• L’affirmation israélienne selon laquelle le Hamas rejette l’accord de cessez-le-feu est « honteuse et trompeuse ».
    11 juin 2024 22:35 BST
    https://www.middleeasteye.net/live-blog/live-blog-update/israeli-claim-hamas-rejects-ceasefire-agreement-shameful-and-misleadi

    Plus tôt, nous avions rapporté que des responsables israéliens avaient commencé à s’exprimer contre la proposition de cessez-le-feu du Hamas, la présentant comme un rejet.

    Aujourd’hui, un analyste israélien très respecté, Yonatan Touval, de l’Institut israélien pour les politiques étrangères régionales, a qualifié les fuites des responsables israéliens de « honteusement trompeuses ».

    "Dans sa réponse à l’accord proposé, le Hamas demanderait des garanties que le cessez-le-feu sera, en fait, permanent. Cette demande intervient alors que M. Netanyahou a clairement indiqué qu’un tel engagement ne faisait pas partie de l’accord", a ajouté M. Touval, faisant référence au premier ministre israélien qui n’a pas accepté publiquement l’accord de cessez-le-feu.

    #cessez-le-feu

  • Est-ce encore une participation factice à la présidentielle en Algérie ?
    http://www.argotheme.com/organecyberpresse/spip.php?article4613

    L’illusion d’une présidentielle sereine et sans bourrage des urnes du vote, par les bureaucrates et l’armée, persiste en Algérie. Les capacités de mobilisation, des pans harmonieux du lectorat des islamistes, restent sur le qui-vive, réagissant aux appels du sentiment religieux. Le pays est plongé dans son pestilentiel fanatisme alimenté par le réseau des mosquées et les institutions noyautées par la pseudo-idéologie du nationalisme confessionnel. #International

    / Maghreb, Algérie, Tunisie, Maroc, Libye, Africa, population, société , censure, presse, journaux, dictature, expressions, liberté, Afrique, Monde Arabe, islam, Maghreb, Proche-Orient,, #Internet,_Web,_cyber-démocratie,_communication,_société,_médias, fait divers, société, fléau, délinquance, (...)

    #Maghreb,Algérie,_Tunisie,_Maroc,_Libye,_Africa,_population,_société #censure,presse,_journaux,_dictature,_expressions,_liberté #Afrique,_Monde_Arabe,_islam,_Maghreb,_Proche-Orient, #fait_divers,_société,_fléau,_délinquance,_religion

  • Israel’s Universities: The Crackdown
    Neve Gordon and Penny Green
    June 5, 2024
    New York Review of Books
    https://www.nybooks.com/online/2024/06/05/israel-universities-the-crackdown

    Last October, Palestinian students and academic staff in Israel faced unprecedented penalties for their speech. Now the repression persists.

    On April 18 Israeli police arrested the scholar Nadera Shalhoub-Kevorkian at her home in the Armenian Quarter of Jerusalem. Now sixty-three, she has researched the state repression of Palestinian children in East Jerusalem for decades, but the police’s arrival at her door was still a shock. They confiscated her cell phone, her computer, posters made by the nonprofit Defense for Children International, and multiple books by Mahmoud Darwish, and charged her with suspicion “of severe incitement against the State of Israel for statements made against Zionism and claims that Israel is currently committing genocide in Gaza.”

    Shalhoub-Kevorkian, a Palestinian citizen of Israel, is the Lawrence D. Biele Chair in Law at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. (She is also a colleague of ours at Queen Mary University of London.) For six hours the police interrogated her about her academic articles and public statements she had made since October 7. They then shackled her wrists and ankles and took her to the Russian Compound, a detention center located near the Jerusalem city hall. She told Haaretz that a policewoman strip-searched her, cursed her, accused her of being part of Hamas, and told her to “burn” and “die.”

    A second officer took her to a cell, threw a mattress on the floor, and locked her in. “I was shivering with cold,” she remembered.

    I asked for a blanket, and they brought me one that smelled of garbage and urine and was also wet. I sat on the bed until morning, my ears and nose started to bleed, I threw up, washed my face, and went back to bed. I don’t know how something like this happens to someone my age. The light was very strong and there was noise. The cold was terrible, my teeth were chattering, even though the blanket smelled and was wet, in the end I covered myself with it because I couldn’t stand the cold.

    At a hearing the following morning, the state prosecutor asked the Jerusalem Magistrates Court to extend Shalhoub-Kevorkian’s detention. The judge, lacking evidence that she posed any danger, dismissed the request; she was released on bail. Since then, she told us in a recent conversation, she has been summoned for three further interrogations.

    Shalhoub-Kevorkian’s scholarship casts light on Israel’s degrading and inhumane treatment of Palestinian children and youth: according to Defense for Children International, in the decade leading up to the current Gaza war, close to a thousand children were killed and thousands incarcerated by Israeli soldiers and settlers; in 2019 alone, the UN reported, nearly 1,500 were maimed by Israeli forces. She calls such practices “unchilding,” a process of harsh subjugation. “Although I research these things,” she told Haaretz, “I never felt them on my flesh.”

    On October 26—by which point Israel had killed over seven thousand Palestinians in Gaza, of whom nearly three thousand were children—Shalhoub-Kevorkian signed and circulated a petition titled “Childhood Researchers and Students Calling for Immediate Ceasefire in Gaza.” The petition, which has now gathered 2,492 signatures from scholars around the world, demanded an immediate ceasefire and an end to “Western-backed Israeli genocide” and the “egregious violation of Palestinian children’s rights.”

    Three days later Hebrew University’s president, Asher Cohen, and its rector, Tamir Sheafer, sent Shalhoub-Kevorkian a letter. They were, they wrote, “astonished, disgusted and deeply disappointed” by her decision to sign the document—an act “not very far from crimes of incitement and sedition.” Israel’s actions in Gaza, they insisted, did “not come close to the definition of genocide.” Hamas’s massacre of October 7, on the other hand, met it “completely.” “We are sorry and ashamed that the Hebrew University includes a faculty member like you,” they concluded. “In light of your feelings, we believe that it is appropriate for you to consider leaving your position.”

    Members of the university community went on to disseminate the letter on social media, where Shalhoub-Kevorkian met with a barrage of hateful messages and violent threats. But everything she had said and done was within the law, and her tenure protected her from dismissal. In effect, the university’s leaders had resorted to bullying her into leaving.

    Shalhoub-Kevorkian decided to stay. The following March she was interviewed on the podcast Makdisi Street and made comments for which she was further targeted. She referred to Israel’s policy of withholding the corpses of Palestinians whom it had killed in military operations or who had died in custody—a practice widely documented by rights groups like B’Tselem and Human Rights Watch as well as in a series of Supreme Court cases since at least 1981. Later the conversation turned to the perception that Israel was using allegations of sexual violence committed by Hamas militants on October 7 to justify violence in Gaza. She denounced sexual abuse in no uncertain terms. “I will never approve it, not to Israelis nor to Palestinians and not in my name…. If a woman says she is raped I will believe her,” she said. “The issue is, is Israel allowing proper collection of evidence?…We don’t see women coming out and saying what happened, so women’s bodies are being used as political weapons.”

    Soon after a reporter on Israeli television mentioned these remarks, a member of the Knesset—Israel’s parliament—named Sharren Haskel called on Hebrew University to intervene. In a public statement in response, the president and rector reiterated that they were ashamed that Shalhoub-Kevorkian was on their faculty. Accusing her of “cynically” using free speech and academic freedom to “divide and incite,” they suspended her from all teaching responsibilities. They ended by declaring the institution a Zionist university, implying that it has no place for non-Zionist or anti-Zionist students, faculty, or staff. After a series of letters from faculty members—who argued that the president and rector had overreached their authority—and academics from abroad, the university’s leaders met with Shalhoub-Kevorkian and canceled the suspension on the grounds, Haaretz reported, that she had clarified her position about the rape charges. She was arrested three weeks later.

    What explains the intensity of the attacks against Shalhoub-Kevorkian? Her story underlines how fragile academic freedom can be when it comes under political pressure. It also offers a window into the assault that Palestinian students and staff in Israeli higher education have suffered since October 7. In the three weeks following Hamas’s attack, well over a hundred Palestinian students in Israel, nearly 80 percent of them women, faced disciplinary actions for private social media posts that supported the end of the siege on Gaza, celebrated the bulldozing of the Gaza border fence, expressed empathy with Palestinians in the Strip, or simply included memes about suffering Palestinian children. When word got out of arrests, investigations, suspensions, and expulsions, many Palestinian students and faculty stopped posting or sharing on social media. Shalhoub-Kevorkian’s treatment months later made it clear that this wave of repression had hardly abated.

    With the exception of a handful of mixed primary and secondary schools, which cater to about two thousand of Israel’s more than two million schoolchildren, Israeli universities are the only educational institutions where Palestinian and Jewish students meet. Over the years enrollment has risen among Palestinians, who make up twenty percent of the country’s citizens and currently comprise just over 16 percent of bachelor’s degree students, 11 percent of master’s students, and 8 percent of Ph.D. students. They have long been subject to disproportionate penalties for their speech. In her book Towers of Ivory and Steel, the anthropologist Maya Wind reports that in 2002, at the height of Israel’s military offensives in the West Bank, Palestinian students at the University of Haifa were suspended for peacefully protesting. At the time they comprised a minority of the student body, but between that year and 2010 they made up over 90 percent of the students summoned to disciplinary committees. Between 2010 and 2015 they remained three times as likely to be summoned as their Jewish peers.

    In 2007 the Knesset passed the “Students’ Rights Law,” which specifies that “an institution will establish and publicize, in accordance with the provisions of this law, a behavioral code for the behavior of applicants and students regarding their studies at the institution, including behavior during class and while at the institution’s facilities, as well as in the student dormitories.” Nowhere does the law give higher education institutions the authority to monitor and persecute students for their extramural statements or activities, including posts on private social media accounts. Yet many disciplinary committees have since overreached their authority to do precisely that.

    Even Palestinian students keenly aware of earlier periods of repression could not have anticipated just how widely universities would disregard such protections after Hamas’s attack. The suspensions began within days. By October 9 the human rights organization Adalah, which works with Palestinian citizens of Israel, had received a request to offer legal assistance to seven Palestinian students temporarily suspended from Haifa University. Unlike Shalhoub-Kevorkian, they were punished for posts shared among friends or on private social media accounts. The university’s rector, Gur Alroey, told Haaretz that their posts amounted to expressions of support for the attack. Elsewhere the Israeli media reported that he had sent the students a curt email: “In light of your statement on social media, and your support for the terrorist attack on the settlements surrounding Gaza and the murder of innocents, you are suspended from studying at the university until the matter is investigated.” Adalah, in a legal petition earlier this year, stressed that the students had “repeatedly made clear that they oppose violence against civilians.”

    Normally Adalah deals with a handful of student complaints a year. Now, however, it was inundated with dozens of requests for legal representation. It became clear that right-wing organizations like Im Tirtzu—which monitors faculty members as part of its “Know the Anti-Zionist Israeli Professor” project and according to a Jerusalem District Court ruling has “fascist characteristics” —were mining Palestinian citizens’ posts on social media. Soon Zionist students were assembling portfolios of their Palestinian classmates’ private accounts.

