• Il traffico di oro di aziende europee e americane finanzia il massacro in Congo

    «Il commercio dell’oro proveniente da zone di conflitto alimenta le finanze di famigerati gruppi armati come le FDLR (Forze Democratiche per la Liberazione del #Rwanda) attive nell’est della Repubblica democratica del Congo, oltre alle unità dell’esercito congolese che nei confronti della popolazione della regione si sono macchiate di numerose atrocità, violenze sessuali e altri gravi abusi dei diritti umani».

    Questo uno dei passi salienti del rapporto The Golden Laundromat (La lavanderia dorata), pubblicato lo scorso ottobre da The Sentry, il gruppo di investigatori dell’ong americana Enough Project finanziato dall’attore George Clooney, assieme all’attivista per i diritti umani John Prendergast.

    Il report denuncia il commercio illegale dell’oro dalle aree di conflitto del Congo orientale agli Stati Uniti e all’Europa, sollevando seri timori sul fatto che il prezioso metallo stia raggiungendo i mercati internazionali, comprese le catene di approvvigionamento delle principali compagnie europee e statunitensi, oltre ad essere presente negli apparati elettronici che usiamo abitualmente.

    I documenti esaminati nell’inchiesta e le relative interviste condotte da The Sentry puntano il dito contro la rete aziendale controllata dal magnate belga #Alain_Goetz, accusato di agire in connivenza con la #African_Gold_Refinery (#AGR) di #Entebbe (Uganda), anch’essa di proprietà belga, inaugurata ufficialmente dal presidente #Yoweri_Museveni, nel febbraio 2017. Quest’ultima, riciclerebbe oro proveniente da zone di conflitto del Congo orientale, per poi esportarlo negli Stati Uniti e in Europa attraverso collegamenti con una serie di società, tra cui figurano nomi altisonanti come #Amazon, #General_Electric e #Sony.

    Entebbe al centro del sistema

    Secondo i documenti di cui è venuta in possesso l’ong, nel 2017 l’AGR avrebbe esportato oro di origine ignota per un valore pari a circa 377 milioni di dollari attraverso una società di facciata con sede a Dubai, riconducibile alla raffineria belga #Tony_Goetz_NV, di proprietà del figlio di Alain Goetz.

    Numerose persone intervistate da The Sentry hanno identificato la fonderia #AGR come la principale fonte di smercio del prezioso minerale proveniente dalle provincie congolesi in guerra, ma la compagnia ugandese nega ogni addebito, sostenendo che si è formalmente impegnata ad astenersi da qualsiasi attività che possa contribuire a finanziare il conflitto.

    Nell’ultimo anno ben 283 aziende statunitensi hanno inserito la Tony Goetz NV nella lista delle proprie fonderie e la stessa AGR potrebbe essere inclusa nella catena di approvvigionamento di 103 aziende. Le centinaia di società statunitensi che si approvvigionano dalle fonderie afferenti a questo network, rischiano pertanto di maneggiare oro di provenienza illecita.

    La scia dell’oro insanguinato segue una catena suddivisa in sei fasi dall’est del Congo ai suoi principali destinatari finali, che utilizzano il metallo per produrre gioielli e lingotti, oltre all’impiego nell’elettronica.

    Oro giallo e oro verde

    Gli ultimi dati delle Nazioni Unite indicano che l’oro contrabbandato nelle zone di conflitto del Congo orientale è la principale fonte di finanziamento per gli attori armati che vi partecipano, con un calcolo annuo compreso tra i 300 e i 600 milioni di dollari.

    Senza contare che nel 2011 l’AGR non ha superato un importante audit internazionale sui minerali dei conflitti e che due importanti contrabbandieri d’oro operativi nell’est del Congo hanno rivelato a The Sentry di aver trafficato illegalmente con l’AGR.

    Inoltre, quattro commercianti regionali hanno dichiarato che i trafficanti d’oro #Buganda_Bagalwa e #Mange_Namuhanda – indicati in diversi report delle Nazioni Unite sul Congo come acquirenti del #bloody_gold – nel 2017 hanno fornito ingenti quantità del metallo alla stessa fonderia ugandese. Quest’ultima, però, smentisce di aver ricevuto oro dai due contrabbandieri e anche di aver acquistato ingenti quantità del prezioso metallo non tracciato da altri fornitori. Oltre a sostenere di effettuare accurate verifiche sulla certificazione di provenienza dell’oro.

    Tuttavia, alcuni documenti aziendali esaminati da The Sentry sembrano elevare i sospetti che l’AGR ricicli denaro sporco, come indicato dalla Financial Action Task Force (FATF), il principale organismo intergovernativo mondiale per la lotta al riciclaggio di denaro.

    The Sentry evidenzia, inoltre, che nel 2014 Goetz avrebbe chiesto l’intercessione del presidente Museveni per ottenere agevolazioni fiscali per l’AGR. E nel febbraio di tre anni dopo, in concomitanza con l’inizio dell’attività della fonderia ugandese, Museveni ha annunciato di aver eliminato l’imposta di importazione sull’oro. Un provvedimento di cui ha sostanzialmente beneficiato solo l’AGR.

    Tutti questi elementi inducono a considerare che dietro l’African Gold Refinery possa nascondersi una colossale operazione di riciclaggio dell’oro insanguinato del Congo che avrebbe implicazioni sulla vita di milioni di persone.

    https://raiawadunia.com/il-traffico-di-oro-di-aziende-europee-e-americane-finanzia-il-massacro-
    #Congo #RDC #guerre #conflit #extractivisme #or #mines #Belgique #Dubaï
    ping @albertocampiphoto

    • Le #rapport :
      The #Golden_Laundromat

      Key Findings

      An investigation by The Sentry raises significant concerns that gold mined from conflict areas in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (“Congo”) is reaching international markets, including the supply chains of major U.S. companies and in products that consumers use every day.
      Documents reviewed and interviews conducted by The Sentry raise serious concern that the corporate network controlled by Belgian tycoon Alain Goetz has refined illegally-smuggled conflict gold from eastern Congo at the African Gold Refinery (AGR) in Uganda and then exported it through a series of companies to the United States and Europe, potentially including Amazon, General Electric (GE), and Sony.
      According to documents reviewed by The Sentry, AGR exported approximately $377 million in gold in 2017 to an apparent affiliate of the Belgian gold refinery Tony Goetz NV, based in Dubai. Numerous sources interviewed by The Sentry identified AGR as sourcing conflict gold from Congo. AGR denies this and maintains that it is committed to refraining from any action that contributes to the financing of conflict.
      According to the U.N., conflict gold provides the largest source of revenue to armed actors in the conflict in eastern Congo, and $300 to $600 million is smuggled out of Congo annually.
      This gold may wind up in the supply chains of major western corporations. Amazon, Sony, GE, and 280 other U.S. publicly traded companies listed the Belgian refinery as an entity that may be in their supply chains, according to 2018 SEC filings, despite the fact that it failed a major international conflict minerals audit in 2017.
      Numerous sources interviewed by The Sentry identified AGR as sourcing conflict gold from Congo. Two major gold smugglers in Congo acknowledged to The Sentry that they illegally trafficked gold from eastern Congo to AGR, and other regional gold traders corroborated these accounts. Furthermore, four regional traders told The Sentry that gold traffickers Buganda Bagalwa and Mange Namuhanda, who have been named in several U.N. Group of Experts reports on Congo as purchasers of conflict gold, supplied gold to AGR in 2017. AGR denies having received gold from these traders and denies that it has otherwise received significant amounts of undocumented gold from other sources.
      Several corporate practices of AGR appear to raise red flags as indicators of potential money laundering as established by the world’s leading intergovernmental body on anti-money laundering, the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), according to documents reviewed by The Sentry.
      The trail of conflict gold follows a roughly six-step supply chain from eastern Congo to its main end-products, jewelry, gold bars for investors and banks, and electronics.

