards of using undue force against the migrants, injuring many and killing at least five.

    The government in Athens has consistently dismissed the claim as lies.

    https://www.euractiv.com/section/justice-home-affairs/news/greece-to-extend-border-fence-over-migration-surge
    #murs #Evros #barrières_frontalières #Grèce #Turquie #frontières
    ping @fil @reka @albertocampiphoto

    • je suis tombé sur une vidéo YT d’un compte néo-nazi montrant une attaque du mur de l’Evros par des migrants. L’attaque y est présentée comme soutenue par la police turque, ce qui est vraiment beaucoup solliciter les images… les migrants sont noyés sous les lacrymos.

    • Evros: Greece to extend the fence on the borders with Turkey to 40km

      Greece will extend the fence to its Evros borders with Turkey to 40 km, government spokesman Stelios Petsas said on Friday morning. The additional fence will be installed in “sensitive” areas preferred for illegal entries by migrants and refugees.

      The fence currently covers 12.5 km.

      Speaking to ANT1 TV, Petsas noted that at the moment the most vulnerable border point is in the south.

      The current 12.5 km fence of land access points is installed north and south of Kastanies customs office, where thousands of migrants and refugees have amassed.

      According to the daily Kathimerini, the 40 kilometers new fence is planned to be partially installed either in areas where the Evros waters are low or in areas where the landscape favors illegla paasage.

      Sections such as Ormenio, Gardens, Feres, Tychero, Soufli, Dikaia, Dilofo, Marassia, Nea Vyssa and elsewhere have been designated as the areas where the new fence will installed by the Greek Army and support by the police.

      According to a report by daily Elftheros Typos, Greece’s Plan B aside from the fence extension is the presence of about 4,000 police officers and soldiers in parallel patrols, helicopters, unmanned aircraft, message broadcasting, cameras for audio-video.

      A Greek Army – Greek Police “joint operations center” is to be established in Nea Vryssa.

      According to the daily more than 1,000 soldiers, two commandos squads, 1,500 police and national guards are currently operating in the Evros area.

      Petsas underlined that the Greek government has changed its policy because there is a national security issue at the moment.

      He reiterated the new policy saying that “no one will cross the border.”

      https://www.keeptalkinggreece.com/2020/03/06/evros-greece-fence-borders-turkey-extension

    • Video 2 - Violences contre les exilé·es à la frontière gréco-turque

      Depuis le début du mois de mars 2020, des milliers d’exilé·es, incité·es voire poussé·es par les autorités turques, se sont précipité·es aux frontières terrestres et maritimes entre la Turquie et la Grèce. Ils et elles se sont heurté·es à la violence de la police et de l’armée grecque, ainsi que de groupe fascistes, mobilisés pour leur en interdire le franchissement, la suite : www.gisti.org/spip.php ?article6368

      https://indymotion.fr/videos/watch/e8938a1c-5456-46e8-a0cb-be0806c96051?start=1s

    • Greece shields Evros border with blades wire, 400 new border guards

      Greece is strengthening ifs defense and is preparing for a possible new wave of migrants at its Evros border. A fence of sharp blades wire (concertina wire) and 400 additional border guards are to shield the country for the case Turkey will open its borders again so that migrants can cross into Europe.

      According to daily ethnos (https://www.ethnos.gr/ellada/105936_ohyronetai-o-ebros-frahtis-me-lepidoforo-syrmatoplegma-kai-400-neoi-sy), Ankara has already been holding groups of migrants in warehouses near the border, while the Greek side is methodically being prepared for the possibility of a new attempt for waves of migrants to try to cross again the border.

      “At the bridgeheads of Peplos and Fera, at the land borders after the riverbed is aligned, and in other vulnerable areas along the border, kilometer-long of metal fence with sharp blades wire are being installed, the soil is being cleaned from wild vegetation and clearing of marsh lands.

      The fence in the northern part is being strengthened and expanded, and 11 additional border pylons, each one 50 meters high, will be installed along the river in the near future. Each pylon will be equipped with cameras and modern day and night surveillance systems, with a range of several kilometers and multiple telecommunications capabilities, the daily notes.

      Within the next few months, 400 newly recruited border guards will be on duty and will almost double the deterrent force and enhance the joint patrols of the Army and Police, ethnos adds.

      Big armored military vehicles destined for Libya and confiscated five years ago south of Crete have been made available to the Army in the area, the daily notes.

      One and a half month after the end of the “war without arms” at the Evros border from end of February till the end of March, sporadic movement on the Turkish side of the border has been observed.

      At least four shooting incidents have been reported in the past two weeks, with Turkish jandarmerie to have fired at Greek border guards and members of the Frontex.

      Greece’s security forces are on high alert.

      Just a few days ago, Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu reiterated that Ankara’s policy of “open borders” will continue for anyone wishing to cross into Europe.

      Speaking to nationalist Akit TV on Wednesday, Cavusoglu claimed that Greece used “inhumane” behavior towards the migrants who want to cross into the country.

      Also Interior Minister Suleyman Soylu had threatened that the migrants will be allowed to leave Turkey again once the pandemic was over.

      PS It could be a very hot summer, should Turkey attempt to send migrants to Europe by land through Evros and by sea with boats to the Aegean islands and at the same time, deploys a drilling ship off Crete in July, as it claimed a few days ago.

      https://www.keeptalkinggreece.com/2020/05/17/greece-shields-evros-border-blades-wire-400-border-guards

      #militarisation_des_frontières

  • The #Climate-Migration-Industrial_Complex

    Thirty years ago there were fifteen border walls around the world. Now there are seventy walls and over one billion national and international migrants. International migrants alone may even double in the next forty years due to global warming. It is not surprising that over the past two decades, we have also seen the rise of an increasingly powerful global climate-security market designed to profit from (and help sustain) these crises. The construction of walls and fences to block rising sea levels and incoming people has become one of the world’s fastest growing industries, alongside the detention and deportation of migrants, and is projected to reach $742 billion by 2023. I believe we are witnessing the emergence of what we might call a “climate-migration-industrial complex.”

    This complex is composed of private companies who profit by securitizing nation-states from the effects of climate-related events, including migration. This includes private detention centers, border construction companies, surveillance technology consultants and developers, deportation and transportation contractors, and a growing army of other subcontractors profiting from insecurity more broadly. Every feature of this crisis complex is an opportunity for profit. For example, even when security measures “fail” and migrants cross borders illegally, or remain beyond their visas to live without status as “criminals,” there is an entire wing of private companies paid to hunt them down, detain them, and deport them just across the border, where they can return and begin the market cycle all over again. Each step in the “crimmigration” process now has its own cottage industry and dedicated army of lobbyists to perpetuate the laws that support it.

    Here is the incredible double paradox that forms the backbone of the climate-migration-industrial complex: right-wing nationalists and their politicians claim they want to deport all undocumented migrants, but if they did, they would destroy their own economy. Capitalists, on the other hand, want to grow the economy with migrant labor (any honest economist will tell you that immigration almost always leads to growth in GDP), but if that labor is too expensive, then it’s not nearly as profitable.

    Trump is the Janus-faced embodiment of this anti-immigrant, pro-economy dilemma and the solution to it — not that he necessarily knows it. With one hand, migrant labor is strategically criminalized and devalorized by a xenophobic state, and with the other, it is securitized and hyper-exploited by the economy. It is a win-win situation for right-wing capitalists but a crucial element is still missing: what will continue to compel migrants to leave their homes and work as exploited criminals in an increasingly xenophobic country?

    This is where the figure of the climate migrant comes in. What we call “climate migrants” or “climate refugees” are not the victims of merely “natural disasters,” because climate change is not a strictly natural process — it is also highly political. The causes of climate-related migration are disproportionately produced by rich Western countries and the effects are disproportionately suffered by poorer countries. The circumstances that determine who is forced to migrate are also influenced by the history of colonialism, global inequality, and the same conditions that have propelled economic migration for decades. In short, the fact that climate change benefits the perpetrators of climate destruction by producing an increasing supply of desperate, criminalized, physically and economically displaced laborers is no coincidence. In fact, it is the key to the Trump “solution.”

    Another key is the use of climate change to acquire new land. When people are forced to migrate out of a territory, or when frozen territories thaw, new lands, waters, and forests become open to extractive industries like mining, drilling, fishing, and logging. Trump’s recent (and ridiculous) bid to buy the thawing territory of Greenland for its oil and gas reserves is one example of this. Climate-stricken urban areas open up new real estate markets, as the gentrification of New Orleans after hurricane Katrina illustrated. In other words, climate change might not mean the end of capitalism, but rather could actually signal its resurgence from current falling rates of ecological profit. During colonialism, everything and everyone that could be easily appropriated (oil, slaves, old-growth forests, etc.), was gobbled up. The workers who are left today under post-colonialism demand more money and more rights. The minerals left are more expensive to extract. This is why capitalists have increasingly retreated to financial speculation, and now to monetizing their own crises.

    If only there were new ways, the capitalist dreams, to kick start the economy and cheaply dislodge huge numbers of people from their land, devalorize their labor, and then appropriate that labor extremely cheaply. In other words, if climate change did not exist, capitalism would have to create it. Luckily for the capitalists, it does exist, because they did create it. Climate migrants now form what we might call a “disposable climate labor army,” conscripted out of a standing reserve of global poverty from wherever the next climate-related disaster strikes, and deployed wherever capitalism demands precarious, securitized, and criminalized labor to be exploited.

    We need to rethink the whole framing of the climate migration “crisis.” Among other things, we need a more movement-oriented political theory to grapple better with the highly mobile events of our time — what I call a “kinopolitics.” The advent of the Capitalocene/Kinocene makes possible today the insight that nature, humans, and society have always been in motion. Humans are and have always been fundamentally migratory, just as the climate and the earth are. These twin insights might sound obvious today, but if taken seriously, they offer a complete inversion of the dominant interpretive paradigms of the climate and migration crises.

    Humans and Earth have always been in motion, but not all patterns of motion are the same. There is no natural, normal, or default state of the earth or of human society. Therefore, we have to study the patterns of circulation that make possible these metastable states and not take them as given. This is what I have tried to work out in The Figure of the Migrant (2015) and Theory of the Border (2016). Unfortunately, the dominant framework for thinking about the climate and migrant crises is currently upside down. It starts from the perspective of a triple stasis: 1) that the earth and human society are in some sense separable and static, or at least stable, structures; 2) that the future should continue to be stable as well; and 3) that if there is not stability, then there is a “crisis.” Mobility, then, is a crisis only if we assume that there was or should be stasis in the first place. For example, migrants are said to destabilize society, and climate change is said to destabilize the earth.

    From a kinopolitical perspective, we can see that the opposite is, in fact, true: Humans were first migratory, and only later settled into more metastable patterns of social-circulation (made historically possible by the social expulsion and dispossession of others). Migrants are not outside society but have played a productive and reproductive role throughout history. Migrant movements are constitutive and even transformative elements of society, rather than exceptional or marginal phenomena. The real question is how we ever came to act and think as if societies were not processes of social circulation that relied on migration as their conditions of reproduction. The earth, too, was first migratory, and only later did it settle into metastable patterns of geological and atmospheric circulation (e.g. the Holocene). Why did we ever think of the earth as a stable surface, immune from human activity in the first place?

    The problem with the prevailing interpretation of climate change and migration is that the flawed paradigm that has defined the “crisis,” the notion of stasis, is also proposed as the solution “Let’s just get things back to normal stability again.” In short, I think a new paradigm is needed that does not use the same tools that generated the “crisis” to solve it — i.e. capitalism, colonialism, and the nation-state.

    Today’s migrant “crisis” is a product of the paradox at the heart of the capitalist, territorial nation-state form, just as the climate crisis is an expression of the paradox at the heart of anthropocentrism. The solutions, therefore, will not come from the forms in crisis but only from the birth of new forms-in-motion that begin with the theoretical primacy of the very characteristic that is dissolving the old forms: the inherent mobility of the migrant climate and the climate migrant.

    https://publicseminar.org/essays/the-climate-migration-industrial-complex

    #complexe_militaro-industriel #réfugiés_environnementaux #réfugiés_climatiques #murs #barrières_frontalières #business #climat #changement_climatique #sécurité #rétention #détention_administrative #privatisation #contrôles_frontaliers #kinopolitics #kinopolitique #kinocène #mobilité #circulation #crise #stabilité #philosophie #ressources_pédagogiques #Etat-nation

    –—

    #catastrophes_naturelles :

    What we call “climate migrants” or “climate refugees” are not the victims of merely “natural disasters,” because climate change is not a strictly natural process — it is also highly political. The causes of climate-related migration are disproportionately produced by rich Western countries and the effects are disproportionately suffered by poorer countries. The circumstances that determine who is forced to migrate are also influenced by the history of colonialism, global inequality, and the same conditions that have propelled economic migration for decades. In short, the fact that climate change benefits the perpetrators of climate destruction by producing an increasing supply of desperate, criminalized, physically and economically displaced laborers is no coincidence.

    –-> @karine4

    #terres #accaparement_des_terres :

    Another key is the use of climate change to acquire new land. When people are forced to migrate out of a territory, or when frozen territories thaw, new lands, waters, and forests become open to extractive industries like mining, drilling, fishing, and logging.

    –-> @odilon
    #extractivisme #colonialisme

    –---------

    @sinehebdo, un nouveau mot :
    –-> #crimmigration
    #mots #terminologie #vocabulaire

    Et aussi... la #kinocène

    –---

    Lien avec le #capitalisme :

    If only there were new ways, the capitalist dreams, to kick start the economy and cheaply dislodge huge numbers of people from their land, devalorize their labor, and then appropriate that labor extremely cheaply. In other words, if climate change did not exist, capitalism would have to create it. Luckily for the capitalists, it does exist, because they did create it. Climate migrants now form what we might call a “disposable climate labor army,” conscripted out of a standing reserve of global poverty from wherever the next climate-related disaster strikes, and deployed wherever capitalism demands precarious, securitized, and criminalized labor to be exploited.

    #expoitation #travail #disposable_climate_labor_army #pauvreté

    signalé par @isskein

    ping @fil @reka

  • La #Croatie érige des barrières sur ses frontières

    21 février —15h30 : La Croatie a érigé ce vendredi matin une #barrière_métallique sur sa frontière avec la #Bosnie-Herzégovine, au niveau du poste d’#Izačić/ #Ličko_Petrovo_Selo, près de #Bihać. Il s’agit de renforcer les moyens de contrôle et de bloquer les migrants et les réfugiés qui tentent de franchir cette frontière.

    Selon le ministère croate de l’Intérieur, les fondations pour la pose de barrières ont également été posées au niveau des postes frontière de #Gejkovac, #Pašin_Potok, #Erdut et #Batina, dans le nord du pays.

    https://www.courrierdesbalkans.fr/fil-info-refugies-2020-fevrier

    #murs #asile #migrations #réfugiés #frontières #barrières_frontalières #Izacic #Licko_Petrovo_Selo #Bihac ##Pasin_Potok

  • Building border walls and barriers: What the research says
    https://journalistsresource.org/studies/government/immigration/border-walls-barriers-migrant-research

    In the lead-up to the 2020 elections, the Journalist’s Resource team is combing through the Democratic presidential candidates’ platforms and reporting what the research says about their policy proposals. We want to encourage deep coverage of these proposals — and do our part to help deter horse race journalism, which research suggests can lead to inaccurate reporting and an uninformed electorate. We’re focusing on proposals that have a reasonable chance of becoming policy, and for us that means several top-polling candidates say they intend to tackle the issue. Here, we look at research on building border walls.

    #murs #frontières #états-unis #mexique et merci à @isskein

  • Grèce. Le « #mur_flottant » visant à arrêter les personnes réfugiées mettra des vies en danger

    En réaction à la proposition du gouvernement d’installer un système de #barrages_flottants de 2,7 km le long des côtes de #Lesbos pour décourager les nouvelles arrivées de demandeurs et demandeuses d’asile depuis la Turquie, Massimo Moratti, directeur des recherches pour le bureau européen d’Amnesty International, a déclaré :

    « Cette proposition marque une escalade inquiétante dans les tentatives du gouvernement grec de rendre aussi difficile que possible l’arrivée de personnes demandeuses d’asile et réfugiées sur ses rivages. Cela exposerait davantage aux #dangers celles et ceux qui cherchent désespérément la sécurité.

    « Ce plan soulève des questions préoccupantes sur la possibilité pour les sauveteurs de continuer d’apporter leur aide salvatrice aux personnes qui tentent la dangereuse traversée par la mer jusqu’à Lesbos. Le gouvernement doit clarifier de toute urgence les détails pratiques et les garanties nécessaires pour veiller à ce que ce système ne coûte pas de nouvelles vies. »

    Complément d’information

    Le système de barrage flottant ferait partie des mesures adoptées dans le cadre d’une tentative plus large de sécuriser les #frontières_maritimes et d’empêcher les arrivées.

