• Trigger Warnings | Centre for Teaching Excellence

      A trigger warning is a statement made prior to sharing potentially disturbing content. That content might include graphic references to topics such as #sexual_abuse, #self-harm, #violence, #eating_disorders, and so on, and can take the form of an #image, #video_clip, #audio_clip, or piece of #text. In an #academic_context, the #instructor delivers these messages in order to allow students to prepare emotionally for the content or to decide to forgo interacting with the content.

      Proponents of trigger warnings contend that certain course content can impact the #wellbeing and #academic_performance of students who have experienced corresponding #traumas in their own lives. Such students might not yet be ready to confront a personal #trauma in an academic context. They choose to #avoid it now so that they can deal with it more effectively at a later date – perhaps after they have set up necessary #resources, #supports, or #counselling. Other students might indeed be ready to #confront a personal trauma in an academic context but will benefit from a #forewarning of certain topics so that they can brace themselves prior to (for example) participating in a #classroom discussion about it. Considered from this perspective, trigger warnings give students increased #autonomy over their learning, and are an affirmation that the instructor #cares about their wellbeing.

      However, not everyone agrees that trigger warnings are #necessary or #helpful. For example, some fear that trigger warnings unnecessarily #insulate students from the often harsh #realities of the world with which academics need to engage. Others are concerned that trigger warnings establish a precedent of making instructors or universities legally #responsible for protecting students from #emotional_trauma. Still others argue that it is impossible to anticipate all the topics that might be potentially triggering for students.

      Trigger warnings do not mean that students can exempt themselves from completing parts of the coursework. Ideally, a student who is genuinely concerned about being #re-traumatized by forthcoming course content would privately inform the instructor of this concern. The instructor would then accommodate the student by proposing #alternative_content or an alternative learning activity, as with an accommodation necessitated by a learning disability or physical disability.

      The decision to preface potentially disturbing content with a trigger warning is ultimately up to the instructor. An instructor who does so might want to include in the course syllabus a preliminary statement (also known as a “#content_note”), such as the following:

      Our classroom provides an open space for the critical and civil exchange of ideas. Some readings and other content in this course will include topics that some students may find offensive and/or traumatizing. I’ll aim to #forewarn students about potentially disturbing content and I ask all students to help to create an #atmosphere of #mutual_respect and #sensitivity.

      Prior to introducing a potentially disturbing topic in class, an instructor might articulate a #verbal_trigger_warning such as the following:

      Next class our discussion will probably touch on the sexual assault that is depicted in the second last chapter of The White Hotel. This content is disturbing, so I encourage you to prepare yourself emotionally beforehand. If you believe that you will find the discussion to be traumatizing, you may choose to not participate in the discussion or to leave the classroom. You will still, however, be responsible for material that you miss, so if you leave the room for a significant time, please arrange to get notes from another student or see me individually.

      A version of the foregoing trigger warning might also preface written materials:

      The following reading includes a discussion of the harsh treatment experienced by First Nations children in residential schools in the 1950s. This content is disturbing, so I encourage everyone to prepare themselves emotionally before proceeding. If you believe that the reading will be traumatizing for you, then you may choose to forgo it. You will still, however, be responsible for material that you miss, so please arrange to get notes from another student or see me individually.

      Trigger warnings, of course, are not the only answer to disturbing content. Instructional #strategies such as the following can also help students approach challenging material:

      – Give your students as much #advance_notice as possible about potentially disturbing content. A day’s notice might not be enough for a student to prepare emotionally, but two weeks might be.

      – Try to “scaffold” a disturbing topic to students. For example, when beginning a history unit on the Holocaust, don’t start with graphic photographs from Auschwitz. Instead, begin by explaining the historical context, then verbally describe the conditions within the concentration camps, and then introduce the photographic record as needed. Whenever possible, allow students to progress through upsetting material at their own pace.

      – Allow students to interact with disturbing material outside of class. A student might feel more vulnerable watching a documentary about sexual assault while in a classroom than in the security of his or her #home.

      – Provide captions when using video materials: some content is easier to watch while reading captions than while listening to the audio.

      – When necessary, provide written descriptions of graphic images as a substitute for the actual visual content.

      – When disturbing content is under discussion, check in with your students from time to time: #ask them how they are doing, whether they need a #break, and so on. Let them know that you are aware that the material in question is emotionally challenging.

      – Advise students to be #sensitive to their classmates’ #vulnerabilities when they are preparing class presentations.

      – Help your students understand the difference between emotional trauma and #intellectual_discomfort: the former is harmful, as is triggering it in the wrong context (such as in a classroom rather than in therapy); the latter is fundamental to a university education – it means our ideas are being challenged as we struggle to resolve cognitive dissonance.

      https://uwaterloo.ca/centre-for-teaching-excellence/trigger

    • Why Trigger Warnings Don’t Work

      Because trauma #survivors’ #memories are so specific, increasingly used “trigger warnings” are largely #ineffective.

      Fair warning labels at the beginning of movie and book reviews alert the reader that continuing may reveal critical plot points that spoil the story. The acronym NSFW alerts those reading emails or social media posts that the material is not suitable for work. The Motion Picture Association of America provides film ratings to advise about content so that moviegoers can make informed entertainment choices for themselves and their children.

      Enter stage right: Trigger warning.

      A trigger warning, most often found on #social_media and internet sites, alerts the reader that potentially upsetting information may follow. The words trigger warning are often followed by a subtitle such as *Trigger warning: This may be triggering to those who have struggled with _________. Fill in the blank. #Domestic_abuse. #Rape. #Body_image. #Needles. #Pregnancy.

      Trigger warnings have become prevalent online since about 2012. Victim advocate Gayle Crabtree reports that they were in use as early as 1996 in chat rooms she moderated. “We used the words ‘trigger warning,’ ‘#tw,’ ‘#TW,’ and ‘trigger’ early on. …This meant the survivor could see the warning and then decide if she or he wanted to scroll down for the message or not.” Eventually, trigger warnings spread to social media sites including #Tumblr, #Twitter, and #Facebook.

      The term seems to have originated from the use of the word “trigger” to indicate something that cues a #physiological_response, the way pollen may trigger an allergy attack. A trigger in a firearm is a lever that activates the sequence of firing a gun, so it is not surprising that the word was commandeered by those working in the field of #psychology to indicate objects and sensations that cause neurological firing in the brain, which in turn cause #feelings and #thoughts to occur.