      https://thesentry.org/reports/the-golden-laundromat

      Pour télécharger le rapport :


      https://cdn.thesentry.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/GoldenLaundromat_Sentry_Oct2018-final.pdf

      ping @daphne


  • Les mutineries de 1917, un refus de la guerre «  massif et multiforme  » | L’Humanité
    https://www.humanite.fr/les-mutineries-de-1917-un-refus-de-la-guerre-massif-et-multiforme-636324

    Les mutineries de 1917, un refus de la guerre «  massif et multiforme  »

    Vendredi, 19 Mai, 2017
    Rémy Cazals

    Les actes de désobéissance et de mutinerie ont touché les deux tiers des grandes unités militaires durant le printemps et l’été 1917. C’est la révolte la plus résolue enregistrée lors de la Première Guerre mondiale  : elle est réprimée par Pétain.

    Dans l’histoire de la Première Guerre mondiale, trois thèmes ont été tardivement étudiés  : les fraternisations avec l’ennemi, les exécutions pour l’exemple et les mutineries. Se posait le problème des sources. Les uns refusaient de reconnaître l’existence de mutineries, pour d’autres, il était dangereux de dire qu’on y avait participé. Les dossiers de la justice militaire sont maintenant ouverts aux chercheurs, des témoignages de plus en plus nombreux sont découverts, on peut effectuer un croisement des sources.

    #congo #belgique #pgm #première_guerre_mondiale 1914-1918


  • How colonial violence came home: the ugly truth of the first world war | News | The Guardian
    https://www.theguardian.com/news/2017/nov/10/how-colonial-violence-came-home-the-ugly-truth-of-the-first-world-war

    How colonial violence came home: the ugly truth of the first world war

    The Harlem Hellfighters

    View of African American troops of the 369th Infantry, formerly the 15th Regiment New York Guard, and organized by Colonel Haywood, who were among the most highly decorated upon its return home, 1918. They were also known as the Harlem Hellfighters. (Photo by Interim Archives/Getty Images) Photograph: Interim Archives/Getty

    The Great War is often depicted as an unexpected catastrophe. But for millions who had been living under imperialist rule, terror and degradation were nothing new. By Pankaj Mishra

    Fri 10 Nov 2017 06.00 GMT
    Last modified on Thu 30 Nov 2017 19.44 GMT

    ‘Today on the Western Front,” the German sociologist Max Weber wrote in September 1917, there “stands a dross of African and Asiatic savages and all the world’s rabble of thieves and lumpens.” Weber was referring to the millions of Indian, African, Arab, Chinese and Vietnamese soldiers and labourers, who were then fighting with British and French forces in Europe, as well as in several ancillary theatres of the first world war.

    Faced with manpower shortages, British imperialists had recruited up to 1.4 million Indian soldiers. France enlisted nearly 500,000 troops from its colonies in Africa and Indochina. Nearly 400,000 African Americans were also inducted into US forces. The first world war’s truly unknown soldiers are these non-white combatants.

    #congo #belgique #pgm #première_guerre_mondiale 1914-1918


  • Les Congolais, éternels absents des commémorations historiques - Le Soir Plus

    https://www.lesoir.be/189464/article/2018-11-11/les-congolais-eternels-absents-des-commemorations-historiques

    Alors que le président rwandais Paul Kagame, également à la tête de l’Union africaine, était présent à la table d’honneur qui suivit la cérémonie de commémoration de l’Armistice, aux côtés de plusieurs chefs d’État d’Afrique francophone, la République démocratique du Congo brillait par son absence. Le président Kabila avait-il décliné l’invitation. Ou peut-être aurait-il été oublié, en ces temps où les Occidentaux le laissent de côté et sont en quête d’un successeur ? Ou peut-être aurait-il été, lui aussi, victime de la fermeture de la Maison Schengen ? Quelles qu’en soient les raisons, cette politique de la chaise vide représente une injure à l’histoire et une méconnaissance du sacrifice qui fut naguère imposé à la population congolaise.

    #congo #belgique #pgm #première_guerre_mondiale 1914-1918


  • #Angola : Les migrants africains en danger de mort

    Les autorités angolaises lancent « la chasse aux ressortissants sub-sahariens en situation irrégulière ». Une #opération dénommée « #expatriado » est en cours en ce moment. Elle vise à « expulser tous les immigrés en situation irrégulière en Angola ». Des ressortissants maliens témoignent des « cas d’#emprisonnement suivis de pires formes de #maltraitance et d’#humiliation ». Pour l’instant, difficile d’avoir des chiffres officiels sur le nombre de Maliens victimes. Mais ceux joints sur place appellent à l’aide des autorités maliennes.

    Selon certains Maliens, ces opérations d’expulsion ont débuté dans les zones minières. Elles se déroulent maintenant dans toutes les villes du pays, et concernent toutes les nationalités y compris les Maliens, qui sont parmi les plus nombreux. « Cela fait des jours que nous ne pouvons plus sortir pour aller au boulot par peur de nous faire arrêter », explique un ressortissant malien sur place. Selon lui, cette opération qui ne devrait concerner que les #sans-papiers, est aussi menée par les forces de l’ordre angolaises contre ceux qui sont en situation régulière. L’objectif, selon notre interlocuteur, est de soutirer de l’argent aux migrants.

    « Une fois entre les mains des autorités angolaises, il faut payer de l’argent ou partir en prison », témoignent certains migrants maliens, avant de confirmer que plusieurs d’entre eux sont actuellement en prison. En Angola certains Maliens ont l’impression d’être « laissés pour compte par les autorités maliennes ». Pour l’Association Malienne des Expulsés, « il est inacceptable qu’un pays membre de l’Union Africaine expulse d’autres africains de la sorte ». L’AME qui juge la situation « grave » en Angola, appelle les autorités maliennes à réagir.

    https://www.expulsesmaliens.info/Angola-Les-migrants-africains-en-danger-de-mort.html
    #migrations #asile #réfugiés #rafles #expulsions #renvois #chasse_aux_migrants #migrants_maliens

    • Briefing: Problems multiply in Congo’s Kasaï

      The Kasaï region in the Democratic Republic of Congo is struggling to recover from two years of intense conflict. The influx last month of more than 300,000 people from Angola, most of them long-standing migrant workers, has made a fragile humanitarian situation worse.

      Here’s our briefing on the risks for the region and the new challenges for the humanitarian response.
      What happened?

      In attempts to clamp down on what it called illegal diamond mining operations, Angola’s government ordered the expulsion of more than 360,000 Congolese nationals, forcing them to flee in October into the Kasaï region of neighbouring DRC.

      "This new shock is compounding an already dire situation in the same area that was the epicentre of the Kasaï crisis over the last couple of years,” explained Dan Schreiber, head of coordination in Congo for the UN’s emergency aid body, OCHA.