    En 2019, près de 60 000 personnes sont arrivées en Grèce par la mer, soit presque deux fois plus qu’en 2018. Entre janvier et octobre, l’Organisation internationale pour les migrations (OIM) a enregistré 66 décès sur la route de la Méditerranée orientale.

    https://www.amnesty.org/fr/latest/news/2020/01/greece-floating-wall-to-stop-refugees-puts-lives-at-risk
    #migrations #frontières #asile #réfugiés #Grèce #Mer_Méditerranée #Mer_Egée #fermeture_des_frontières #frontière_mobile #frontières_mobiles

    ping @karine4 @mobileborders

    • Greece plans floating border barrier to stop migrants

      The government in Greece wants to use a floating barrier to help stop migrants from reaching the Greek islands from the nearby coast of Turkey.
      The Defense Ministry has invited private contractors to bid on supplying a 2.7-kilometer-long (1.7 miles) floating fence within three months, according to information available on a government procurement website Wednesday. No details were given on when the barrier might be installed.
      A resurgence in the number of migrants and refugees arriving by sea to Lesbos and other eastern Greek islands has caused severe overcrowding at refugee camps.
      The netted barrier would rise 50 centimeters (20 inches) above water and be designed to hold flashing lights, the submission said. The Defense Ministry estimates the project will cost 500,000 euros ($550,000), which includes four years of maintenance.
      The government’s description says the “floating barrier system” needs to be built “with non-military specifications” and “specific features for carrying out the mission of (maritime agencies) in managing the refugee crisis.”
      “This contract process will be executed by the Defense Ministry but is for civilian use — a process similar to that used for the supply of other equipment for (camps) housing refugees and migrants,” a government official told The Associated Press.
      The official asked not to be identified pending official announcements by the government.
      Greece’s six-month old center-right government has promised to take a tougher line on the migration crisis and plans to set up detention facilities for migrants denied asylum and to speed up deportations back to Turkey.
      Under a 2016 migration agreement between the European Union and Turkey, the Turkish government was promised up to 6 billion euros to help stop the mass movement of migrants to Europe.
      Nearly 60,000 migrants and refugees made the crossing to the islands last year, nearly double the number recorded in 2018, according to data from the United Nations’ refugee agency.

      https://www.arabnews.com/node/1619991/world

    • Greece wants floating fence to keep migrants out

      Greece wants to install a floating barrier in the Aegean Sea to deter migrants arriving at its islands’ shores through Turkey, government officials said on Thursday.

      Greece served as the gateway to the European Union for more than one million Syrian refugees and other migrants in recent years. While an agreement with Turkey sharply reduced the number attempting the voyage since 2016, Greek islands still struggle with overcrowded camps operating far beyond their capacity.

      The 2.7 kilometer long (1.68 miles) net-like barrier that Greece wants to buy will be set up in the sea off the island of Lesbos, where the overcrowded Moria camp operates.

      It will rise 50 centimeters above sea level and carry light marks that will make it visible at night, a government document inviting vendors to submit offers said, adding that it was “aimed at containing the increasing inflows of migrants”.

      “The invitation for floating barriers is in the right direction,” Defence Minister Nikos Panagiotopoulos told Skai Radio. “We will see what the result, what its effect as a deterrent will be in practice.”

      “It will be a natural barrier. If it works like the one in Evros... it can be effective,” he said, referring to a cement and barbed-wire fence Greece set up in 2012 along its northern border with Turkey to stop a rise in migrants crossing there.

      Aid groups, which have described the living conditions at migrant camps as appalling, said fences in Europe had not deterred arrivals and that Greece should focus on speeding up the processing of asylum requests instead.

      “We see, in recent years, a surge in the number of barriers that are being erected but yet people continue to flee,” Βoris Cheshirkov, spokesman in Greece for U.N. refugee agency UNHCR, told Reuters. “Greece has to have fast procedures to ensure that people have access to asylum quickly when they need it.”

      Last year, 59,726 migrants and refugees reached Greece’s shores according to the UN agency UNHCR. Nearly 80% of them arrived on Chios, Samos and Lesbos.

      A defense ministry official told Reuters the floating fence would be installed at the north of Lesbos, where migrants attempt to cross over due to the short distance from Turkey.

      If the 500,000 euro barrier is effective, more parts may be added and it could reach up to 15 kilometers, the official said.

      https://www.reuters.com/article/us-europe-migrants-greece-barrier/greece-wants-floating-fence-to-keep-migrants-out-idUSKBN1ZT0W5?il=0

    • La Grèce veut ériger une frontière flottante sur la mer pour limiter l’afflux de migrants

      Le ministère grec de la Défense a rendu public mercredi un appel d’offres pour faire installer un "système de protection flottant" en mer Égée. L’objectif : réduire les flux migratoires en provenance de la Turquie alors que la Grèce est redevenue en 2019 la première porte d’entrée des migrants en Europe.

      C’est un appel d’offres surprenant qu’a diffusé, mercredi 29 janvier, le ministère grec de la Défense : une entreprise est actuellement recherchée pour procéder à l’installation d’un “système de protection flottant” en mer Égée. Cette frontière maritime qui pourra prendre la forme de "barrières" ou de "filets" doit servir "en cas d’urgence" à repousser les migrants en provenance de la Turquie voisine.

      Selon le texte de l’appel d’offres, le barrage - d’une “longueur de 2,7 kilomètres” et d’une hauteur de 1,10 mètre dont 50 cm au dessus du niveau de la mer - sera mis en place par les forces armées grecques. Il devrait être agrémenté de feux clignotants pour une meilleure visibilité. Le budget total comprenant conception et installation annoncé par le gouvernement est de 500 000 euros.

      “Au-delà de l’efficacité douteuse de ce choix, comme ne pas reconnaître la dimension humanitaire de la tragédie des réfugiés et la transformer en un jeu du chat et de la souris, il est amusant de noter la taille de la barrière et de la relier aux affirmations du gouvernement selon lesquelles cela pourrait arrêter les flux de réfugiés”, note le site d’information Chios News qui a tracé cette potentielle frontière maritime sur une carte à bonne échelle pour comparer les 2,7 kilomètres avec la taille de l’île de Lesbos.

      La question des migrants et des réfugiés est gérée par le ministère de l’Immigration qui a fait récemment sa réapparition après avoir été fusionné avec un autre cabinet pendant six mois. Devant l’ampleur des flux migratoires que connaît la Grèce depuis 2015, le ministère de la Défense et l’armée offrent un soutien logistique au ministère de l’Immigration et de l’Asile.

      Mais la situation continue de se corser pour la Grèce qui est redevenue en 2019 la première porte d’entrée des migrants et des réfugiés en Europe. Actuellement, plus de 40 000 demandeurs d’asile s’entassent dans des camps insalubres sur des îles grecques de la mer Égée, alors que leur capacité n’est que de 6 200 personnes.

      Le nouveau Premier ministre Kyriakos Mitsotakis, élu à l’été 2019, a fait de la lutte contre l’immigration clandestine l’une de ses priorités. Il a déjà notamment durci l’accès à la procédure de demande d’asile. Il compte également accélérer les rapatriements des personnes qui "n’ont pas besoin d’une protection internationale" ou des déboutés du droit d’asile, une mesure à laquelle s’opposent des ONG de défense des droits de l’Homme.

      https://www.infomigrants.net/fr/post/22441/la-grece-veut-eriger-une-frontiere-flottante-sur-la-mer-pour-limiter-l

    • Vidéo avec la réponse d’ #Adalbert_Jahnz, porte-parole de la Commission Européenne, à la question de la légalité d’une telle mesure.
      La réponse est mi-figue, mi-raisin : les réfugiés ne doivent pas être empêchés par des #barrières_physiques à déposer une demande d’asile, mais la mise en place de telles #barrières n’est pas en soi contraire à la législation européenne et la protection de frontières externes relève principalement de la responsabilité de chaque Etat membre : https://audiovisual.ec.europa.eu/en/video/I-183932

      signalé, avec le commentaire ci-dessus, par Vicky Skoumbi.

    • Greece’s Answer to Migrants, a Floating Barrier, Is Called a ‘Disgrace’

      Rights groups have condemned the plan, warning that it would increase the dangers faced by asylum seekers.

      As Greece struggles to deal with a seemingly endless influx of migrants from neighboring Turkey, the conservative government has a contentious new plan to respond to the problem: a floating net barrier to avert smuggling boats.

      But rights groups have condemned the plan, warning that it would increase the perils faced by asylum seekers amid growing tensions at camps on the Aegean Islands and in communities there and on the mainland. The potential effectiveness of the barrier system has also been widely questioned, and the center-right daily newspaper Kathimerini dismissed the idea in an editorial on Friday as “wishful thinking.”

      Moreover, the main opposition party, the leftist Syriza, has condemned the floating barrier plan as “a disgrace and an insult to humanity.”

      The authorities aim to install a 1.7-mile barrier between the Greek and Turkish coastlines that would rise more than 19 inches above the water and display flashing lights, according to a description posted on a government website this past week by Greece’s Defense Ministry.

      Citing an “urgent need to address rising refugee flows,” the 126-page submission invited private contractors to bid for the project that would cost an estimated 500,000 euros, or more than $554,000, including the cost of four years of maintenance. The government is expected to assign the job in the next three months, though it is unclear when the barrier would be erected.

      Greece’s defense minister, Nikolaos Panagiotopoulos, told Greek radio on Thursday that he hoped the floating barrier would act as a deterrent to smugglers, similar to a barbed-wire fence that the Greek authorities built along the northern land border with Turkey in 2012.

      “In Evros, physical barriers had a relative impact in curbing flows,” he said. “We believe a similar result can be achieved with these floating barriers.”

      The construction will be overseen by the Defense Ministry, which has supervised the creation of new reception centers on the Greek islands and mainland in recent months, and will be subject to “nonmilitary specifications” to meet international maritime standards, the submission noted.

      A spokesman for Greece’s government, Stelios Petsas, said the barrier system would have to be tested for safety.

      But rights activists warn that the measure would increase the dangers faced by migrants making the short but perilous journey across the Aegean. Amnesty International’s research director for Europe, Massimo Moratti, condemned the proposal as “an alarming escalation in the Greek government’s ongoing efforts to make it as difficult as possible for asylum-seekers and refugees to arrive on its shores.”

      He warned that it could “lead to more danger for those desperately seeking safety.”

      The head of Amnesty International’s chapter in Greece, Gavriil Sakellaridis, questioned whether the Greek authorities would respond to an emergency signal issued by a boat stopped at the barrier.

      The European Commission has expressed reservations and planned to ask the authorities in Greece, which is a member of the European Union, for details about the proposal. Adalbert Jahnz, a commission spokesman, told reporters in Brussels on Thursday that any Greek sea barriers to deter migrants must not block access for asylum seekers.

      “The setting up of barriers is not in and of itself against E.U. law,” he said. “But physical barriers or obstacles of this sort should not be an impediment to seeking asylum which is protected by E.U. law,” he said, conceding, however, that the protection of external borders was primarily the responsibility of member states.

      The barrier was proposed amid an uptick in migrants from Turkey. The influx, though far below the thousands of daily arrivals at the peak of the crisis in 2015, has put an increasing strain on already intensely overcrowded reception centers.

      According to Greece’s migration minister, Notis Mitarakis, 72,000 migrants entered Greece last year, compared with 42,000 in 2018. The floating barrier will help curb arrivals, Mr. Mitarakis said.
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      “It sends out the message that we are not a place where anything goes and that we’re taking all necessary measures to protect the borders,” he said, adding that the process of deporting migrants who did not merit refugee status would be sped up.

      “The rules have changed,” he said.

      Greece has repeatedly appealed for more support from the bloc to tackle migration flows, saying it cannot handle the burden alone and accusing Turkey of exploiting the refugee crisis for leverage with the European Union.

      Repeated threats by Turkey’s president, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, to “open the gates” to Europe for Syrian refugees on his country’s territory have fueled fears that an agreement signed between Turkey and the European Union in 2016, which radically curbed arrivals, will collapse.

      Growing tensions between Greece and Turkey over energy resources in the Eastern Mediterranean and revived disputes over sovereignty in the Aegean have further undermined cooperation between the two traditional foes in curbing human trafficking, fragile at the best of times.

      The Greek government of Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis is also under growing pressure domestically since it came to power last summer on a pledge to take a harder line on migration than that of his predecessor, Alexis Tsipras of Syriza.

      Plans unveiled in November to create new camps on the Aegean Islands have angered residents, who staged mass demonstrations last month, waving banners reading, “We want our islands back.”

      Rights groups have also warned of the increasingly dire conditions at existing camps on five islands hosting some 44,000 people, nearly 10 times their capacity.

      Tensions are particularly acute on the sprawling Moria camp on Lesbos, with reports of 30 stabbings in the past month, two fatal.

      https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/01/world/europe/greece-migrants-floating-barrier.html

    • Greece plans to build sea barrier off Lesbos to deter migrants

      Defence ministry says floating barrier will stop migrants crossing from Turkey.

      The Greek government has been criticised after announcing it will build a floating barrier to deter thousands of people from making often perilous sea journeys from Turkey to Aegean islands on Europe’s periphery.

      The centre-right administration unveiled the measure on Thursday, following its pledge to take a tougher stance on undocumented migrants accessing the country.

      The 2.7km-long netted barrier will be erected off Lesbos, the island that shot to prominence at the height of the Syrian civil war when close to a million Europe-bound refugees landed on its beaches. The bulwark will rise from pylons 50 metres above water and will be equipped with flashing lights to demarcate Greece’s sea borders.

      Greece’s defence minister, Nikos Panagiotopoulos, told Skai radio: “In Evros, natural barriers had relative [good] results in containing flows,” referring to the barbed-wire topped fence that Greece built along its northern land border with Turkey in 2012 to deter asylum seekers. “We believe a similar result can be had with these floating barriers. We are trying to find solutions to reduce flows.”

      Amnesty International slammed the plan, warning it would enhance the dangers asylum-seekers and refugees encountered as they attempted to seek safety.

      “This proposal marks an alarming escalation in the Greek government’s ongoing efforts to make it as difficult as possible for asylum-seekers and refugees to arrive on its shores,” said Massimo Moratti, the group’s Research Director for Europe.“The plan raises serious issues about rescuers’ ability to continue providing life-saving assistance to people attempting the dangerous sea crossing to Lesbos. The government must urgently clarify the operational details and necessary safeguards to ensure that this system does not cost further lives.”

      Greece’s former migration minister, Dimitris Vitsas, described the barrier as a “stupid idea” that was bound to be ineffective. “The idea that a fence of this length is going to work is totally stupid,” he said. “It’s not going to stop anybody making the journey.”

      Greece has seen more arrivals of refugees and migrants than any other part of Europe over the past year, as human traffickers along Turkey’s western coast target its outlying Aegean isles with renewed vigour. More than 44,000 people are in camps on the outposts designed to hold no more than 5,400 people. Human rights groups have described conditions in the facilities as deplorable. In Moria, the main reception centre on Lesbos, about 140 sick children are among an estimated 19,000 men, women and children crammed into vastly overcrowded tents and containers.

      Amid mounting tensions with Turkey over energy resources in the Mediterranean, Greece fears a further surge in arrivals in the spring despite numbers dropping radically since the EU struck a landmark accord with Ankara to curb the flows in March 2016.

      The prime minister, Kyriakos Mitsotakis, who trounced his predecessor, Alexis Tsipras, in July partly on the promise to bolster the country’s borders, has accused the Turkish president, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, of exploiting the refugee drama as political leverage both in dealings with Athens and the EU. As host to some 4 million displaced Syrians, Turkey has more refugees than anywhere else in the world, with Erdoğan facing mounting domestic pressure over the issue.

      Greek officials, who are also confronting growing outrage from local communities on Aegean islands, fear that the number of arrivals will rise further if, as looks likely, Idlib, Syria’s last opposition holdout falls. The area has come under renewed attack from regime forces in recent days.

      It is hoped the barrier will be in place by the end of April after an invitation by the Greek defence ministry for private contractors to submit offers.

      The project is expected to cost €500,000 (£421,000). Officials said it will be built by the military, which has also played a role in erecting camps across Greece, but with “non-military specifications” to ensure international maritime standards. The fence could extend 13 to 15km, with more parts being added if the initial pilot is deemed successful.

      “There will be a test run probably on land first for technological reasons,” said one official.

      https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jan/30/greece-plans-to-build-sea-barrier-off-lesbos-to-deter-migrants

    • “Floating wall” to stop refugees puts lives at risk, says Amnesty International

      The plans of the Greek government to build floating fences to prevent refugee and migrants arrivals from Turkey have triggered sharp criticism by Amnesty International. A statement issued on Thursday says that the floating fences will put people’s lives at risk.

      In response to a government proposal to install a 2.7 km long system of floating dams off the coast of Lesvos to deter new arrivals of asylum seekers from Turkey, Amnesty International’s Research Director for Europe Massimo Moratti said:

      “This proposal marks an alarming escalation in the Greek government’s ongoing efforts to make it as difficult as possible for asylum-seekers and refugees to arrive on its shores and will lead to more danger for those desperately seeking safety.

      This proposal marks an alarming escalation in the Greek government’s ongoing efforts to make it as difficult as possible refugees to arrive on its shores.
      Massimo Moratti, Amnesty International

      “The plan raises serious issues about rescuers’ ability to continue providing life-saving assistance to people attempting the dangerous sea crossing to Lesvos. The government must urgently clarify the operational details and necessary safeguards to ensure that this system does not cost further lives.”

      Background

      The floating dam system is described as one of the measures adopted in a broader attempt to secure maritime borders and prevent arrivals.

      In 2019, Greece received almost 60,000 sea arrivals, almost doubling the total number of sea arrivals in 2018. Between January and October, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) recorded 66 deaths on the Eastern Mediterranean route.

      https://www.keeptalkinggreece.com/2020/01/31/amnesty-international-floating-fences-greece-refugees

    • Greece is building floating fences to stop migration flows in the Aegean

      Greece is planning to build floating fences in the Aegean Sea in order to prevent refugees and migrants to arrive from Turkey, The fences are reportedly to be set off the islands of the Eastern Aegean Sea that receive the overwhelming migration flows. The plan will be executed by the Greek Armed Forces as the tender launched by the Defense Ministry states.

      For this purpose the Defense Ministry has launched a tender for the supply of the floating fences.

      According to Lesvos media stonisi, the tender aims to supply the Defense Ministry with 2,700 meters of protection floating system of no military specifications.

      The floating fences will be used by the Armed Forces for their mission to manage a continuously increasing refugee/migration flows, as it is clearly stated in the tender text.

      It is indicative that the tender call to the companies states that the supply of the floating protection system “will restrict and, where appropriate, suspend the intent to enter the national territory, in order to counter the ever-increasing migration / refugee flows due to the imperative and urgent need to restrain the increased refugee flows.”