    At the Technion, Israel’s Institute of Technology, students circulated a PowerPoint presentation on WhatsApp and Telegram that included screenshots of social media posts alongside academic information about sixteen Palestinian students and brief explanations of the “offences” they committed. In the document, which was shared with us by Adalah, one student was outed for liking an Instagram image of a bulldozer breaching the fence surrounding Gaza. Zionist students at universities and colleges filed scores of complaints against their Palestinian classmates, who within days were subjected to investigations, disciplinary proceedings, suspensions, and expulsions, often without hearings. A number of institutions evicted accused students from their dormitories.

    On October 12 Israel’s minister of education, Yoav Kish, who chairs the country’s Council for Higher Education, issued a letter directing universities and colleges to “immediately suspend any student or employee who supports the barbaric terrorist acts experienced in the State of Israel, or who supports a terrorist organization, an act of terrorism, an enemy or an enemy state.” All such statements, he wrote, amounted to incitement to terrorism. “In cases where incitement is confirmed,” he went on, universities had to “issue permanent expulsions or terminations.” On October 17 Kish passed a resolution requiring universities to report to the council on how they had dealt with such students who “incite and support Hamas.” University leaders were outraged that the government seemed not to trust them.

    Some universities were flooded with complaints. A few set up screening committees to sift through social media posts and determine which students to suspend while a disciplinary committee deliberated whether the students in question could continue their studies. These committees, wittingly or not, also assisted their institutions in censoring students. Bar Ilan University tweeted that it had established a committee made up of academic, legal, and security experts to examine statements made by members of the university community that identified with terrorism or engaged in incitement or racism. The tweet included the rector’s email address, to which people could send complaints.

    AP Photo/Mahmoud Illean

    Nadera Shalhoub-Kevorkian appearing in court after her arrest on charges of incitement, Jerusalem, April 19, 2024

    “Within two weeks after the attack,” the attorney Adi Mansour, who works for Adalah, told us, “we found ourselves representing seventy-four Palestinian students in twenty-five institutions of higher education, including thirteen from Bezalel Academy of Arts and Design and the seven from the University of Haifa.” Several other students were represented by Academia for Equality or private lawyers. The vast majority were suspended, according to Mansour, for expressing solidarity with Palestinians in Gaza, demonstrating compassion for their suffering, or quoting verses from the Quran. In most cases the institution noted that as part of the procedure it had also sent the details of students under investigation to the police.

    Lubna Tuma, another attorney with Adalah, related to us that several students were arrested, interrogated, and even indicted for posting an image from October 7 of Palestinian children rejoicing on a captured military jeep. The students were stripped, searched, and humiliated. A twenty-three-year old Technion student told The Washington Post that, after posting a cooking video on October 8 with the caption “today we eat victory shakshuka,” she underwent three strip-searches and was woken up for roll call every hour of the night. Some were slapped and pushed; several alleged that the guards had exposed them to the cold, offered them food not “fit for animals,” moved them from facility to facility, and held them in closed-off rooms for hours on end before transferring them to grossly overcrowded cells. The same Technion student told PBS Newshour what had happened to other female students in her cell: “I had my hijab, but the other girls, they seized them from their bedrooms and did not allow them to put veils on their heads. Then they put garbage bags on their heads.”

    In another case, some sixty police officers stormed a student’s family home. At work when he learned about the raid, he went to the police station, where he was interrogated, then taken to Megiddo Prison and held in what lawyers described as “deplorable conditions.” After two weeks, he was released in the middle of the night. No charges were ever filed against him.

    Adalah’s lawyers accompanied university and college students to their disciplinary hearings. Tuma, who has gone to more than seventy disciplinary procedures during the past eight months, described them to us as farcical and draconian. In one case she represented a student who was suspended for sharing the Quranic verse “Their appointed time is the morning. Is not the morning near?” on October 7. In a reversal of the presumption of innocence, Tuma remembered, the judges expected the student to convince them that he did not support terrorism. They asked him why he had not shared posts condemning Hamas or demanding the return of Israeli hostages.

    The crucial offense, in many of the hearings, seemed to Tuma to be “hurting the public’s feelings.” But how, she asked, can you prove that the public’s feelings were hurt, particularly by posts shared only on private accounts with small groups of friends? And who, for that matter, is meant by “the public”? “In the imagination of most of the academic judges sitting on disciplinary panels,” she said, it “seems to denote only Israel’s Jewish citizenry.” Tuma recalled one hearing at Ben-Gurion University in which the disciplinary panel invited a student whose family members were killed on October 7 to prove that the post in question was hurtful.

    In some cases the disciplinary panels gave their verdict, only for right-wing students to take matters into their own hands. At Ben-Gurion, a panel decided not to suspend a Palestinian nursing student who shared a video clip denying some of the violence that took place on October 7. Instead the institution reprimanded her and asked her to volunteer for forty hours of community service. Students in a WhatsApp group responded to the verdict with a threat: “If she stays in this degree, no one will begin the year—the university will be turned upside down.”

    The university announced that it would appeal the panel’s decision, and according to Haaretz, the rector, Chaim Hames, sent the student an email, again using bullying rhetoric: “It seems wrong to me that you should return to school tomorrow as if nothing had happened. I recommend that you do not come to class tomorrow and that for the next few days, study by yourself in the library or anywhere else you see fit.” In the appeal, the student was found guilty and suspended for a term—but since all the courses in the nursing faculty are a year long, she was effectively suspended for twice that time.

    This was not the only or first appeal to popular justice. Already on October 16 the chairperson of the National Union of Israeli Students issued a letter suggesting that Palestinian students who allegedly supported terrorism be removed from universities and colleges. Not two weeks later, a group of Zionist students tried to break into the college dorms in the city of Netanya, shouting “death to Arabs” as police stood by. In January, a video clip circulated on Facebook showing students at Emek Yezreel Academic College draped in Israeli flags, standing on a classroom podium, declaring that they will “not sit in the same class with supporters of terrorism.” By Christmas, Palestinians were asking lawyers whether they could share images of Santa Claus standing amid the rubble in Gaza on social media. Many Palestinian students who could afford it started looking for alternative university options overseas.

    Individual faculty members have contributed to this hostile climate. In October a professor at Hebrew University posted a video, now taken offline, in which he compares Hamas to Nazis and advocates for a “Nakba 2” in Gaza. In an October 27 op-ed for the right-wing newspaper Makor Rishon, also now taken offline, Eviatar Matania, a political scientist at Tel-Aviv University, called for the complete destruction of Gaza City and the establishment of a park in its place. Neither professor was subjected to disciplinary action. But when, on October 14, twenty-five staff members at Haifa University wrote a letter criticizing the suspension of Palestinian students without due process, over 10,000 people signed a petition demanding that the staff be dismissed.

    Palestinian academic faculty are a small minority: they make up just 3.5 percent of the country’s university teaching staff, and they are almost always the only non-Jewish staff member in their academic departments. They too were targeted. On October 29 Arye Rattner, the president of Kaye Academic College of Education, sent a letter notifying the school’s staff that the college administration had received several complaints about social media from students and faculty members. “Management,” he wrote, “decided to act with a heavy hand and zero tolerance towards these cases,” including by expelling a student from her studies and firing an academic staff member. “Publications condemning the activities of IDF soldiers defending the State of Israel,” the president stressed, “will be met with zero tolerance.”

    Jewish faculty members were not entirely immune. On October 25 Yoseph Frost, the president of David Yellin Academic College for Education, summoned Nurit Peled-Elhanan, a renowned scholar who studies the portrayal of Palestinians in children’s Hebrew textbooks, to a disciplinary hearing. She was charged with sending messages on a staff WhatsApp group that criticized the conflation of Nazis with Hamas and invoked Jean-Paul Sartre’s discussion of anticolonial violence. To Frost, these WhatsApp notes evinced “understanding for the horrific act of Hamas” and “justification of their criminal act.”

    The disciplinary committee was satisfied with reprimanding Peled-Elhanan, but she resigned. “The values we used to know have long since been overturned,” she wrote in a Haaretz editorial explaining her decision:

    To say that [Hamas’s] attack and massacre occurred in a context, and that it was not an antisemitic pogrom born out of nowhere, is considered a more terrible crime than murder in this country…. Words have become dangerous and lethal bullets legitimate. People who use words are persecuted while murderers enjoy impunity. A person who burned an entire family to death is considered righteous, while anyone who dares to acknowledge the suffering of the residents of Gaza or the West Bank is denounced as a supporter of terrorism.

    In mid-November Achva Academic College, between Tel-Aviv and Beer-Sheva, fired a lecturer named Uri Horesh for two posts on his personal Facebook page: on October 7, he had changed his cover photo to one that says “Free Ghetto Gaza” in Hebrew; a week later, he posted a call to “end the genocide now” and “let Gaza live.” More recently Im Tirzu has been mining petitions signed by academic staff and sending the names to student groups, which then demand their universities fire the signatories. At Sapir College, located not far from the Gaza Strip, a lecturer named Regev Nathansohn signed a petition calling on the Biden administration to stop transferring arms and related funds to Israel. He was maligned as a supporter of terrorism, and wrote to the rector that he felt unsafe on campus. In response, he told us, the university approved an unpaid leave of absence for six months, though he had requested no such thing.

    *

    On October 24 the Committee of Academic Freedom of the British Society for Middle Eastern Studies—which one of us, Neve Gordon, chairs—sent a letter to the presidents of every Israeli university stressing the importance of defending the rights of individuals to express views that others may find offensive or challenging. It also highlighted the institutional duty to care for Palestinian students under attack. Three college leaders replied by characterizing Israel as an island of civilization in the midst of barbarism. Six days later, BRISMES, as the professional association is known, sent President Frost, of David Yellin Academic College for Education, a letter charging that his interpretation of Peled-Elhanan’s text was prejudicial. Frost responded with a letter that said, among other things, “tread carefully.”

    The crackdown has clearly not subsided. On Monday the Knesset member Ofir Katz, the current coalition’s parliamentary whip, introduced a bill dedicated to “removing terror from academia.” It would, in the words of The Jerusalem Post, “force academic institutions to fire faculty members who make statements that negate Israel’s character as a Jewish and democratic state or support terror activities.” The faculty members in question, it stipulates, would not receive a severance package. Academic institutions that fail to comply would be financially sanctioned.

    The bill has the backing of the National Union of Israeli Students, which on Sunday, in a well-coordinated campaign, hung billboards on Tel Aviv’s Ayalon Highway bearing decontextualized quotes from Shalhoub-Kevorkian and Professor Anat Matar of Tel-Aviv University. Matar was singled out for publicly mourning the Palestinian political prisoner Walid Daqqa, who died in custody this past April after thirty-seven years in prison, despite having been diagnosed with cancer in 2022. His corpse is being withheld by the prison authorities.

    Adalah’s General Director, Hassan Jabareen, represented Shalhoub-Kevorkian this past April in the hearings on her detention. In his closing remarks, he stressed that all her comments, including her criticism of the military, fell under legitimate free expression. Her case, Jabareen noted, was unprecedented in several respects. It was the first time in Israel’s history that Section 144d of the Penal Code—the provision criminalizing public incitement and incitement to racism—had been “brought against an academic to extend her detention”; the first time that “an academic had been investigated by the police over scholarly articles published in English-language international journals”; and the first time that the police arrested someone in part for citing factual accounts of Israel withholding the bodies of dead Palestinians.