      Congolese migrants and officials said the crackdown was violent, telling Reuters that dozens of people were killed, with the worst attacks occurring in Lucapa in Angola’s diamond-rich Lunda Norte province. Angolan security forces denied the allegations.
      Where did they go?

      Most of those expelled crossed into Kamako in Kasaï province, where aid organisations are responding to the tail-end of the Kamuina Nsapu insurgency that first erupted in 2016. Some of the returnees include refugees who fled violence in Kasaï over the last two years, the Norwegian Refugee Council said.

      The NRC said conditions returnees face in Congo are “shocking”, including the risk of waterborne disease due to ineffective water and sanitation; thousands sleeping outdoors because of insufficient shelter; food prices tripling; and extortion of goods on both sides of the border.

      “Hundreds of thousands of people have been robbed of their right to a dignified existence,” said Ulrika Blom, NRC’s country director in DRC. “This is not a crisis that is about to begin, it is a full-blown emergency.”
      What has the reaction been?

      While local communities have generally been welcoming to the returnees, OCHA’s Schreiber said skirmishes erupted in certain villages, mainly over the strain on limited food resources.

      “Experience in the DRC does show that when you have a large influx of people arriving in an area it can generate tensions between host communities and the people who arrive,” he said.

      Schreiber said OCHA has seen most returnees wanting to move away from the border areas and toward other destinations inland, which could help ease the humanitarian strain in Kasaï, but he also warned that more returnees could arrive from Angola.

      “We don’t expect the first wave to be the last wave,” he said. “Expulsions from Angola are a cyclical phenomena that go all the way back to 2002-2003. It’s not a new phenomenon, but in this case we are seeing a major influx, and clearly the absorption capacity is not there.”
      Why is their arrival in Kasaï in particular such a problem?

      Kasaï was a relatively stable region in an unstable country – one currently dealing with multiple conflicts, an Ebola outbreak in North Kivu province, and one of the world’s most neglected displacement crises.

      The situation in Kasaï changed dramatically in 2016 when conflict erupted between the Kamuina Nsapu anti-government movement and Congolese security forces. The inter-communal clashes spread far and wide, soon engulfing the entire region.

      The conflict escalated in 2017, with massacres and mass graves, as well as general insecurity marked by banditry, and poor harvests that led to food insecurity and malnutrition.

      An estimated 5,000 people have since been killed and more than 1.4 million displaced.

      Toward the end of 2017 and into 2018, the crisis eased slightly, as national authorities regained control over large parts of the region. Despite isolated bouts of violence, aid groups say most militias have been formally disbanded and displaced communities are tentatively returning home.

      “But those returns are accompanied by many needs, because people are returning to burned villages, destroyed homes, and a lot of destruction,” said OCHA’s Schreiber.

      Two years of violence and displacement also mean locals have been unable to grow crops for three seasons, which has led to concerns over malnutrition. “We have really seen food insecurity skyrocket. So even in areas where returns have occurred, humanitarian needs have not come to an end,” Schreiber added.
      What are the risks?

      Although the current influx of people from Angola isn’t directly linked to the Kamuina Nsapu rebellion, aid groups are concerned about the implications of piling one problem on top of another in the same geographic area.

      For the most vulnerable groups, specifically women and children, the challenges that affect those displaced by the insurgency also pose risks for the new returnees from Angola.

      In May for instance, UNICEF reported that 400,000 children were “at risk of death” in the Kasaïs, because of food shortages.

      Yves Willemot, a spokesman for UNICEF in Congo, said the rate of severe acute malnutrition among children living in the region has improved slightly since earlier this year but “remains challenging”.

      “The security situation has clearly improved, but the impact on children is not ending in the short term,” he said.

      Among those newly returned from Angola are 80,000 children. They now are also at risk, forced to walk long distances while exposed to inclement weather, hunger, and the threat of violence. Willemot said basic services are lacking for them, including access to drinking water, schooling, and treatment for diseases like malaria and measles.

      Médecins Sans Frontières is among the NGOs initiating primary healthcare services for the recent arrivals, while also continuing interventions to assist the local population.

      In a recent report, MSF documented alarming levels of rape in the Kasaï region, saying it treated 2,600 victims of sexual violence between May 2017 and September 2018; 80 percent of those interviewed said armed men raped them.

      “The sexual violence committed in Kasaï was perpetrated largely by armed groups against non-armed people,” Philippe Kadima, MSF’s humanitarian advisor for the Great Lakes region, told IRIN. “Although the main conflict is over, we still see some violence happening in Kasaï.”

      For the more than 300,000 returnees, he said there are clear humanitarian concerns, but also the risk of insecurity. “The question is, how do you keep people secure?”

      “Displaced people become vulnerable, so it’s not that different to what the existing IDPs in Kasaï are going through… Security concerns, humanitarian needs, and risks of sexual violence are all factors when people become vulnerable,” he said.
      What about the longer-term challenges?

      Humanitarian needs remain critically underfunded in the Kasai region, said OCHA’s Shreiber, emphasising that beyond the immediate concerns are much broader needs in the region and the DRC as a whole.

      He added that the humanitarian response must help minimise the long-term impact of the crisis on those affected.

      “The longer we remain in this critical phase, the more we can expect to see humanitarian needs spiral out of control,” he said. “The current trigger of new humanitarian needs (the returnees from Angola) may be time-bound, but I think the impact will be lasting.”

      Schreiber said the Kasaï region remains vulnerable because it faces particular challenges, including decades of underdevelopment and inaccessibility as a result of poor road infrastructure, and he urged more development actors to get involved.

      “People in the Kasaïs are eager to rebound, to be back on their feet, and move on. There is no expectation that humanitarian assistance should continue forever in the Kasaï region,” he said. “People want to be autonomous, but what they need is support to build up their resilience and be able to move towards a situation where their most basic needs are met and they are able to think about their futures again.”


      http://www.irinnews.org/news-feature/2018/11/08/briefing-congo-kasai-angola-aid-conflict

    • Les violations des droits humains des migrants africains en Angola

      Les violations des droits humains des migrants africains en Angola

      Depuis un certain moment, la communauté africaine vivant sur le territoire angolais est l’objet de toute sorte de violation de ses droits les plus fondamentaux par les autorités de ce pays. La Charte Africaines des Droits de l’Homme et des Peuples protège les droits des migrants dans tous ses aspects contre les violations des droits et l’Angola est justement membre de l’Union Africaine. Ainsi, ces violations se matérialisent par des arrestations musclées et arbitraires, des emprisonnements dans des conditions inhumaines et dégradantes (art.5 de la Déclaration Universelle des Droits de l’Homme et de la Charte Africaine des Droits de l’Homme et des Peuples) de même que les expulsions collectives pourtant interdites par la Charte Africaine dans son article 12.5.

      L’AME est vivement préoccupée par les récentes arrestations, détentions et expulsions des centaines de milliers de migrants africains dont des maliens. Selon des informations recueillies auprès de nos sources sur place, une centaine de maliens sont concernés par cette situation qui évolue et change de jour en jour.