      Spoiler alerts allow us to enjoy the movie or book as it unfolds without being influenced by knowledge about what comes next. The NSFW label helps employees comply with workplace policies that prohibit viewing sexually explicit or profane material. Motion picture ratings enable viewers to select movies they are most likely to find entertaining. Trigger warnings, on the other hand, are “designed to prevent people who have an extremely strong and damaging emotional response… to certain subjects from encountering them unaware.”

      Say what?

      Say hogwash!

      Discussions about trigger warnings have made headlines in the New Yorker, the Los Angeles Times, the Guardian, the New Republic, and various other online and print publications. Erin Dean writes that a trigger “is not something that offends one, troubles one, or angers one; it is something that causes an extreme involuntary reaction in which the individual re-experiences past trauma.”

      For those individuals, it is probably true that coming across material that reminds them of a traumatic event is going to be disturbing. Dean’s definition refers to involuntary fear and stress responses common in individuals with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder characterized by intrusive memories, thoughts, or dreams; intense distress at cues that remind the individual of the event; and reactivity to situations, people, or objects that symbolize the event. PTSD can result from personal victimization, accidents, incarceration, natural disasters, or any unexpected injury or threat of injury or death. Research suggests that it results from a combination of genetic predisposition, fear conditioning, and neural and physiological responses that incorporate the body systems and immunological responses. Current theories suggest that PTSD represents “the failure to recover from the normal effects of trauma.” In other words, anyone would be adversely affected by trauma, but natural mechanisms for healing take place in the majority of individuals. The prevalence of PTSD ranges from 1.9 percent in Europe to 3.5 percent in the United States.

      The notion that trigger warnings should be generalized to all social media sites, online journals, and discussion boards is erroneous.

      Some discussions have asserted that because between one in four and one in five women have been sexually abused, trigger warnings are necessary to protect vast numbers of victims from being re-traumatized. However, research shows that the majority of trauma-exposed persons do not develop PTSD. This does not mean they aren’t affected by trauma, but that they do not develop clinically significant symptoms, distress, or impairment in daily functioning. The notion that trigger warnings should be generalized to all social media sites, online journals, and discussion boards is erroneous. Now some students are pushing for trigger warnings on college class syllabi and reading lists.

      But what?

      Balderdash!

      But wait, before people get all riled up, I’d like to say that yes, I have experienced trauma in my life.

      I wore a skirt the first time George hit me. I know this because I remember scrunching my skirt around my waist and balancing in heels while I squatted over a hole in the concrete floor to take a piss. We were in Tijuana. The stench of excrement made my stomach queasy with too much tequila. I wanted to retch.

      We returned to our hotel room. I slid out of my blouse and skirt. He stripped to nothing and lay on the double bed. He was drinking Rompope from the bottle, a kind of Mexican eggnog: strong, sweet, and marketed for its excellent spunk. It’s a thick yellow rum concoction with eggs, sugar, and almond side notes. George wanted to have sex. We bickered and argued as drunks sometimes do. I said something — I know this because I always said something — and he hit me. He grabbed me by the hair and hit me again. “We’re going dancing,” he said.

      “I don’t feel like dancing — “

      “Fine. Stay.”

      The world was tilting at an angle I didn’t recognize. The mathematician Matt Tweed writes that atoms are made up of almost completely empty space. To grasp the vast nothingness, he asks the reader to imagine a cat twirling a bumblebee on the end of a half-mile long string. That’s how much emptiness there is between the nucleus and the electron. There was more space than that between George and me. I remember thinking: I am in a foreign country. I don’t speak Spanish. I have no money. We went dancing.

      Labeling a topic or theme is useless because of the way our brains work. The labels that we give trauma (assault, sexual abuse, rape) are not the primary source of triggers. Memories are, and not just memories, but very specific, insidious, and personally individualized details lodged in our brain at the time of the trauma encoded as memory. Details can include faces, places, sounds, smells, tastes, voices, body positions, time of day, or any other sensate qualities that were present during a traumatic incident.

      If I see a particular shade of yellow or smell a sickly sweet rum drink, I’m reminded of my head being yanked by someone who held a handful of my hair in his fist. A forest green Plymouth Duster (the car we drove) will too. The word assault does not. The words domestic violence don’t either. The specificity of details seared in my mind invokes memory.

      Last year a driver slammed into the back of my car on the freeway. The word tailgate is not a trigger. Nor is the word accident. The flash of another car suddenly encroaching in my rearview mirror is. In my mid-20s, I drove my younger sister (sobbing, wrapped in a bed sheet) to the hospital where two male officers explained they were going to pluck her pubic hair for a rape kit. When I see tweezers in a hospital, I flash back to that awful moment. For my sister, other things may be triggers: the moonlight shining on the edge of a knife. The shadow of a person back lit in a doorway. An Hispanic man’s accent. If we were going to insist on trigger warnings that work, they would need to look something like this:

      Trigger warning: Rompope.

      Trigger warning: a woman wrapped in a bed sheet.

      Trigger warning: the blade of a knife.

      The variability of human #perception and traumatic recall makes it impossible to provide the necessary specificity for trigger warnings to be effective. The nature of specificity is, in part, one reason that treatment for traumatic memories involves safely re-engaging with the images that populate the survivor’s memory of the event. According to Dr. Mark Beuger, an addiction psychiatrist at Deerfield Behavioral Health of Warren (PA), the goal of PTSD treatment is “to allow for processing of the traumatic experience without becoming so emotional that processing is impossible.” By creating a coherent narrative of the past event through telling and retelling the story to a clinician, survivors confront their fears and gain mastery over their thoughts and feelings.

      If a survivor has had adequate clinical support, they could engage online with thoughts or ideas that previously had been avoided.

      According to the National Center for Health, “#Avoidance is a maladaptive #control_strategy… resulting in maintenance of perceived current threat. In line with this, trauma-focused treatments stress the role of avoidance in the maintenance of PTSD. Prolonged exposure to safe but anxiety-provoking trauma-related stimuli is considered a treatment of choice for PTSD.” Avoidance involves distancing oneself from cues, reminders, or situations that remind one of the event that can result in increased #social_withdrawal. Trigger warnings increase social withdrawal, which contributes to feelings of #isolation. If a survivor who suffers from PTSD has had adequate clinical support, they could engage online with thoughts or ideas that previously had been avoided. The individual is in charge of each word he or she reads. At any time, one may close a book or click a screen shut on the computer. What is safer than that? Conversely, trigger warnings perpetuate avoidance. Because the intrusive memories and thoughts are internal, trigger warnings suggest, “Wait! Don’t go here. I need to protect you from yourself.”