    Jabareen also stressed that 150 professors from the Hebrew University had signed an open letter condemning Shalhoub-Kevorkian’s detention. But there is little chance that a small group of dissenting scholars will stem the assault on freedom of speech within Israel’s higher education system. On the contrary, the events of the past seven months suggest just how closely the country’s universities are aligned with the imperatives of the state.

    Neve Gordon
    Neve Gordon is the author of Israel’s Occupation and coauthor, with Nicola Perugini, of Human Shields: A History of People in the Line of Fire, both published by University of California Press. (March 2024)

    Penny Green
    Penny Green is an expert on state crime and genocide. She is Professor of Law and Globalization at Queen Mary University of London and, with Tony Ward, coauthor of State Crime: Governments, Violence and Corruption and State Crime and Civil Activism: On the Dialectics of Repression and Resistance. (June 2024)

    Towers of Ivory and Steel: How Israeli Universities Deny Palestinian Freedom (Verso, 2024).
    #liberté_académique #Israël #répression #censure

  • Après son licenciement, un ingénieur accuse #Meta d’avoir un « parti pris anti-Palestinien » dans la modération de ses réseaux sociaux – Libération
    https://www.liberation.fr/economie/economie-numerique/un-ingenieur-vire-accuse-meta-davoir-un-parti-pris-anti-palestinien-dans-
    https://www.liberation.fr/resizer/Ft8mULuAETAHpH6iexX16m5v7Ic=/1200x630/filters:format(jpg):quality(70):focal(498x300:508x310)/cloudfront-eu-central-1.images.arcpublishing.com/liberation/I56FGQA5YZE2XHBQ4OHJPKXYPA.jpg

    Depuis quelque temps, le contenu posté par Motaz Azaiza disparaît mystérieusement sur Instagram. Sur le réseau, le photojournaliste palestinien est suivi par plus de 18 millions de personnes, qui, depuis le début de la guerre à #Gaza, suivent la situation sur place à travers le regard et l’objectif du professionnel. Ou du moins suivaient. Car, avec les caprices algorithmiques de la plateforme, difficile pour le photographe de partager son travail. Ferras Hamad tombe sur le problème à plus de 7 000 km de là, dans les locaux californiens de la maison mère du réseau social, Meta. L’ingénieur, chargé d’examiner les filtres de contenu #Instagram liés aux guerres à Gaza et en Ukraine, enquête. Et découvre que les publications de #Motaz_Azaiza sont incorrectement classées comme « #pornographiques », d’où leur retrait.

    Consciencieux, il fait part de sa découverte à l’entreprise. Et est viré quelques semaines plus tard.

    La justification que lui aurait fournie la société ? Ferras Hamad a enfreint une politique interne interdisant aux employés de travailler sur des problèmes relatifs à des comptes de proches. Problème : l’ingénieur assure n’avoir jamais rencontré Motaz Azaiza de sa vie. Le Palestino-Américain de confession musulmane est né et a grandi aux Etats-Unis. Il n’a d’ailleurs, assure-t-il, jamais mis les pieds à Gaza. Depuis, l’ancien employé monte au créneau. Mardi 4 juin, il a déposé plainte contre la multinationale en l’accusant de discrimination et de faire preuve d’un « parti pris anti-palestinien chronique et systématique ». Et dans sa demande de procès, l’homme, salarié de Meta depuis 2021, partage une longue liste d’accusations.

    Le géant de la tech aurait supprimé les publications de ses employés évoquant la mort de proches à Gaza. Il aurait fait disparaître toutes les mentions à la Journée internationale de solidarité avec le peuple palestinien. Y compris dans des groupes internes à son organisation. Il aurait retiré la photo d’une basket Nike Air Jordan « parce qu’elle avait un certain arrangement de couleurs (rouge, vert et blanc : vraisemblablement parce que cela a été associé à un soutien pro-palestinien) », précise la plainte. Ferras Hamad dénonce aussi des enquêtes ouvertes sur l’utilisation de l’émoji du drapeau palestinien, mais pas sur celui d’Israël ou de l’Ukraine. Ou encore la suppression d’une lettre interne rédigée par des employés inquiets quant à la modération des réseaux lorsqu’il s’agissait du peuple de Gaza. Ou plus généralement d’Arabes et de musulmans.

    « Que cache Meta ? »

    Les accusations de l’ingénieur sont loin d’être les premières à viser Meta depuis le début de la guerre. Dans un rapport paru en décembre 2023, l’organisation non gouvernementale Human Rights Watch taclait le géant des réseaux sociaux pour sa « censure systématique et mondiale » de contenus sur la #Palestine. D’après elle, ne serait-ce que d’octobre à novembre, 1 050 publications publiées par des Palestiniens et leurs partisans ont été évincées. Alors que 1 049 d’entre elles « concernaient des contenus pacifiques » , précise le rapport.

    Aussi, l’ancien candidat à la présidentielle Bernie Sanders ainsi que la sénatrice démocrate Elizabeth Warren exigent de Meta des explications quant à cette éventuelle #censure disproportionnée. Auparavant, rapporte The #Intercept à partir d’une lettre rédigée par la société elle-même, Meta avait admis « avoir supprimé ou marqué comme dérangeant plus de 2 200 000 éléments de contenu en hébreu et en arabe pour violation de nos politiques » dans les neuf jours ayant suivi l’attaque du Hamas, le 7 octobre. L’entreprise a refusé de préciser la part représentée par chaque langue dans ces suppressions. « Si […] la suppression de millions de messages ne discriminait pas les contenus liés aux Palestiniens, alors que cache Meta ? » s’agaçait en mai Elizabeth Warren auprès du magazine d’investigation.

    Contacté par Libération, Meta n’a pour l’heure pas encore pu donner suite à nos demandes.

    […]

  • Blocage de TikTok en Nouvelle-Calédonie : retour sur un fiasco démocratique
    https://www.laquadrature.net/2024/06/05/blocage-de-tiktok-en-nouvelle-caledonie-retour-sur-un-fiasco-democrati

    Le 23 mai dernier, le Conseil d’État a rejeté le recours en urgence de La Quadrature du Net contre la mesure de blocage de TikTok en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Pour justifier cette décision inique, le juge des…

    #Censure

  • L’AP, le 2 juin 2024, continue de qualifier le centre de Sde Teiman de « shadowy hospital », « Israel’s only hospital dedicated to treating Palestinians detained by the military », « military field hospital », « hospital », « Sde Teiman hospital », etc.
    https://apnews.com/article/israel-gaza-war-hamas-palestinians-sde-teiman-3ca025f6ca412ce07c0c41cf11c52c

    C’est tout de même étonnant, ce besoin de nommer « hôpital » ce que l’article décrit pourtant assez clairement comme un centre de torture.

  • Via https://x.com/monachollet/status/1797940329271943668

    La masculinité toxique des mollahs
    https://www.radiofrance.fr/franceinter/podcasts/le-billet-de-sophia-aram/le-billet-de-sophia-aram-du-lundi-06-mars-2023-7165634

    Sauf que là coïncidence de malade, on est retombé sur cette vidéo du 3 octobre dernier, un peu plus de deux semaines après les premières manifestations suite à l’assassinat de Mahsa Amini, on y voyait l’ayatollah Khamenei avec sa mine de peine à jouir, son #prépuce en guise de turban […]

  • How Russia is trying to disrupt the 2024 Paris Olympic Games - Microsoft On the Issues
    https://blogs.microsoft.com/on-the-issues/2024/06/02/russia-cyber-bots-disinformation-2024-paris-olympics

    Russia is ramping up malign disinformation campaigns against France, French President Emmanuel Macron, the International Olympic Committee (IOC), and this summer’s Olympic Games in Paris. While Russia has a decades-long history of targeting the Olympic Games, the Microsoft Threat Analysis Center (MTAC) has observed old tactics blending with artificial intelligence (AI) in malign activity that may intensify as the 2024 Paris Opening Ceremony approaches. These operations have two principal aims:

    – Denigrate the reputation of the IOC
    – Create the expectation of violence breaking out in Paris at the Games

    Parce qu’évidemment, il n’y a aucune raison légitime de dénigrer le CIO ou de vouloir manifester en France dans les prochains mois, eu égard à la politique de destruction systématique des protections collectives.

    #célérusses

  • Jalal #CeasefireNow sur X :
    https://x.com/JalalAK_jojo/status/1797293994243678504

    Not many are talking about this, but it is heavily reported.

    In recent days, Israeli forces intensified wholesale destruction / controlled detonations of entire residential blocks in Gaza.

    Jabalia, Beit Hanoun, & Beit Lahia have been declared Disaster Zones.

    […]

    Remember the videos Israeli soldiers used to publish, full of glee, as they count down to detonate entire residential blocks /universities in Gaza?

    The soldiers don’t post as many videos now (i guess someone told them it looks bad?) but the demolitions have actually intensified.

    #Gaza #génocide

  • “L’armée va enquêter”

    « Nus », « attachés à leur lit » : un médecin alerte sur les conditions de détention de Palestiniens dans une prison israélienne
    https://www.rfi.fr/fr/moyen-orient/20240602-nus-attach%C3%A9s-%C3%A0-leur-lit-un-m%C3%A9decin-alerte-sur-les-condit

    Il est chirurgien israélien et témoigne anonymement. À la demande de l’armée israélienne, il se rend sur la base militaire israélienne de Sdé Teiman. Sa mission : opérer un détenu gazaoui blessé par balle. « Les patients n’ont pas de nom. Ils sont tous attachés à leur lit. Ils ne peuvent pas bouger. Ils ont les yeux bandés. Ils sont nus. Ils portent des couches. C’est une violation assumée de la Convention de Genève, et du code de déontologie de l’Organisation mondiale de la santé. C’est bien plus que de la torture physique et psychologique », relate-t-il.

    S’il prend la parole, « c’est pour mettre fin à ce calvaire », dit-il. « Je souhaite que l’on ferme Sdé Teiman. Les détenus n’y sont pas traités comme des êtres humains ».

    • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yRsDfUcbEW8&t=20s

      Quanti morti possiamo accettare
      Tra i civili nella striscia di Gaza
      Quante armi possiamo inviare
      Per colpire chi non ha più casa

      Quanti Stati dovranno dichiarare
      Dell’ONU membro la Palestina
      Prima che si possa fermare
      Il genocidio la carneficina

      Quanti medici dovranno fuggire
      Abbandonando malati e feriti
      Quanti reporter dovranno morire
      Bersaglio di droni mirati
      Quanti reporter dovranno morire
      Bersaglio di droni mirati

      Quanti ostaggi saranno il pretesto
      Per negare il cessate il fuoco
      Quanti crimini in questo contesto
      Qual è il limite il limite è ignoto
      Quanti crimini in questo contesto
      Qual è il limite il limite è ignoto

      Quanti giovani in questi due anni
      Arruolati in Russia e Ucraina
      Quanti sono deceduti colpiti
      Per un missile o per una mina
      Quanto vale un metro di terra
      Sulla quale seminare del grano
      Quanto aiuto per fare la guerra
      Chiede a tutti il governo ucraino

      Quanti paesi in questa Alleanza
      Che tutti quanti chiamano Nato
      Quante armi e quanta finanza
      Metton veti ad un negoziato
      Quante armi e quanta finanza
      Metton veti ad un negoziato

      Quanti accenni di usare l’atomica
      La Russia lo ha già minacciato

      Dove usarle e di quale potenza
      Qual è il limite il limite è ignoto
      Dove usarle e di quale potenza
      Qual è il limite il limite è ignoto

      Quanti gradi di temperatura
      questo pianeta potrà sopportare
      quante angosce e quanta paura
      per un futuro che sembra svanire

      Quanti animali e quanta natura
      Queste guerre fan terra bruciata
      Quanti impegni e quanta impostura
      quanto cinismo la promessa è mancata
      Quanti allarmi ha lanciato la scienza
      Oltre il limite non c’è ritorno
      Quante bugie e quanta arroganza
      Oltre il danno c’è pure lo scorno
      Quante bugie e quanta arroganza
      Oltre il danno c’è pure lo scorno

      Quanto ancora possiamo salvare
      Della bellezza di questo creato
      Qual è il limite da non superare
      Qual è il limite il limite è noto
      qual è il limite da non superare
      Qual è il limite il limite è noto

      #Palestine #guerre #Israël #Gaza #génocide #Ukraine #armes #commerce_d'armes #musique_et_politique #chanson #musique #cessez-le-feu

  • Zëri i Shqipërisë. L’accordo Italia-Albania, visto dagli albanesi

    Il 6 novembre 2023 la premier Giorgia Meloni e il suo omologo albanese Edi Rama presentano il protocollo d’intesa bilaterale in materia di gestione dei flussi migratori.

    Come si può guardare a questo accordo da un’altra prospettiva, quella della popolazione e della società civile albanese?
    Per capirlo abbiamo deciso di partire per l’Albania e ascoltare cosa aveva da dire chi vive sul territorio.

    Racconteremo il nostro viaggio in due episodi.

    In questo ascolterete i sopralluoghi a #Shëngjin e #Gjadër (dove sono in costruzione rispettivamente l’hotspot e il Centro di Permanenza per il Rimpatrio) e le interviste a:

    Dorian Pali, avvocato residente nel Comune di Lezhë, dove ricadono entrambe le località in cui verranno costruiti i centri detentivi italiani. Quando lo incontriamo ci parla di come si sente, in qualità di albanese e residente locale, al pensiero di come questo accordo impatterà sulla vita e le aspirazioni delle persone coinvolte.
    «[…] per gli albanesi l’Italia all’inizio dell’inizio degli anni 90 era un sogno. E gli albanesi proprio ci volevano andare – con dei costi che poi ovviamente ci sono stati: allontanarsi dalle famiglie, eccetera. Ma c’era un sogno. Invece le persone che verranno qua.. l’Albania, non è la loro scelta».

    Gjergi Erebara, giornalista investigativo di BIRN (Balkan Investigative Reporting Network) residente a Tirana.
    «Il nostro Primo Ministro è stato un richiedente asilo politico in Francia dopo essere stato malmenato da giovane. Fondamentalmente è stato picchiato perché le sue opinioni politiche, ha scritto articoli giornalistici con cui possiamo essere d’accordo o meno, ma non importa. Di fatto è stato perseguitato per le sue opinioni».

    https://www.meltingpot.org/2024/05/zeri-i-shqiperise-laccordo-italia-albania-visto-dagli-albanesi
    #audio #podcast #migrations #réfugiés #asile #Albanie #accord #Italie #externalisation

    –-

    ajouté à la métaliste sur l’#accord entre #Italie et #Albanie pour la construction de #centres d’accueil (sic) et identification des migrants/#réfugiés sur le territoire albanais...

    https://seenthis.net/messages/1043873

  • Comment des migrants sont abandonnés en plein désert en #Afrique

    Une enquête de plusieurs mois menée par « Le Monde », le média à but non lucratif « Lighthouse Reports » et sept médias internationaux montre comment des dizaines de milliers de migrants en route vers l’Europe sont arrêtés et abandonnés en plein désert au Maroc, Tunisie et Mauritanie.

    https://www.dailymotion.com/video/x8yrqiy

    #vidéo #migrations #désert #abandon #Mauritanie #Maroc #Tunisie #réfugiés #externalisation #frontières #rafles #racisme_anti-Noirs #Fès #déportations #Rabat #forces_auxiliaires #refoulements #arrestations_arbitraires #enlèvements #centres_de_détention #Ksar #détention_administrative #Espagne #bus #Algérie #marche #torture #Gogui #Mali #accords #financements #expulsions_collectives #Nouakchott #forces_de_l'ordre #Sfax #Italie #équipement #aide_financière #UE #EU #Union_européenne #forces_de_sécurité #gardes-côtes #gardes-côtes_tunisiens #droits_humains #droits_fondamentaux

    ping @_kg_

  • Zucchero negli alimenti. Per #Nestlé i bambini non sono tutti uguali

    Secondo un’analisi della Ong Public Eye gli alimenti per bambini e neonati venduti dalla multinazionale svizzera in Africa, Asia e America Latina contengono più zuccheri rispetto alle loro controparti commercializzate nei mercati europei. Un doppio standard che porta a un “aumento esplosivo dell’obesità e spinge i bambini a sviluppare una preferenza per i prodotti zuccherati che durerà tutta la vita”.

    Due dei prodotti alimentari per l’infanzia più venduti da Nestlé nei Paesi a medio o basso reddito contengono, a differenza delle loro controparti reperibili in Europa e in Svizzera, dosi elevate di zuccheri aggiunti. Sono i risultati di un’indagine svolta dalla Ong svizzera Public Eye con la collaborazione dell’International baby food action network (Ibfan), rete di organizzazioni per la salute infantile. “Chiediamo all’azienda di porre fine a questo ingiustificabile e dannoso doppio standard che porta a un aumento esplosivo dell’obesità e spinge i bambini a sviluppare una preferenza per i prodotti zuccherati che durerà tutta la vita”, denuncia la coalizione.

    A cinquant’anni dallo scandalo sulla promozione di prodotti per l’infanzia nei Paesi a basso reddito che ha coinvolto Nestlé, il gigante svizzero afferma di aver imparato dal passato e proclama il suo “impegno incrollabile” nella “commercializzazione responsabile” dei sostituti del latte materno. Attualmente l’azienda controlla il 20% del mercato degli alimenti per l’infanzia, per un valore di circa 70 miliardi di dollari.

    I due prodotti di punta nei Paesi a medio e basso reddito al centro dell’inchiesta sono Cerelac, una linea di cereali per l’infanzia, e Nido, un tipo di latte in polvere. Secondo dati esclusivi ottenuti da Euromonitor, una società di analisi di mercato specializzata nell’industria alimentare, il loro valore di vendita è stato superiore a 2,5 miliardi di dollari nel 2022. “Nelle proprie comunicazioni o tramite terzi, Nestlé promuove Cerelac e Nido come marchi il cui obiettivo è aiutare i bambini a ‘vivere una vita più sana’. Fortificati con vitamine, minerali e altri micronutrienti, secondo la multinazionale questi prodotti sono adatti alle esigenze dei neonati e dei bambini piccoli e contribuiscono a rafforzare la loro crescita, il loro sistema immunitario e il loro sviluppo cognitivo -si legge nella ricerca-. Ma questi cereali e latti in polvere offrono davvero ‘la migliore nutrizione’, come sostiene Nestlé? È quello che abbiamo cercato di scoprire concentrandoci su uno dei principali ‘pericoli pubblici’ quando si parla di alimentazione: lo zucchero”.

    L’indagine ha svelato una differenza importante e non giustificata tra la quantità di zucchero addizionato in questi prodotti nei diversi Paesi in cui sono venduti. Se gli alimenti per l’infanzia distribuiti in Svizzera e nel mercato europeo non contengono zuccheri aggiunti, quelli disponibili nei Paesi a medio e basso reddito ne hanno invece in quantità elevata, nonostante siano indicati come adatti a bambini dai sei mesi d’età. Su un totale di 115 prodotti della linea Cerelac venduti nei mercati di Africa, Asia e America Latina, il 94% (108) presentano zuccheri aggiunti. Inoltre, per 67 di questi alimenti è stato possibile determinarne il valore esatto, tramite etichetta o analisi di laboratorio.

    Si è scoperto quindi che in India, dove le vendite hanno superato i 250 milioni di dollari nel 2022, tutti i cereali per bambini Cerelac contengono zuccheri aggiunti, in media quasi tre grammi per porzione. La stessa situazione prevale in Sudafrica, il principale mercato per Nestlé in Africa, dove ogni alimento esaminato di questa linea ha quattro o più grammi di zuccheri aggiunti per porzione. In Brasile, il secondo mercato mondiale con un fatturato di circa 150 milioni di dollari nel 2022, tre quarti dei cereali per bambini di questa linea contengono zuccheri addizionali, in media tre grammi a porzione.

    “È un fatto preoccupante -ha fatto notare Rodrigo Vianna, epidemiologo e professore presso il dipartimento di Nutrizione dell’Università federale di Paraíba nel Brasile Nord-orientale, commentando i risultati della ricerca-, lo zucchero non dovrebbe essere aggiunto agli alimenti dedicati ai neonati e ai bambini piccoli perché non è necessario e crea una forte dipendenza. I bambini si abituano al sapore dolce e iniziano a cercare altri alimenti dolci, innescando un ciclo negativo che aumenta il rischio di disturbi legati all’alimentazione nella vita adulta, tra cui l’obesità e altre malattie croniche non trasmissibili come il diabete o l’ipertensione”.

    Una tendenza che, anche se in forma ridotta, si ritrova in Nido, il più popolare dei latti per la crescita. Secondo Euromonitor, nel 2022 le vendite globali dei prodotti Nido per bambini da uno a tre anni avrebbero superato quota un miliardo di dollari. Su 29 confezioni esaminate ben 21 contenevano zuccheri aggiunti, i valori più alti sono stati riscontrati a Panama (5,3 grammi) e in Nicaragua (4,7 grammi).

    Sebbene la multinazionale si sia affrettata a sottolineare che questi prodotti sono senza saccarosio aggiunto, essi contengono zucchero addizionale sotto forma di miele. Tuttavia, secondo l’Oms entrambe le sostanze non dovrebbero essere inserite negli alimenti per bambini. Ed è, paradossalmente, proprio la stessa Nestlé a spiegarlo con precisione in un quiz educativo sul sito web dedicato a Nido in Sudafrica: “sostituire il saccarosio con il miele non ha ‘alcun beneficio scientifico per la salute’, in quanto entrambi possono contribuire ‘all’aumento di peso ed eventualmente all’obesità’”.

    Eppure, il colosso svizzero sta promuovendo questi alimenti attraverso un’aggressiva campagna di marketing sia con mezzi “tradizionali”, come cartelloni e spot televisivi, sia tramite campagne sui social media e influencer. Dove, come già accennato, questi prodotti vengono presentati come salutari e benefici per lo sviluppo del bambino. “Spesso le indicazioni sulla salute dei produttori non sono supportate dalla scienza. Se un prodotto farmaceutico volesse affermare di migliorare lo sviluppo cerebrale dei bambini o la loro crescita -ha detto Nigel Rollins, ricercatore presso il dipartimento di Salute materna, neonatale, infantile e dell’adolescenza all’Oms-, dovrebbe superare standard di evidenza molto elevati. Ma trattandosi di un alimento, non è necessario effettuare questi test“.

