continent:asia

  • #Ghost_Towns | Buildings | Architectural Review

    https://www.architectural-review.com/today/ghost-towns/8634793.article

    Though criticised by many, China’s unoccupied new settlements could have a viable future

    Earlier this year a historic landmark was reached, but with little fanfare. The fact that the people of China are now predominantly urban, was largely ignored by the Western media. By contrast, considerable attention focused on China’s new ‘ghost towns’ or kong cheng − cities such as Ordos in the Gobi desert and Zhengzhou New District in Henan Province which are still being built but are largely unoccupied.

    By some estimates, the number of vacant homes in Chinese cities is currently around 64 million: space to accommodate, perhaps, two thirds of the current US population. However, unlike the abandoned cities of rust-belt America or the shrinking cities of Europe, China’s ghost cities seem never to have been occupied in the first place. So to what extent are these deserted places symbolic of the problems of rapid Chinese urbanisation? And what is revealed by the Western discourse about them?

    Characterised by its gargantuan central Genghis Khan Plaza and vast boulevards creating open vistas to the hills of Inner Mongolia, Ordos New Town is a modern frontier city. It is located within a mineral rich region that until recently enjoyed an estimated annual economic growth rate of 40 per cent, and boasts the second highest per-capita income in China, behind only the financial capital, Shanghai.

    Having decided that the existing urban centre of 1.5 million people was too crowded, it was anticipated that the planned cultural districts and satellite developments of Ordos New Town would by now accommodate half a million people rather than the 30,000 that reputedly live there.

    Reports suggest that high profile architectural interventions such as the Ai Weiwei masterplan for 100 villas by 100 architects from 27 different countries have been shelved, although a few of the commissions struggle on.

    It seems that expectations of raising both the region’s profile (at least in ways intended) and the aesthetic esteem of its new residents have failed to materialise. Instead, attention is focused on the vacant buildings and empty concrete shells within a cityscape devoid of traffic and largely empty of people.

    Estimates suggest there’s another dozen Chinese cities with similar ghost town annexes. In the southern city of Kunming, for example, the 40-square-mile area of Chenggong is characterised by similar deserted roads, high-rises and government offices. Even in the rapidly growing metropolitan region of Shanghai, themed model towns such as Anting German Town and Thames Town have few inhabitants. In the Pearl River Delta, the New South China Mall is the world’s largest. Twice the size of the Mall of America in Minneapolis, it is another infamous example of a gui gouwu zhongxin or ‘ghost mall’.

    Located within a dynamic populated region (40 million people live within 60 miles of the new Mall), it has been used in the American documentary Utopia, Part 3 to depict a modern wasteland. With only around 10 of the 2,300 retail spaces occupied, there is an unsettling emptiness here. The sense that this is a building detached from economic and social reality is accentuated by broken display dummies, slowly gliding empty escalators, and gondolas navigating sewage-infested canals. The message is that in this ‘empty temple to consumerism’ − as described by some critics − we find an inherent truth about China’s vapid future.

    Anting German Town Shanghai

    The main square of Anting German Town outside Shanghai. One of the nine satellite European cities built around the city, it has failed to establish any sense of community. The Volkswagen factory is down the road

    Pursued through the imagery of the ghost town, the commentary on stalled elements of Chinese modernity recalls the recent fascination with what has been termed ‘ruin porn’ − apocalyptic photographs of decayed industrial structures in cities such as Detroit, as in the collection The Ruins of Detroit by Yves Marchand and Romain Meffe. These too dramatise the urban landscapes but seldom seem interested in enquiring about the origins and processes underlying them.

    In his popular work Collapse, Jared Diamond fantasised that one day in the future, tourists would stare at the ‘rusting hulks of New York’s skyscrapers’ explaining that human arrogance − overreaching ourselves − is at the root of why societies fail. In Requiem for Detroit, filmmaker Julian Temple too argues that to avoid the fate of the lost cities of the Maya, we must recognise the ‘man-made contagion’ in the ‘rusting hulks of abandoned car plants’. (It seems that even using a different metaphor is deemed to be too hubristic.)

    In terms of the discussion about Chinese ghost cities, many impugn these places as a commentary on the folly of China’s development and its speed of modernisation. Take the Guardian’s former Asia correspondent, Jonathan Watts, who has argued that individuals and civilisations bring about their own annihilation by ‘losing touch with their roots or over-consuming’. Initial signs of success often prove to be the origin of later failures, he argues. In his view, strength is nothing more than potential weakness, and the moral of the tale is that by hitting a tipping point, civilisations will fall much more quickly than they rise.