      The argument that trigger warnings help to protect those who have suffered trauma is false. Most people who have experienced trauma do not require preemptive protection. Some may argue that it would be kind to avoid causing others distress with upsetting language and images. But is it? Doesn’t it sometimes take facing the horrific images encountered in trauma to effect change in ourselves and in the world?

      A few weeks ago, I came across a video about Boko Haram’s treatment of a kidnapped schoolgirl. The girl was blindfolded. A man was digging a hole in dry soil. It quickly became evident, as he ushered the girl into the hole, that this would not end well. I felt anxious as several men began shoveling soil in around her while she spoke to them in a language I could not understand. I considered clicking away as my unease and horror grew. But I also felt compelled to know what happened to this girl. In the 11-minute video, she is buried up to her neck.

      All the while, she speaks to her captors, who eventually move out of the frame of the scene. Rocks begin pelting the girl’s head. One after the other strikes her as I stared, horrified, until finally, her head lay motionless at an angle that could only imply death. That video (now confirmed to be a stoning in Somalia rather than by Boko Haram) forever changed my level of concern about young girls kidnapped in other countries.

      We are changed by what we #witness. Had the video contained a trigger warning about gruesome death, I would not have watched it. Weeks later, I would have been spared the rush of feelings I felt when a friend posted a photo of her daughter playfully buried by her brothers in the sand. I would have been spared knowing such horrors occur. But would the world be a better place for my not knowing? Knowledge helps us prioritize our responsibilities in the world. Don’t we want engaged, knowledgeable citizens striving for a better world?

      Recently, the idea of trigger warnings has leapt the gulch between social media and academic settings. #Universities are dabbling with #policies that encourage professors to provide trigger warnings for their classes because of #complaints filed by students. Isn’t the syllabus warning enough? Can’t individual students be responsible for researching the class content and reading #materials before they enroll? One of the benefits of broad exposure to literature and art in education is Theory of Mind, the idea that human beings have the capacity to recognize and understand that other people have thoughts and desires that are different from one’s own. Do we want #higher_education to comprise solely literature and ideas that feel safe to everyone? Could we even agree on what that would be?

      Art occurs at the intersection of experience and danger. It can be risky, subversive, and offensive. Literature encompasses ideas both repugnant and redemptive. News about very difficult subjects is worth sharing. As writers, don’t we want our readers to have the space to respond authentically to the story? As human beings, don’t we want others to understand that we can empathize without sharing the same points of view?

      Trigger warnings fail to warn us of the very things that might cause us to remember our trauma. They insulate. They cause isolation. A trigger warning says, “Be careful. This might be too much for you.” It says, “I don’t trust you can handle it.” As a reader, that’s not a message I want to encounter. As a writer, that is not the message I want to convey.

      Trigger warnings?

      Poppycock.

      http://www.stirjournal.com/2014/09/15/trigger-what-why-trigger-warnings-dont-work

    • Essay on why a professor is adding a trigger warning to his #syllabus

      Trigger warnings in the classroom have been the subject of tremendous #debate in recent weeks, but it’s striking how little the discussion has contemplated what actual trigger warnings in actual classrooms might plausibly look like.

      The debate began with demands for trigger warnings by student governments with no power to compel them and suggestions by #administrators (made and retracted) that #faculty consider them. From there the ball was picked up mostly by observers outside higher ed who presented various #arguments for and against, and by professors who repudiated the whole idea.

      What we haven’t heard much of so far are the voices of professors who are sympathetic to the idea of such warnings talking about what they might look like and how they might operate.

      As it turns out, I’m one of those professors, and I think that discussion is long overdue. I teach history at Hostos Community College of the City University of New York, and starting this summer I’m going to be including a trigger warning in my syllabus.

      I’d like to say a few things about why.

      An Alternative Point of View

      To start off, I think it’s important to be clear about what trigger warnings are, and what purpose they’re intended to serve. Such warnings are often framed — and not just by critics — as a “you may not want to read this” notice, one that’s directed specifically at survivors of trauma. But their actual #purpose is considerably broader.

      Part of the confusion arises from the word “trigger” itself. Originating in the psychological literature, the #term can be misleading in a #non-clinical context, and indeed many people who favor such warnings prefer to call them “#content_warnings” for that reason. It’s not just trauma survivors who may be distracted or derailed by shocking or troubling material, after all. It’s any of us, and a significant part of the distraction comes not from the material itself but from the context in which it’s presented.

      In the original cut of the 1933 version of the film “King Kong,” there was a scene (depicting an attack by a giant spider) that was so graphic that the director removed it before release. He took it out, it’s said, not because of concerns about excessive violence, but because the intensity of the scene ruined the movie — once you saw the sailors get eaten by the spider, the rest of the film passed by you in a haze.

      A similar concern provides a big part of the impetus for content warnings. These warnings prepare the reader for what’s coming, so their #attention isn’t hijacked when it arrives. Even a pleasant surprise can be #distracting, and if the surprise is unpleasant the distraction will be that much more severe.

      I write quite a bit online, and I hardly ever use content warnings myself. I respect the impulse to provide them, but in my experience a well-written title and lead paragraph can usually do the job more effectively and less obtrusively.

      A classroom environment is different, though, for a few reasons. First, it’s a shared space — for the 75 minutes of the class session and the 15 weeks of the semester, we’re pretty much all #stuck with one another, and that fact imposes #interpersonal_obligations on us that don’t exist between writer and reader. Second, it’s an interactive space — it’s a #conversation, not a monologue, and I have a #responsibility to encourage that conversation as best I can. Finally, it’s an unpredictable space — a lot of my students have never previously encountered some of the material we cover in my classes, or haven’t encountered it in the way it’s taught at the college level, and don’t have any clear sense of what to expect.

      For all these reasons, I’ve concluded that it would be sound #pedagogy for me to give my students notice about some of the #challenging_material we’ll be covering in class — material relating to racial and sexual oppression, for instance, and to ethnic and religious conflict — as well as some information about their rights and responsibilities in responding to it. Starting with the summer semester, as a result, I’ll be discussing these issues during the first class meeting and including a notice about them in the syllabus.

      My current draft of that notice reads as follows:

      Course Content Note

      At times this semester we will be discussing historical events that may be disturbing, even traumatizing, to some students. If you ever feel the need to step outside during one of these discussions, either for a short time or for the rest of the class session, you may always do so without academic penalty. (You will, however, be responsible for any material you miss. If you do leave the room for a significant time, please make arrangements to get notes from another student or see me individually.)