      The tender has been reportedly launched on Jan 24, 2020, in order to cover “urgent needs.” The floating fences will carry lights liker small lighthouses. The fences will be 1.10 m high with 60 cm under water.

      they are reportedly to be installed off the islands of Lesvos, Chios and Samos.

      The estimated cost of the floating system incl maintenance is at 500,000 euros.

      Government spokesman and Defense Minister confirmed the reports on Thursday following skeptical reactions. “It is the first phase of a pilot program,” to start initially of Lesvos, said spokesman Petsas. “We want to see if it works,” he added.

      The floating fences plan primarily raises the question on whether it violates the international law as it prevents people fleeing for their live to seek a safe haven.

      Another question is how these floating fences will prevent the sea traffic (ships, fishing boats)

      PS and the third question is, of course, political: Will these fences be installed at 6 or 12 nautical miles off the islands shores? Greece could use the opportunity to extend its territorial waters… etc etc But it only the usual mean Greeks making jokes about a measure without logic.

      https://twitter.com/Kapoiosmpla/status/1222496803154800641?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw%7Ctwcamp%5Etweetembed%7Ctwterm%5E12

      Meanwhile, opponents of the measure showed the length of the floating fence in proportion to the island of Lesvos. The comparison is shocking.

      https://www.keeptalkinggreece.com/2020/01/29/floating-fences-greece-aegean-migration-armed-forces

    • La barrière marine anti-migrants en Grèce pourrait ressembler à ça

      Au large de Lesbos, 27km de filet vont être installés pour dissuader les réfugiés et les demandeurs d’asile d’atteindre les îles grecques.

      Un mur marin en filet pour dissuader de venir. Cela fait quelques jours que la Grèce a annoncé son intention d’ériger une barrière dans la mer pour empêcher les migrants d’arriver sur les côtes. On découvre à présent à quoi pourrait ressembler ce nouveau dispositif.

      Selon les informations du Guardianet de la BBC et modélisée en images par l’agence Reuters, la barrière anti-migrants voulue par la Grèce s’étendrait sur 27 kilomètres de long au large de Lesbos. Elle serait soutenue par des pylônes qui s’élèveraient à une cinquantaine de mètres au-dessus de l’eau. Équipée d’une signalisation lumineuse, elle pourrait dissuader les réfugiés de se rendre à Lesbos. C’est, du moins, l’intention du ministre grec de l’Intérieur, Nikos Panagiotopoulos.

      De telles barrières s’élevant au-dessus du niveau de la mer pourraient ainsi rendre difficile le passage des petits bateaux et pourraient poser un problème pour les navires à hélices. Le coût du projet s’élèverait à 500.000 euros ; il faudrait quatre ans pour le mener à bien.
      “Une idée stupide et inefficace”

      L’ONG Amnesty International a vivement critiqué le projet avertissant qu’il ne ferait qu’aggraver les dangers auxquels les réfugiés sont déjà confrontés dans leur quête de sécurité. L’ancien ministre grec des migrations, Dimitris Vitsas, a, lui, décrit la barrière comme une “idée stupide” qui devrait être inefficace. “L’idée qu’une clôture de cette longueur va fonctionner est totalement stupide, a-t-il déclaré. Cela n’empêchera personne de faire le voyage.”

      Mais pour le ministre grec de la Défense, Nikos Panagiotopoulos, l’expérience vécue avec les murs terrestres justifie le projet. ”À Evros, a-t-il déclaré sur radio Skai, l’une des plus grosses stations du pays, les barrières naturelles ont eu de [bons] résultats relatifs à contenir les flux.” Il fait ainsi référence à la clôture surmontée de barbelés que la Grèce a construite le long de sa frontière terrestre nord avec la Turquie en 2012 pour dissuader demandeurs d’asile. “Nous pensons qu’un résultat similaire peut être obtenu avec ces barrières flottantes. Nous essayons de trouver des solutions pour réduire les flux”, ajoute-t-il.

      La situation est tendue sur l’île grecque où les habitants se sont mobilisés fin janvier pour s’opposer à l’ouverture de nouveaux camps. Plus récemment, lundi 3 février, une manifestation des migrants à Lesbos contre le durcissement des lois d’asile a viré à l’affrontement avec les forces de l’ordre.


      https://www.huffingtonpost.fr/entry/grece-mur-migrant-srefugies-lesbos-barriere_fr_5e397a4cc5b6ed0033acc5

    • Greece plans to build sea barrier off Lesbos to deter migrants

      Defence ministry says floating barrier will stop migrants crossing from Turkey.

      The Greek government has been criticised after announcing it will build a floating barrier to deter thousands of people from making often perilous sea journeys from Turkey to Aegean islands on Europe’s periphery.

      The centre-right administration unveiled the measure on Thursday, following its pledge to take a tougher stance on undocumented migrants accessing the country.

      The 2.7km-long netted barrier will be erected off Lesbos, the island that shot to prominence at the height of the Syrian civil war when close to a million Europe-bound refugees landed on its beaches. The bulwark will rise from pylons 50 metres above water and will be equipped with flashing lights to demarcate Greece’s sea borders.

      Greece’s defence minister, Nikos Panagiotopoulos, told Skai radio: “In Evros, natural barriers had relative [good] results in containing flows,” referring to the barbed-wire topped fence that Greece built along its northern land border with Turkey in 2012 to deter asylum seekers. “We believe a similar result can be had with these floating barriers. We are trying to find solutions to reduce flows.”

      Amnesty International slammed the plan, warning it would enhance the dangers asylum-seekers and refugees encountered as they attempted to seek safety.

      “This proposal marks an alarming escalation in the Greek government’s ongoing efforts to make it as difficult as possible for asylum-seekers and refugees to arrive on its shores,” said Massimo Moratti, the group’s Research Director for Europe.“The plan raises serious issues about rescuers’ ability to continue providing life-saving assistance to people attempting the dangerous sea crossing to Lesbos. The government must urgently clarify the operational details and necessary safeguards to ensure that this system does not cost further lives.”

      Greece’s former migration minister, Dimitris Vitsas, described the barrier as a “stupid idea” that was bound to be ineffective. “The idea that a fence of this length is going to work is totally stupid,” he said. “It’s not going to stop anybody making the journey.”

      Greece has seen more arrivals of refugees and migrants than any other part of Europe over the past year, as human traffickers along Turkey’s western coast target its outlying Aegean isles with renewed vigour. More than 44,000 people are in camps on the outposts designed to hold no more than 5,400 people. Human rights groups have described conditions in the facilities as deplorable. In Moria, the main reception centre on Lesbos, about 140 sick children are among an estimated 19,000 men, women and children crammed into vastly overcrowded tents and containers.

      Amid mounting tensions with Turkey over energy resources in the Mediterranean, Greece fears a further surge in arrivals in the spring despite numbers dropping radically since the EU struck a landmark accord with Ankara to curb the flows in March 2016.

      The prime minister, Kyriakos Mitsotakis, who trounced his predecessor, Alexis Tsipras, in July partly on the promise to bolster the country’s borders, has accused the Turkish president, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, of exploiting the refugee drama as political leverage both in dealings with Athens and the EU. As host to some 4 million displaced Syrians, Turkey has more refugees than anywhere else in the world, with Erdoğan facing mounting domestic pressure over the issue.

      Greek officials, who are also confronting growing outrage from local communities on Aegean islands, fear that the number of arrivals will rise further if, as looks likely, Idlib, Syria’s last opposition holdout falls. The area has come under renewed attack from regime forces in recent days.

      It is hoped the barrier will be in place by the end of April after an invitation by the Greek defence ministry for private contractors to submit offers.

      The project is expected to cost €500,000 (£421,000). Officials said it will be built by the military, which has also played a role in erecting camps across Greece, but with “non-military specifications” to ensure international maritime standards. The fence could extend 13 to 15km, with more parts being added if the initial pilot is deemed successful.

      “There will be a test run probably on land first for technological reasons,” said one official.

      https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jan/30/greece-plans-to-build-sea-barrier-off-lesbos-to-deter-migrants

    • Schwimmende Barrieren gegen Migranten: Die griechische Regierung will Flüchtlingsboote mit schwimmenden Barrikaden stoppen

      Griechenland denkt über eine umstrittene Methode nach, um die stark wachsende Zahle der Bootsflüchtlinge einzudämmen.

      Die Zahl der Flüchtlinge, die von der türkischen Küste her übers Meer zu den griechischen Ägäis­inseln kommen, steigt derzeit wieder deutlich an. Die Regierung in Athen hat jetzt eine neue Idee vorgestellt, wie sie die Flüchtlingsboote stoppen will: mit schwimmenden Grenzbarrieren mitten auf dem Meer.

      Der griechische Regierungssprecher Stelios Petsas bestätigte gestern die Pläne. Das griechische Verteidigungsministerium hat bereits einen entsprechenden Auftrag zum Bau eines Prototyps ausgeschrieben. Das Pilotprojekt sieht den Bau einer 2,7 Kilometer langen Barriere vor, die 1,10 Meter aus dem Wasser aufragt und 50 bis 60 Zentimeter tief ins Wasser reicht. Der schwimmende Zaun soll mit blinkenden Leuchten versehen sein, damit er in der Dunkelheit sichtbar ist.
      Israel hat Erfahrungen mit Sperranlagen im Meer

      Für den Bau der Sperranlage will das Verteidigungsministerium 500000 Euro bereitstellen. Das Unternehmen, das den Zuschlag bekommt, soll innerhalb von drei Monaten liefern und für vier Jahre die Wartung der Barriere übernehmen. Verteidigungsminister Nikos Panagiotopoulos sagte dem griechischen Fernsehsender Skai, man wolle in einer ersten Phase ausprobieren, «ob das System funktioniert und wo es eingesetzt werden kann».

      Über dem Projekt schweben allerdings viele Fragezeichen. Erfahrungen mit schwimmenden Barrieren hat Israel an den Grenzen zum Gazastreifen und zu Jordanien im Golf von Akaba gemacht. In der Ägäis sind die Bedingungen aber wegen der grossen Wassertiefe, der starken Strömungen und häufigen Stürme viel schwieriger. Schwimmende Barrieren müssten am Meeresboden verankert sein, damit sie nicht davontreiben.

      Fraglich ist auch, ob sich die Schleuser von solchen Sperren abhalten liessen. Sie würden vermutlich auf andere Routen ausweichen. Und selbst wenn Flüchtlingsboote an der Barriere «stranden» sollten, wäre die griechische Küstenwache verpflichtet, die Menschen als Schiffbrüchige zu retten.

      Ohnehin scheint die Regierung daran zu denken, nur besonders stark frequentierte Küstenabschnitte zu sichern. Die gesamte griechisch-türkische Seegrenze von der Insel Samothraki im Norden bis nach Rhodos im Süden mit einem schwimmenden Zaun abzuriegeln, wäre ein utopisches Projekt. Diese Grenze ist über 2000 Kilometer lang. Sie mit einer Barriere dicht zu machen, verstiesse überdies gegen das internationale Seerecht und würde den Schiffsverkehr in der Ägäis behindern. Experten sagen, dass letztlich nur die Türkei die Seegrenze zu Griechenland wirksam sichern kann – indem sie die Flüchtlingsboote gar nicht erst ablegen lässt. Dazu hat sich die Türkei im Flüchtlingspakt mit der EU verpflichtet. Dennoch kamen im vergangenen Jahr 59726 Schutzsuchende übers Meer aus der Türkei, ein Anstieg von fast 84 Prozent gegenüber 2018.

      https://www.luzernerzeitung.ch/international/schwimmende-barrieren-gegen-migranten-ld.1190264

    • EU fordert Erklärungen von Griechenland zu Barriere-Plänen

      Das griechische Verteidigungsministerium will Geflüchtete mit schwimmenden „Schutzsystemen“ vor der Küste zurückhalten. Die EU-Kommission dringt auf mehr Information - sie erfuhr aus den Medien von den Plänen.

      Griechenland will Migranten mit schwimmenden Barrieren in der Ägäis konfrontieren - zu den Plänen des Verteidigungsministeriums sind aber noch viele Fragen offen. Auch die EU-Kommission hat Erklärungsbedarf. „Wir werden die griechische Regierung kontaktieren, um besser zu verstehen, worum es sich handelt“, sagte Behördensprecher Adalbert Jahnz. Die Kommission habe aus den Medien von dem Vorhaben erfahren.

      Jahnz sagte, der Zweck des Vorhabens sei derzeit noch nicht ersichtlich. Klar sei, dass Barrieren dieser Art den Zugang zu einem Asylverfahren verhindern dürften. Der Grundsatz der Nichtzurückweisung und die Grundrechte müssten in jedem Fall gewahrt bleiben. „Ich kann nichts zur Moralität verschiedener Maßnahmen sagen“, fügte Jahnz hinzu. Die Errichtung der Barrieren an sich verstoße nicht gegen EU-Recht.

      Griechenlands Verteidigungsminister Nikos Panagiotopoulos, dessen Ministerium das Projekt ausgeschrieben hat, zeigte sich jedoch nicht sicher, ob der Plan erfolgreich sein kann. Zunächst sei nur ein Versuch geplant, sagte er dem Athener Nachrichtensender Skai. „Wir wollen sehen, ob das funktioniert und wo und ob es eingesetzt werden kann“, sagte Panagiotopoulos.

      Das Verteidigungsministerium hatte die Ausschreibung für das Projekt am Mittwoch auf seiner Homepage veröffentlicht. Die „schwimmenden Schutzsysteme“ sollen knapp drei Kilometer lang sein, etwa 50 Zentimeter über dem Wasser aufragen und mit Blinklichtern ausgestattet sein. Die griechische Presse verglich die geplanten Absperrungen technisch mit den Barrieren gegen Ölteppiche im Meer.
      Was können die Barrieren tatsächlich ausrichten?

      Eigentlich dürften gar keine Migranten illegal auf dem Seeweg von der Türkei nach Griechenland kommen: Die Europäische Union hat mit der Türkei eine Vereinbarung geschlossen, die Ankara verpflichtet, Migranten und ihre Schleuser abzufangen und von Griechenland zudem Migranten ohne Asylanspruch zurückzunehmen.

      Doch nach Angaben des Uno-Flüchtlingshilfswerks UNHCR stieg die Zahl der Migranten, die illegal aus der Türkei nach Griechenland kamen, 2019 von gut 50.500 auf mehr als 74.600. Seit Jahresbeginn 2020 setzen täglich im Durchschnitt gut 90 Menschen aus der Türkei zu den griechischen Ägäis-Inseln über.

      Die Frage ist, ob schwimmende Sperren daran etwas ändern. „Ich kann nicht genau verstehen, wie diese Barrieren die Migranten daran hindern sollen, nach Griechenland zu kommen“, sagte ein Offizier der Küstenwache. Denn wenn die Migranten die Barrieren erreichten, seien sie in griechischen Hoheitsgewässern und müssten gemäß dem Seerecht gerettet und aufgenommen werden.

      Der UNHCR-Sprecher in Athen, Boris Cheshirkov, verweist zudem auf die Pflicht Griechenlands, die Menschenrechte zu achten. Griechenland habe das legitime Recht, seine Grenzen so zu kontrollieren, „wie das Land es für richtig hält“, sagte er. „Dabei müssen aber die Menschenrechte geachtet werden. Zahlreiche Migranten, die aus der Türkei nach Griechenland übersetzen, sind nämlich Flüchtlinge.“

      In Athen wird der Barrierebau auch als innenpolitisches Manöver angesichts der wachsenden Unzufriedenheit über die Entwicklung der Einwanderung gewertet.

      https://www.spiegel.de/politik/ausland/fluechtlinge-eu-fordert-erklaerungen-von-griechenland-zu-barriere-plaenen-a-

    • Un autre „mur flottant“, à #Gaza...

      Wie Israel tauchende und schwimmende Terroristen abwehrt

      Der Gazastreifen wird mit großem Aufwand weiter abgeriegelt. Die neue Seebarriere ergänzt die Mauer und die Luftabwehr gegen Hamas-Attacken.

      Am Sikim-Strand an Israels Mittelmeerküste, rund 70 Kilometer südlich von Tel Aviv, rollen dieser Tage die Bagger durch den feinen, beigefarbenen Sand. Sie arbeiten nicht an einer Strandverschönerung, sondern an einer Schutzvorrichtung, die Israel sicherer machen soll: eine Meeresbarriere – „die einzige dieser Art auf der Welt“, verkündete Verteidigungsminister Avigdor Lieberman stolz auf Twitter.

      Die neue Konstruktion soll tauchenden und schwimmenden Terroristen aus Gaza den Weg blockieren und aus drei Schichten bestehen: eine unter Wasser, eine aus Stein und eine aus Stacheldraht – ähnlich wie Wellenbrecher. Ein zusätzlicher Zaun soll um diese Barriere errichtet werden. „Das ist eine weitere Präventionsmaßnahme gegen die Hamas, die nun eine weitere strategische Möglichkeit verlieren wird, in deren Entwicklung sie viel Geld investiert hat“, schrieb Lieberman. Man werde die Bürger weiterhin mit Stärke und Raffinesse schützen.