    In fact, China’s headlong rush to development means that its cities embody many extremes. For example, the city of Changsha in Hunan Province recently announced that in the space of just seven months it would build an 838 metre skyscraper creating the world’s tallest tower. Understandably, doubts exist over whether this can be achieved − the current tallest, the Burj Khalifa in Dubai, took six years to build. Yet such is the outlook of a country with so much dynamic ambition, that even the seemingly impossible is not to be considered off-limits. At the other end of the scale, it was recently revealed that 30 million Chinese continue to live in caves − a reflection of under-development (not an energy efficient lifestyle choice).

    In the West, a risk averse outlook means that caution is the watchword. Not only is the idea of building new cities a distant memory, but data from the US and UK betrays that geographical mobility is reducing as people elect to stay in declining towns rather than seek new opportunities elsewhere. By contrast, China is a country on the move − quite literally. In fact the landmark 50 per cent urbanisation rate was achieved some years ago, driven by a ‘floating population’ of perhaps 200 million people, whose legal status as villagers disguises the fact they have already moved to live and work in cities.

    If cramming five to a room in the existing Anting town means easy access to jobs then why move to Anting German Town, accessible via only a single road, and surrounded by industrial districts and wasteland? But it is also clear that China is building for expansion. The notion of ‘predict and provide’ is so alien to Western planners these days, that they are appalled when particular Chinese authorities announce that they will build a new town with three-lane highways before people move there. How absurd, we say. Look, the roads are empty and unused. But in this debate, it is we who have lost our sense of the audacious.

    When assessing the ghost cities phenomenon, it seems likely that in a country growing at the breakneck speed of China, some mistakes will be made. When bureaucratic targets and technical plans inscribed in protocols and legislation are to the fore, then not all outcomes of investment programmes such as a recent $200 billion infrastructure project will work out. And yes, ghost cities do reflect some worrying economic trends, with rising house prices and the speculative stockpiling of units so that many apartments are owned but not occupied.

    But these problems need to be kept firmly in perspective. The reality is that meaningful development requires risk-taking. The ghost cities today may well prove to be viable in the longer term, as ongoing urbanisation leads to better integration with existing regions, and because by the very virtue of their creation, such areas create new opportunities that alter the existing dynamics.

    #chine #urban_matter #villes_fantômes #architecture


  • #Venezuela 102ème anniversaire de Juan Vicente Torrealba
    (vidéo[es] incorporée)

    #20Feb Nació Juan Vicente Torrealba, leyenda viviente | Informe21.com
    https://informe21.com/actualidad/20feb-nacio-juan-vicente-torrealba-leyenda-viviente

    Juan Vicente Torrealba, caraqueño por accidente y llanero por tradición, cumple hoy 102 años. Ha compuesto más de 300 temas y cumplió su sueño de escribir un libro titulado “El llano de Juan Vicente”. Comenzó con la música folclórica y alcanzó el grado sinfónico con su Concierto en la llanura.

    Nació en Caracas el 20 de febrero de 1917. A los ocho meses sus padres lo llevaron al llano donde pasó su infancia y gran parte de su adolescencia.

    A los 31 años Juan Vicente Torrealba deja el llano y busca nuevos horizontes en Caracas, donde conoce a la compositora María Luisa Escobar quien le recomienda grabar su música si la quería dar a conocer.

    Así lo hizo y surgió el llamado “estilo torrealbero” que iba en contracorriente con lo que para ese momento se conocía como música llanera.

    La música torrealbera se dio a conocer por toda Venezuela y gran parte del mundo.

    Sin saber escribir música, Juan Vicente Torrealba no se limitó a un estilo. Comenzó con la música folclórica y alcanzó el grado sinfónico con su Concierto en la llanura.

    Llanero, originaire des llanos, pays d’étendues immenses, d’élevage et donc de garçons vachers (oui, ça sonne mieux en anglais,…) interprète et compositeur pour la harpe vénézuélienne, il est celui qui a introduit cette musique de bouseux dans les salons de l’élite caraquenienne, restée jusque là indéboulonnablement fidèles à la valse avec une solide tradition de valses vénézuéliennes pendant au moins le premier tiers du XXè siècle.