      If you ever wish to discuss your personal reactions to this material, either with the class or with me afterwards, I welcome such discussion as an appropriate part of our coursework.

      That’s it. That’s my content warning. That’s all it is.

      I should say as well that nothing in these two paragraphs represents a change in my teaching practice. I have always assumed that if a student steps out of the classroom they’ve got a good reason, and I don’t keep tabs on them when they do. If a student is made uncomfortable by something that happens in class, I’m always glad when they come talk to me about it — I’ve found we usually both learn something from such exchanges. And of course students are still responsible for mastering all the course material, just as they’ve always been.

      So why the note, if everything in it reflects the rules of my classroom as they’ve always existed? Because, again, it’s my job as a professor to facilitate class discussion.

      A few years ago one of my students came to talk to me after class, distraught. She was a student teacher in a New York City junior high school, working with a social studies teacher. The teacher was white, and almost all of his students were, like my student, black. That week, she said, one of the classes had arrived at the point in the semester given over to the discussion of slavery, and at the start of the class the teacher had gotten up, buried his nose in his notes, and started into the lecture without any introduction. The students were visibly upset by what they were hearing, but the teacher just kept going until the end of the period, at which point he finished the lecture, put down his papers, and sent them on to math class.

      My student was appalled. She liked these kids, and she could see that they were hurting. They were angry, they were confused, and they had been given nothing to do with their #emotions. She asked me for advice, and I had very little to offer, but I left our meeting thinking that it would have been better for the teacher to have skipped that material entirely than to have taught it the way he did.

      History is often ugly. History is often troubling. History is often heartbreaking. As a professor, I have an #obligation to my students to raise those difficult subjects, but I also have an obligation to raise them in a way that provokes a productive reckoning with the material.

      And that reckoning can only take place if my students know that I understand that this material is not merely academic, that they are coming to it as whole people with a wide range of experiences, and that the journey we’re going on #together may at times be #painful.

      It’s not coddling them to acknowledge that. In fact, it’s just the opposite.

      https://www.insidehighered.com/views/2014/05/29/essay-why-professor-adding-trigger-warning-his-syllabus

  • Is Spotify’s Newly Patented A.I. Plagiarism Detector a Data Collection Scheme ?
    https://onezero.medium.com/is-spotifys-newly-patented-a-i-plagiarism-detector-a-data-collection

    ‘Spotify wants machine-made music the same way Uber wants self-driving cars’ Spotify, the music streaming giant with a reputation for underpaying artists, has staked its claim to a technology that it says could protect musicians from plagiarism allegations, according to a patent recently granted by the European Union. According to the patent application filed in 2019, before publishing a song, or even when writing it, an artist would share a “lead sheet” with Spotify, a document that outlines (...)

    #Spotify #algorithme #ContentID #données #copyright #son

  • Maintien à l’isolement d’une personne hospitalisée sans son consentement : le Conseil constitutionnel exige l’intervention d’un juge
    https://www.lemonde.fr/societe/article/2020/06/19/maintien-a-l-isolement-d-une-personne-hospitalisee-sans-son-consentement-le-

    La haute juridiction laisse au législateur jusqu’au 31 décembre pour modifier le texte en organisant ce contrôle du juge afin d’encadrer le maintien à l’isolement ou en contention « au-delà d’une certaine durée ».

    [...] La haute juridiction était saisie d’une question prioritaire de constitutionnalité (QPC) contre la loi du 26 janvier 2016 qui établit un cadre pour le recours à l’isolement ou la mise sous contention d’une personne hospitalisée en psychiatrie sans consentement.
    Le requérant, lui-même hospitalisé à plusieurs reprises, reprochait au texte de ne pas respecter l’article 66 de la Constitution qui exige que toute privation de liberté soit placée sous le contrôle de l’autorité judiciaire.
    Lors de l’audience, son avocat, Raphaël Mayet, avait qualifié ces placements à l’isolement et sous contention de « degré ultime de l’atteinte aux libertés » , et déploré que cela se fasse sans la protection d’un juge et sans recours possible. « C’est le seul îlot d’atteintes aux libertés exonéré de contrôle juridictionnel effectif », avait-il ajouté.

    Le Conseil constitutionnel relève que « le placement à l’isolement ou sous contention (…) ne peut être décidé que par un psychiatre pour une durée limitée lorsque de telles mesures constituent l’unique moyen de prévenir un dommage immédiat ou imminent pour la personne ou autrui » . La mise en œuvre de ces mesures doit faire l’objet « d’une surveillance stricte » des professionnels de santé. Un registre doit être tenu pour veiller à la traçabilité des mesures d’isolement et de contention, et l’établissement doit établir un rapport annuel pour en limiter le recours.

    Pour le Conseil constitutionnel, la loi fixe ainsi des garanties pour que ces mesures soient « adaptées, nécessaires et proportionnées à l’état de la personne qui en fait l’objet » .[...]

    « Si le législateur a prévu que le recours à isolement et à la contention ne peut être décidé par un psychiatre que pour une durée limitée, il n’a pas fixé cette limite ni prévu les conditions dans lesquelles au-delà d’une certaine durée, le maintien de ces mesures est soumis au contrôle du juge judiciaire » , écrit le Conseil constitutionnel. La haute juridiction a laissé au législateur jusqu’au 31 décembre pour modifier le texte en organisant ce contrôle du juge.

    #hospitalisation_sans_consentement #psychiatrie #isolement #contention #contrôle_du_juge_judiciaire

  • Hôpitaux psychiatriques : l’indignation d’Adeline Hazan sur les conditions de confinement des patients
    https://www.franceinter.fr/hopitaux-psychiatriques-l-indignation-d-adeline-hazan-sur-les-conditions

    Alertée sur des « violations graves des droits des personnes » dans un établissement public de santé mentale du Val-d’Oise, la Contrôleure générale des lieux de privation de liberté a organisé une visite « surprise » le 18 mai dernier. Elle a permis de constater des traitements indignes, décrits dans un rapport cinglant.

    En venant visiter l’établissement Roger Prévot de Moisselles (dans le Val-d’Oise) avec trois de ses collaborateurs, la Contrôleure générale des lieux de privation de liberté ne s’attendait sans doute pas à un si triste spectacle. Des patients privés de leurs effets personnels, habillés d’un pyjama en tissu déchirable, parfois sans sous-vêtements. Des chambres sans douche, sans télé ni radio, sans horloge, voire sans chaise (sauf pour les repas). Et surtout, des patients parfois « enfermés à clé 24 heures sur 24 », sans aucune décision liée à leur état psychiatrique et « dans des espaces dangereux car non aménagés à cet effet ».