      Nous attirons l’attention de l’Union Africaine et de ses pays membres sur la situation inacceptable que vivent les étrangers sur la terre africaine d’Angola et rappeler que les droits de l’homme sont des droits inaliénables de tous les êtres humains, quels que soient leur nationalité, leur lieu de résidence, leur sexe, leur origine ethnique ou nationale, leur couleur, leur religion…

      L’Angola comme la plupart des pays africains s’est engagé à protéger, respecter et réaliser les droits de l’homme, non seulement de ses nationaux, mais de toute personne sous sa juridiction. Dans ce contexte, tous les étrangers se trouvant sur le sol angolais auraient dû bénéficier de la protection des autorités angolaises quelque soient les raisons qu’elles mettent en avant pour justifier ces expulsions.

      L’Organisation des Nations Unies (ONU) n’est pas resté silencieuse comme la plupart des pays africains, le Haut-Commissaire des Nations Unies aux droits de l’homme a mis en garde sur les conséquences des expulsions massives de réfugiés depuis l’Angola, au cours des trois dernières semaines de ce mois d’octobre.

      Par ailleurs, le Secrétaire Général des Nations Unies a rappelé le 19 septembre 2017 que : « tout pays a le droit de contrôler ses frontières. Mais cela doit se faire de telle sorte que les droits des personnes ‘en mouvement’ soient protégés ».

      Au regard de tout ce qui vient d’être évoqué :
      1. L’Association Malienne des Expulsés (AME) pour sa part, exhorte le gouvernement Malien à tout mettre en œuvre pour la sécurisation de nos compatriotes et de leurs biens dans les pays d’accueil ;
      2. Appelle le gouvernement à communiquer davantage sur cette situation en donnant beaucoup plus d’informations aux familles des maliens vivants en Angola ;
      3. Encourage le gouvernement de continuer à œuvrer pour le respect des droits des migrants maliens et aussi pour le développement d’une relation franche entre les Etats africains en vue de la réalisation de l’unité africaine comme le prévoit l’article 117 de la Constitution ;
      4. Invite l’Union Africaine à dénoncer et prendre des mesures contre les violations des droits humains dans les pays membres ;
      5. Invite également les Etats membres de l’Union Africaine à renoncer aux expulsions massives des ressortissants d’autres pays africains et à mettre fin sans délais aux opérations actuelles en cour ;
      6. Exhorte l’U.A et les Etats à une plus grande implication des organisations de la société civile aux différents processus pour la gestion de la migration.

      http://www.expulsesmaliens.info/Les-violations-des-droits-humains-des-migrants-africains-en-Angola


  • Le Maroc instaure une autorisation de voyage pour trois pays africains

    En effet, une correspondance entre le Responsable régional de la compagnie nationale Royal Air Maroc (RAM) pour le Gabon et un directeur d’agence de RAM dans le pays. Dans ce courrier, il est annoncé que

    « les autorités marocaines ont instauré à partir du 1er novembre 2018, une #autorisation_électronique_de_Voyage (AVEM) pour les ressortissants du #Mali, de la #Guinée et du #Congo_Brazaville désireux de se rendre au Maroc ».

    Ainsi, à partir de la date mentionnée, les personnes issues de ces pays qui veulent se rendre au Maroc doivent demander leur AVEM au minimum 96 heures avant leur date de départ vers le Maroc, via le portail http://www.acces-maroc.ma. Le site ne peut être consultable à partir du Maroc.

    https://224infos.org/societe-et-people/7852/le-maroc-instaure-une-autorisation-de-voyage-pour-trois-pays-africains.htm
    #Maroc #visas (ou similaires) #fermeture_des_frontières #asile #migrations #réfugiés #autorisation_de_voyage #AVEM

    Commentaire de Elsa Tyszler via la mailing-list Migreurop :

    D’après cet article (et d’autres à peu près similaires trouvés sur le net), les ressortissant-e-s du Mali, de la Guinée (Conakry) et du Congo (Brazza) doivent désormais acquérir une « autorisation de voyage » pour entrer au Maroc.
    Pourquoi ces trois pays ? Des effets de l’externalisation des frontières européennes ? Une mesure qui intervient peu de temps avant la signature du Pacte Mondial des Migrations à Marrakech en décembre...


    • . . . . .

      « Le prix Nobel de la paix encourage un consensus mondial pour arrêter les viols mais continuer la guerre. »

      Le discours profondément politique imposé par le Comité Nobel vise à renforcer, et non à perturber, l’ordre dominant. Cela fait partie de la volonté occidentale d’écrire l’histoire officielle, où l’important est de construire un discours sur la femme, sur les brutalités qu’elle a à subir. C’est un discours entièrement accepté dans les sociétés occidentales à cause des luttes féministes. Dans ce discours, le Dr Mukwege est l’homme entre deux mondes, un homme noir qu’on destine à devenir blanc. Il est comme l’homme blanc qui sait défendre les droits des femmes contre la #barbarie des hommes non civilisés – les Noirs dans ce cas – qui sont essentiellement définis par leur sauvagerie.

      AG : Le #viol d’hommes est aussi une arme de guerre au Congo et ailleurs. Il est rarement rapporté, bien qu’il ait fait l’objet d’une certaine attention dans Le comité Nobel met l’accent sur le viol dans les conflits, un rapport de l’« Economist » du 11 octobre qui dit qu’il est difficile d’estimer sa fréquence parce que tant d’hommes craignent de le rapporter parce qu’ils sont si humiliés et peuvent craindre d’être accusés du crime d’homosexualité. Le Refugee Law Project de l’Ouganda [un projet de sensibilisation communautaire au sein de l’école de droit de Makerere à Kampala, NdT] l’a expliqué en profondeur dans son film Gender Against Men [Le genre contre les hommes, NdT], que je recommande à quiconque lit ceci. Le viol d’hommes et de femmes comme arme de destruction de la communauté montre plus clairement qu’il y a un #génocide en cours contre le peuple congolais, pas seulement un « féminicide ». Pourriez-vous nous dire en quoi l’accent particulier mis sur la violence faite aux femmes cache cela ?

      BKN : J’ai toujours été troublée par le discours de Margaret Wallström, l’ancienne Envoyée spéciale des Nations unies pour la violence contre les femmes et les enfants dans les conflits. En 2010, après un séjour au Congo, elle a affirmé que ce pays était la capitale mondiale du viol et a exhorté le Conseil de sécurité à agir pour y mettre fin. Cette déclaration associait le crime de viol à une nation spécifique, le #Congo, et à tous les hommes qui s’y trouvaient. Le mot “capitale” désigne généralement le lieu le plus central, le cerveau et le cœur d’une nation, porteur des valeurs culturelles. L’une des valeurs culturelles du Congo serait donc le viol ?

      . . . . .


  • Batterie auto elettriche: il prezzo pagato dai bambini del cobalto

    Nelle miniere del Congo migliaia di bambini pagano un prezzo altissimo per estrarre il cobalto, uno dei materiali indispensabili alle batterie delle auto elettriche: condizioni di lavoro terribili e rischi per la salute per pochi centesimi al giorno


    https://www.osservatoriodiritti.it/2018/10/22/batterie-auto-elettriche-bambini-cobalto
    #voiture_électrique #exploitation #mines #cobalt #enfants #Congo #esclavage_moderne #extractivisme #matières_premières #cartographie #visualisation
    ping @reka


  • Palma da olio: le piantagioni maledette del Congo orientale

    Guardiani delle piantagioni di palma da olio che tormentano la popolazione, salari bassi e contratti fantasma: ecco la denuncia dei leader comunitari raccolta dalle ong nella Repubblica Democratica del Congo. Sotto accusa la compagnia canadese #Feronia e l’aiuto allo sviluppo, che sostiene la coltivazione della pianta in vaste aree.