      Tatsächlich ist die Meeresbarriere nicht das erste „raffinierte“ Konstrukt der Israelis, um sich vor Terrorangriffen aus dem Gazastreifen zu schützen. Seit 2011 setzt die Armee den selbst entwickelten Abfangschirm „Iron Dome“ ein, der Raketen rechtzeitig erkennt und noch in der Luft abschießt – zumindest dann, wenn der Flug lange dauert, das heißt das Angriffsziel nicht zu nahe am Abschussort liegt. Für einige Dörfer und Kibbuzim direkt am Gazastreifen bleiben die Raketen weiterhin eine große Gefahr.
      Einsatz von Drachen

      Seit vergangenem Jahr baut Israel auch eine bis tief in die Erde reichende Mauer. Umgerechnet mehr als 750 Millionen Euro kostet dieser Hightechbau, der mit Sensoren ausgestattet ist und Bewegungen auch unterhalb der Erde meldet. In den vergangenen Jahren und Monaten hat die Armee zahlreiche Tunnel entdeckt und zerstört. Dass Terrorgruppen nach Abschluss des Baus noch versuchen werden, unterirdisch vorzudringen, scheint unwahrscheinlich: „Mit dem Bau wird die Grenze hermetisch abgeriegelt“, sagt ein Sicherheitsexperte. Rund zehn der insgesamt 64 Kilometer langen Mauer seien bereits komplett fertiggestellt, bis Anfang kommenden Jahres soll der Bau abgeschlossen sein.

      Nun folgt der Seeweg: Während des Gazakrieges 2014 hatten Taucher der Hamas es geschafft, bewaffnet Israels Küste zu erreichen. Sie wurden dort von den israelischen Streitkräften getötet. Es waren seither wohl nicht die einzigen Versuche, ist Kobi Michael, einst stellvertretender Generaldirektor des Ministeriums für Strategische Angelegenheiten, überzeugt. „Es wurde nicht zwingend darüber berichtet, aber es gab Versuche.“

      Israel reagiert mit neuen Erfindungen auf die verschiedenen Angriffstaktiken der Terroristen in Gaza – doch die entwickeln bereits neue. Es bleibt ein Katz-und-Maus-Spiel. Jüngste Taktik ist der Einsatz von Drachen, die mit Molotowcocktails oder Dosen voller brennendem Benzin ausgestattet werden. Dutzende solcher Drachen wurden während der „Marsch der Rückkehr“-Proteste in den vergangenen zwei Monaten nach Israel geschickt.

      „Das ist eine neue und sehr primitive Art des Terrors“, so Kobi Michael. Aber eben auch eine wirkungsvolle, da Landwirtschaft im Süden eine große Rolle spielt und Israel zudem seine Natur schützen will. „Sie haben es geschafft, bereits Hunderte Hektar Weizenfelder und Wälder in Brand zu stecken.“ Israel setzt nun unter anderem spezielle Drohnen ein, um die brennenden Drachen noch in der Luft zu zerstören. Aber Michael ist sicher, auch hier bedarf es zukünftig eines besseren Abwehrsystems. Der Sicherheitsexperte sieht es positiv: „Sie fordern uns heraus und wir reagieren mit der Entwicklung hochtechnologischer Lösungen.“

      https://www.tagesspiegel.de/politik/seebarriere-noerdlich-des-gazastreifens-wie-israel-tauchende-und-schwimmende-terroristen-abwehrt/22617084.html
      #Israël #Palestine

    • La #barrière_maritime israélienne de Gaza est sur le point d’être achevée

      Un mur sous-marin de rochers et de détecteurs surmonté d’une clôture intelligente de 6 mètres de haut et d’un brise-lames comble un vide dans les défenses d’Israël.

      Plus de quatre ans après qu’une équipe de commandos du Hamas est entrée en Israël depuis la mer pendant la guerre de Gaza en 2014, les ingénieurs israéliens sont sur le point d’achever la construction d’une barrière maritime intelligente destinée à prévenir de futures attaques, a rapporté lundi la Dixième chaîne.

      La construction de la barrière de 200 mètres de long a été effectuée par le ministère de la Défense au large de la plage de Zikim, sur la frontière la plus au nord de Gaza. Le travail a duré sept mois.

      La barrière est destinée à combler un vide dans les défenses d’Israël le long de la frontière avec Gaza.

      Sur terre, Israël a une clôture en surface et construit un système complexe de barrières et de détecteurs souterrains pour empêcher le Hamas – l’organisation terroriste islamiste qui dirige Gaza et cherche à détruire Israël – de percer des tunnels en territoire israélien. En mer, la marine israélienne maintient une présence permanente capable de détecter les tentatives d’infiltration dans les eaux israéliennes.

      Mais il y avait une brèche juste au large de la plage de Zikim, dans la zone étroite des eaux peu profondes où ni les forces terrestres ni les navires de mer ne pouvaient opérer facilement.

      Les commandos du Hamas ont profité de cette faille en 2014 pour contourner facilement une clôture vétuste et délabrée et passer en Israël par les eaux peu profondes.

      Les forces du Hamas n’ont été arrêtées que lorsque les équipes de surveillance de Tsahal ont remarqué leurs mouvements lorsqu’elles sont arrivées sur la plage en Israël.

      La barrière est composée de plusieurs parties. Un mur sous-marin de blocs rocheux s’étend à environ 200 mètres dans la mer. A l’intérieur du mur de blocs rocheux se trouve un mur en béton revêtu de détecteurs sismiques et d’autres outils technologiques dont la fonction exacte est secrète.

      Au-dessus de l’eau, le long du côté ouest du mur nord-sud, une clôture intelligente hérissée de détecteurs s’élève à une hauteur de six mètres.

      Du côté est, un brise-lames avec une route au milieu s’étend sur toute la longueur du mur sous-marin.

      La construction a été rapide, bien qu’elle ait été entravée ponctuellement par les attaques du Hamas.

      Lors d’une de ces attaques, un combattant du Hamas a lancé des grenades sur les forces israéliennes qui gardaient les équipes de travail, avant d’être tué par les tirs israéliens en retour.

      https://fr.timesofisrael.com/la-barriere-maritime-israelienne-de-gaza-est-sur-le-point-detre-ac

    • Grèce : un mur flottant pour contrer l’arrivée de migrants

      Pour restreindre l’arrivée de migrants depuis la Turquie, le gouvernement grec vient de lancer un appel d’offres pour la construction, en pleine mer Égée, d’un « système de protection flottant ». Une annonce qui provoque de vives réactions.

      Athènes (Grèce), correspondance.– Depuis les côtes turques, les rivages de Lesbos surgissent après une douzaine de kilomètres de mer Égée. En 2019, ce bras de mer est redevenu la première porte d’entrée des demandeurs d’asile dans l’Union européenne, pour la plupart des Afghans et des Syriens. Mais un nouvel obstacle pourrait bientôt compliquer le passage, sinon couper la voie. À Athènes, le gouvernement conservateur estime détenir une solution pour réduire les arrivées : ériger une barrière flottante anti-migrants.

      Fin janvier, le ministère de la défense a ainsi publié un appel d’offres « pour la fourniture d’un système de protection flottant […] », visant « à gérer […] en cas d’urgence […] le flux de réfugiés et de migrants qui augmente sans cesse ». D’après ce document de 122 pages, le dispositif « de barrage ou filet […] de couleur jaune ou orange », composé de plusieurs sections de 25 à 50 mètres reliées entre elles, s’étendra sur 2,7 km.

      Il s’élèvera « d’au moins » 50 centimètres au-dessus des flots. Et de nuit, la clôture brillera grâce à « des bandes réfléchissantes […] et des lumières jaunes clignotantes ». Son coût estimé : 500 000 euros – dont 96 774 de TVA – incluant « quatre ans d’entretien et la formation du personnel » pour son installation en mer.

      Sollicitées, les autorités n’ont pas donné d’autres détails à Mediapart. Mais l’agence Reuters et les médias grecs précisent que le mur sera testé au nord de Lesbos, île qui a concentré 58 % des entrées de migrants dans le pays en 2019, d’après le Haut-Commissariat aux réfugiés (HCR).

      Alors que la Grèce compte désormais 87 000 demandeurs d’asile, environ 42 000 (majoritairement des familles) sont bloqués à Lesbos, Leros, Chios, Kos et Samos, le temps du traitement de leur requête. Avec 6 000 places d’hébergement à peine sur ces cinq îles, la situation est devenue explosive (lire notre reportage à Samos).

      « Cela ne peut pas continuer ainsi, a justifié le ministre de la défense nationale, Nikolaos Panagiotopoulos, le 30 janvier dernier, sur la radio privée Skaï. Il reste à savoir si [ce barrage] fonctionnera. »

      Joint par téléphone, un habitant de Mytilène (chef-lieu de Lesbos), souhaitant garder son anonymat, déclare ne voir dans ce mur qu’un « effet d’annonce ». « Impossible qu’il tienne en mer, les vents sont trop violents l’hiver. Et ce sera dangereux pour les pêcheurs du coin. Ce projet n’est pas sérieux, les autorités turques ne réagissent même pas, elles rigolent ! »

      Pour Amnesty International, il s’agit d’une « escalade inquiétante » ; pour Human Rights Watch, d’un projet « insensé qui peut mettre la vie [des migrants] en danger ».

      L’annonce de ce mur test a non seulement fait bondir les ONG, mais aussi provoqué un malaise au sein de certaines institutions. « Si une petite embarcation percute la barrière et se renverse, comment les secours pourront-ils accéder au lieu du naufrage ? », interroge également la chercheuse Vicky Skoumbi, directrice de programme au Collège international de philosophie de Paris. Selon elle, cette barrière est « contraire au droit international », notamment l’article 33 de la Convention de 1951 sur le statut des réfugiés et le droit d’asile, qui interdit les refoulements. « L’entrave à la liberté de circulation que constitue la barrière flottante équivaut à un refoulement implicite (ou en acte) du candidat à l’asile », poursuit Vicky Skoumbi.

      L’opposition de gauche Syriza, qui moque sa taille (trois kilomètres sur des centaines de kilomètres de frontière maritime), a aussi qualifié ce projet de « hideux » et de « violation des réglementations européennes ».

      Le porte-parole de la Commission européenne, Adalbert Jahnz, pris de court le 30 janvier lors d’un point presse, a par ailleurs déclaré : « L’installation de barrières n’est pas contraire en tant que telle au droit de l’UE […] cependant […] du point de vue du droit de l’[UE], des barrières de ce genre ou obstacles physiques ne peuvent pas rendre impossible l’accès à la procédure d’asile. »

      « Nous suivons le dossier et sommes en contact étroit avec le gouvernement grec », nous résume aujourd’hui Adalbert Jahnz. Boris Cheshirkov l’un des porte-parole du HCR, rappelle surtout à Mediapart que « 85 % des personnes qui arrivent aujourd’hui en Grèce sont des réfugiés et ont un profil éligible à l’asile ».

      Pour justifier son mur flottant, le gouvernement de droite affirme s’inspirer d’un projet terrestre ayant déjà vu le jour en 2012 : une barrière anti-migrants de 12,5 kilomètres de barbelés érigée entre la bourgade grecque de Nea Vyssa (nord-est du pays) et la ville turque d’Édirne, dans la région de l’Évros.

      L’UE avait à l’époque refusé le financement de cette clôture de près de 3 millions d’euros, finalement payée par l’État grec. Huit ans plus tard, le gouvernement salue son « efficacité » : « Les flux [de migrants] ont été réduits à [cette] frontière terrestre. Nous pensons que le système flottant pourrait avoir un impact similaire », a déclaré le ministre de la défense sur Skaï.

      Or pour la géographe Cristina Del Biaggio, maîtresse de conférences à l’université de Grenoble Alpes, ce mur de l’Évros n’a diminué les arrivées que « localement et temporairement » : « Il a modifié les parcours migratoires en les déplaçant vers le nord-est, à la frontière avec la Bulgarie. »

      En réponse, le voisin bulgare a érigé dans la foulée, en 2014, sa propre clôture anti-migrants à la frontière turque. Les arrivées se sont alors reportées sur les îles grecques du Dodécanèse, puis de nouveau dans la région de l’Évros. « En jouant à ce jeu cynique du chat et de la souris, le durcissement des frontières n’a que dévié (et non pas stoppé) les flux dans la région », conclut Cristina Del Biaggio.

      Selon elle, la construction d’une barrière flottante à des fins de contrôle frontalier serait une première. Le fait que ce « projet pilote » émane du ministère de la défense « est symbolique », ajoute Filippa Chatzistavrou, chercheuse en sciences politiques à l’université d’Athènes. « Depuis 2015, la Défense s’implique beaucoup dans les questions migratoires et c’est une approche qui en dit long : on perçoit les migrants comme une menace. »

      Théoriquement, « c’est le ministère de l’immigration qui devrait être en charge de ces projets, a reconnu le ministre de la défense. Mais il vient tout juste d’être recréé… ». Le gouvernement de droite conservatrice l’avait, de fait, supprimé à son arrivée en juillet dernier (avant de faire volte-face), en amorce d’autres réformes dures en matière d’immigration. En novembre, en particulier, une loi sur la procédure d’asile a été adoptée au Parlement, qui prolonge notamment la durée possible de rétention des demandeurs et réduit leurs possibilités de faire appel. Une politique qui n’a pas empêché la hausse des arrivées en Grèce.

      Porte-parole du HCR à Lesbos, Astrid Castelin observe l’île sombrer désormais « dans la haine des réfugiés et l’incertitude ». Reflet de la catastrophe en cours, le camp de Moria, en particulier, n’en finit pas de s’étaler dans les collines d’oliviers. « On y compte plus de 18 000 personnes, dont beaucoup d’enfants de moins de 12 ans, pour 3 000 places, s’inquiète ainsi Astrid Castelin. La municipalité ne peut plus ramasser l’ensemble des déchets, les files d’attente pour les douches ou les toilettes sont interminables. » Le 3 février, la police a fait usage de gaz lacrymogènes à l’encontre de 2 000 migrants qui manifestaient pour leurs droits.

      L’habitant de Lesbos déjà cité, lui, note qu’on parle davantage sur l’île de l’apparition de « milices d’extrême droite qui rôdent près de Moria, qui demandent leurs cartes d’identité aux passants » que du projet de barrage flottant. Le 7 février, en tout cas, la police grecque a annoncé avoir interpellé sept personnes soupçonnées de projeter une attaque de migrants.

      https://www.mediapart.fr/journal/international/110220/grece-un-mur-flottant-pour-contrer-l-arrivee-de-migrants

  • Portion of US border wall in California falls over in high winds and lands on Mexican side

    Newly installed panels from the US border wall fell over in high winds Wednesday, landing on trees on the Mexican side of the border.
    The area is part of an ongoing construction project to improve existing sections of the wall.
    Agent Carlos Pitones of the Customs and Border Protection sector in El Centro, California, told CNN that the sections that gave way had recently been set in a new concrete foundation in Calexico, California. The concrete had not yet cured, according to Pitones, and the wall panels were unable to withstand the windy conditions.

    The National Weather Service reports that winds in the area gusted as high as 37 mph Wednesday. Video from CNN affiliate KYMA shows the metal panels leaning against trees adjacent to a Mexicali, Mexico, street as the wind whips up dirt from the construction site on the other side of the border.
    “We are grateful there was no property damage or injuries,” said Pitones.
    Customs and Border Protection says local Mexicali officials diverted traffic from the area of the accident, and the agency is working with the Mexican government on the next steps to right the wall. Pitones said it is not currently known how long the construction work in the area will need to be suspended in order to allow for cleanup.
    Three years into his presidency, President Donald Trump’s signature campaign promise has faced a host of legal and logistical challenges. Even with funding, the administration will have to contend with private landowners whose property may be seized to build barriers along the border.
    Trump has sought to pull hundreds of millions of dollars from several government accounts as his administration looks to construct 450 miles of barriers in the ramp-up to the presidential election.
    Earlier this month, the administration announced that the wall had reached the 100-mile mark, the majority of which was replacing barriers with newer, enhanced designs, and around half a mile was constructed in the Rio Grande Valley where no wall previously existed.
    The White House has pushed for construction on the US-Mexico border to be dubbed new wall, according to a former administration official. There was a “constant drumbeat” from the White House to call it “new wall” within the Department of Homeland Security, the official added. “There is a lot of pressure on the President to deliver in the campaign promise.”

    Acting Customs and Border Protection Commissioner Mark Morgan has previously said he feels “no pressure from the administration to build more miles of wall.”

    https://edition.cnn.com/2020/01/29/politics/us-border-wall-falls-over-high-winds/index.html

    #murs #barrières_frontalières #destruction #walls_don't_work #les_murs_tombent #frontières #Californie #USA #Etats-Unis #Mexique

    Ajouté à la métaliste:
    https://seenthis.net/messages/823380

  • C’était #2016... à Calais on construisait des #barrières_frontalières

    https://seenthis.net/messages/523063

    Calais jour après jour : Londres va construire un mur anti-migrants
    https://seenthis.net/messages/522824

    Migrants de Calais : « Un #mur_végétalisé » pour sécuriser la rocade portuaire
    https://seenthis.net/messages/522771

    Migrants : Londres construit un mur anti-intrusion à Calais
    https://seenthis.net/messages/522540

    Migrants : la France cessera-t-elle de garder les frontières du Royaume-Uni ?
    https://seenthis.net/messages/503515

    Migrants : l’extension des grilles anti-intrusions de la rocade de #Calais a débuté

    Rocade et Mascarade
    https://seenthis.net/messages/484847

    Je mets ci-dessous les infos de l’époque, car c’est une fil de discussion non initié par moi-même (https://seenthis.net/messages/499021) et par peur de perdre d’info, je préfère mettre l’info ci-dessous, dans un fil de discussion initié par moi...

    Et des #grillages plus anciens détruits par le #vent...
    https://seenthis.net/messages/332776
    https://seenthis.net/messages/325296
    #walls_don't_work

    signalé par @cela

    #murs #barrières_frontalières #Calais #France #UK #Angleterre #militarisation_des_frontières #migrations #asile #réfugiés

  • Cauchemar américain

    Le jour commence à tomber sur l’Arizona. Gabriel, 22 ans, soutient Marinela, sa tante âgée d’une quarantaine d’années. Elle s’est effondrée, à bout de forces, sur le sol aride du désert de Sonora, un des points de passage des migrants du Mexique vers les États-Unis. « À cet endroit, il y a un mur assez facile à sauter, puis environ 50 kilomètres de désert à traverser en groupe, accompagné d’un “coyote”, un passeur mexicain. Si un clandestin ne peut plus marcher, il est abandonné à son sort… qui est souvent la mort », relate Francesco Anselmi.