    L’une d’elle a même fini aux urgences après avoir tenté vraisemblablement de s’enfuir par la fenêtre de sa chambre, au deuxième étage.

    Dans son rapport publié ce vendredi, Adeline Hazan dénonce "une confusion entre le régime de l’isolement psychiatrique [...] et le confinement sanitaire". Autrement dit, l’établissement a restreint de manière excessive les libertés de ses patients, sans aucune autre justification que le risque de contamination par le Covid-19 . Une situation en partie corrigée depuis, constate-t-elle, mais qui justifie d’émettre en urgence plusieurs recommandations à suivre et de montrer l’exemple à ne pas suivre à d’autres établissements du même type. Une procédure très rare.

    Officiellement, cette décision d’enfermer à clé les patients a été prise sur la base d’une circulaire détaillant des mesures de confinement lié à l’épidémie de coronavirus, mais la Contrôleure générale note que "le confinement strict en chambre fermée à clé n’est pas mentionné dans cette circulaire". "Les praticiens l’ont décidé en lui donnant un caractère systématique, prétendant que les patients de psychiatrie ne seraient pas à même de comprendre et de respecter les gestes barrière." Une « mauvaise compréhension prétendue », selon le rapport, qui n’est "pas démontrée, et en tout cas, loin d’être générale".

    "Ces privations de liberté injustifiées et illégales ont été mises en œuvre dans des conditions indignes", assène encore le texte.
    Adeline Hazan adresse donc plusieurs recommandations de principe : un patient en soins libres qui refuserait d’être hospitalisé en unité « Covid » doit pouvoir quitter l’hôpital ; l’enfermement dans une chambre ne peut reposer que "sur une décision d’isolement motivée par la mise en danger immédiate ou imminente du patient ou d’autrui" ; enfin "une telle contrainte ne peut être imposée ni à un patient en soins libres ni pour une durée excédant quelques heures" .

    Elle prohibe également "les mesures d’enfermement, de sédation ou de contention" justifiées uniquement par "les moyens dont dispose l’établissement", comme le manque de personnel ou d’infrastructures. _" Aucune mesure de privation de liberté ne peut être prise ni aggravée pour des raisons d’organisation, principe qui ne peut souffrir aucune exception."_

    Ces recommandations ont été adressées au ministre des Solidarités et de la Santé, qui n’y a pour l’instant pas répondu. La direction générale de l’offre de soins (qui dépend du ministère) a de son côté rappelé l’existence d’une fiche relative à la liberté d’aller et venir des patients dans les services de psychiatrie en période de déconfinement.

    (graisses d’origine)

    #psychiatrie #psychiatrisés #psychiatres #hôpital #enfermement #isolement #contention #privation_de_liberté

  • Vers l’automatisation de la censure politique - Félix Tréguer
    https://lundi.am/Vers-l-automatisation-de-la-censure-politique-Felix-Treguer

    « L’urgence, c’est de rompre l’alliance des appareils policiers et des grands marchands d’infrastructures numériques » Nous publions ici un article généreusement transmis par nos confrères de La Quadrature du Net sur les nouvelles formes de censure politique dans l’espace virtuel : grâce à l’intelligence artificielle, des milliers de contenus soi-disant « terroristes » postés sur facebook ou youtube sont automatiquement supprimés chaque jour. Pour cela, les États, loin d’être concurrencés par les géants de (...)

    #LaQuadratureduNet #surveillance #GAFAM #copyright #modération #FAI #censure #pornographie #pédophilie #anti-terrorisme #bot #Robocopyright #ContentID #algorithme #YouTube #Facebook #Interpol #Google (...)

    ##Europol

  • YouTube : un bug a entraîné des dizaines de faux signalements pour droits d’auteur
    https://www.numerama.com/tech/577538-youtube-un-bug-a-entraine-des-dizaines-de-faux-signalements-pour-dr

    Des streameurs et streameuses ont reçu de multiples revendications de la part d’un même ayant-droit. YouTube plaide l’erreur et explique que cela n’aura pas de conséquence pour les personnes concernées. Les vidéastes n’en ont décidément pas fini de se battre avec Content ID, le système utilisé par YouTube pour faire respecter les droits d’auteur, et revendiquer des droits sur une partie de leurs revenus. Ce mercredi 4 décembre, plusieurs streameurs et streameuses se sont plaint de revendications (...)

    #Google #streaming #YouTube #ContentID #copyright #erreur #algorithme

    //c0.lestechnophiles.com/www.numerama.com/content/uploads/2019/06/youtube.jpg

  • Priority Guides : A Content-First Alternative to Wireframes – A List Apart
    https://alistapart.com/article/priority-guides-a-content-first-alternative-to-wireframes

    Une manière de commencer l’ergonomie uniquement sur une liste de contenus ordonnés, hiérarchisés. On se focalise sur la hiérarchie du contenu, sans préjuger du placement (je ne parle même pas des styles mais bien même pas du placement, layout, maquettes filaires). En plus c’est directement mobile-first, puisque juste en une longue colonne.

    Du coup, en allant même plus loin que ce que montre l’article, cela peut se faire uniquement en texte amélioré (markdown par ex), et donc dans un pad commun à plusieurs. Cela permet de valider avec les propriétaires du site/clients le « qu’est-ce qu’on décide de mettre dans chaque page », sans du tout passer des heures à discuter de l’affichage.

    #ergonomie #content-first #mobile-first #conception

  • Copyright : la dernière bataille de l’Internet gratuit
    https://www.lemonde.fr/economie/article/2019/08/26/copyright-la-derniere-bataille-de-l-internet-gratuit_5502808_3234.html

    « Désastre » pour les uns, « victoire » pour les autres : la directive sur les droits d’auteur divise les acteurs de l’industrie culturelle et ceux du numérique. Mais tous s’accordent sur le fait qu’elle change le visage du Web, dont la gratuité des contenus est un des fondements. L’Internet gratuit vit peut-être ses dernières heures. Du moins en Europe. Le 17 mai 2019, le Journal officiel de l’Union européenne a promulgué la directive sur les droits d’auteur après deux ans de bataille féroce. Objectif : (...)