    Nestlé non ha risposto a domande specifiche ma ha dichiarato a Public Eye e all’Ibfan di aver “ridotto dell’11% la quantità totale di zuccheri aggiunti nel proprio portafoglio di cereali per l’infanzia in tutto il mondo” negli ultimi dieci anni e che “diminuirà ulteriormente il livello di zuccheri senza compromettere la qualità, la sicurezza e il gusto”. La multinazionale ha inoltre comunicato che starebbe eliminando gradualmente il saccarosio e lo sciroppo di glucosio dai suoi “latti per la crescita” Nido a livello globale. L’azienda ha ribadito, inoltre, che i suoi prodotti sono “pienamente conformi” alle leggi locali e al Codex alimentarius. Quest’ultimo è un elenco di norme e standard alimentari internazionali che, sempre secondo Rollins, sono stati pesantemente influenzati dalle lobby dello zucchero e dell’alimentazione, rendendo le linee guida per i cibi per l’infanzia non allineate alle raccomandazioni dell’Oms. “Le raccomandazioni dell’Organizzazione mondiale della sanità sono indipendenti da qualsiasi influenza dell’industria -ha dichiarato Rollins-. Al Codex, invece, le lobby sono attive e influenti: l’industria dello zucchero, quella degli alimenti per l’infanzia e altri rappresentanti del settore alimentare sono spesso presenti nelle stanze in cui vengono prese le decisioni”.

    https://altreconomia.it/zucchero-negli-alimenti-per-nestle-i-bambini-non-sono-tutti-uguali
    #sucre #industrie_alimentaire #enfants #enfance #inégalités #double_standard #Cerelac #Nido #lait_en_poudre #multinationales

    • How Nestlé gets children hooked on sugar in lower-income countries

      Nestlé’s leading baby-food brands, promoted in low- and middle-income countries as healthy and key to supporting young children’s development, contain high levels of added sugar. In Switzerland, where Nestlé is headquartered, such products are sold with no added sugar. These are the main findings of a new investigation by Public Eye and the International Baby Food Action Network (IBFAN), which shed light on Nestlé’s hypocrisy and the deceptive marketing strategies deployed by the Swiss food giant.

      https://stories.publiceye.ch/nestle-babies

  • « No parking, no business » en centre-ville : un mythe à déconstruire
    https://theconversation.com/no-parking-no-business-en-centre-ville-un-mythe-a-deconstruire-2241

    À cet égard, l’exemple le plus frappant est celui de Nancy, où les commerçants interrogés croyaient que 77 % de leurs clients venaient en voiture : c’est en réalité le cas de… 35 % d’entre eux. Ils imaginaient également que les piétons ne représentaient que 11 % de leur clientèle, contre 39 % dans les faits, et que 1 % s’y rendaient à vélo, alors que les cyclistes composent 13 % de leurs acheteurs.

    Cette surestimation a pu être observée dans beaucoup d’autres villes. Dans ce contexte, il est peu surprenant que les commerçants craignent plus que tout les projets de réduction de la place de la voiture.

    Les raisons de ce biais sont diverses. En France, les commerçants font partie de la catégorie socioprofessionnelle qui utilise le moins les mobilités alternatives. Eux-mêmes se déplaçant beaucoup en voiture, ils semblent calquer leur cas personnel sur l’ensemble de leur clientèle.

    Autre explication à ce biais : les automobilistes sont globalement assez « râleurs » et expriment fréquemment leur mécontentement auprès des commerçants vis-à-vis des conditions de circulation ou de stationnement. Nous avons tous déjà entendu un client annoncer « on ne peut plus se garer dans le quartier » à peine la porte du commerce poussée. Les commerçants l’entendent cinq fois par jour.

    A contrario, les piétons formulent bien moins souvent ce genre d’agacement, alors même que les cheminements sur les trottoirs laissent bien souvent à désirer (présence d’obstacles, de poubelles… voire d’automobilistes stationnés sur le trottoir !).

    Enfin, cette surestimation peut comporter une part de bluff : surjouer le rapport de force dans l’espoir d’obtenir des compensations de la part de la municipalité. À Madrid, les commerçants ont dénoncé lors de l’instauration d’une ZFE une perte de chiffre d’affaires consécutive de 15 %. Après analyse des données réelles, le chiffre d’affaires du quartier avait en fait augmenté de 8,6 % au bout d’un an.

  • The automated Fortress Europe : No place for human rights

    29,000 people have died in the Mediterranean over the past ten years while trying to reach the EU. You would think that the EU wanted this tragedy to stop and scientists across Europe were working feverishly on making this happen with the latest technology. The opposite is the case: With the help of so-called Artificial Intelligence, digital border walls are being raised, financed with taxpayers’ money.

    Drones, satellites, and other digital monitoring systems: For decades, the EU’s external borders have been upgraded with state-of-the-art surveillance technology to create so-called smart borders. Now, algorithms and Artificial Intelligence are increasingly adding to the wall.

    Their development is funded with millions of euros by EU research programs with names like Horizon 2020 or Horizon Europe. The funded projects read like a catalog of surveillance technologies. Instead of trying to save people from losing their lives, they put all of us in danger.

    It doesn’t come as a surprise that most initiatives are kept secret. The public learns next to nothing about them. Law enforcement and border authorities prefer not to be bothered with giving insights into their work. They try to avoid a democratic debate about the research and development of this sort of AI-driven surveillance technology.
    WE FOUND OUT ABOUT WHAT THE EU PREFERS TO KEEP OUT OF THE PUBLIC’S EYE

    When we asked for information on research projects in which such systems are being developed, we received many responses that wouldn’t give us any substantial information.

    The European Research Executive Agency (REA) is mandated by the EU Commission to fund and manage innovative projects in virtually all areas of research, including Horizon 2020. Still, the REA isn’t particularly outspoken about their research projects.

    We had tried, for example, to obtain details about the ROBORDER project‘s “methodology applied for the evaluation of the system performance” through access to information requests. At first, we were denied it in reference to the “protection of the public interest as regards public security.” The identity and affiliation of individuals involved in the ethics review process would also not be shared, to protect their “privacy and integrity.” REA also cited “commercial interests” and the protection of intellectual property as lawful grounds to refuse disclosure: “releasing this information into public domain would give the competitors of the consortium an unfair advantage, as the competitors would be able to use this sensitive commercial information in their favour.” These reasons given to us to avoid disclosure were common reactions to all the requests we sent out. But in the end, REA did provide us with information on the methodology.

    More transparency is urgently needed. ROBORDER aims at developing unmanned vehicles to patrol EU borders, capable of operating in swarms. Such capabilities would most likely be of interest to the military as well. In fact, research by AlgorithmWatch and ZDF Magazin Royale shows that in a market analysis conducted within the ROBORDER project, “military units” have been identified as potential users of the system. Documents we obtained show that members of the research team met with prospective officers of the Greek Navy to introduce the ROBORDER system.

    Military applications would exclude ROBORDER from Horizon 2020 funding, which is reserved for civilian applications. However, an EU Commission’s spokesperson said that the mere fact that a “military audience” was also chosen to disseminate the project does not “per se call into question the exclusively civilian application of the activities carried out within the framework of this project.”

    The ROBORDER project was executed as planned until its scheduled end in 2021. Its output contributed to later projects. At a national level, one is REACTION, which is funded by the EU’s Border Management and Visa Instrument and coordinated by the Greek Ministry of Immigration and Asylum. AlgorithmWatch and ZDF Magazin Royale tried to ask the Greek research center CERTH – which coordinated ROBORDER and is now working on REACTION – what results or components exactly were adopted, but we didn’t get an answer.

    Due to our persistence, we managed to obtain documents for various EU-funded projects. Some of them we received were so heavily redacted that it was impossible to get an idea what they were about. The grant agreement and the annexes to the NESTOR project contained 169 consecutive redacted pages.
    JUST ANOTHER BRICK IN THE AUTOMATED WALL

    An automated Fortress Europe would also impact everyone’s rights, since the technology it facilitates allows governments to find out everything about us.

    How do they do it, you ask? By using face recognition, for example, and by reducing your identity to your face and other measurable biometric features. Faces can be captured and analyzed by increasingly sophisticated biometric recognition systems. In the D4FLY project, they combine “2D+thermal facial, 3D facial, iris and somatotype biometrics.” In projects such as iBorderCtrl, they examine emotions and “micro-expressions,” fleeting facial expressions that last only fractions of a second, to assess whether travelers are lying to (virtual) border officials. That way, risk assessments are automatically created, which could lead to stricter security checks at EU borders.

    Such EU-funded projects are designed to digitalize, computerize, and automate human mobility. The EU envisions a future where law-abiding travelers enjoy uninterrupted freedom, while “risky” people are automatically flagged for further checks.

    As Frontex’ deputy executive director, Uku Särekanno, put it in a recent interview: „What comes next is a very serious discussion on automation. We are looking into how, in the next five to ten years, we can have more automated border crossings and a more seamless travel experience.”

    According to various scientists, this is the result of over two decades’ work, ultimately leading to total remote surveillance and thus to a perfect panoptic society, in which we are utterly dominated by such digital technologies and the underlying logic of security policy.

    WHAT IS IT GOOD FOR? SKIMMING THROUGH THE SURVEILLANCE CATALOGUE

    Checking people requires time and resources. Therefore, some projects aim to automatically “relieve” border officials, which means make them auxiliaries for automated systems that are falsely assumed to be more objective or reliable.

    Automated systems are supposed to detect “abnormal behavior,” increase “situation awareness,” and derive real-time information and predictions ("nowcasts") from multiple sensors attached to individuals, groups, but also freighters or other vehicles. Migration movements are to be predicted algorithmically, by analyzing Google Trends data, content on social media platforms such as Facebook and X (formerly Twitter), and “quantitative (geo-located) indicators of telephone conversations.” But such automated systems can’t replace political decisions by taking available data and leaving the decision to algorithms. The decisions have to be justified. Political decisions are also not only a byproduct of technological solutions and have to be put first.

    Risks become apparent by looking at the ITFLOWS project’s EuMigraTool. It includes “monthly predictions of asylum applications in the EU” and is supposed to “identify the potential risks of tensions between migrants and EU citizens” by providing “intuitions” on the “attitudes towards migration” in the EU using “Twitter Sentiment Analysis model data as input”. The very project’s Users Board, in which organizations such as the Red Cross and Oxfam are represented, warned in a statement against misuse, “misuse could entail closing of borders, instigating violence, and misuse for political purposes to gain support and consensus for an anti-migration policy.” The tool was developed nonetheless.

    In these EU-funded projects, people on the move are constantly portrayed as a threat to security. The FOLDOUT project explicates this core premise in all frankness: “in the last years irregular migration has dramatically increased,” therefore it was “no longer manageable with existing systems.” Law enforcement and border agencies now assume that in order to “stay one step ahead” of criminals and terrorists, automation needs to become the norm, especially in migration-related contexts.