    Depuis trois ans, le photographe italien parcourt les 3 200 kilomètres de cette frontière. Il en a tiré la série photographique Borderlands. « Dans le désert de Sonora, raconte-t-il, les journées sont brûlantes mais la nuit, les températures chutent en dessous de zéro. » Marinela et Gabriel ont marché huit heures sous un soleil de plomb. Quand la Mexicaine a flanché, le groupe a continué. Son neveu a choisi de ne pas la laisser seule.

    Pour éviter d’être repérés depuis les airs, les deux clandestins portent des treillis camouflage ; pour ne pas laisser de traces sur le sol, ils ont attaché des peaux de bêtes sur leurs chaussures. « Ils n’avaient plus d’eau et Marinela, déshydratée, délirait. Entre deux gémissements, elle parlait du diable. »

    L’ONG américaine No More Death estime qu’environ 8000 personnes sont mortes depuis 1990 dans le désert de Sonora en tentant d’atteindre leur rêve américain. Aux États-Unis, aider les migrants est un crime fédéral puni par huit années d’emprisonnement.

    http://www.6mois.fr/Cauchemar-americain
    #USA #Etats-Unis #Mexique #migrations #asile #réfugiés #photographie #frontières #murs #surveillance #drones #désert #Sonora #désert_de_Sonora #barrières_frontalières #Sonoran_desert

    Série #Borderlands de #Francesco_Anselmi

    http://www.francescoanselmi.com/en/stories/stories.asp?idcont=159

    signalé par @karine4

    ping @albertocampiphoto @philippe_de_jonckheere @mobileborders

  • ’Bangladesh agrees to allow India to construct fence in 13 places’

    Bangladesh government has in principle, agreed to allow India to erect barbed wire fencing along the zero-line in at least 13 areas along the India-Bangladesh border in #Meghalaya, a senior Indian official told PTI on Sunday.

    As per the Indira-Mujib pact of 1972, no permanent structure can be built within the 150 yards of the border.

    In 1975, a guideline for the management of the 4,000 km long India-Bangladesh border was formulated by the two countries which also agreed not to construct any permanent structure within the 150-yard limit.

    ’Following India’s request, the Bangladesh government has in principle agreed to allow construction of fencing on zero-line in at least 13 areas of the state within the zero line,’ the official said to Press Trust of India.

    Fencing at the identified areas along the zero line at #East_Jaintia_Hills district, #West_Jaintia_Hills district, #East_Khasi_Hills district and #South_West_Khasi_Hills district will be taken up accordingly, he said, the Indian news agency added.

    The state government had identified those areas where erection of fencing 150 yards away from zero-line would not be feasible and as such approached India to seek permission from Bangladesh, the official said.

    The matter is awaiting final nod from the Bangladesh government as all line departments including the BGB has sent their note of agreement on the matter, he said.

    Of the 443 km-long India-Bangladesh border in Meghalaya, about 100 km was unfenced. Earthworks have already begun for the remaining patches, the official said, says PTI.

    Till date, some problems have cropped up in the erection of fencing on certain stretches of the border due to existence of low-lying areas, human habitations, cemetery and cash crops within the 150 yards of the border, a BSF official.

    According to PTI, checking of illegal cross-border activities has been a major challenge for the BSF manning it, the official said.

    The Bangladesh government in 2012 had allowed India to erect barbed wire fencing along the zero-line in Tripura’s Mohanpur market, near the international border.

    https://en.prothomalo.com/bangladesh/news/205887/Bangladesh-agrees-to-allow-India-to-construct
    #murs #barrières_frontalières #Bangladesh #Inde #frontières

    Localisation:

    ping @reka @fil

  • Conférence - La tentation du mur

    Trente ans après la chute du mur de Berlin, que reste-t-il des #murs_frontaliers dans le monde ? Quel constat peut-on dresser alors que les murs redéfinissent les lignes frontalières à travers le monde, durcissant des frontières autrefois poreuses et ouvertes ?
    #Élisabeth_Vallet, directrice de l’Observatoire de géopolitique de la Chaire Raoul-Dandurand, a répondu à ces questionnements lors d’une conférence organisée dans le cadre des journées académiques allemandes à l’UQAM, le 11 novembre 2019

    https://podcasts.apple.com/ca/podcast/conf%C3%A9rence-la-tentation-du-mur/id1483631088?i=1000457926931&l=fr
    #murs #frontières #conférence #audio #podcast #barrières_frontalières #fermeture_des_frontières

  • The business of building walls

    Thirty years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, Europe is once again known for its border walls. This time Europe is divided not so much by ideology as by perceived fear of refugees and migrants, some of the world’s most vulnerable people.

    Who killed the dream of a more open Europe? What gave rise to this new era of walls? There are clearly many reasons – the increasing displacement of people by conflict, repression and impoverishment, the rise of security politics in the wake of 9/11, the economic and social insecurity felt across Europe after the 2008 financial crisis – to name a few. But one group has by far the most to gain from the rise of new walls – the businesses that build them. Their influence in shaping a world of walls needs much deeper examination.

    This report explores the business of building walls, which has both fuelled and benefited from a massive expansion of public spending on border security by the European Union (EU) and its member states. Some of the corporate beneficiaries are also global players, tapping into a global market for border security estimated to be worth approximately €17.5 billion in 2018, with annual growth of at least 8% expected in coming years.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CAuv1QyP8l0&feature=emb_logo

    It is important to look both beyond and behind Europe’s walls and fencing, because the real barriers to contemporary migration are not so much the fencing, but the vast array of technology that underpins it, from the radar systems to the drones to the surveillance cameras to the biometric fingerprinting systems. Similarly, some of Europe’s most dangerous walls are not even physical or on land. The ships, aircrafts and drones used to patrol the Mediterranean have created a maritime wall and a graveyard for the thousands of migrants and refugees who have no legal passage to safety or to exercise their right to seek asylum.

    This renders meaningless the European Commission’s publicized statements that it does not fund walls and fences. Commission spokesperson Alexander Winterstein, for example, rejecting Hungary’s request to reimburse half the costs of the fences built on its borders with Croatia and Serbia, said: ‘We do support border management measures at external borders. These can be surveillance measures. They can be border control equipment...But fences, we do not finance’. In other words, the Commission is willing to pay for anything that fortifies a border as long as it is not seen to be building the walls themselves.

    This report is a sequel to Building Walls – Fear and securitization in the European Union, co-published in 2018 with Centre Delàs and Stop Wapenhandel, which first measured and identified the walls that criss-cross Europe. This new report focuses on the businesses that have profited from three different kinds of wall in Europe:

    The construction companies contracted to build the land walls built by EU member states and the Schengen Area together with the security and technology companies that provide the necessary accompanying technology, equipment and services;

    The shipping and arms companies that provide the ships, aircraft, helicopters, drones that underpin Europe’s maritime walls seeking to control migratory flows in the Mediterranean, including Frontex operations, Operation Sophia and Italian operation Mare Nostrum;
    And the IT and security companies contracted to develop, run, expand and maintain EU’s systems that monitor the movement of people – such as SIS II (Schengen Information System) and EES (Entry/Exit Scheme) – which underpin Europe’s virtual walls.

    Booming budgets

    The flow of money from taxpayers to wall-builders has been highly lucrative and constantly growing. The report finds that companies have reaped the profits from at least €900 million spent by EU countries on land walls and fences since the end of the Cold War. The partial data (in scope and years) means actual costs will be at least €1 billion. In addition, companies that provide technology and services that accompany walls have also benefited from some of the steady stream of funding from the EU – in particular the External Borders Fund (€1.7 billion, 2007-2013) and the Internal Security Fund – Borders Fund (€2.76 billion, 2014-2020).

    EU spending on maritime walls has totalled at least €676.4 million between 2006 to 2017 (including €534 million spent by Frontex, €28.4 million spent by the EU on Operation Sophia and €114 million spent by Italy on Operation Mare Nostrum) and would be much more if you include all the operations by Mediterranean country coastguards. Total spending on Europe’s virtual wall equalled at least €999.4m between 2000 and 2019. (All these estimates are partial ones because walls are funded by many different funding mechanisms and due to lack of data transparency).

    This boom in border budgets is set to grow. Under its budget for the next EU budget cycle (2021–2027) the European Commission has earmarked €8.02 billion to its Integrated Border Management Fund (2021-2027), €11.27bn to Frontex (of which €2.2 billion will be used for acquiring, maintaining and operating air, sea and land assets) and at least €1.9 billion total spending (2000-2027) on its identity databases and Eurosur (the European Border Surveillance System).
    The big arm industry players

    Three giant European military and security companies in particular play a critical role in Europe’s many types of borders. These are Thales, Leonardo and Airbus.

    Thales is a French arms and security company, with a significant presence in the Netherlands, that produces radar and sensor systems, used by many ships in border security. Thales systems, were used, for example, by Dutch and Portuguese ships deployed in Frontex operations. Thales also produces maritime surveillance systems for drones and is working on developing border surveillance infrastructure for Eurosur, researching how to track and control refugees before they reach Europe by using smartphone apps, as well as exploring the use of High Altitude Pseudo Satellites (HAPS) for border security, for the European Space Agency and Frontex. Thales currently provides the security system for the highly militarised port in Calais. Its acquisition in 2019 of Gemalto, a large (biometric) identity security company, makes it a significant player in the development and maintenance of EU’s virtual walls. It has participated in 27 EU research projects on border security.
    Italian arms company Leonardo (formerly Finmeccanica or Leonardo-Finmeccanica) is a leading supplier of helicopters for border security, used by Italy in the Mare Nostrum, Hera and Sophia operations. It has also been one of the main providers of UAVs (or drones) for Europe’s borders, awarded a €67.1 million contract in 2017 by the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA) to supply them for EU coast-guard agencies. Leonardo was also a member of a consortium, awarded €142.1 million in 2019 to implement and maintain EU’s virtual walls, namely its EES. It jointly owns Telespazio with Thales, involved in EU satellite observation projects (REACT and Copernicus) used for border surveillance. Leonardo has participated in 24 EU research projects on border security and control, including the development of Eurosur.
    Pan-European arms giant Airbus is a key supplier of helicopters used in patrolling maritime and some land borders, deployed by Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania and Spain, including in maritime Operations Sophia, Poseidon and Triton. Airbus and its subsidiaries have participated in at least 13 EU-funded border security research projects including OCEAN2020, PERSEUS and LOBOS.
    The significant role of these arms companies is not surprising. As Border Wars (2016), showed these companies through their membership of the lobby groups – European Organisation for Security (EOS) and the AeroSpace and Defence Industries Association of Europe (ASD) – have played a significant role in influencing the direction of EU border policy. Perversely, these firms are also among the top four biggest European arms dealers to the Middle East and North Africa, thus contributing to the conflicts that cause forced migration.

    Indra has been another significant corporate player in border control in Spain and the Mediterranean. It won a series of contracts to fortify Ceuta and Melilla (Spanish enclaves in northern Morocco). Indra also developed the SIVE border control system (with radar, sensors and vision systems), which is in place on most of Spain’s borders, as well as in Portugal and Romania. In July 2018 it won a €10 million contract to manage SIVE at several locations for two years. Indra is very active in lobbying the EU and is a major beneficiary of EU research funding, coordinating the PERSEUS project to further develop Eurosur and the Seahorse Network, a network between police forces in Mediterranean countries (both in Europe and Africa) to stop migration.

    Israeli arms firms are also notable winners of EU border contracts. In 2018, Frontex selected the Heron drone from Israel Aerospace Industries for pilot-testing surveillance flights in the Mediterranean. In 2015, Israeli firm Elbit sold six of its Hermes UAVs to the Switzerland’s Border Guard, in a controversial €230 million deal. It has since signed a UAV contract with the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA), as a subcontractor for the Portuguese company CEIIA (2018), as well as contracts to supply technology for three patrol vessels for the Hellenic Coast Guard (2019).
    Land wall contractors

    Most of the walls and fences that have been rapidly erected across Europe have been built by national construction companies, but one European company has dominated the field: European Security Fencing, a Spanish producer of razor wire, in particular a coiled wire known as concertinas. It is most known for the razor wire on the fences around Ceuta and Melilla. It also delivered the razor wire for the fence on the border between Hungary and Serbia, and its concertinas were installed on the borders between Bulgaria and Turkey and Austria and Slovenia, as well as at Calais, and for a few days on the border between Hungary and Slovenia before being removed. Given its long-term market monopoly, its concertinas are very likely used at other borders in Europe.

    Other contractors providing both walls and associated technology include DAT-CON (Croatia, Cyprus, Macedonia, Moldova, Slovenia and Ukraine), Geo Alpinbau (Austria/Slovenia), Indra, Dragados, Ferrovial, Proyectos Y Tecnología Sallén and Eulen (Spain/Morocco), Patstroy Bourgas, Infra Expert, Patengineeringstroy, Geostroy Engineering, Metallic-Ivan Mihaylov and Indra (Bulgaria/Turkey), Nordecon and Defendec (Estonia/Russia), DAK Acélszerkezeti Kft and SIA Ceļu būvniecības sabiedrība IGATE (Latvia/Russia), Gintrėja (Lithuania/Russia), Minis and Legi-SGS(Slovenia/Croatia), Groupe CW, Jackson’s Fencing, Sorhea, Vinci/Eurovia and Zaun Ltd (France/UK).

    In many cases, the actual costs of the walls and associated technologies exceed original estimates. There have also been many allegations and legal charges of corruption, in some cases because projects were given to corporate friends of government officials. In Slovenia, for example, accusations of corruption concerning the border wall contract have led to a continuing three-year legal battle for access to documents that has reached the Supreme Court. Despite this, the EU’s External Borders Fund has been a critical financial supporter of technological infrastructure and services in many of the member states’ border operations. In Macedonia, for example, the EU has provided €9 million for patrol vehicles, night-vision cameras, heartbeat detectors and technical support for border guards to help it manage its southern border.
    Maritime wall profiteers

    The data about which ships, helicopters and aircraft are used in Europe’s maritime operations is not transparent and therefore it is difficult to get a full picture. Our research shows, however, that the key corporations involved include the European arms giants Airbus and Leonardo, as well as large shipbuilding companies including Dutch Damen and Italian Fincantieri.

    Damen’s patrol vessels have been used for border operations by Albania, Belgium, Bulgaria, Portugal, the Netherlands, Romania, Sweden and the UK as well as in key Frontex operations (Poseidon, Triton and Themis), Operation Sophia and in supporting NATO’s role in Operation Poseidon. Outside Europe, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey use Damen vessels for border security, often in cooperation with the EU or its member states. Turkey’s €20 million purchase of six Damen vessels for its coast guard in 2006, for example, was financed through the EU Instrument contributing to Stability and Peace (IcSP), intended for peace-building and conflict prevention.

    The sale of Damen vessels to Libya unveils the potential troubling human costs of this corporate trade. In 2012, Damen supplied four patrol vessels to the Libyan Coast Guard, sold as civil equipment in order to avoid a Dutch arms export license. Researchers have since found out, however, that the ships were not only sold with mounting points for weapons, but were then armed and used to stop refugee boats. Several incidents involving these ships have been reported, including one where some 20 or 30 refugees drowned. Damen has refused to comment, saying it had agreed with the Libyan government not to disclose information about the ships.

    In addition to Damen, many national shipbuilders play a significant role in maritime operations as they were invariably prioritised by the countries contributing to each Frontex or other Mediterranean operation. Hence, all the ships Italy contributed to Operation Sophia were built by Fincantieri, while all Spanish ships come from Navantia and its predecessors. Similarly, France purchases from DCN/DCNS, now Naval Group, and all German ships were built by several German shipyards (Flensburger Schiffbau-Gesellschaft, HDW, Lürssen Gruppe). Other companies in Frontex operations have included Greek company, Motomarine Shipyards, which produced the Panther 57 Fast Patrol Boats used by the Hellenic Coast Guard, Hellenic Shipyards and Israel Shipyards.

    Austrian company Schiebel is a significant player in maritime aerial surveillance through its supply of S-100 drones. In November 2018, EMSA selected the company for a €24 million maritime surveillance contract for a range of operations including border security. Since 2017, Schiebel has also won contracts from Croatia, Denmark, Iceland, Italy, Portugal and Spain. The company has a controversial record, with its drones sold to a number of countries experiencing armed conflict or governed by repressive regimes such as Libya, Myanmar, the UAE and Yemen.

    Finland and the Netherlands deployed Dornier aircraft to Operation Hermes and Operation Poseidon respectively, and to Operation Triton. Dornier is now part of the US subsidiary of the Israeli arms company Elbit Systems. CAE Aviation (Luxembourg), DEA Aviation (UK) and EASP Air (Netherlands) have all received contracts for aircraft surveillance work for Frontex. Airbus, French Dassault Aviation, Leonardo and US Lockheed Martin were the most important suppliers of aircraft used in Operation Sophia.

    The EU and its member states defend their maritime operations by publicising their role in rescuing refugees at sea, but this is not their primary goal, as Frontex director Fabrice Leggeri made clear in April 2015, saying that Frontex has no mandate for ‘proactive search-and-rescue action[s]’ and that saving lives should not be a priority. The thwarting and criminalisation of NGO rescue operations in the Mediterranean and the frequent reports of violence and illegal refoulement of refugees, also demonstrates why these maritime operations should be considered more like walls than humanitarian missions.
    Virtual walls

    The major EU contracts for the virtual walls have largely gone to two companies, sometimes as leaders of a consortium. Sopra Steria is the main contractor for the development and maintenance of the Visa Information System (VIS), Schengen Information System (SIS II) and European Dactyloscopy (Eurodac), while GMV has secured a string of contracts for Eurosur. The systems they build help control, monitor and surveil people’s movements across Europe and increasingly beyond.