    Rabbia e malcontento. È il clima che si respira tra i leader delle comunità congolesi, ai margini delle piantagioni di palma da olio della compagnia canadese Feronia. A raccontarlo sono le ong in visita sul campo.

    Le tre piantagioni di palma da olio della società canadese occupano più di 100.000 ettari e si trovano nelle regioni dell’Equatore e del Congo Orientale. La loro vicenda attraversa tutta la storia recente della Repubblica Democratica del Congo. Assegnate al britannico William Lever già in epoca coloniale, sono rimaste in uno stato di semi abbandono durante le due guerre del Congo, quando erano gestite dalla multinazionale anglo-olandese Unilever. Infine sono state assegnate alla compagnia Feronia nel 2009, con un contratto rinnovabile di 25 anni.

    L’aiuto allo sviluppo della palma da olio africana

    La compagnia canadese ha una struttura molto complessa. Fin troppo, secondo la rete di ong europee e congolesi che nel 2016 hanno analizzato le sue caratteristiche in un rapporto. La società è detenuta in maggioranza dal Cdc Group, un organismo pubblico britannico, ed è finanziata da banche di sviluppo europee, americane e dalla Banca Africana per lo Sviluppo. I soldi provengono, quindi, dalle istituzioni di molti paesi europei: Francia, Germania, Belgio, Gran Bretagna, Olanda e Svizzera.
    Le terre contese per la coltivazione di palma da olio

    Si tratta di terre concesse illegalmente, secondo la popolazione locale che ne rivendica la gestione, perché di proprietà dello stato congolese. Stéphane Desgain, ricercatore per il coordinamento Cncd (Centro nazionale per la cooperazione allo sviluppo), che riunisce numerose ong belghe, è stato sul posto a metà luglio. Ha incontrato alcuni rappresentanti delle comunità locali nell’area di Lokutu, dove si trovano le concessioni più ampie di Feronia.

    «La popolazione è assolutamente insoddisfatta delle relazioni con la compagnia, degli accordi presi e del programma degli investimenti. Le critiche sono a tutti i livelli», sottolinea il ricercatore del Cncd.

    Le molestie delle guardie private

    Al centro delle ultime contestazioni c’è l’operato delle guardie, che si occupano della sicurezza delle piantagioni. A giugno la rete di informazione e d’appoggio alle ong nazionali (Riao-Rdc) ha denunciato molestie, minacce nei confronti della popolazione e violazioni dei diritti umani. Feronia ha appaltato la sicurezza alla società privata “Tanganyika”, in sostituzione delle guardie industriali che operavano in precedenza. La nuova società ha assunto personale proveniente da altre regioni, per evitare forme di solidarietà con i residenti.

    Feronia sostiene, dal suo punto di vista, la necessità di tenere sotto controllo le piantagioni e di combattere i furti dei frutti della palma. A generare il conflitto con la compagnia, secondo Stéphane Desgain, è la mancanza di un negozio per la vendita locale di olio di palma.

    A questo si aggiunge la rabbia generalizzata della popolazione, che non vede vantaggi dalla presenza della piantagione, solo limitazioni. Le guardie di Feronia, infatti, impediscono ogni forma di trasformazione artigianale del frutto della palma e «danno la caccia a tutti coloro che ne possiedono», raccontano i leader comunitari interpellati.

    Se è vero che si sono verificati furti all’interno della piantagione, è altrettanto vero che «i frutti provengono anche dalla foresta», come evidenzia il ricercatore. La popolazione viene, di fatto, privata della possibilità di comprare l’olio e di trasformarlo localmente.
    Arresti arbitrari per chi ha frutti della palma da olio

    I leader comunitari raccontano anche di arresti arbitrari da parte delle guardie della compagnia. Lo scorso aprile l’ong locale Riao-Rdc denunciò l’arresto di un minatore in possesso di alcuni frutti della palma nei pressi di una delle piantagioni della società. L’uomo sarebbe stato picchiato dalle guardie e portato in una vicina prigione.
    Produzione, estrazione e vendita: salari bassi e personale da fuori

    Una delle rivendicazioni più sentite dai testimoni incontrati dal Cncd, durante la visita sul terreno, è l’assenza di personale locale tra i quadri dell’azienda. «Si tratta di una pratica che arriva dall’epoca coloniale e si ritrova in molte aziende», spiega Stéphane Desgain. Che aggiunge:

    «In questo modo l’azienda controlla meglio il personale ed evita che si generi solidarietà interna».

    Secondo i leader comunitari interpellati, inoltre, i salari non sarebbero sufficienti al benessere delle famiglie.

    Un rapporto sull’olio di palma pubblicato nel 2016 da una rete di organizzazioni internazionali e congolesi confermava la necessità di aumentare i salari sia per i lavoratori assunti che per quelli giornalieri. Le ultime buste paga recuperate dalle ong, però, sembrano essere in linea con la media salariale congolese.

    «In molti casi i lavoratori devono tornare a casa a piedi dopo ore di lavoro perché i camion che li accompagnano al mattino e non li prelevano in serata», racconta il ricercatore. I capi tradizionali denunciano anche la mancanza di contratti e l’utilizzo del lavoro giornaliero anche per lunghi periodi.
    Palma da olio: pochi investimenti nei villaggi

    Gli investitori internazionali che finanziano il progetto, riporta Stéphane Desgain, sostengono che ci sia stato un miglioramento nelle relazioni con la popolazione e nelle condizioni di vita, grazie alla presenza di Feronia. Ma dall’osservazione sul campo emergono ancora grosse difficoltà, anche a livello di infrastrutture.

    La compagnia sul suo sito internet ha riportato i dettagli della realizzazione di strade, di ambulatori medici e di scuole. I capi tradizionali incontrati dal Cncd parlano invece di ritardi nella costruzione, di cambi del progetto in corsa e di materiali al risparmio.

    «La mancanza di infrastrutture è la prima fonte di insoddisfazione della popolazione. Nella zona di Lokutu l’unica struttura realizzata dal momento dell’insediamento della compagnia sono le fondamenta di un presidio sanitario», sottolinea il ricercatore.

    Pianta di palma da olio ostacolo per agricoltura locale

    L’impatto delle operazioni della compagnia non è uguale in tutte le comunità. Alcuni villaggi si sono ritrovati circondati dalle piantagioni, altri confinano con le proprietà di Feronia.