    #Altaba/Yahoo ! #Apple #Google #Microsoft #Amazon #DailyMotion #Deezer #Facebook #Netflix #Spotify #YouTube #ContentID #Robocopyright #algorithme #législation #copyright #lobbying #surveillance (...)

    ##Altaba/Yahoo_ ! ##web

  • Interné à la demande de son supérieur le préfet, « libéré » par la justice - Le Point
    https://www.lepoint.fr/faits-divers/interne-a-la-demande-de-son-superieur-le-prefet-libere-par-la-justice-19-08-

    Le juge des libertés et de la détention (JLD) du tribunal de grande instance de Grasse a ordonné la mainlevée de l’#hospitalisation_sous_contrainte d’un fonctionnaire de 56 ans, en poste à la direction des territoires des Alpes-Maritimes. En « soins psychiatriques » depuis douze jours, Éric D., agent de catégorie A, avait été interné à la demande du #préfet, qui n’est autre que son supérieur hiérarchique. Le Code de la santé publique prévoit que lorsqu’une personne « compromet la sûreté des personnes ou porte gravement atteinte à l’ordre public », le représentant de l’État (le préfet) peut ordonner son hospitalisation d’office, « par arrêté et au vu d’un certificat médical [...]

    Apparemment très agité, Éric D. est placé dans un premier temps à l’isolement et mis « en #contention ». « Pour dire les choses clairement, on l’a attaché à son lit, pieds et poings liés. Il a été privé de douche durant plusieurs jours. Quand il est sorti, il se trouvait dans un état lamentable, sous le choc ; il ne pouvait plus marcher, on aurait dit une loque. ».

    ...

    S’estimant « placardisé » par son chef de service, qu’il accuse d’avoir organisé son désœuvrement en lui confiant « une mission bidon », Éric D. avait, en effet, déposé une plainte pour « harcèlement moral » contre son chef de service, le 2 juin, soit deux mois avant son internement. Rétrogradé deux fois, privé de ses primes, il avait été suspendu de ses fonctions le 7 avril en attendant de comparaître devant le conseil de discipline – décision attaquée depuis par son avocat. « On lui reprochait d’avoir pris fait et cause pour des étrangers qui, après avoir fait la queue toute la nuit dans le froid, avaient été refoulés du bureau de l’accueil et de l’admission au séjour de la préfecture où ils venaient faire enregistrer leur demande », relate son avocate. « Miné par ces conflits à répétition et les pressions dont il faisait l’objet, mon client était dépressif.

    #dépression #internement #abus_de_pouvoir #placardisation #répression

  • The Underworld of Online Content Moderation | The New Yorker
    https://www.newyorker.com/news/q-and-a/the-underworld-of-online-content-moderation

    More than one hundred thousand people work as online content moderators, viewing and evaluating the most violent, disturbing, and exploitative content on social media. In a new book, “Behind the Screen,” Sarah T. Roberts, a professor of information studies at U.C.L.A., describes how this work shapes their professional and personal lives. Roberts, who conducted interviews with current and former content moderators, found that many work in Silicon Valley, but she also travelled as far as the Philippines, where some of the work has been outsourced. From her research, we learn about the emotional toll, low wages, and poor working conditions of most content moderation. Roberts never disputes that the work is crucial, but raises the question of how highly companies like Facebook and Google actually value it.

    I recently spoke by phone with Roberts. During our conversation, which has been edited for length and clarity, we discussed why finding and deleting offensive content is so tricky, why the job is so psychologically taxing, and the fixes that could help these workers and make them better at their jobs.

    The example I’ll give there is blackface. One person that I talked with said time and again he would see these videos that were filled with blackface, and he would go and argue with his supervisor, saying, “This is racist, we supposedly don’t allow racist or hate speech on our platform,” and he could get no traction. So the policies that were in place almost parodied themselves. They were so specific on the one hand and totally missing the forest for the trees on the other that you really had to embed yourself into the logic of the particular platform, and of course every platform has its own set of policies that it makes up.

    I think they cared enough that they had an entire apparatus devoted to the creating and designing and thinking through their policies, but what became clear to me through the course of this work was that the primary function of people doing commercial content moderation at these platforms was for brand management of the social-media platform itself. There would be a great side-benefit of keeping some bad stuff out of people’s way, or “cleaning up” the platform. But ultimately this was in the service of the brand, so that the brand could continue to function as a site where advertisers might want to come. And so I feel that this whole practice really laid that bare for me.

    What could be done to make the lives of these workers better, given that this is a job that needs to be done? And it needs to be done by smart people doing it well, who need to be very well-trained.

    This is a question that I’ve often posed to the workers themselves because I certainly am not possessed of the answers on my own. They want better pay. And I think we can read that in a lot of ways: they want better pay, they want to be respected. The nature of the way the work has been designed has been for the work to be secret. In many cases, their N.D.A. precludes them from even talking about the work. And the industry itself formulated the job as a source of shame in that sense, an industry source of shame. They were not eager to tout the efforts of these people, and so instead they hid them in the shadows. And, if nothing else, that was a business decision and a value judgment that could have gone another way. I think there’s still a chance that we could understand the work of these people in a different way and value it differently, collectively. And we could ask that the companies do that as well.

    There’s a rich history of labor organizing and worker-led, or worker-informed, movements, and in this case it might have to be region by region or specific to particular parts of the world. Or it could be something that crossed geographic and cultural boundaries where workers learn to identify with each other despite where they’re located.

    We talk a lot about automation. I think that’s what you’re saying about the tech companies. Their solution is always automation, or that’s what gets foregrounded, but, I think if you talk to anyone in the industry who’s in the know, the likelihood of humans going away anytime soon is pretty much nil. And we also need to support them with mental-health support. There are things we can do technologically to maybe make it less difficult to look at some of the content.

    Facebook, just about ten days or so ago, announced a major initiative where they were going to raise the base pay of all their content moderators. I was thrilled about that. On the other hand, we could read between the lines of such an announcement to learn that until now these people were probably making minimum wage or close to that. And we could also read the deafening silence from other firms that they haven’t done that and aren’t really willing to do that yet. Because, if they were, they’d be issuing a press release, too. We’ve got a ways to go on that.