    Sopra Steria is a French technology consultancy firm that has to date won EU contracts worth a total value of over €150 million. For some of these large contracts Sopra Steria joined consortiums with HP Belgium, Bull and 3M Belgium. Despite considerable business, Sopra Steria has faced considerable criticism for its poor record on delivering projects on time and on budget. Its launch of SIS II was constantly delayed, forcing the Commission to extend contracts and increase budgets. Similarly, Sopra Steria was involved in another consortium, the Trusted Borders consortium, contracted to deliver the UK e-Borders programme, which was eventually terminated in 2010 after constant delays and failure to deliver. Yet it continues to win contracts, in part because it has secured a near-monopoly of knowledge and access to EU officials. The central role that Sopra Steria plays in developing these EU biometric systems has also had a spin-off effect in securing other national contracts, including with Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Romania and Slovenia GMV, a Spanish technology company, has received a succession of large contracts for Eurosur, ever since its testing phase in 2010, worth at least €25 million. It also provides technology to the Spanish Guardia Civil, such as control centres for its Integrated System of External Vigilance (SIVE) border security system as well as software development services to Frontex. It has participated in at least ten EU-funded research projects on border security.

    Most of the large contracts for the virtual walls that did not go to consortia including Sopra Steria were awarded by eu-LISA (European Union Agency for the Operational Management of Large-Scale IT Systems in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice) to consortia comprising computer and technology companies including Accenture, Atos Belgium and Morpho (later renamed Idema).
    Lobbying

    As research in our Border Wars series has consistently shown, through effective lobbying, the military and security industry has been very influential in shaping the discourse of EU security and military policies. The industry has succeeded in positioning itself as the experts on border security, pushing the underlying narrative that migration is first and foremost a security threat, to be combatted by security and military means. With this premise, it creates a continuous demand for the ever-expanding catalogue of equipment and services the industry supplies for border security and control.

    Many of the companies listed here, particularly the large arms companies, are involved in the European Organisation for Security (EOS), the most important lobby group on border security. Many of the IT security firms that build EU’s virtual walls are members of the European Biometrics Association (EAB). EOS has an ‘Integrated Border Security Working Group’ to ‘facilitate the development and uptake of better technology solutions for border security both at border checkpoints, and along maritime and land borders’. The working group is chaired by Giorgio Gulienetti of the Italian arms company Leonardo, with Isto Mattila (Laurea University of Applied Science) and Peter Smallridge of Gemalto, a digital security company recently acquired by Thales.

    Company lobbyists and representatives of these lobby organisations regularly meet with EU institutions, including the European Commission, are part of official advisory committees, publish influential proposals, organise meetings between industry, policy-makers and executives and also meet at the plethora of military and security fairs, conferences and seminars. Airbus, Leonardo and Thales together with EOS held 226 registered lobbying meetings with the European Commission between 2014 and 2019. In these meetings representatives of the industry position themselves as the experts on border security, presenting their goods and services as the solution for ‘security threats’ caused by immigration. In 2017, the same group of companies and EOS spent up to €2.65 million on lobbying.

    A similar close relationship can be seen on virtual walls, with the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission arguing openly for public policy to foster the ‘emergence of a vibrant European biometrics industry’.
    A deadly trade and a choice

    The conclusion of this survey of the business of building walls is clear. A Europe full of walls has proved to be very good for the bottom line of a wide range of corporations including arms, security, IT, shipping and construction companies. The EU’s planned budgets for border security for the next decade show it is also a business that will continue to boom.

    This is also a deadly business. The heavy militarisation of Europe’s borders on land and at sea has led refugees and migrants to follow far more hazardous routes and has trapped others in desperate conditions in neighbouring countries like Libya. Many deaths are not recorded, but those that are tracked in the Mediterranean show that the proportion of those who drown trying to reach Europe continues to increase each year.

    This is not an inevitable state of affairs. It is both the result of policy decisions made by the EU and its member states, and corporate decisions to profit from these policies. In a rare principled stand, German razor wire manufacturer Mutanox in 2015 stated it would not sell its product to the Hungarian government arguing: ‘Razor wire is designed to prevent criminal acts, like a burglary. Fleeing children and adults are not criminals’. It is time for other European politicians and business leaders to recognise the same truth: that building walls against the world’s most vulnerable people violates human rights and is an immoral act that history will judge harshly. Thirty years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, it is time for Europe to bring down its new walls.

    https://www.tni.org/en/businessbuildingwalls

    #business #murs #barrières_frontalières #militarisation_des_frontières #visualisation #Europe #UE #EU #complexe_militaro-industriel #Airbus #Leonardo #Thales #Indra #Israel_Aerospace_Industries #Elbit #European_Security_Fencing #DAT-CON #Geo_Alpinbau #Dragados #Ferrovial, #Proyectos_Y_Tecnología_Sallén #Eulen #Patstroy_Bourgas #Infra_Expert #Patengineeringstroy #Geostroy_Engineering #Metallic-Ivan_Mihaylov #Nordecon #Defendec #DAK_Acélszerkezeti_Kft #SIA_Ceļu_būvniecības_sabiedrība_IGATE #Gintrėja #Minis #Legi-SGS #Groupe_CW #Jackson’s_Fencing #Sorhea #Vinci #Eurovia #Zaun_Ltd #Damen #Fincantieri #Frontex #Damen #Turquie #Instrument_contributing_to_Stability_and_Peace (#IcSP) #Libye #exernalisation #Operation_Sophia #Navantia #Naval_Group #Flensburger_Schiffbau-Gesellschaft #HDW #Lürssen_Gruppe #Motomarine_Shipyards #Panther_57 #Hellenic_Shipyards #Israel_Shipyards #Schiebel #Dornier #Operation_Hermes #CAE_Aviation #DEA_Aviation #EASP_Air #French_Dassault_Aviation #US_Lockheed_Martin #murs_virtuels #Sopra_Steria #Visa_Information_System (#VIS) #données #Schengen_Information_System (#SIS_II) #European_Dactyloscopy (#Eurodac) #GMV #Eurosur #HP_Belgium #Bull #3M_Belgium #Trusted_Borders_consortium #économie #biométrie #Integrated_System_of_External_Vigilance (#SIVE) #eu-LISA #Accenture #Atos_Belgium #Morpho #Idema #lobby #European_Organisation_for_Security (#EOS) #European_Biometrics_Association (#EAB) #Integrated_Border_Security_Working_Group #Giorgio_Gulienetti #Isto_Mattila #Peter_Smallridge #Gemalto #murs_terrestres #murs_maritimes #coût #chiffres #statistiques #Joint_Research_Centre_of_the_European_Commission #Mutanox

    Pour télécharger le #rapport :


    https://www.tni.org/files/publication-downloads/business_of_building_walls_-_full_report.pdf

    déjà signalé par @odilon ici :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/809783
    Je le remets ici avec des mots clé de plus

    ping @daphne @marty @isskein @karine4

    • La costruzione di muri: un business

      Trent’anni dopo la caduta del Muro di Berlino, l’Europa fa parlare di sé ancora una volta per i suoi muri di frontiera. Questa volta non è tanto l’ideologia che la divide, quanto la paura di rifugiati e migranti, alcune tra le persone più vulnerabili al mondo.

      Riassunto del rapporto «The Business of Building Walls» [1]:

      Chi ha ucciso il sogno di un’Europa più aperta? Cosa ha dato inizio a questa nuova era dei muri?
      Ci sono evidentemente molte ragioni: il crescente spostamento di persone a causa di conflitti, repressione e impoverimento, l’ascesa di politiche securitarie sulla scia dell’11 settembre, l’insicurezza economica e sociale percepita in Europa dopo la crisi finanziaria del 2008, solo per nominarne alcune. Tuttavia, c’è un gruppo che ha di gran lunga da guadagnare da questo innalzamento di nuovi muri: le imprese che li costruiscono. La loro influenza nel dare forma ad un mondo di muri necessita di un esame più profondo.

      Questo rapporto esplora il business della costruzione di muri, che è stato alimentato e ha beneficiato di un aumento considerevole della spesa pubblica dedicata alla sicurezza delle frontiere dall’Unione Europea (EU) e dai suoi Stati membri. Alcune imprese beneficiarie sono delle multinazionali che approfittano di un mercato globale per la sicurezza delle frontiere che si stima valere approssimativamente 17,5 miliardi di euro nel 2018, con una crescita annuale prevista almeno dell’8% nei prossimi anni.

      È importante guardare sia oltre che dietro i muri e le barriere d’Europa, perché i reali ostacoli alla migrazione contemporanea non sono tanto le recinzioni, quanto la vasta gamma di tecnologie che vi è alla base, dai sistemi radar ai droni, dalle telecamere di sorveglianza ai sistemi biometrici di rilevamento delle impronte digitali. Allo stesso modo, alcuni tra i più pericolosi muri d’Europa non sono nemmeno fisici o sulla terraferma. Le navi, gli aerei e i droni usati per pattugliare il Mediterraneo hanno creato un muro marittimo e un cimitero per i migliaia di migranti e di rifugiati che non hanno un passaggio legale verso la salvezza o per esercitare il loro diritto di asilo.

      Tutto ciò rende insignificanti le dichiarazioni della Commissione Europea secondo le quali essa non finanzierebbe i muri e le recinzioni. Il portavoce della Commissione, Alexander Winterstein, per esempio, nel rifiutare la richiesta dell’Ungheria di rimborsare la metà dei costi delle recinzioni costruite sul suo confine con la Croazia e la Serbia, ha affermato: “Noi sosteniamo le misure di gestione delle frontiere presso i confini esterni. Queste possono consistere in misure di sorveglianza o in equipaggiamento di controllo delle frontiere... . Ma le recinzioni, quelle non le finanziamo”. In altre parole, la Commissione è disposta a pagare per qualunque cosa che fortifichi un confine fintanto che ciò non sia visto come propriamente costruire dei muri.

      Questo rapporto è il seguito di “Building Walls - Fear and securitizazion in the Euopean Union”, co-pubblicato nel 2018 con Centre Delàs e Stop Wapenhandel, che per primi hanno misurato e identificato i muri che attraversano l’Europa.

      Questo nuovo rapporto si focalizza sulle imprese che hanno tratto profitto dai tre differenti tipi di muro in Europa:
      – Le imprese di costruzione ingaggiate per costruire i muri fisici costruiti dagli Stati membri UE e dall’Area Schengen in collaborazione con le imprese esperte in sicurezza e tecnologia che provvedono le tecnologie, l’equipaggiamento e i servizi associati;
      – le imprese di trasporto marittimo e di armamenti che forniscono le navi, gli aerei, gli elicotteri e i droni che costituiscono i muri marittimi dell’Europa per tentare di controllare i flussi migratori nel Mediterraneo, in particolare le operazioni di Frontex, l’operazione Sophia e l’operazione italiana Mare Nostrum;
      – e le imprese specializzate in informatica e in sicurezza incaricate di sviluppare, eseguire, estendere e mantenere i sistemi dell’UE che controllano i movimento delle persone, quali SIS II (Schengen Information System) e EES (Entry/Exii Scheme), che costituiscono i muri virtuali dell’Europa.
      Dei budget fiorenti

      Il flusso di denaro dai contribuenti ai costruttori di muri è stato estremamente lucrativo e non cessa di aumentare. Il report rivela che dalla fine della guerra fredda, le imprese hanno raccolto i profitti di almeno 900 milioni di euro di spese dei paesi dell’UE per i muri fisici e per le recinzioni. Con i dati parziali (sia nella portata e che negli anni), i costi reali raggiungerebbero almeno 1 miliardo di euro. Inoltre, le imprese che forniscono la tecnologia e i servizi che accompagnano i muri hanno ugualmente beneficiato di un flusso costante di finanziamenti da parte dell’UE, in particolare i Fondi per le frontiere esterne (1,7 miliardi di euro, 2007-2013) e i Fondi per la sicurezza interna - Fondi per le Frontiere (2,76 miliardi di euro, 2014-2020).

      Le spese dell’UE per i muri marittimi hanno raggiunto almeno 676,4 milioni di euro tra il 2006 e il 2017 (di cui 534 milioni sono stati spesi da Frontex, 28 milioni dall’UE nell’operazione Sophia e 114 milioni dall’Italia nell’operazione Mare Nostrum) e sarebbero molto superiori se si includessero tutte le operazioni delle guardie costiera nazionali nel Mediterraneo.

      Questa esplosione dei budget per le frontiere ha le condizioni per proseguire. Nel quadro del suo budget per il prossimo ciclo di bilancio dell’Unione Europea (2021-2027), la Commissione europea ha attribuito 8,02 miliardi di euro al suo fondo di gestione integrata delle frontiere (2021-2027), 11,27 miliardi a Frontex (dei quali 2,2 miliardi saranno utilizzati per l’acquisizione, il mantenimento e l’utilizzo di mezzi aerei, marittimi e terrestri) e almeno 1,9 miliardi di euro di spese totali (2000-2027) alle sue banche dati di identificazione e a Eurosur (il sistemo europeo di sorveglianza delle frontiere).
      I principali attori del settore degli armamenti

      Tre giganti europei del settore della difesa e della sicurezza giocano un ruolo cruciale nei differenti tipi di frontiere d’Europa: Thales, Leonardo e Airbus.

      – Thales è un’impresa francese specializzata negli armamenti e nella sicurezza, con una presenza significativa nei Paesi Bassi, che produce sistemi radar e sensori utilizzati da numerose navi della sicurezza frontaliera. I sistemi Thales, per esempio, sono stati utilizzati dalle navi olandesi e portoghesi impiegate nelle operazioni di Frontex.
      Thales produce ugualmente sistemi di sorveglianza marittima per droni e lavora attualmente per sviluppare una infrastruttura di sorveglianza delle frontiere per Eurosus, che permetta di seguire e controllare i rifugiati prima che raggiungano l’Europa con l’aiuto di applicazioni per Smartphone, e studia ugualmente l’utilizzo di “High Altitude Pseudo-Satellites - HAPS” per la sicurezza delle frontiere, per l’Agenzia spaziale europea e Frontex. Thales fornisce attualmente il sistema di sicurezza del porto altamente militarizzato di Calais.
      Con l’acquisto nel 2019 di Gemalto, multinazionale specializzata nella sicurezza e identità (biometrica), Thales diventa un attore importante nello sviluppo e nel mantenimento dei muri virtuali dell’UE. L’impresa ha partecipato a 27 progetti di ricerca dell’UE sulla sicurezza delle frontiere.

      – La società di armamenti italiana Leonardo (originariamente Finmeccanica o Leonardo-Finmeccanica) è uno dei principali fornitori di elicotteri per la sicurezza delle frontiere, utilizzati dalle operazioni Mare Nostrum, Hera e Sophia in Italia. Ha ugualmente fatto parte dei principali fornitori di UAV (o droni), ottenendo un contratto di 67,1 milioni di euro nel 2017 con l’EMSA (Agenzia europea per la sicurezza marittima) per fornire le agenzie di guardia costiera dell’UE.
      Leonardo faceva ugualmente parte di un consorzio che si è visto attribuire un contratto di 142,1 milioni di euro nel 2019 per attuare e assicurare il mantenimento dei muri virtuali dell’UE, ossia il Sistema di entrata/uscita (EES). La società detiene, con Thales, Telespazio, che partecipa ai progetti di osservazione dai satelliti dell’UE (React e Copernicus) utilizzati per controllare le frontiere. Leonardo ha partecipato a 24 progetti di ricerca dell’UE sulla sicurezza e il controllo delle frontiere, tra cui lo sviluppo di Eurosur.

      – Il gigante degli armamenti pan-europei Airbus è un importante fornitore di elicotteri utilizzati nella sorveglianza delle frontiere marittime e di alcune frontiere terrestri, impiegati da Belgio, Francia, Germania, Grecia, Italia, Lituania e Spagna, in particolare nelle operazioni marittime Sophia, Poseidon e Triton. Airbus e le sue filiali hanno partecipato almeno a 13 progetti di ricerca sulla sicurezza delle frontiere finanziati dall’UE, tra cui OCEAN2020, PERSEUS e LOBOS.

      Il ruolo chiave di queste società di armamenti in realtà non è sorprendente. Come è stato dimostrato da “Border Wars” (2016), queste imprese, in quanto appartenenti a lobby come EOS (Organizzazione europea per la sicurezza) e ASD (Associazione delle industrie aerospaziali e della difesa in Europa), hanno ampiamente contribuito a influenzare l’orientamento della politica delle frontiere dell’UE. Paradossalmente, questi stessi marchi fanno ugualmente parte dei quattro più grandi venditori europei di armi al Medio Oriente e all’Africa del Nord, contribuendo così ad alimentare i conflitti all’origine di queste migrazioni forzate.

      Allo stesso modo Indra gioca un ruolo non indifferente nel controllo delle frontiere in Spagna e nel Mediterraneo. L’impresa ha ottenuto una serie di contratti per fortificare Ceuta e Melilla (enclavi spagnole nel Nord del Marocco). Indra ha ugualmente sviluppato il sistema di controllo delle frontiere SIVE (con sistemi radar, di sensori e visivi) che è installato nella maggior parte delle frontiere della Spagna, così come in Portogallo e in Romania. Nel luglio 2018, Indra ha ottenuto un contratto di 10 milioni di euro per assicurare la gestione di SIVE su più siti per due anni. L’impresa è molto attiva nel fare lobby presso l’UE. È ugualmente una dei grandi beneficiari dei finanziamenti per la ricerca dell’UE, che assicurano il coordinamento del progetto PERSEUS per lo sviluppo di Eurosur e il Seahorse Network, la rete di scambio di informazioni tra le forze di polizia dei paesi mediterranei (in Europa e in Africa) per fermare le migrazioni.