    Già nel rapporto del 2016 emergeva la rivendicazione delle terre da parte delle comunità nei pressi delle piantagioni. I leader locali lamentano la limitazione nell’accesso alla terra per l’agricoltura di sussistenza e nell’accesso alla foresta come fonte di cibo.


    https://www.osservatoriodiritti.it/2018/09/17/palma-da-olio-coltivazione-congo

    #palmiers_à_huile #huile_de_palma #Congo #RDC #plantations #Canada #aide_au_développement #développement #coopération_au_développement #industrie_agro-alimentaire


  • Belgian imperialism: the colonisation of the Congo | Thinkpiece | Architectural Review

    https://www.architectural-review.com/essays/belgian-imperialism-the-colonisation-of-the-congo/10034809.article

    The architectural and urban colonial legacy of the Congo should not be seen through the prism of a Belgian-Congolese context, but from a global perspective

    Early December 2018, the Royal Museum for Central Africa (RMCA) in Tervuren, built between 1904 and 1908 at the initiative of Leopold II, is going to re-open its doors after a long and intensive renovation process. Following a masterplan by Flemish architect Stéphane Beel, the old building is now restored to its original grandeur by dismantling ad hoc interventions that occurred in and on the historical building over the course of time. A newly designed reception pavilion and a series of underground rooms for temporary exhibitions will completely reconfigure the approach of the world-renowned collections, encompassing ethnographic artefacts, historical maps and documents, zoological species, mining resources, etc. The RMCA is deeply entangled with the identity of Belgium. As Herman Asselberghs and Dieter Lesage noted in their 1999 provocative plea for rethinking what they considered the ‘museum of the nation’, it is the Belgian place par excellence that embodies most effectively ‘the strangeness of our own history’. Rather than just displaying ‘foreign masks’, the museum in their view illustrates first and foremost that at one point in history, Belgium had an interest in ‘displaying and looking at such foreign masks’.

    #belgique #impérialisme #colobisation #colonialisme #congo


  • The rape of men: the darkest secret of war | Society | The Guardian
    https://www.theguardian.com/society/2011/jul/17/the-rape-of-men

    Because there has been so little research into the rape of men during war, it’s not possible to say with any certainty why it happens or even how common it is – although a rare 2010 survey, published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, found that 22% of men and 30% of women in Eastern Congo reported conflict-related sexual violence. As for Atim, she says: “Our staff are overwhelmed by the cases we’ve got, but in terms of actual numbers? This is the tip of the iceberg.”

    Later on I speak with Dr Angella Ntinda, who treats referrals from the RLP. She tells me: “Eight out of 10 patients from RLP will be talking about some sort of sexual abuse.”

    “Eight out of 10 men?” I clarify.

    “No. Men and women,” she says.

    “What about men?”

    “I think all the men.”

    I am aghast.

    “All of them?” I say.

    “Yes,” she says. “All the men.”

    The research by Lara Stemple at the University of California doesn’t only show that male sexual violence is a component of wars all over the world, it also suggests that international aid organisations are failing male victims. Her study cites a review of 4,076 NGOs that have addressed wartime sexual violence. Only 3% of them mentioned the experience of men in their literature. “Typically,” Stemple says, “as a passing reference.”

    ...

    Stemple’s findings on the failure of aid agencies is no surprise to Dolan. “The organisations working on sexual and gender-based violence don’t talk about it,” he says. “It’s systematically silenced. If you’re very, very lucky they’ll give it a tangential mention at the end of a report. You might get five seconds of: ’Oh and men can also be the victims of sexual violence.’ But there’s no data, no discussion.”

    As part of an attempt to correct this, the RLP produced a documentary in 2010 called Gender Against Men. When it was screened, Dolan says that attempts were made to stop him. “Were these attempts by people in well-known, international aid agencies?” I ask.

    “Yes,” he replies. “There’s a fear among them that this is a zero-sum game; that there’s a pre-defined cake and if you start talking about men, you’re going to somehow eat a chunk of this cake that’s taken them a long time to bake.”

    #Afrique #Congo #guerre #violence_sexuelle #hommes



  • #Ebola réapparaît dans l’est de la République démocratique du #Congo
    https://www.lemonde.fr/afrique/article/2018/08/01/ebola-reapparait-dans-l-est-de-la-rdc_5338420_3212.html

    Ce que les spécialistes d’Ebola craignaient est arrivé. La fin, décrétée le 24 juillet, de la neuvième épidémie ayant touché la République démocratique du Congo (#RDC) – officiellement déclarée le 8 mai dans la province de l’Equateur (nord-ouest) – ne signifie pas que le virus a disparu du pays où il a été découvert en 1976. La dixième #épidémie est déjà déclenchée.


  • Belgium Confronts Its Heart of Darkness; Unsavory Colonial Behavior in the Congo Will Be Tackled by a New Study - The New York Times
    https://www.nytimes.com/2002/09/21/arts/belgium-confronts-its-heart-darkness-unsavory-colonial-behavior-congo-will-

    In February, Belgium admitted participating in the 1961 assassination of Patrice Lumumba, Congo’s first Prime Minister, and apologized for it. The motivation for the crime was to avoid losing control over Congo’s resources, but Belgium steadfastly denied any involvement until new evidence collected by a parliamentary commission last year confirmed the direct role of Belgian agents in carrying out and covering up the murder.

    Now fresh light may be thrown on an earlier, still darker, period of Belgium’s reign over Congo. In anticipation of a major exhibition scheduled for fall 2004, the Royal Museum for Central Africa in Tervuren, near Brussels, is sponsoring the first far-reaching review of Belgium’s colonial past, including the period from 1885 to 1908 when, as the personal property of King Leopold II, the Congo Free State is believed to have suffered violence and exploitation that cost millions of lives.

    Guido Gryseels, the director of the government-owned museum, says the purpose of the study is not to pass judgment but to provide information about a neglected past. In addition, he says, the study will address more than the political aspects of colonialism. It will also look at the period through the prisms of Central Africa’s history, anthropology, zoology and geology, disciplines that form part of the museum’s permanent scientific mission.
    Continue reading the main story

    Yet the initiative is daring, since it raises the broader question of a country’s continuing responsibility for unsavory actions carried out in its name generations or even centuries earlier. These range from promotion of the slave trade and annexation of territories to colonial repression and ransacking of natural resources. Further, while the study is not subject to Belgian government control, it will be financed by the taxpayer, which makes intense public debate of its findings even more likely.

    So far, no other former colonial power has shown an appetite for looking back with a critical eye, even though the colonial records of, say, the British in India, the French in Algeria, the Dutch in Indonesia and the Portuguese in Angola all contain examples of human rights abuses and excessive use of force.

    Finally, under British pressure, Leopold sold Congo to Belgium in 1908. In 1919, a Belgian commission estimated that Congo’s population was half what it was in 1879.

    ’’A lot of very positive things happened during the real period of colonization after 1908,’’ he said. ’’Also, I don’t think one should look at the past with the moral standards of today. After all, early in the last century, children of 6 or 7 were working 17 hours a day in Belgian factories. We should look at it with the moral standards of those periods.’’

    #Congo #Belgique #colonisation


  • Scandale au #Congo : deux parcs naturels ouverts à l’exploitation pétrolière !
    http://reformeraujourdhui.blogspot.com/2018/07/scandale-au-congo-deux-parcs-naturels.html

    Après le Congrès américain qui a autorisé l’exploration pétrolière et gazière au sein de « l’Arctic National Wildlife Refuge » en décembre 2017, l’une des plus vastes réserves naturelles d’Alaska (78 000 km²), c’est au tour de la République démocratique du Congo d’envisager des activités extractives dans deux parcs naturels classés à l’Unesco… Lire la suite...

    #parc #pays #Salonga #Virunga


  • PRINTEMPS LUMUMBA – HERITAGE LUMUMBA – Mémoire Coloniale
    https://www.memoirecoloniale.be/actualite/printemps-lumumba-heritage-lumumba

    Après Charleroi, rendez-vous maintenant à 1000 Bruxelles pour l’inauguration de la Place Lumumba !!!