    FRONTEX: IT’S EVERYWHERE

    A driving force in border security is also one of the main customers: Frontex. Founded in 2004, the European Border and Coast Guard Agency has played an increasingly important role in the EU’s research and innovation projects in recent years. The agency’s budget has increased by 194 percent compared to the previous budget, and by an incredible 13,200 percent in the last 20 years. But Frontex’ influence goes far beyond the money at its disposal. The agency intervened to “help,” "actively participate in," and “push forward” several Horizon 2020 projects, addressing “a wide spectrum of technological capabilities critical for border security,” including Artificial Intelligence, augmented reality, or virtual reality.

    In 2020, the agency formalized their collaboration with the EU Commission’s Directorate-General for Migration and Home Affairs (DG-HOME). It allowed Frontex to provide assistance to DG-HOME “in the areas of programming, monitoring and the uptake of projects results.” The agency is now responsible for “identifying research activities,” evaluating research proposals, and the supervision of the Horizon Europe research projects’ “operational relevance.”

    The agency therefore joined EU-funded projects trials, demonstrations, and workshops, held events involving EU-funded projects, and even created a laboratory (the Border Management Innovation Centre, BoMIC) to help implement EU-funded projects in border security. This is complemented with Frontex’s own “Research Grants Programme”, whose first call for proposals was announced in November 2022, to “bring promising ideas from the lab to real applications in border security.”
    HOW IS THIS SUPPOSED TO BECOME REALITY?

    The NESTOR project promises “an entirely functional, next-generation, comprehensive border surveillance system offering pre-frontier situational awareness beyond sea and land borders.” The system is based on optical, thermal imaging, and radio frequency spectrum analysis technologies. Such data will be “fed by an interoperable sensors network” comprised of both stationary installations and mobile manned or unmanned vehicles (that can operate underwater, on water surfaces, on the ground, or in the air). The vehicles are also capable of functioning in swarms. This allows for detecting, recognizing, classifying, and tracking “moving targets” such as persons, vessels, vehicles, or drones. A “Border Command, Control, and Coordination intelligence system” would adopt “cutting-edge Artificial Intelligence and Risk Assessment technologies”, fusing “in real-time the surveillance data in combination with analysis of web and social media data.”

    The key term here is “pre-frontier awareness.” According to the EU, “pre-frontier” refers to “the geographical area beyond the external borders which is relevant for managing the external borders through risk analysis and situational awareness.” Or, to put it bluntly: the very notion of “border” ultimately dissolves into whatever the authorities want it to mean.
    CONCLUSION: ONLY FEW BENEFIT FROM THE AUTOMATED EU FORTRESS AND YOU ARE DEFINITELY NOT ONE OF THEM.

    The list of projects could go on and on (see the box below), but you get the EU’s gist: They perceive migrants as a threat and want to better protect their borders from them by constantly improving automation and ever-increasing surveillance − far beyond existing borders. The EU conjures up the image of a migration “crisis” that we can only hope to end through technological solutions.

    This belief is extensively and increasingly affirmed and shaped by the border and coast guard community in lockstep with the surveillance and security industries, as has been well documented. But it threatens social justice, non-discrimination, fairness, and a basic respect of fundamental rights. “Ethics assessments” only scratch at the surface of the complexity of automating migration. The systems will be developed anyway, even if the assessments fundamentally question whether the systems’ use can be justified at all. Many of these projects should not have been funded in the first place, so they should not be pursued.

    https://algorithmwatch.org/en/automated-fortress-europe
    #AI #IA #intelligence_artificielle #migrations #réfugiés #contrôles_frontaliers #mur_digital #frontières_digitales #technologie #drones #satellites #frontières_intelligentes #smart_borders #Horizon_2020 #Horizon_Europe #surveillance #complexe_militaro-industriel #European_Research_Executive_Agency (#REA) #recherche #ROBORDER #REACTION #Border_Management_and_Visa_Instrument #CERTH #Grèce #NESTOR #biométrie #D4FLY #iBorderCtrl #Frontex #ITFLOWS #risques #EuMigraTool #FOLDOUT #pré-frontière

    ping @reka

  • La France face aux crises : entre dérive autoritaire et risques géopolitiques. (Partie I) - Forbes France
    https://www.forbes.fr/politique/la-france-face-aux-crises-entre-derive-autoritaire-et-risques-geopolitiques-p


    Pour lire ce genre d’analyse en France, il faut lire un prof de management dans un magasine financier ! 🤷‍♀️

    J’ai pu évoquer dans un précédent article la #censure par invisibilisation des « démocraties » et le phénomène du « Shadow Banning » : une pratique algorithmique obscure qui invisibilise certains utilisateurs sur les réseaux sociaux, en raison de leurs discours – aussi argumentés et factuels soient-ils – afin de mettre concomitamment en avant les discours dominants ceux qui ne vont pas à l’encontre de la doxa actuelle qui sévit en France – et au niveau de l’UE – notamment le narratif « raccourci » des origines de la guerre actuelle (cf. Guerre du Donbass) soutien indéfectible et financier du gouvernement Ukrainien qui ne souffre pas contestation, et dans une « disposition » à être « prêt » à aller jusqu’à la guerre avec la Russie. Il faut adhérer, cela ne souffre pas le débat. Il n’a pas lieu d’être, à moins d’être – qualifié de « pro Poutine » ce qui est une caricature pour le moins simpliste.

    Dans la situation de tension internationale majeure que nous traversons, liée à la guerre en Ukraine, il est de fait « de bon ton » d’adhérer à cette #doxa pour « faire Nation » quoi qu’il en coute, ce qui peut « apparaitre » normal « pour certains », tout comme cela est « pour d’autres » une grave source d’inquiétude pour ce qui concerne le bon fonctionnement démocratique ! (Cf. Cette invisibilisation de discours dissonants exclue, comme elle ostracise, in fine des experts crédibles et paradoxalement indispensables à un véritable « Débat démocratique » !

    Les crises qui perturbent notre fonctionnement démocratique se sont multipliées. Il est bon d’en rappeler les origines. Avant la crise du covid ou l’absurde s’est souvent invité comme la norme (cf. personne seule en forêt verbalisée, autorisation de sorties que vous pouviez multiplier à l’envi, citoyen-barman devenant des « auxiliaires-policiers » et auscultant les QR code etc. et initiant un inédit contrôle du citoyen par le citoyen) avant la guerre du Donbass, avant le mouvement européen de nos agriculteurs, la crise de notre démocratie remonte aux premières manifestations des Gilets jaunes. Ce soulèvement populaire a révélé un profond mécontentement social et une méfiance à l’égard du gouvernement. Depuis, les crises se succédant, la tentation autoritaire, dont le contrôle de l’information et le contrôle des masses se sont largement développés. « Gouverner c’est prévoir », toutefois « Gouverner l’imprévisible » au corps défendant du pouvoir est autrement plus complexe. Cette volonté de contrôle qui ne cesse de s’accroître est un sujet délicat qui en englobe plusieurs autres :

    La liberté de la presse.
    La régulation des médias.
    La censure, les débats sur la désinformation et les « fakes news ».
    La répression des contestataires (cf. manifestations.)

  • “Sotto l’acqua”. Le storie dimenticate dei borghi alpini sommersi in nome del “progresso”

    I grandi invasi per la produzione di energia idroelettrica hanno segnato nei primi decenni del Novecento l’inizio della colonizzazione dei territori montani. #Fabio_Balocco, giornalista e scrittore di tematiche ambientali, ne ha raccolto le vicende in un libro. Un lavoro prezioso anche per comprendere l’attuale dibattito su nuove dighe e bacini a favore di agricoltura intensiva e innevamento artificiale

    Un campanile solitario emerge dalle acque del Lago di Rèsia, in Val Venosta, un invaso realizzato per produrre energia idroelettrica. Quella che per i turisti di oggi è una curiosa attrazione, è in realtà ciò che rimane di una borgata alpina sommersa in nome del “progresso”. Quella del campanile che sorge dalle acque è un’immagine iconica che in tanti conoscono. Ma non si tratta di un caso isolato: molti altri abitati alpini furono sommersi nello scorso secolo, sacrificati sullo stesso altare. Soprattutto nel Piemonte occidentale, dove subirono la sorte le borgate di Osiglia, Pontechianale, Ceresole Reale, Valgrisenche, e un intero Comune come Agàro, nell’Ossola. A raccontare queste storie pressoché dimenticate è il giornalista e scrittore Fabio Balocco nel suo recente saggio “Sotto l’acqua. Storie di invasi e di borghi sommersi” pubblicato da LAReditore.

    Balocco, perché ha scelto di raccontare queste storie?
    FB Tutto è iniziato con un’inchiesta per la rivista Alp (mensile specializzato in montagna e alpinismo, chiuso nel 2013, ndr) che feci a metà anni Novanta, incentrata proprio su queste storie dei borghi sommersi per produrre energia. Un fenomeno che caratterizzò soprattutto gli anni Venti e Trenta del Novecento per alimentare le industrie della pianura. Sono sempre stato attratto dalle storie “minime”, quelle dei perdenti, in questo caso le popolazioni alpine sacrificate appunto sull’altare dello sviluppo. È quella che io chiamo “la storia con la esse minuscola”. La nascita del libro è dovuta sia al fatto che siamo sulla soglia del secolo da quando iniziarono i primi lavori e sia dal ritorno nel dibattito politico del tema di nuovi invasi. Infine, penso sia necessario parlarne per ricordare che nessuna attività umana è esente da costi ambientali e talvolta anche sociali, come in questi casi che ho trattato.

    Nel libro afferma che l’idroelettrico ha portato ai primi conflitti nelle terre alte, tradendo la popolazione alpina. In che modo è successo?
    FB I grandi invasi per produzione di energia idroelettrica hanno segnato l’inizio della colonizzazione dei territori montani, che fino ad allora non erano stati intaccati dal punto di vista ambientale e sociale da parte del capitale della pianura. Queste opere costituirono l’inizio della colonizzazione di quelle che oggi vengono anche definite “terre alte”, colonizzazione che è proseguita soprattutto con gli impianti sciistici e le seconde case. Vale poi la pensa di sottolineare che almeno due invasi, quello di Ceresole Reale e quello di Beauregard, in Valgrisenche, comportarono la sommersione di due dei più suggestivi paesaggi delle Alpi occidentali.

    Che ruolo hanno avuto le dighe nello spopolamento delle terre alpine?
    FB È bene ricordare che nell’arco alpino occidentale lo spopolamento era già in atto agli inizi del Novecento in quanto spesso per gli abitanti delle vallate alpine era più facile trovare lavoro oltreconfine. Un caso esemplare è quello della migrazione verso la Francia che caratterizzò la Val Varaita, dove fu realizzato l’invaso di Pontechianale. Le dighe non contribuirono in modo diretto allo spopolamento ma causarono l’allontanamento di centinaia di persone dalle loro case che venivano sommerse dalle acque, e molti di questi espropriati non ricevettero neppure un compenso adeguato a comprare un nuovo alloggio, oppure persero tutto il denaro a causa dell’inflazione, come accadde a Osiglia, a seguito dello scoppio Seconda guerra mondiale. Queste popolazioni subirono passivamente le imposizioni, senza mettere in atto delle vere e proprie lotte anche se sapevano che avrebbero subito perdite enormi. Ci furono solo alcuni casi isolati di abitanti che furono portati via a forza. Questo a differenza di quanto avvenuto in Francia, a Tignes, negli anni Quaranta, dove dovette intervenire l’esercito per sgomberare la popolazione. Da noi il sentimento comune fu di rassegnazione.