      Le società di armamenti israeliane hanno anch’esse ottenuto numerosi contratti nel quadro della sicurezza delle frontiere in UE. Nel 2018, Frontex ha selezionato il drone Heron delle Israel Aerospace Industries per i voli di sorveglianza degli esperimenti pilota nel Mediterraneo. Nel 2015, la società israeliana Elbit Systems ha venduto sei dei suoi droni Hermes al Corpo di guardie di frontiera svizzero, nel quadro di un contratto controverso di 230 milioni di euro. Ha anche firmato in seguito un contratto per droni con l’EMSA (Agenzia europea per la sicurezza marittima), in quanto subappaltatore della società portoghese CEIIA (2018), così come dei contratti per equipaggiare tre navi di pattugliamento per la Hellenic Coast Guard (2019).
      Gli appaltatori dei muri fisici

      La maggioranza di muri e recinzioni che sono stati rapidamente eretti attraverso l’Europa, sono stati costruiti da società di BTP nazionali/società nazionali di costruzioni, ma un’impresa europea ha dominato nel mercato: la European Security Fencing, un produttore spagnolo di filo spinato, in particolare di un filo a spirale chiamato “concertina”. È famosa per aver fornito i fili spinati delle recinzioni che circondano Ceuta e Melilla. L’impresa ha ugualmente dotato di fili spinati le frontiere tra l’Ungheria e la Serbia, e i suoi fili spinati “concertina” sono stati installati alle frontiere tra Bulgaria e Turchia e tra l’Austria e la Slovenia, così come a Calais e, per qualche giorno, alla frontiera tra Ungheria e Slovenia, prima di essere ritirati. Dato che essi detengono il monopolio sul mercato da un po’ di tempo a questa parte, è probabile che i fili spinati “concertina” siano stati utilizzati presso altre frontiere in Europa.

      Tra le altre imprese che hanno fornito i muri e le tecnologie ad essi associate, si trova DAT-CON (Croazia, Cipro, Macedonia, Moldavia, Slovenia e Ucraina), Geo Alpinbau (Austria/Slovenia), Indra, Dragados, Ferrovial, Proyectos Y Tecnología Sallén e Eulen (Spagna/Marocco), Patstroy Bourgas, Infra Expert, Patengineeringstroy, Geostroy Engineering, Metallic-Ivan Mihaylov et Indra (Bulgaria/Turchia), Nordecon e Defendec (Estonia/Russia), DAK Acélszerkezeti Kft e SIA Ceļu būvniecības sabiedrība IGATE (Lettonia/Russia), Gintrėja (Lituania/Russi), Minis e Legi-SGS (Slovenia/Croazia), Groupe CW, Jackson’s Fencing, Sorhea, Vinci/Eurovia e Zaun Ltd (Francia/Regno Unito).

      I costi reali dei muri e delle tecnologie associate superano spesso le stime originali. Numerose accuse e denunce per corruzione sono state allo stesso modo formulate, in certi casi perché i progetti erano stati attribuiti a delle imprese che appartenevano ad amici di alti funzionari. In Slovenia, per esempio, accuse di corruzione riguardanti un contratto per la costruzione di muri alle frontiere hanno portato a tre anni di battaglie legali per avere accesso ai documenti; la questione è passata poi alla Corte suprema.

      Malgrado tutto ciò, il Fondo europeo per le frontiere esterne ha sostenuto finanziariamente le infrastrutture e i servizi tecnologici di numerose operazioni alle frontiere degli Stati membri. In Macedonia, per esempio, l’UE ha versato 9 milioni di euro per finanziare dei veicoli di pattugliamento, delle telecamere a visione notturna, dei rivelatori di battito cardiaco e sostegno tecnico alle guardie di frontiera nell’aiuto della gestione della sua frontiera meridionale.
      Gli speculatori dei muri marittimi

      I dati che permettono di determinare quali imbarcazioni, elicotteri e aerei sono utilizzati nelle operazioni marittime in Europa mancano di trasparenza. È dunque difficile recuperare tutte le informazioni. Le nostre ricerche mostrano comunque che tra le principali società implicate figurano i giganti europei degli armamenti Airbus e Leonardo, così come grandi imprese di costruzione navale come l’olandese Damen e l’italiana Fincantieri.

      Le imbarcazioni di pattugliamento di Damen sono servite per delle operazioni frontaliere portate avanti da Albania, Belgio, Bulgaria, Portogallo, Paesi Bassi, Romania, Svezia e Regno Unito, così come per le vaste operazioni di Frontex (Poseidon, Triton e Themis), per l’operazione Sophia e hanno ugualmente sostento la NATO nell’operazione Poseidon.

      Al di fuori dell’Europa, la Libia, il Marocco, la Tunisia e la Turchia utilizzano delle imbarcazioni Damen per la sicurezza delle frontiere, spesso in collaborazione con l’UE o i suoi Stati membri. Per esempio, le sei navi Damen che la Turchia ha comprato per la sua guardia costiera nel 2006, per un totale di 20 milioni di euro, sono state finanziate attraverso lo strumento europeo che contribuirebbe alla stabilità e alla pace (IcSP), destinato a mantenere la pace e a prevenire i conflitti.

      La vendita di imbarcazioni Damen alla Libia mette in evidenza l’inquietante costo umano di questo commercio. Nel 2012, Damen ha fornito quattro imbarcazioni di pattugliamento alla guardia costiera libica, che sono state vendute come equipaggiamento civile col fine di evitare la licenza di esportazione di armi nei Paesi Bassi. I ricercatori hanno poi scoperto che non solo le imbarcazioni erano state vendute con dei punti di fissaggio per le armi, ma che erano state in seguito armate ed utilizzate per fermare le imbarcazioni di rifugiati. Numerosi incidenti che hanno implicato queste imbarcazioni sono stati segnalati, tra i quali l’annegamento di 20 o 30 rifugiati. Damen si è rifiutata di commentare, dichiarando di aver convenuto col governo libico di non divulgare alcuna informazione riguardante le imbarcazioni.

      Numerosi costruttori navali nazionali, oltre a Damen, giocano un ruolo determinante nelle operizioni marittime poiché sono sistematicamente scelti con priorità dai paesi partecipanti a ogni operazione di Frontex o ad altre operazioni nel Mediterraneo. Tutte le imbarcazioni fornite dall’Italia all’operazione Sophia sono state costruite da Fincantieri e tutte quelle spagnole sono fornite da Navantia e dai suoi predecessori. Allo stesso modo, la Francia si rifornisce da DCN/DCNS, ormai Naval Group, e tutte le imbarcazioni tedesche sono state costruite da diversi cantieri navali tedeschi (Flensburger Schiffbau-Gesellschaft, HDW, Lürssen Gruppe). Altre imprese hanno partecipato alle operazioni di Frontex, tra cui la società greca Motomarine Shipyards, che ha prodotto i pattugliatori rapidi Panther 57 utilizzati dalla guardia costiera greca, così come la Hellenic Shipyards e la Israel Shipyards.

      La società austriaca Schiebel, che fornisce i droni S-100, gioca un ruolo importante nella sorveglianza aerea delle attività marittime. Nel novembre 2018, è stata selezionata dall’EMSA per un contratto di sorveglianza marittima di 24 milioni di euro riguardante differenti operazioni che includevano la sicurezza delle frontiere. Dal 2017, Schiebel ha ugualmente ottenuto dei contratti con la Croazia, la Danimarca, l’Islanda, l’Italia, il Portogallo e la Spagna. L’impresa ha un passato controverso: ha venduto dei droni a numerosi paesi in conflitto armato o governati da regimi repressivi come la Libia, il Myanmar, gli Emirati Arabi Uniti e lo Yemen.

      La Finlandia e i Paesi Bassi hanno impiegato degli aerei Dornier rispettivamente nel quadro delle operazioni Hermès, Poseidon e Triton. Dornier appartiene ormai alla filiale americana della società di armamenti israeliana Elbit Systems.
      CAE Aviation (Lussemburgo), DEA Aviation (Regno Unito) e EASP Air (Paesi Bassi) hanno tutte ottenuto dei contratti di sorveglianza aerea per Frontex.
      Airbus, Dassault Aviation, Leonardo e l’americana Lockheed Martin hanno fornito il più grande numero di aerei utilizzati per l’operazione Sophia.

      L’UE e i suoi Stati membri difendono le loro operazioni marittime pubblicizzando il loro ruolo nel salvataggio dei rifugiati in mare. Ma non è questo il loro obiettivo principale, come sottolinea il direttore di Frontex Fabrice Leggeri nell’aprile 2015, dichiarando che “le azioni volontarie di ricerca e salvataggio” non fanno parte del mandato affidato a Frontex, e che salvare delle vite non dovrebbe essere una priorità. La criminalizzazione delle operazioni di salvataggio da parte delle ONG, gli ostacoli che esse incontrano, così come la violenza e i respingimenti illegali dei rifugiati, spesso denunciati, illustrano bene il fatto che queste operazioni marittime sono volte soprattutto a costituire muri piuttosto che missioni umanitarie.
      I muri virtuali

      I principali contratti dell’UE legati ai muri virtuali sono stati affidati a due imprese, a volte in quanto leader di un consorzio.
      Sopra Steria è il partner principale per lo sviluppo e il mantenimento del Sistema d’informazione dei visti (SIV), del Sistema di informazione Schengen (SIS II) e di Eurodac (European Dactyloscopy) e GMV ha firmato una serie di contratti per Eurosur. I sistemi che essi concepiscono permettono di controllare e di sorvegliare i movimenti delle persone attraverso l’Europa e, sempre più spesso, al di là delle sue frontiere.

      Sopra Steria è un’impresa francese di servizi per consultazioni in tecnologia che ha, ad oggi, ottenuto dei contratti con l’UE per un valore totale di più di 150 milioni di euro. Nel quadro di alcuni di questi grossi contratti, Sopra Steria ha formato dei consorzi con HP Belgio, Bull e 3M Belgio.

      Malgrado l’ampiezza di questi mercati, Sopra Steria ha ricevuto importanti critiche per la sua mancanza di rigore nel rispetto delle tempistiche e dei budget. Il lancio di SIS II è stato costantemente ritardato, costringendo la Commissione a prolungare i contratti e ad aumentare i budget. Sopra Steria aveva ugualmente fatto parte di un altro consorzio, Trusted Borders, impegnato nello sviluppo del programma e-Borders nel Regno Unito. Quest’ultimo è terminato nel 2010 dopo un accumulo di ritardi e di mancate consegne. Tuttavia, la società ha continuato a ottenere contratti, a causa del suo quasi monopolio di conoscenze e di relazioni con i rappresentanti dell’UE. Il ruolo centrale di Sopra Steria nello sviluppo dei sistemi biometrici dell’UE ha ugualmente portato alla firma di altri contratti nazionali con, tra gli altri, il Belgio, la Bulgaria, la Repubblica ceca, la Finlandia, la Francia, la Germania, la Romania e la Slovenia.

      GMV, un’impresa tecnologica spagnola, ha concluso una serie di grossi contratti per Eurosur, dopo la sua fase sperimentale nel 2010, per almeno 25 milioni di euro. Essa rifornisce ugualmente di tecnologie la Guardia Civil spagnola, tecnologie quali, ad esempio, i centri di controllo del suo Sistema integrato di sorveglianza esterna (SIVE), sistema di sicurezza delle frontiere, così come rifornisce di servizi di sviluppo logistico Frontex. L’impresa ha partecipato ad almeno dieci progetti di ricerca finanziati dall’UE sulla sicurezza delle frontiere.

      La maggior parte dei grossi contratti riguardanti i muri virtuali che non sono stati conclusi con consorzi di cui facesse parte Sopra Steria, sono stati attribuiti da eu-LISA (l’Agenzia europea per la gestione operazionale dei sistemi di informazione su vasta scale in seno allo spazio di libertà, di sicurezza e di giustizia) a dei consorzi di imprese specializzate nell’informazione e nelle nuove tecnologie, tra questi: Accenture, Atos Belgium e Morpho (rinominato Idemia).
      Lobby

      Come testimonia il nostro report “Border Wars”, il settore della difesa e della sicurezza, grazie ad una lobbying efficace, ha un’influenza considerabile nell’elaborazione delle politiche di difesa e di sicurezza dell’UE. Le imprese di questo settore industriale sono riuscite a posizionarsi come esperti della sicurezza delle frontiere, portando avanti il loro discorso secondo il quale la migrazione è prima di tutto una minaccia per la sicurezza che deve essere combattuta tramite mezzi militari e securitari. Questo crea così una domanda continua del catalogo sempre più fornito di equipaggiamenti e servizi che esse forniscono per la sicurezza e il controllo delle frontiere.

      Un numero alto di imprese che abbiamo nominato, in particolare le grandi società di armamenti, fanno parte dell’EOS (Organizzazione europea per la sicurezza), il più importante gruppo di pressione sulla sicurezza delle frontiere.

      Molte imprese informatiche che hanno concepito i muri virtuali dell’UE sono membri dell’EAB (Associazione Europea per la Biometria). L’EOS ha un “Gruppo di lavoro sulla sicurezza integrata delle frontiere” per “permettere lo sviluppo e l’adozione delle migliori soluzioni tecnologiche per la sicurezza delle frontiere sia ai checkpoint che lungo le frontiere marittime e terrestri”.
      Il gruppo di lavoro è presieduto da Giorgio Gulienetti, della società di armi italiana Leonardo, Isto Mattila (diplomato all’università di scienze applicate) e Peter Smallridge di Gemalto, multinazionale specializzata nella sicurezza numerica, recentemente acquisita da Thales.

      I lobbisti di imprese e i rappresentanti di questi gruppi di pressione incontrano regolarmente le istituzioni dell’UE, tra cui la Commissione europea, nel quadro di comitati di consiglio ufficiali, pubblicano proposte influenti, organizzano incontri tra il settore industriale, i policy-makers e i dirigenti e si ritrovano allo stesso modo in tutti i saloni, le conferenze e i seminari sulla difesa e la sicurezza.

      Airbus, Leonardo e Thales e l’EOS hanno anche assistito a 226 riunioni ufficiali di lobby con la Commissione europea tra il 2014 e il 2019. In queste riunioni, i rappresentanti del settore si presentano come esperti della sicurezza delle frontiere, e propongono i loro prodotti e servizi come soluzione alle “minacce alla sicurezza” costituite dall’immigrazione. Nel 2017, queste stesse imprese e l’EOS hanno speso fino a 2,56 milioni di euro in lobbying.

      Si constata una relazione simile per quanto riguarda i muri virtuali: il Centro comune della ricerca della Commissione europea domanda apertamente che le politiche pubbliche favoriscano “l’emergenza di una industria biometrica europea dinamica”.
      Un business mortale, una scelta

      La conclusione di questa inchiesta sul business dell’innalzamento di muri è chiara: la presenza di un’Europa piena di muri si rivela molto fruttuosa per una larga fetta di imprese del settore degli armamenti, della difesa, dell’informatica, del trasporto marittimo e delle imprese di costruzioni. I budget che l’UE ha pianificato per la sicurezza delle frontiere nei prossimi dieci anni mostrano che si tratta di un commercio che continua a prosperare.

      Si tratta altresì di un commercio mortale. A causa della vasta militarizzazione delle frontiere dell’Europa sulla terraferma e in mare, i rifugiati e i migranti intraprendono dei percorsi molto più pericolosi e alcuni si trovano anche intrappolati in terribili condizioni in paesi limitrofi come la Libia. Non vengono registrate tutte le morti, ma quelle che sono registrate nel Mediterraneo mostrano che il numero di migranti che annegano provando a raggiungere l’Europa continua ad aumentare ogni anno.

      Questo stato di cose non è inevitabile. È il risultato sia di decisioni politiche prese dall’UE e dai suoi Stati membri, sia dalle decisioni delle imprese di trarre profitto da queste politiche. Sono rare le imprese che prendono posizione, come il produttore tedesco di filo spinato Mutinox che ha dichiarato nel 2015 che non avrebbe venduto i suoi prodotti al governo ungherese per il seguente motivo: “I fili spinati sono concepiti per impedire atti criminali, come il furto. Dei rifugiati, bambini e adulti, non sono dei criminali”.

      È tempo che altri politici e capi d’impresa riconoscano questa stessa verità: erigere muri contro le popolazioni più vulnerabili viola i diritti umani e costituisce un atto immorale che sarà evidentemente condannato dalla storia.

      Trent’anni dopo la caduta del muro di Berlino, è tempo che l’Europa abbatta i suoi nuovi muri.

      https://www.meltingpot.org/La-costruzione-di-muri-un-business.html

  • Trump Admits His Border Wall is Not Impenetrable after Reports Parts Have Been Sawed Through: ’You Can Cut Through Anything’

    President Donald Trump has admitted his border wall is not as impenetrable as he had initially claimed after reports that some parts had been sawed through.

    The Washington Post reported on Saturday that smuggling gangs have used commercial power tools to cut through the new parts of Trump’s controversial wall along the Mexican border.

    The gangs used a cordless reciprocating saw, which can be purchased at hardware stores starting from as little as $100, to make gaps big enough for people and drugs to pass through, U.S. agents and officials who have knowledge of the situation told the newspaper.

    Once fitted with specialized blades, the saws can cut through the steel-and-concrete bollards of the barrier in minutes, according to the unnamed agents.

    Trump, who spent years insisting his border wall would be impenetrable, conceded that any wall can be cut through but insisted the damage could be “easily fixed.”

    “We have a very powerful wall. But no matter how powerful, you can cut through anything, in all fairness,” Trump told reporters in Washington, D.C. before his departure for New York City on Saturday evening.

    "We have a lot of people watching,’ Trump added, according to Politico. “Cutting is one thing, but it’s easily fixed. One of the reasons we did it the way we did it, it’s very easily fixed. You put the chunk back in.”