    Du 28 au 30 juin, 3 jours d’activités culturelles autour de cette inauguration. Au programme : expo, visites guidées décoloniales, théâtre, conférences-débats !

    #Belgique #Bruxelles #colonialisme #Congo


  • The #Belt_and_Road_Bubble Is Starting to Burst – Foreign Policy
    https://foreignpolicy.com/2018/06/27/the-belt-and-road-bubble-is-starting-to-burst

    China’s hasty international investments are beginning to drag down its own economy.

    Autre article de fond. Les énormes – et risqués – investissements chinois en Afrique vont peser (pèsent…) sur l’économie chinoise.

    L’exemple de la #Sicomines (Sino-Congolaise des Mines) en RDC, République démocratique du #Congo.

    #OBOR #OBOR_Bubble


  • Forced displacement at record high of 68.5 million, UNHCR #Global_Trends report reveals

    UNHCR released its Global Trends report this week to coincide with World Refugee Day, detailing the latest statistics on forced displacement across the world. According to the report, over 68.5 million people are currently displaced from their homes for reasons of conflict, violence and other forms of persecution. This figure represents a record high for the fifth consecutive year.

    In 2017 alone, over 16.2 million people were forcibly displaced, a figure which translates to 44,500 people a day, or one person every two seconds. Over two thirds of the world’s refugees originate from just five countries: Syria, Afghanistan, South Sudan, Myanmar and Somalia.

    The report found that over half of those displaced are children, many of whom are unaccompanied or separated from their parents. In 2017 173,800 children sought asylum on their own, although UNHCR states that this figure is likely an underestimation.

    The report dispels a number of common misconceptions about forced displacement, such as the belief that most of those displaced are hosted in countries in the Global North. UNHCR affirms that in fact the opposite is true, stating that “approximately 85 per cent of all refugees at the end of 2017 were granted protection in countries in developing regions, which included nine of the 10 largest refugee-hosting countries”. Turkey hosts the largest number of refugees, now reaching 3.5 million, while Lebanon hosts the greatest number in proportion to its own population.

    Another misconception the report addresses is the number of cross-border displacements. Almost two thirds of those forced to flee are internally displaced within their own borders. In addition, most of those who do cross a national border settle as close as possible to their home.

    The EU also launched its Annual Report from EASO, the European Asylum Support Office, providing an overview of asylum related policies and practices, both at EU and at national level. In 2017, more than 728,000 applications for international protection were lodged in EU countries, with 33% of decisions granting asylum seekers either refugee status or subsidiary protection.

    https://www.ecre.org/forced-displacement-at-record-high-of-68-5-million-unhcr-global-trends-report-
    #statistiques #chiffres #migrations #asile #réfugiés #HCR #monde #2017

    Lien pour télécharger le #rapport :
    http://www.unhcr.org/5b27be547.pdf
    http://www.unhcr.org/globaltrends2017
    #IDPs #déplacés_internes #apatridie #Rohingya #retour_volontaire #réinstallation #RDC #Congo #république_démocratique_du_congo #taux_de_protection #MNA #mineurs_non_accompagnés

    Quelques graphiques :


    #cartographie #visualisation

    cc @reka


  • Après la Guinée Bissau, nouvelle extension d’APC dans le palmier à huile au Congo | Commodafrica
    http://www.commodafrica.com/09-05-2018-apres-la-guinee-bissau-nouvelle-extension-dapc-dans-le-palm

    L’américain African Palm Corp (APC) a ajouté 3 millions d’hectares supplémentaires de palmier à l’huile en Afrique de l’Ouest à son portefeuille avec la signature d’un accord avec la Société et les représentants de Ngalipomi, groupe local basé au Congo. Cet accord conférera à APC un accès à trois millions d’hectares supplémentaires de palmiers en Afrique de l’Ouest, en #Guinée_Bissau et au #Congo.

    « C’est le deuxième accord que nous concluons en seulement quelques mois, et nous sommes ravis d’inclure le Congo dans notre nouvelle phase d’exploitation. Ceci renforce notre vision consistant à créer un modèle d’affaires durable, capable d’autonomiser économiquement les communautés locales africaines via la culture de fruits de palmier », a expliqué Oscar A. Faria, président et PDG d’African Palm Corp. En avril dernier le groupe américain a annoncé le lancement de ses activités en Guinée Bissau sur 1,5 million d’hectares (cf. nos informations ).

    #industrie_palmiste


  • L’Eglise en République démocratique du Congo (encore) face au pouvoir

    Après avoir trouvé un accord éphémère entre le gouvernement et l’opposition pour résoudre la crise institutionnelle ouverte par le maintien au pouvoir de Joseph Kabila au-delà de son mandat, l’Église catholique a adopté une position nettement plus critique vis-à-vis du régime en réclamant l’organisation des élections sans Kabila et en dénonçant ouvertement sa mauvaise gouvernance. Le bras de fer entre l’autel et le palais présidentiel s’inscrit dans l’histoire de la République démocratique du Congo (RDC). Il éclaire, aussi, le poids et le rôle de premier plan de l’Église dans ce pays en crise ainsi que la place stratégique qu’elle occupe, aux yeux du Vatican, dans l’économie générale du #catholicisme en Afrique. Si dans son rapport de force avec le régime, l’Église congolaise parle d’une seule voix, son unité affichée n’est pas sans failles.

    https://www.ifri.org/fr/publications/notes-de-lifri/leglise-republique-democratique-congo-face-pouvoir

    #RDC #Congo #Eglise #religion #Eglise_catholique



  • Howard Buffett au Congo

    Le problème de la philanthropie capitaliste

    Par Zahra Moloo

    http://jefklak.org/howard-buffet-au-congo

    La colonisation n’en finit pas de sévir, et si l’occupation militaire des territoires n’est plus en vogue pour les pays occidentaux, d’autres moyens leur sont offerts pour asseoir leur position sur nombre de pays. La philanthropie, que l’on pourrait croire armée des meilleures intentions, fait partie des nouvelles formes de ce libéralisme postcolonial : en inondant les États et les structures locales de dollars, les grands investisseurs capitalistes noient dans l’œuf toutes les initiatives pour l’autonomie et la résistance des peuples autochtones. Pour exemple, voici le cas du businessman Howard Buffett, fils de Warren Buffett (troisième fortune mondiale), qui joue un rôle non négligeable dans le « développement » de la République démocratique du Congo et vient influencer les récits des journalistes ou des ONG là où aboutit son financement.


  • INAUGURATION DE LA STATUE DE LUMUMBA A BERLIN. 08 10 2013
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n9qf0L2AP-4

    A Berlin la statue de Patrice Lumumba reste cachée à l’abri des regards des foules de touristes. Ce serait un motif parfait pour les groupes de Chinois. Pour le moment ils se font tous prendre en photo devant la statue de Karl Marx et Friedrich Engels 350 mètres plus loin. Considérant le sort de l’arbre le plus célèbre de l’ère internet c’est pluôt rassurant pour Lumumba.
    https://www.openstreetmap.org/node/5237698977#map=19/52.52173/13.40277

    Cheik FITA
    Published on Oct 10, 2013
    SUBSCRIBE 6.4K
    Le mardi 8 octobre 2013 à 17 heures à Garnisonkirchplatz à Berlin, la capitale de la République fédérale d’Allemagne, une sculpture en bronze de Lumumba a été installée et remise au public par la fondation Poll, devant une grande foule mixte.