    Un’altra caratteristica di queste storie è lo scarso preavviso.
    FB Tutto l’iter di approvazione di queste opere avvenne sotto traccia e gli abitanti lo vennero a sapere in modo indiretto, quasi di straforo. Semplicemente si accorgevano della presenza di “stranieri”, spesso tecnici venuti a effettuare lavori di prospezione, e solo con un passaparola successivo venivano a conoscenza dell’imminente costruzione della diga. Anche il tempo a loro lasciato per abbandonare le abitazioni fu di solito molto breve. Le imprese della pianura stavano realizzando degli interessi superiori e non erano interessate a informare adeguatamente le popolazioni coinvolte. Le opere furono realizzate da grandi imprese specializzate che si portavano dietro il loro personale. Si trattava di lavori spesso molto specialistici e solo per le mansioni di bassa manovalanza venne impegnata la popolazione locale. D’altra parte, questo incontro tra il personale delle imprese e i locali portò a conseguenze di carattere sociale in quanto i lavori durarono diversi anni e questa intrusione portò anche alla nascita di nuovi nuclei familiari.

    Differente è il caso di Badalucco, dove negli anni Sessanta gli abitanti riuscirono a opporsi alla costruzione della diga. In che modo?
    FB Badalucco è sempre un Comune alpino, sito in Valle Argentina, in provincia di Imperia e anche lì si voleva realizzare un grande invaso all’inizio degli anni Sessanta. Ma qui le cose andarono in maniera diversa, sicuramente anche perché nel 1959 c’era stata una grave tragedia in Francia quando la diga del Malpasset crollò provocando la morte di quasi 500 persone. A Badalucco ci fu quindi una vera e propria sollevazione popolare guidata dallo stesso sindaco del Comune, sollevazione che, anche attraverso scontri violenti, portò alla rinuncia da parte dell’impresa. L’Enel ha tentato di recuperare il progetto (seppure in forma ridotta) nei decenni successivi trovando però sempre a una forte opposizione locale, che dura tuttora.

    Il governo promette di realizzare nuove dighe e invasi. È una decisione sensata? Che effetti può avere sui territori montani?
    FB A parte i mini bacini per la produzione di neve artificiale nelle stazioni sciistiche, oggi vi sono due grandi filoni distinti: uno è il “vecchio” progetto “Mille dighe” voluto da Eni, Enel e Coldiretti con il supporto di Cassa depositi e prestiti, che consiste nella realizzazione di un gran numero di piccoli invasi a sostegno soprattutto dell’agricoltura, ma anche per la fornitura di acqua potabile. Poi vi sono invece i progetti di nuovi grandi sbarramenti, come quello previsto lungo il torrente Vanoi, tra Veneto e Trentino, o quelli di Combanera, in Val di Lanzo, e di Ingria, in Val Soana, in Piemonte. Come dicevo, oggi l’esigenza primaria non è tanto la produzione di elettricità quanto soprattutto l’irrigazione e, in minor misura, l’idropotabile. Si vogliono realizzare queste opere senza però affrontare i problemi delle perdite degli acquedotti (che spesso sono dei colabrodo) né il nostro modello di agricoltura. Ad esempio, la maggior parte dell’acqua utilizzata per i campi finisce in coltivazioni, come il mais, per produrre mangimi destinati agli allevamenti intensivi. Questo senza considerare gli impatti ambientali e territoriali che le nuove opere causerebbero. In buona sostanza, bisognerebbe ripensare il nostro modello di sviluppo prima di tornare a colonizzare nuovamente le terre alte.

    https://altreconomia.it/sotto-lacqua-le-storie-dimenticate-dei-borghi-alpini-sommersi-in-nome-d

    #montagne #Alpes #disparitions #progrès #villages #barrages #barrages_hydro-électriques #énergie_hydro-électrique #énergie #colonisation #industrialisation #histoire #histoires #disparition #terre_alte #Badalucco #Osiglia #Pontechianale #Ceresole_Reale #Valgrisenche #Agàro #Beauregard #Ceresole_Reale #Mille_dighe #Vanoi #Combanera #Ingria

    • Sotto l’acqua. Storie di invasi e di borghi sommersi

      Circa un secolo fa iniziò, nel nostro paese, il fenomeno dell’industrializzazione. Ma questo aveva bisogno della forza trainante dell’energia elettrica. Si pensò allora al potenziale rappresentato dagli innumerevoli corsi d’acqua che innervavano le valli alpine. Ed ecco la realizzazione di grandi bacini di accumulo per produrre quella che oggi chiamiamo energia pulita o rinnovabile. Ma qualsiasi azione dell’uomo sull’ambiente non è a costo zero e, nel caso dei grandi invasi idroelettrici, il costo fu anche e soprattutto rappresentato dal sacrificio di intere borgate o comuni che venivano sommersi dalle acque. Quest’opera racconta, tramite testimonianze, ricordi e fotografie, com’erano quei luoghi, seppur limitandosi all’arco alpino occidentale. Prima che se ne perda per sempre la memoria.

      https://www.ibs.it/sotto-acqua-storie-di-invasi-libro-fabio-balocco/e/9791255450597

      #livre

  • Le #contrat_d’engagement_républicain, outil de mise au pas du monde associatif

    Dispositif phare de la #loi_séparatisme de 2021, le #CER oblige les associations demandant une subvention à s’engager à respecter les principes républicains. Si son mécanisme de sanction a été très peu activé, il est utilisé régulièrement comme outil de pression politique.

    CrééCréé afin de lutter contre « l’islamisme radical » et « tous les séparatismes », le contrat d’engagement républicain (CER) n’a, à ce jour, jamais en réalité été invoqué à l’égard d’associations confessionnelles, qu’elles soient islamistes ou liées à d’autres mouvements radicaux ou séparatistes, révèle un décompte réalisé par l’Observatoire des libertés associatives.

    Et sur les vingt-quatre cas relevés, seuls trois portent sur des faits liés à la religion musulmane au sein d’associations telles qu’une section locale du Planning familial, accusée d’avoir représenté une femme voilée sur une affiche, une MJC, à laquelle on a reproché d’avoir embauché des femmes voilées, et une association d’aide aux femmes, accusée sans preuve de « prosélytisme religieux ».

    Pour le reste, le CER, que les associations doivent obligatoirement signer lorsqu’elles demandent une subvention, a été brandi à l’égard de l’association Alternatiba Poitiers accusée de « désobéissance civile » ; d’une association d’aide aux mal-logé·es, l’Atelier populaire d’urbanisme (APU), dont une salariée est accusée de violences verbales envers des agents municipaux ; d’une association d’aide aux immigré·es ayant appelé à une manifestation contre les violences policières interdites ; d’une télévision associative, Canal Ti Zef à Brest, mobilisée dans la lutte contre l’évacuation d’un squat ; ou encore d’une compagnie de théâtre, la compagnie Arlette Moreau à Poitiers, ayant moqué son préfet.

    Loin, donc, des ambitions affichées par la loi « confortant le respect des principes de la République », dite loi « séparatisme », dans son exposé des motifs : lutter contre « un entrisme communautaire, insidieux mais puissant », qui « gangrène lentement les fondements de notre société dans certains territoires. Cet entrisme est essentiellement d’inspiration islamiste », précisait l’exécutif, initiateur de ce texte.

    Lors de l’adoption de la loi séparatisme, à l’été 2021, des député·es de l’opposition et des responsables associatifs avaient déjà alerté sur les risques d’un détournement du CER dans un but de répression politique. Et c’est sans surprise que, peu après son entrée en vigueur au mois de janvier 2021, ce contrat, qui impose sept engagements aux associations, qui peuvent en cas de violation perdre une subvention et même devoir la rembourser si elle a déjà été versée, a été en premier appliqué au Planning familial puis à des associations écologistes.

    Parler de détournement du CER est excessif. Lorsqu’on relit les débats parlementaires, on se rend en effet compte que la majorité assumait, dès le départ, le fait de ne pas viser exclusivement les associations séparatistes radicales mais toute association ayant recours à certains modes d’action liés à la désobéissance civile.

    Ainsi, lors de la séance à l’Assemblée nationale du 30 juin 2021, face à des député·es de l’opposition qui l’interpelaient sur les risques d’application du CER à des associations telles que Greenpeace ou Act Up, le député de la majorité et président de la commission spéciale chargée du projet de loi, François de Rugy, confirmait qu’elles seraient bien menacées.

    Au ministre de la justice, Éric Dupond-Moretti, il avait été demandé si les organisations participant à des actions de désobéissance civile comme le fauchage d’OGM ou le « démontage » d’un restaurant McDonald’s, en référence à une action de la Confédération paysanne d’août 1999, seraient concernées. « Bien sûr ! », avait répondu le garde des Sceaux.

    Pourtant, malgré ce champ d’application particulièrement large, le contrat d’engagement républicain est en partie un échec pour le gouvernement. « Le bilan est encore loin d’être concluant », constatait un rapport d’évaluation du Sénat publié au mois de mars, qui soulignait le peu de cas de mobilisation du CER – quatre selon le rapport – et des modalités d’application disparates en fonction des collectivités. « Cette loi ne fait peur à personne. Surtout pas aux islamistes », assénait même sa rapporteuse, Jacqueline Eustache-Brinio.
    Comment le gouvernement s’est lui-même piégé

    L’une des raisons à cette application minime du CER vient en partie d’un effet pervers juridique. En créant ce contrat, le gouvernement s’est en quelque sorte piégé lui-même. Il n’existe pas en effet de droit à la subvention pour les associations. Chaque collectivité dispose de ce fait d’un droit discrétionnaire en matière d’attribution et elle peut refuser ou accorder telle ou telle subvention sans avoir à se justifier.

    En créant le CER, la loi séparatisme a créé un nouvel acte administratif qui offre une prise juridique, un recours possible pour les associations. Or, dans la seule décision visant directement le CER rendue à ce jour, le tribunal administratif de Poitiers a rejeté la demande du préfet de la Vienne visant à obtenir le remboursement d’une subvention versée à l’association Alternatiba pour avoir tenu un atelier de désobéissance civile.

    D’autres recours lancés ces derniers mois devraient permettre de préciser cette jurisprudence naissante. Mais on peut comprendre que certaines collectivités ou certains préfets préfèrent se réfugier derrière un manque de crédit ou leur droit discrétionnaire plutôt que d’invoquer le CER et de prendre le risque de devoir se justifier devant le juge administratif.

    Le CER a pourtant bien eu des effets importants sur les libertés associatives. Mais ceux-ci, bien réels, sont souvent localisés et souterrains, et donc moins visibles. Dans les vingt-quatre cas recensés par l’Observatoire des libertés associatives, le CER n’est en effet appliqué directement et officiellement pour prononcer une sanction que dans cinq. Dans tous les autres, il n’est par exemple qu’évoqué à l’oral dans une réunion ou dans un mail ou brandit comme une menace, sans que l’on sache s’il est vraiment à l’origine d’une sanction à non.

    Au mois d’août dernier, Le Monde révélait ainsi qu’il existe une « liste rouge » d’associations basées dans la région du plateau de Millevaches qui seraient privées de subventions par la préfecture sans que cela leur ait été officiellement notifié, leur ôtant ainsi toute possibilité de recours.