    But according to the Post, smugglers have learned how to cut the bollards and then return them to their positions so that the damage goes unnoticed, allowing the passage to be used multiple times.

    U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) agents reportedly drive along the barrier and kick the bollards with their boots to check for any defects in the metal. If any are found, welding crews are sent in to fix the damage.

    But smugglers have also returned to the same bollards once they have been fixed and cut through the welds as the metal on those bollards is softer, the Post reported. They have also tried to trick agents by using a putty that looks like welding to make a bollard that has been cut look as if it is still intact.

    And cutting isn’t the only technique used by the smugglers to circumvent the barrier. They have also been building makeshift ladders to scale the wall, especially in the San Diego area, the Post reported.

    In a statement to Newsweek, a CBP spokesperson insisted that “the wall is working.”

    The spokesperson said: "Any characterization that the wall isn’t working is simply false. The wall is working and is providing additional capability that Border Patrol agents have asked for.

    “What we’re building is a wall system, which includes cameras, sensors, infrastructure and border patrol agents to ensure we ultimately apprehend the criminals trying to defeat it. When someone cuts through the wall and a border patrol agent is standing there to arrest them because of the technology that gave them a heads up, that’s a win.”

    The spokesperson didn’t elaborate on how many breaches there have been.

    But a senior administration official, who spoke to the Post on the condition of anonymity, said there had been “a few instances” but added that the new fencing had “significantly increased security and deterrence.”

    Trump has made building the wall along the border to stop migrants coming into the U.S. from Mexico a major feature of his presidency, repeatedly boasting about its construction at rallies, in ads and on Twitter.

    He recently touted the taxpayer-funded barrier as a “world-class security system” that is “virtually impenetrable.”

    “When the wall is built, it will be virtually impossible to come over illegally, and then we’re able to take border control and put them at points of entry,” Trump said during a visit to a construction site in San Diego’s Otay Mesa area in September, according to the Associated Press.

    https://www.newsweek.com/trump-admits-border-wall-not-impenetrable-saw-cut-through-1469428

    Si même #Trump le dit.................

    #walls_don't_work #murs #barrières_frontalières #frontières #USA #Etats-Unis

  • The Trump administration is sucking up tens of millions of gallons of precious desert groundwater to build the #BorderWall.

    Even after our children tear down this absurd barrier, it could take the ancient aquifers at #Organ_Pipe generations to recover.

    https://twitter.com/LaikenJordahl/status/1182038921145831424
    #eau #murs #barrières_frontalières #USA #Etats-Unis #nappe_phréatique #désert #frontières

    ping @mobileborders

  • Les inégalités moulées Jean-François Nadeau - 7 Octobre 2019 - Le devoir
    https://www.ledevoir.com/opinion/chroniques/564214/les-inegalites-moulees

    La lâcheté complaisante qu’entretient, de longue date, la société à l’égard des inégalités fait en sorte qu’elles semblent aller de soi. Il suffit d’observer le champ fondamental de l’éducation pour s’en convaincre. Malgré ses prétentions, le système québécois ne fournit pas les mêmes chances à l’ensemble des élèves. Le Québec serait même le système d’éducation le plus inéquitable au Canada. C’est du moins ce que nous révélait, il y a quelques jours, une étude pour le moins préoccupante conduite par le Mouvement L’école ensemble.

    Sur la base de données compilées par l’Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques (OCDE), cette étude observe que notre système d’éducation avalise l’existence de programmes sélectifs, selon que l’on fréquente l’école publique ordinaire, l’école des programmes particuliers ou l’école privée. Autrement dit, loin de casser les inégalités, comme il le prétend depuis la Révolution tranquille, notre système d’éducation contribue plutôt à les reproduire en les moulant finement.

    À en croire le discours ambiant, nous vivons dans un monde sans barrières sociales. Tout ne serait qu’une question de volonté, d’ambition et de détermination, que l’on suppose à la base équitablement réparties en chacun. Selon ce mirage savamment entretenu dans nos sociétés, chaque individu serait capable, par ses propres qualités, d’échapper à la loi de la gravité du milieu de vie qui pèse sur lui. Ce rêve waltdysnéesque répète, autrement dit, qu’il suffirait de vouloir pour pouvoir.

    Des gens partis de rien, arrivés là où on ne les attendait pas, servent sans cesse d’exemple pour perpétuer ce mythe de la mobilité sociale. On braque les projecteurs sur ces cas d’exception, comme s’il s’agissait d’une preuve universelle que tout est possible à chacun. On soutient de la sorte l’idée généreuse — mais surtout trompeuse — qu’il demeure bel et bien possible de changer de situation sociale, dans un monde qui continue en vérité de sécréter plus d’inégalités que de possibilités.

    S’il faut rêver pour changer le monde, le monde ne se change pas qu’en rêvant. La perpétuation du monde tel qu’il est — c’est-à-dire un monde foncièrement inégal — se fait selon les modalités de cette inertie sociale entretenue sous le couvert d’un récit fantasmé où chacun serait libre de choisir sa trajectoire.

    L’infériorité de la formation de larges portions de la population continue d’être présentée comme si elle découlait d’une simple affaire de capacités et de goûts pour les études, qu’elle serait pour ainsi dire naturelle, fruit d’un choix librement consenti. On se conforte de la sorte à l’idée que l’éducation constitue une affaire individuelle qui n’est pas circonscrite, au préalable, par une appartenance à un milieu, à une classe sociale, à des revenus familiaux. Et on juge ainsi acceptable que des familles d’ouvriers engendrent surtout des ouvriers et des familles d’avocats surtout des avocats.

    La mobilité sociale, sauf cas d’exception, n’est pas la règle dans notre monde. Si on trouve bel et bien des individus parvenus à échapper aux lois de la statistique, cela ne change pas pour autant le fait que les enfants des classes populaires sont à majorité voués à un destin moins favorisé que ceux qui appartiennent à un monde doré.

    Le principe théorique de l’accessibilité pour tous à l’école a maquillé des formes d’exclusion qui se sont mutées en se camouflant derrière le mince paravent de cette démocratisation opérée à l’orée des années 1960. Bien que tous les enfants fréquentent désormais l’école, les barrières sociales demeurent, ce dont témoignent les inégalités de notre système d’éducation, saigné pendant des années par les scalpels des politiques d’austérité.

    La capacité de manier des concepts, des faits et des raisonnements n’est pas innée. Cela nécessite un entraînement soutenu, durant de longues années. Avant même d’acquérir cette capacité, il faut être en mesure de se donner les moyens de surmonter des difficultés qui entravent son acquisition. Le manque de temps, le manque d’argent, le manque d’espace, un milieu familial défavorable aux études continuent d’expliquer, en large partie, l’insuffisance des résultats obtenus par notre système d’éducation.

    Peut-on changer le tissu social seulement en réformant l’école de l’intérieur ? Depuis des années, l’école québécoise n’arrête pas de se trouver chamboulée. Les réformes de l’éducation sont pour ainsi dire permanentes. L’une chasse l’autre. On en perd vite le compte, à moins d’être un spécialiste. Et encore. Le ministre Jean-François Roberge vient d’en lancer une énième, comme si c’était la principale action qu’encourageait sa fonction.

    Se gargariser ainsi de réformes à n’en plus finir, n’est-ce pas là le signe d’une fuite en avant, celle d’un État qui manque d’abord à son devoir de changer les conditions socio-économiques qui permettraient d’amenuiser, à la base, les différences entre les enfants et leurs parents ?

    Quand on y pense, l’école ne peut suffire à elle seule à briser les inégalités puisqu’elle en est aussi, au final, le triste produit.

    #inégalités (et ses #reproductions) #société #barrières_sociales #sélection #réformes #éducation #école #mobilité_sociale #exclusion #exclusions

  • The Wall. Growing Up Behind the Iron Curtain

    “I was born at the beginning of it all, on the Red side—the Communist side—of the Iron Curtain.” Through annotated illustrations, journals, maps, and dreamscapes, Peter Sís shows what life was like for a child who loved to draw, proudly wore the red scarf of a Young Pioneer, stood guard at the giant statue of Stalin, and believed whatever he was told to believe. But adolescence brought questions. Cracks began to appear in the Iron Curtain, and news from the West slowly filtered into the country. Sís learned about beat poetry, rock ’n’ roll, blue jeans, and Coca-Cola. He let his hair grow long, secretly read banned books, and joined a rock band. Then came the Prague Spring of 1968, and for a teenager who wanted to see the world and meet the Beatles, this was a magical time. It was short-lived, however, brought to a sudden and brutal end by the Soviet-led invasion. But this brief flowering had provided a glimpse of new possibilities—creativity could be discouraged but not easily killed.

    By joining memory and history, Sís takes us on his extraordinary journey: from infant with paintbrush in hand to young man borne aloft by the wings of his art. This title has Common Core connections.


    https://us.macmillan.com/books/9780374347017
    #livre #mur #guerre_froide #murs #barrières_frontalières #Tchécoslovaquie #dessin #BD #communisme #histoire #totalitarisme

  • « C’est fou à quel point ces #murs et ces #grilles sont hautes. On côtoie ces murs en permanence.
    Ils limitent notre quotidien. Ils sont l’affirmation de la négation de l’autre.
    Mais on les a intégrés, leur #violence a été assimilée. On accepte sans le percevoir le #pouvoir de contrainte, la #dépossession de l’#espace qu’ils représentent »

    #géographie_urbaine #villes #urban_matter #barrières

    Source : une #BD de #Margot_Gustaedt dont le titre est "Les renards sans pelage" , qui n’a pas été publiée. C’est son travail de diplôme.

    La BD porte sur les #violences_policières et sur l’affaire du #lycée_Arago

    D’autres travaux de Margot, que j’ai rencontrée en Grèce lors d’une summer school à Athènes sur les villes-refuge, car elle travaillait à une nouvelle BD avec une étudiante qui suivait la summer school :
    https://margotgustaedt.tumblr.com

    ping @reka @davduf @isskein

  • Balkan Region - Report July 2019

    The Border Violence Monitoring Network has just published it’s August report summarizing the current situation regarding pushbacks and police violence in the Western Balkans, primarily in Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, the Se​rbian borders with Croatia and Hungary, but also including Italy, Slovenia, North Macedonia and Greece.

    This report analyzes, among other things:

    – Torture: Recurrence of extreme violence and abuse
    – Pushback from Italy
    – Beyond police: Actors within the pushback framework
    – Further dispersion of pushback sites in NW Bosnia
    – Trends in pushback sites to and from Greece

    More broadly, monitoring work continues to note the trans-national and bilateral cooperation between EU member states in the north of the Balkan route. Instances of chain pushbacks from Italy to Bosnia and Herzegovina, though relatively rare, offer insight into the web of actors engaged in the refoulement of groups across multiple borders, and liminality of due process in these cases. The intersection of unlawful acts also raises key concerns about aiding and abetting of pushbacks by Brussels. Specifically, analysis from this month elaborates on the involvement of Frontex in facilitating pushbacks.

    https://www.borderviolence.eu/wp-content/uploads/August-Report.pdf
    #rapport #migrations #réfugiés #Balkans #route_des_Balkans #asile #frontières #violence #push-back #push-backs #refoulement #refoulements

    –------

    v. aussi la liste des push-back avec armes à feu (août 2017-octobre 2019) :
    Push-back reports from Croatia with gun violence
    https://seenthis.net/messages/814569

    • Je mets ici les passages qui m’intéressent particulièrement... et notamment sur la #frontière_sud-alpine

      Push-back from Italy

      Chain push-backs from Italy are comparatively rare. Yet notably one report (see 1.1: https://www.borderviolence.eu/violence-reports/august-5-2019-0700-fernetti-italy conducted last month provided evidence of this sequential phenomena of expulsion from Italy back to BiH, via Slovenia and Croatia; drawing into question why such uncommon and illegal procedure was conducted by Italian police officers. The transit group was initially apprehended by Italian police officers in a small village on theoutskirts of Trieste from where they described being brought to a government building. Both in Italy and later in Slovenia, the transit group in question was detained, made to give their fingerprints, had their pictures taken and were asked to sign paperswritten in languages that they did not understand.

      “We asked the woman, what was on the paper because it was in Italian. She didn’t translate and we didn’t understand what we signed.” “I told the translator that they have to find a solution. They can’t just bring us back to Slovenia, knowing that we were in Italy. And they said, we are just migrants, we are not tourists.”Once they arrived in Croatia, the transit group was detained in a police station and interviewed one at a time before being brought to the border with Bosnia-Herzegovina where the group had their phones individually broken with a hammer by a Croatian police officer. They were then told to walk through a forest into Bosnia-Herzegovina. The chronology of events above alludes also to the complicit nature of preliminary actors within the wider pushbacks. Arguably initiators such as Slovenia and Italy -who often afford groups with translators and legal documents -have an intimate relationship to the violence and terror that accompanies subsequent push-backs from Croatia to BiH. The feigning of due process by these countries, despite prior knowledge of violent chain refoulement, forms a central part of their conceit. Italy and Slovenia mask their actions in a malaise of procedures (regularly untranslated or explained), in order to hide the institutionalisation of illegal chain pushbacks. The nature of chain pushbacks are defined by these bit-part processes, which simultaneously imitate regular procedures, while providing ample space for state authorities to deviate from legal obligations.

      (pp.6-7)
      #Italie #push-back #Slovénie #refoulement

    • And on the

      Construction of further fencing along Slovenian-Croatian border

      This August the Slovenian government authorized the construction (https://www.reuters.com/article/us-europe-migrants-slovenia/slovenia-erects-more-border-fence-to-curb-migrant-inflow-idUSKCN1VC19Q) of a fence 40 kms long on the banks of the river Kolpa, on the border with Croatia. The security device, installed by Serbian firm LEGI SGS, will add up to an already existing fence, making the barrier a total of 219km long. The exact location of the construction was not made public, and a spokeswoman for the interior ministry said itwill be a temporary measure to prevent people crossing the border. She did however directly cite migration as a threat to the security of citizens’ in her statement, arguably reinforcing the ideological bordering that accompanies this further fencing. Theconstruction is part of an escalating approach to border security which includes the deployment of military (https://www.aljazeera.com/amp/news/2019/07/slovenia-deploy-soldiers-boost-border-patrols-migrants-190721191235190.ht), stationed on the border since 2016, and bolstered this year alongside regular police forces.

      The opposition party NSi demanded tighter control (https://balkaninsight.com/2019/07/05/slovenia-opposition-demands-tighter-border-controls-with-croatia) sat the border with Croatia in July, and there seems little, or no will to challenge the mainstream rhetoric on migration. These demands, as BVMN reported last month (http://www.nonamekitchen.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/Final-Report-July-2019.pdf), coincided with concerns of Italy building a wall on the border with Slovenia, were the ongoing joint border not to stem movement from Slovenia into Italy. Thus it seems somewhat ironic to observe the construction of a barrier on Slovenia’s Southern border, preempting the machinations of Italian interior minister, Matteo Salvini.

      Unfortunately, the domino effect being played out between these states only feeds into Croatia’s intensifying security measures. While interior minister David Bozinovic was plethoric, stating that “what Slovenians are doing, is their own decision” (https://www.total-croatia-news.com/politics/38042-migrants), his assertion that a joint European solution would be more welcome rings fairly hollow when viewed in tandem with the heightened repression around pushbacks this month and the already complicit role of Frontex. To this end, there seems to be no escape from the vicious circle of reborderization and loss of human rights in Europe, shown most recentlyby Slovenia’s harder borders.

      Allegations of smuggling made against asylum centerstaff in Ljubljana

      A statement (https://push-forward.org/novica/izjava-iniciative-prosilcev-za-azil-la-lutte-de-la-liberte-6-8-2019-az) by the asylum seekers initiative La lutte de la Liberté, and released at the beginning of August highlights what may be a serious case of abuse by security personnel in the asylum seekers camp Vič, Slovenia. According to the group, a resident in the camp called Ibrahim witnessed a number of security guards smuggling migrants out of the camp with cars in exchange for money. After the incident, which took place at the beginning of July, Ibrahim told the director of the camp who flatly denied the allegations, yet simultaneously removed two guards from their posts, causing great suspicion. In retaliation, other guards started to mob Ibrahim resulting in a series of episodes of violence culminating in a fight, for which Ibrahim was taken to a detention centre in #Postojna.

      Ibrahim has now been released and three security guards in the camp are under investigation, a source from InfoKolpa shared. Even though the actual occurrence of smuggling remains a supposition, the event highlights an important grey zone in which camp staff are operating, and the potential for systemic abuse of the asylum system. It can be argued that such cases can only emerge in the void left by inaccessible procedures and it is well known that extremely long waiting times are built into the asylum system in Slovenia. The behaviorof the security guards, in a position of absolute power over the migrants, can be explained by the fact that they are virtually invisible to the outside world, unless the migrants can organizethemselves as in this case. There has already been proof of violent behaviorby the guards in Vic, as shown in this video (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m4GP0qLTsg0

      ) taken some six months ago.

      People on the move, for their part, are in a position of structural and individual disadvantage, susceptible to many types of violence. As the statement correctly underlines, regardless of some staff being amenable, one person abusing a position of power is enough to ruin the life of someone held captive in a protracted asylum system. Infact, evidence would go further to suggest that in this case it seems like the guards were more of an organizedmob, rather than rogue individuals.

      The waiting period for asylum which reaches nine months maximum in theory (with only 18 euros a month granted to applicants by the state), makes the tenure of asylum seekers even more precarious, adding to the poor or nonexistent measures taken to integrate them into society: asylum seekers have no access to welfare, assistance in access to work or social housing and their placement in the detention center in Postojna is decided arbitrarily bythe police. The entire Slovenian asylum system goes thus into inquiry, if viewed through thelensof this case, which both expounds its flaws and the potential corruption within.

      (pp.18-20)

      #murs #barrières_frontalières #militarisation_des_frontières