    Cette statue dénommée, "Lumumba" (Transport à Thysville) a été réalisée en 1961 par Genni/Jenny Wiegmann-Mucchi (1895-1969).

    Plusieurs personnalités politiques, académiques... étaient là : allemandes, congolaises ainsi que d’autres nationalités. Comme officiels congolais il y avait François Lumumba, fils aîné du héros national congolais, She Okitundu représentant l’état congolais ainsi que l’ambassadrice de la RD Congo à Berlin.

    La cérémonie a commencé par une musique jouée au Madimba par la chanteuse Chantal Nyemba Cingoma venue de Leipzig.

    Suivront alors tour à tour,

    Deux discours de la fondation Poll (Kunst Stiftung Poll).

    La découverte de la statue,

    Les discours des officiels congolais

    Et enfin un verre d’amitié offert dans les bâtiments de la fondation Poll.

    À l’issue de la manifestation, nous avons interviewé François Lumumba et She Okitundu à propos de l’absence à ce jour en Belgique d’une place ou d’une statue de Lumumba.

    Pour François Lumumba, « comme Berlin, la ville qui a vu la naissance de l’état du Congo a fait ce pas, c’est déjà une bonne chose. »

    Quant à monsieur She Okitundu, ancien ministre congolais des affaires étrangères, il a affirmé que dans le cas de la Belgique, cette absence était une anomalie, surtout que l’ancienne métropole a déjà reconnu sa responsabilité morale dans la mort de Lumumba.

    La statue de Lumumba à Berlin pourrait devenir un lieu de pèlerinage. Illustration : un jeune d’une dizaine d’années s’appelant aussi Patrice Lumumba, est venu spécialement de Hanovre avec son père et son frère, afin de poser à côté de la statue de son illustre homonyme.

    Nous remercions la communauté congolaise d’Allemagne qui nous a facilité le séjour, la mobilité et l’accès à l’information. Plus spécialement, messieurs Shungu Tudanonga, Memba Gabriel, et Iseewanga Indongo-Imbanda, Danyo Ilunga.

    Berlin le 9 octobre 2013

    Aufstellen einer Lumumba-Skulptur in Berlin-Mitte - DAFRIG - Deutsch-Afrikanische Gesellschaft e.V.
    http://dafrig.de/aufstellen-einer-lumumba-skulptur-in-berlin-mitte

    Genni/Jenny Wiegmann-Mucchi

    #Berlin #Mitte #Garnisonskirchplatz #colonialisme äBelgique #Congo


  • Most Maps of the New Ebola Outbreak Are Wrong - The Atlantic
    https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2018/05/most-maps-of-the-new-ebola-outbreak-are-wrong/560777

    Almost all the maps of the outbreak zone that have thus far been released contain mistakes of this kind. Different health organizations all seem to use their own maps, most of which contain significant discrepancies. Things are roughly in the right place, but their exact positions can be off by miles, as can the boundaries between different regions.

    Sinai, a cartographer at UCLA, has been working with the Ministry of Health to improve the accuracy of the Congo’s maps, and flew over on Saturday at their request. For each health zone within the outbreak region, Sinai compiled a list of the constituent villages, plotted them using the most up-to-date sources of geographical data, and drew boundaries that include these places and no others. The maps at the top of this piece show the before (left) and after (right) images.

    #cartographie #santé #RDC #erreur #ebola


  • Nuove rotte per i minerali insanguinati

    Verisk Maplecroft: combattenti trafficano stagno, oro e tungsteno in Colombia e #Myanmar.

    La mappa dei paesi a rischio violazione di diritti umani legati ai cosiddetti “minerali insanguinati”, o “minerali di conflitto”, si allarga a Colombia e Myanmar. Secondo l’ultimo rapporto dalla società di consulenza Verisk Maplecroft attiva nella gestione del rischio globale, infatti, le zone interessate da questi fenomeni non sono più solo la Repubblica democratica del Congo o la regione africana dei Grandi Laghi, dove da tempo i signori della guerra finanziano i conflitti locali proprio trafficando questi materiali.

    La ricerca ha esaminato venti fattori di rischio di natura politica, sociale e ambientale relativi all’estrazione e al commercio di tantalio, stagno, tungsteno e oro (noti anche con l’acronimo 3TG derivato dalle tre T dei primi tre – stagno è tin in inglese – più la G di gold, oro) nei principali paesi produttori a livello globale di questi minerali.

    L’analisi condotta dalla multinazionale britannica mostra che i paesi africani della regione dei Grandi Laghi, in particolare la Repubblica democratica del Congo, non sono più né gli unici né i più importanti fornitori di 3TG, fondamentali per la produzione di dispositivi ad alta tecnologia e batterie per auto elettriche, per citare solo un paio di esempi. Secondo le conclusioni degli analisti di Verisk Maplecroft, infatti, i quattro minerali sono prodotti anche sotto il controllo di gruppi armati attivi in Myanmar (ex Birmania) e Colombia, al fine di finanziare la guerriglia nei due paesi.

    Uno tra i più importanti di questi gruppi è lo United Wa State Army (Uswa), un esercito formato da oltre 30 mila uomini, che grazie al sostegno di Pechino dal 1989 controlla di fatto lo Stato di Wa, nel nord-est del Myanmar. Lo stagno prodotto nelle miniere di Man Maw sotto il controllo dei ribelli birmani viene esportato nella vicina Cina e immesso nelle catene di fornitura di oltre 500 aziende locali, che producono materiale elettronico. Nel 2003, l’Uwsa è stata sanzionata dal governo degli Stati Uniti per il suo coinvolgimento nel traffico internazionale di stupefacenti.

    In Colombia, invece, alcune formazioni armate come l’Esercito di liberazione nazionale (Eln) che, dopo le Farc, rappresenta il secondo principale gruppo ribelle di ispirazione marxista attivo nella nazione latino-americana, attualmente detengono il controllo dell’attività estrattiva di ingenti giacimenti di oro e tungsteno.

    Le disposizioni in vigore in Europa e negli Stati Uniti per risalire all’esatta catena di fornitura di un dato minerale e renderlo tracciabile, si sono finora concentrate sulle nazioni della regione dei Grandi Laghi, nonostante la miriade di rischi che possono sorgere nelle catene di approvvigionamento di atri paesi.

    https://www.osservatoriodiritti.it/2017/04/28/nuove-rotte-per-minerali-insanguinati
    #matières_premières #extractivisme #Colombie #or #Birmanie #Tungstène #Étain #rapport #mines #risques #rapport #Congo #RDC

    Lien vers le rapport :
    Conflict Minerals Risk Analysis

    Verisk Maplecroft’s conflict minerals analysis quantifies 20 political, social and environmental risk related to the production of tantalum, tin, tungsten and gold (#3TG) in the largest global producers of the minerals. The focus of the risk assessment is at the mine level of the value chain, though risk issues present across the wider value chains of the assessed commodities are also incorporated.


    https://www.osservatoriodiritti.it/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/VM_Conflict_Minerals.pdf
    #cartographie #visualisation