    Plus récemment, une association d’aide aux immigré·e·s, l’Asti du Petit-Quevilly en Seine-Maritime, s’est vu « rappeler » ses engagements par la préfecture pour avoir appelé à une manifestation contre les violences policières interdite. Celle-ci a transmis cet « avertissement » aux partenaires financiers, dont la métropole de Rouen, qui a en conséquence suspendu l’examen des demandes de subvention de l’Asti.

    « Il y a chez certaines collectivités une profonde incompréhension du CER, qui est utilisé à tort et à travers, et notamment comme un moyen de pression, de régulation des relations avec les associations », analyse Claire Thoury, présidente du Mouvement associatif, une organisation regroupant environ 700 000 associations, et qui avait publié, en janvier 2023, un premier bilan de l’application du CER.

    « L’interprétation de ce que recouvre le CER que chaque collectivité peut faire est problématique car il peut être interprété de mille et une façons, abonde Elsa Fondimare, maîtresse de conférences en droit public à l’université de Nanterre. Il sert, de plus, à limiter la liberté en amont. Ce n’est en effet pas qu’une question de subvention et d’argent. Le fait d’invoquer le CER à tort et à travers va conduire les associations à adapter les luttes qu’elles défendent et les moyens qu’elles emploient. Et cette autocensure est une menace très grave pour les libertés associatives. »

    « Le CER a désormais un effet presque plus symbolique que pratique », ajoute Julien Talpin, chercheur en science politique au CNRS et l’un des fondateurs, en 2019, de l’Observatoire des libertés associatives. « On peut penser que certaines associations n’oseront plus aborder certains sujets comme les violences policières ou en ce moment le conflit israélo-palestinien. Le problème est de réussir à objectiver ces effets indirects et diffus et cette autocensure. »

    « Le CER correspond à une appréhension très morale de ce que doit être une association », pointe encore Claire Thoury. « La liberté, l’égalité, la fraternité existent bien en tant que concepts juridiques, ajoute Elsa Fondimare, juriste, auteure d’un article intitulé « Républicanisme contre écologisme. Quelle place pour la désobéissance civile à l’heure du contrat d’engagement républicain ». Mais ce sont des principes extrêmement malléables, qui peuvent facilement être interprétés d’une manière ou d’une autre. »

    « Il y a donc une dissonance entre ce que prétend défendre le CER et les conséquences de son application à certaines associations, pointe-t-elle. Cela ne fait en outre qu’ajouter de la confusion à ce que sont les valeurs républicaines. »

    L’entrée en vigueur du CER est en outre intervenue dans un contexte de défiance croissante entre le monde associatif et les autorités. « Nous sommes en fait dans un contexte de dérive générale », affirme Claire Thoury. « On a l’impression que chaque occasion est bonne pour remettre en cause les libertés associatives », poursuit-elle en citant l’exemple d’un amendement déposé au mois d’octobre dernier au projet de loi de finances proposant de retirer les avantages fiscaux des associations condamnées pour certaines actions.

    « Il y a également eu récemment le maire de Saint-Raphaël qui impose à toutes les associations touchant des subventions de participer aux manifestations patriotiques de la ville. C’est hallucinant ! », s’indigne la présidente du Mouvement associatif.

    « Nous assistons ces dernières années à une remise en cause des partenariats entre la société civile et les collectivités, complète Julien Talpin. C’est une page qui se tourne, celle d’une alliance possible entre les pouvoirs publics et les associations, dont certaines peuvent certes être critiques mais qui constituaient ce contre-pouvoir démocratique grâce à un rôle hybride. »

    « Ces associations offrent en effet un service à des populations que les collectivités ont de plus en plus de mal à atteindre, poursuit le chercheur. C’est un modèle qui avait été assez fort à partir des années 1980, mais qui est remis en cause. » Julien Talpin fait remonter cette dégradation à l’année 2015, « durant laquelle deux mouvements contradictoires se sont rencontrés ».

    « D’un côté, ce fut l’année de la circulaire Valls », poursuit-il, un texte « qui clarifiait les modalités d’attribution des subventions, [qui] avait été perçu comme une victoire et une reconnaissance du rôle des associations ». « Mais 2015, c’est également l’année des attentats et l’accélération du durcissement du traitement des mobilisations sociales, un tournant autoritaire et donc une conflictualité plus forte dans les rapports entre les autorités et la société civile », explique encore Julien Talpin.

    « Pourtant, dans un contexte de crise démocratique actuel, nous avons encore plus besoin des associations pour toucher des publics éloignés de ces questions, ajoute le chercheur. Elles redonnent un pouvoir à des groupes sociaux sous-représentés et elles sont des écoles de la démocratie, des lieux d’éducation populaire à la vie publique. »

    « Les associations ne sont pas là pour faire plaisir aux pouvoirs publics, insiste Claire Thoury. Ce n’est pas leur mission. Mais l’inverse non plus ! Une association peut très bien s’opposer à une collectivité sur un sujet précis et être en accord sur un autre. C’est ce qu’on appelle un contre-pouvoir et c’est tout simplement le cours normal de la vie démocratique. »

    « Je prends souvent l’exemple d’Act Up et de leur action durant laquelle ils avaient déroulé un préservatif géant sur l’obélisque de la Concorde, poursuit la présidente du Mouvement associatif. Est-ce qu’il s’agissait d’un trouble à l’ordre public ? je pense que oui. Mais, aujourd’hui, on sait combien cette médiatisation a été importante dans la lutte contre le sida. »

    « Les associations sont un outil d’apprentissage des libertés et de la démocratie extrêmement puissant, conclut Claire Thoury. Cela permet d’expérimenter et de penser des nouveaux cadres, des nouvelles manières de faire. Le problème est que certains ne comprennent pas à quoi on sert ; que les aspérités, le débat, le conflit, c’est ce qui fait vivre la démocratie. »

    https://www.mediapart.fr/journal/france/160524/le-contrat-d-engagement-republicain-outil-de-mise-au-pas-du-monde-associat
    #désobéissance_civile #répression #associations #séparatisme #détournement #cartographie

  • Une cyberattaque probable force la fermeture du Collège Ahuntsic ( 10500 étudiants ) Stéphane Bordeleau

    Après le Cégep régional de Lanaudière qui a dû suspendre ses cours la semaine dernière, c’est au tour du Collège Ahuntsic, à Montréal, de devoir fermer ses installations jeudi en raison d’une attaque contre ses systèmes informatiques.

    Dans un communiqué adressé au personnel et aux étudiants, la direction de l’établissement explique qu’à la suite d’informations reçues mercredi soir concernant “une potentielle cyberattaque”, toutes les activités d’enseignement et la formation continue étaient annulées pour la journée. Le personnel non essentiel était également prié de ne pas se présenter au travail.

    L’établissement demandait aussi de ne pas utiliser les postes de travail et les ordinateurs portables du Collège jusqu’à nouvel ordre.


    “Hier, tous les systèmes ont été alertés comme quoi nous avions une attaque qui se préparait dans nos réseaux et nos systèmes”, relate Sophie Beauregard, conseillère en communication au Collège Ahuntsic, en entrevue à Radio-Canada.

    “Notre équipe de la direction des ressources informatiques a vu comme tous les voyants au rouge. De façon préventive, on a tout fermé. Aussitôt que l’on constate ça, le protocole à appliquer, c’est de tout fermer les systèmes.”

    Présentement, la direction des ressources informatiques est à pied d’œuvre pour essayer de comprendre et d’identifier le problème.
    Une citation de Sophie Beauregard, conseillère en communication au Collège Ahuntsic

    L’établissement accueille environ 10 500 étudiants, dont 7500 à l’enseignement régulier et 3000 en formation continue.

    Pour ce qui est de la durée de la fermeture de l’établissement, il est encore trop tôt pour se prononcer, précise Mme Beauregard, qui assure que des informations seront transmises aux étudiants et au personnel au cours de la journée.

    Cette fermeture forcée du collège survient à la veille du début de la période des examens. Une situation particulièrement stressante pour les étudiants qui pourraient devoir revenir au cégep pour reprendre des examens si la situation ne revient pas rapidement à la normale.

    La direction de l’établissement assure cependant que tous les cours ou examens annulés seront repris.

    Deux cégeps attaqués en deux semaines
    Le Collège Ahuntsic est le deuxième établissement collégial public à être la cible d’une cyberattaque en deux semaines dans la région de Montréal.

    Il y a une douzaine de jours, les quatre composantes du Cégep régional de Lanaudière (Terrebonne, L’Assomption, Repentigny et Joliette) ont aussi dû être fermées pendant une semaine, à la suite d’une cyberattaque.

    “Pour l’instant, il est trop tôt pour établir des liens entre les deux cyberattaques. Mais on est tout de même le deuxième [cégep] à subir une cyberattaque en peu de temps” , reconnaît Mme Beauregard, sans toutefois spéculer davantage sur la situation.

    Les collèges et universités sont régulièrement la cible de cyberattaques ou de tentatives d’intrusion informatiques. Au printemps 2022, le Collège Montmorency, à Laval, avait aussi dû suspendre ses cours lui aussi à la suite d’un vol de données dans ses systèmes informatiques qui avaient été ensuite publiées dans le web caché (dark web). Le Cégep de Saint-Félicien avait aussi été attaqué en septembre 2020 de même que le Cégep de Jonquière, en juin 2021.

    L’Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières (UQTR) et le Cégep de Trois-Rivières avaient aussi dû suspendre leurs activités informatiques en décembre 2021 en raison de failles de sécurité.

    Toujours en décembre 2021, le gouvernement du Québec avait lui-même dû fermer près de 4000 sites Internet gouvernementaux en raison d’une vulnérabilité qui permettrait d’accéder sans authentification à ces sites.

    #Canada #cegep #alerte #cyberattaque #ordinateurs #internet #cyberattaque #impuissance #école #enseignement #Montréal #prévention

    Source : https://ici.radio-canada.ca/nouvelle/2073238/cyberattaque-fermeture-college-ahuntsic

  • The Father of Modern Neuroscience Discovered the Basic Unit of the Nervous System | Scientific American
    https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-father-of-modern-neuroscience-discovered-the-basic-unit-of-t

    Modern brain science as we know it began with the work of Santiago Ramón y Cajal, whose creative thought sprang from memories of a childhood spent in the preindustrial Spanish countryside

    #cerveau #art #beau

  • La Quadrature du Net attaque en justice le blocage de TikTok en Nouvelle-Calédonie
    https://www.laquadrature.net/2024/05/17/la-quadrature-du-net-attaque-en-justice-le-blocage-de-tiktok-en-nouvel

    Par un référé-liberté déposé ce jour, La Quadrature du Net demande au Conseil d’État la suspension de la décision du Premier ministre Gabriel Attal de bloquer en Nouvelle-Calédonie la plateforme TikTok. Par cette décision de…

    #Censure

  • Migranti: tutti i dubbi sull’accordo Rama-Meloni
    https://www.balcanicaucaso.org/aree/Albania/Migranti-tutti-i-dubbi-sull-accordo-Rama-Meloni-231441

    Nonostante le incongruenze e le incertezze relative all’accordo siglato tra Roma e Tirana per l’accoglienza dei migranti in suolo albanese, e in attesa del giudizio della Corte europea, a Gjadër e Shëngjin i lavori per i due centri sono già iniziati. Siamo andati a vedere come procedono