    #Content_moderation #Modération #Médias_sociaux #Travail

  • 6 Steps to Prepare Your Mobile Site for Voice Search in 2019
    https://hackernoon.com/6-steps-to-prepare-your-mobile-site-for-voice-search-in-2019-164fef42b72

    When Google first debuted voice search application for iPhone in 2008, the app was far from flawless. Over the years this app has become more precise and human-like. Statistics reveal that Google’s English identification precision rate is currently over ninety-five percent.People fancy an immediate answer when searching for something from the web. While typing a question in a search bar is fast, merely talking in your gadget and obtaining similar outcomes is even swifter. Typically, an individual can type around forty words per minute and talk approximately a hundred and fifty words per minute.To attempt a spoken search, you may trigger your smartphone’s assistant like Amazon Alexa, Google assistant or Siri. You’ll need to press on the mic icon on Google’s search bar right side, to the (...)

    #seo #content #mobile-website #optimize #voice-search

  • The Goldilocks Zone: How #everipedia Will Dominate the Future of #knowledge
    https://hackernoon.com/the-goldilocks-zone-how-everipedia-will-dominate-the-future-of-knowledge

    Goldilocks drinking the bowl of porridge that is “just right”In astronomy, the circumstellar habitable zone is defined as the range of orbits around a star in which a planet has the ability to support liquid water given sufficient atmospheric pressure. This habitable zone of a planet is determined by the distance it is from a star and the amount of radiant energy it receives from said star. The notion states that if a planet is in this zone and can support liquid water, then it has the capacity to support life.The habitable zone for life is better known to many as the “Goldilocks zone”, a metaphor taken from the classic children’s fairy tale Goldilocks and the Three Bears where a little girl chooses three items (such as soup), ignoring the ones that are extreme (too hot, too cold), and (...)

    #everipedia-partnership #wikipedia #content

  • Growth Hacking a #blockchain Startup — with Content #marketing.
    https://hackernoon.com/growth-hacking-a-blockchain-startup-with-content-marketing-fc8711257c9a?

    Growth Hacking a Blockchain Startup — with Content MarketingPursuing an idea based on emerging technologies and making a mark with it has never been a cakewalk. The same applies for almost every startup and MVP built upon DLTs, i.e. Blockchain.Because of the enormous anticipated untapped potential that this nascent technology has, getting PR or even a meeting with investors is relatively easier than on-boarding customers for your dApp.If you are building a B2B solution or something that organizations (Enterprises and Governments) are meant to use, you probably won’t have to think much about things other than the product, whitepapers, and some slick email pitches. Part of the reason for this is the enormous future potential that the technology presents. According to Gartner hype cycle for (...)

    #digital-marketing #content-marketing #marketing-strategies

  • 4 #seo #copywriting Tips That’ll Generate Traffic
    https://hackernoon.com/4-seo-copywriting-tips-thatll-generate-traffic-271e58c87a2?source=rss---

    Credit: Unsplash.com“Marketing and innovation make you money,” said management guru Peter Drucker. “Everything else is an expense.”Search engine optimization (SEO) is a key part of any marketing strategy and it might as well be renamed “Google Listing Optimization”. The tech giant gets 3.5 billion queries daily which represent 90% of global search.Arsen Rabinovich, founder of marketing firm TopHatRank, tells Hacker Noon:Big G [Google] is the world’s biggest directory listing, and writers should make #content appear as high as possible on those search results. Good content that’s invisible is useless. Like brick-and-mortar establishments, online businesses make money from traffic.Traffic really is everything for content and if your content isn’t generating traffic, it’s just sitting idly in (...)

    #writing-tips #google

  • La bataille des Lobbies européens autour de la directive Copyright
    https://lvsl.fr/la-bataille-des-lobbies-europeens-autour-de-la-directive-copyright

    La proposition de directive du Parlement européen et du Conseil sur le droit d’auteur dans le marché unique numérique sort de sa phase de négociation et aborde sa dernière ligne droite : celle des adoptions par les deux co-législateurs que sont le Conseil européen et le Parlement européen. Depuis sa création, la proposition de directive cristallise les passions. État des lieux des jeux d’influence et des tractations européennes opérées sur ce texte depuis son entrée en négociation en septembre 2018. Il (...)

    #Société_Belge_des_Auteurs,Compositeurs_et_Editeurs(SABAM) #Google #Alphabet #Microsoft #DailyMotion #Facebook #Reddit #YouTube #algorithme #ContentID #législation #GAFAM #web #surveillance #copyright #filtrage #lobbying #CJUE #Creatives_Commons (...)

    ##Société_Belge_des_Auteurs,Compositeurs_et_Editeurs__SABAM ##European_Digital_Rights ##LaQuadratureduNet ##Wikileaks

  • Will digital #tipping become cryptocurrencies first real-world use case?
    https://hackernoon.com/will-digital-tipping-become-cryptocurrencies-first-real-world-use-case-e

    During the high tide that was 2017, when Bitcoin and Ethereum knew no limits, its growth coincided with an explosion of #cryptocurrency based projects which were all looking to raise funds with the help of this new hybrid capital sourcing strategy called an ICO.No name tech companies and startups from across the globe were raising millions in a matter of weeks without having to pitch in front to Angel Investors or VC’s and signing away a percentage of their equity.This access to global funding was unprecedented and inspiring, to see a community come together and support projects but the real issue was the problems these projects were aiming to tackle. While it seemed great in theory when it came down to the practical implementation many of these cryptocurrency projects failed to deliver a (...)

    #blockchain #content-creators #social-media

  • Going Global (or Globally Local)? How #netflix Produces Amazing Global Content
    https://hackernoon.com/going-global-or-globally-local-how-netflix-produces-amazing-global-conte

    Lessons from #INTV2019 in JerusalemNetflix HQHow does the digital media company achieve the unprecedented success that Netflix has reached in recent years? Do they think global or do they approach content with an alternative content strategy?According to Cindy Holland, VP of Original Content at Netflix, the more specific, and authentic the local content creators can produce, the higher the likelihood it will resonate with a global market.https://medium.com/media/c1a1a3f780ec0abca75e8668052890fc/hrefIn fact, she stated that Netflix doesn’t have to think about ratings (since that’s based on an ad marketing model), the data and insights the company collects prove this unique content strategy. Netflix is established across190 countries and over 80% of the SVOD’s new acquisitions come from (...)

    #global-content-strategy #content-marketing #streaming-tv-service #tv-series

  • Push notification #engagement naturally degrades over time
    https://hackernoon.com/push-notification-engagement-naturally-degrades-over-time-111a0d95e0b5?s

    Readers care less and less about your notificationsRegardless of the message #content, readers always slip away.Push notifications can seem like a gift to publishers trying to drive traffic to their content. They are a free, direct way to build brand evangelism and reach their audience.This naturally led to publishers and marketers applying growth hacking strategies to maximize their returns.But — there’s one major problem being ignored with push notification strategies.Regardless of your content or strategy, reader engagement naturally declines over time.Let’s review the data:At Marfeel, the #publishing platform, we recently conducted our own study, looking at the CTR (click through rate) of over 5 million push notifications and 500,00 subscribers, across 10 publishers.The results showed a (...)

    #push-notification #digital-marketing

  • Migrating Content from #wordpress to Cosmic JS
    https://hackernoon.com/migrating-content-from-wordpress-to-cosmic-js-cb23ea9254ab?source=rss---

    Over 30% of the world’s websites are powered by WordPress, yet 64% of developers participating in the 2017 Stack Overflow Developer Survey say they dread working with WordPress. Top reasons include security, bloat, bad user experience and that WordPress is built for outdated web architectures. If you are currently using WordPress, you probably share these feelings and know that technical bloat and slow page load speed detract from overall user experience.Cosmic JS is a drop-in replacement for WordPress, providing a web dashboard to create and manage content, and API tools and resources to integrate content into any new or existing website or app. In this blog I’ll demonstrate importing WordPress posts into Cosmic JS for integration into a new, modern application. We can accomplish this (...)

    #javascript #react #content-strategy #web-development

  • Three and a Half Reasons to be a #blockchain Writer
    https://hackernoon.com/three-and-a-half-reasons-to-be-a-blockchain-writer-ac95733375b2?source=r

    UnsplashWith so many niches/domains out there to get oneself into, why would a technical content writer specifically choose to be a blockchain writer? Is that the question you’ve been asking yourself?Well, it seems you’re going to have your answer. Read along.Some 12 months ago that I had my first opportunity to write content related to the blockchain and #cryptocurrency. And that was also my breakthrough into mainstream content #writing. I’d been writing content even before, but never really to earn my bread and butter.That is one reason why I’m so inclined towards writing in the blockchain and crypto niche.However, it is much, much more than that.When I started out as a blockchain content writer, I hardly had any idea about the technology and what was all that hype around it. The only thing I (...)

    #ico #content-writing

  • Article 13 de la directive droit d’auteur : quand la France milite pour un filtrage généralisé
    https://www.nextinpact.com/news/107596-article-13-directive-droit-dauteur-quand-france-milite-pour-filtr

    Dans le cadre actuel des négociations autour de la proposition de directive sur le droit d’auteur, et en particulier l’article 13, la France plaide pour un sévère tour de vis. En jeu ? Tout simplement un filtrage généralisé des contenus culturels. La proposition de directive sur le droit d’auteur est dans une phase critique de négociation. Après un accord des représentants des États au Conseil vendredi, un trilogue est prévu dès ce soir entre l’institution, la Commission européenne et le Parlement (...)

    #Google #ContentID #bot #filtrage #législation #copyright

  • Four Tips to Stay Focused and Create High-Quality Content
    https://hackernoon.com/four-tips-to-stay-focused-and-create-high-quality-content-ceb023e9e373?s

    Content creation can be a challenging task, but it will often be necessary for businesses that are trying to carve out their place on the web, read on for more.Content is a magic word for online businesses, but creating it can often be the source of endless headaches. Being a content creator is a stressful job, and it can often feel like you have to do more work than is humanly possible, but this is almost always due to poor work habits that can be corrected.Today, we’re going to provide you with four tips that can help greatly improve your efficiency when creating content of any type. Whether you’re looking to string together a blog post or if you want to create a detailed infographic, you need to stay on top of your game, and we’re here to help.Create an Outline or a PlanThe first thing (...)

    #quality-content #life-learning #content-marketing #content-creation #create-quality-content

  • The Four Most Effective Forms of Content #marketing
    https://hackernoon.com/the-four-most-effective-forms-of-content-marketing-25623c17fdfc?source=r

    If you’re looking into implementing a content marketing strategy, then you may be wondering just what kind of content you should be putting out there, read on.For businesses that mainly operate on the web, marketing is an essential tool to sustain growth and keep bringing in new customers, but there are so many different options. Content marketing has proven to be one of the most reliable and efficient ways to turbocharge the effectiveness of the online business, but it needs to be implemented effectively.In simple terms, content marketing consists of creating content to build up a rapport with your readers and make them trust you more than the competition.However, there is a lot of different content that you can publish, and choosing the best one can often be a bit of a challenge. In (...)

    #content-marketing-form #how-to-market #startup-marketing #content-marketing

  • Calling for Hacker Noon community: We are hiring!
    https://hackernoon.com/calling-for-hacker-noon-community-we-are-hiring-dcce55252a75?source=rss-

    Hacker Noon is building the best place for tech professionals to publish — and we need your help.visit jobs.hackernoon.com for more info.As you might have heard. We are building our own Content Management System from scratch, and we need help. We are hiring for these part-time positions:User-centric Frontend Developer with a great taste for Design, andContent Strategist with Social Media expertiseClick on the jobs ad above to apply. Scroll down to learn more about each job.User-centric Frontend Developer with great Design tasteWe’re looking for a scrappy user-centric generalist to help us lay the foundation for Hacker Noon 2.0. Unfortunately, we can’t afford to invest in months of research and planning before taking action. So you’ll need to trust your intuition and proactively figure out what (...)

    #hackernoon-hires #content-strategy #we-are-hiring #hackernoon-jobs #frontend-design

  • 8 STEPS TO GETTING 2 MILLION #linkedin VIEWS IN UNDER 24 HOURS
    https://hackernoon.com/8-steps-to-getting-2-million-linkedin-views-in-under-24-hours-7312c6b2dc

    In this article, I’m going to share some tips on how to become a LinkedIn influencer and create viral content. So, let’s get started.Friday, December 30th was a normal day for me as I was working on creating my list of goals for 2019 with my wife, Sweeta. I was scrolling through Facebook when I stumbled upon an old story in which “Facebook turned down WhatsApp co-founder Brian Acton for job in 2009”. I stopped what I was doing and felt compelled to share this ten-year-old story on my Linkedin account. After posting this story, I went to bed. Then I woke up in the morning to this.24 Hours later this post had 2 million views. (post link)HOW TO GO VIRAL ON LINKEDINLinkedIn is a popular social media platform, which can yield big results when used creatively. It is an incredible source of leads. (...)

    #linkedin-views #content-marketing #social-media #linkedin-viral