    Sa création emblématique est Concierto en la llanura dont le nom résume parfaitement cette transition de la campagne à la ville…

    En version harpe, cuatro, maracas
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=POFmc2-3f1w

    quelques 60 ans plus tard en version symphonique par la_Orquesta Sinfónica Juvenil de Caracas_ sous la direction de Gustavo Dudamel (purs produits de el Sistema)
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jlkggaIaF4k


  • How #blockchain is Helping #africa to Develop
    https://hackernoon.com/how-blockchain-is-helping-africa-to-develop-d150bb85e90a?source=rss----3

    How Blockchain Can Help Africa to DevelopWhile Europe and Asia have already experienced several successive waves of cryptomania and are still struggling unsuccessfully with conservative elements inherent to state structures and national financial regulators to develop this market, Africa, in contrast, is showing interest in blockchain and digital money.SourceUnconditional leaders in this area include South Africa, Morocco and Nigeria. These states have shown an increased interest in crypto-money, on a par with average European and Asian countries.Africa’s #gdp is growing 3–4% per year and could grow even faster. However, a serious obstacle to continued economic progress is an underdeveloped financial infrastructure and the relative weakness of the continent’s national currencies. All of (...)

    #startup #development


  • Asia Maritime Transparency Initiative : Who’s Claiming What ?

    https://amti.csis.org/maps

    Voici un site qui va énormément plaire en particulier à @simplicissimus

    AMTI’s interactive maps strive to provide the most complete, accurate, and up-to-date source of geospatial information on maritime Asia. Click a map below to explore information on Asia’s maritime claims, disputed reefs and islets, and more.
    South China Sea Features

    #mer_de_chine_méridionale #frontières #différends_frontaliers #chine #vietnam #spratleys #conflits_frontaliers #mer #partage_de_la_mer


  • Venezuela : la Chine va-t-elle parier sur Juan Guaidó ?
    La Chine et la Russie ont cessé d’apporter des financements au gouvernement vénézuélien, elles se contentent d’allonger les moratoires de remboursements, sachant que les paiements en pétrole brut atteignent péniblement 50% des montants dûs…

    Appel à la raison du gouvernement chinois qui suppose, au passage, que la période de transition ne soit ni trop longue ni trop chaotique pour permettre un retour à une situation (au moins une extraction pétrolière normale). Considérant de plus que l’éventuel nouveau gouvernement ne pourrait probablement pas refuser grand chose aux États-Unis dont les relations avec Chine et Russie sont ce qu’elles sont…

    ¿Le apostará China a Guaidó ?
    http://www.el-nacional.com/noticias/columnista/apostara-china-guaido_270578

    Uno de los secretos mejor guardado es el nivel de exposición con que China llega a esta última turbulencia venezolana. Son muchos los medios y los centros de investigación que han monitoreado, a lo largo de los tiempos revolucionarios, la evolución de los empréstitos que la gran potencia le ha concedido al proyecto populista caribeño sin que nadie pueda asegurar, fuera de Pekín y Caracas, la verdadera situación del endeudamiento venezolano con sus socios asiáticos.

    Las vicisitudes que China ha debido enfrentar de unos años a esta parte no son pocas en este terreno, pero siempre elementos de carácter político y estratégico han aconsejado, a quienes toman este tipo de decisiones, ser amplios y condescendientes con sus socios en los refinanciamientos, sobre todo porque un volumen considerable de la apuesta financiera contaba con un repago en crudo y las cuentas nacionales venezolanas seguían cuadrando, aun cuando la producción petrolera se iba adelgazando consistentemente.

    Pero hace rato ya que ni China ni Rusia aportan financiamientos frescos al gobierno de Nicolás Maduro. Apenas se contentan con extender períodos de gracia a los empréstitos vencidos y de nada han valido los viajes a Pekín y Moscú en 2017 y 2018 para tratar de abrir de nuevo el grifo ni de uno ni de otro lado. Es que razones sobran para que, en lo que a China atañe al menos, la credibilidad, la responsabilidad financiera y la eficiencia del gobierno de Nicolás Maduro y de la estatal petrolera Pdvsa se encuentre en entredicho. Una fuente de la empresa informaba en diciembre pasado a El Nacional que no se está cumpliendo el compromiso de pagar con crudo los viejos endeudamientos chinos y rusos, sino en 50%.

    De allí que sea necesario atar esta mala coyuntura en la relación con Venezuela con el difícil momento que atraviesa la planificación económica china. Hace un par de semanas nos referíamos a la desaceleración que deberá enfrentar el gigante de Asia, a la contracción de su propio consumo interno y a los efectos mundiales del rifirrafe que mantienen con los Estados Unidos. La ortodoxia económica lo que aconseja es mantener bajo control el repago de los colosales endeudamientos otorgados a países en desarrollo, que, al igual que el resto del mundo, estarán impactados económicamente por la crisis global.

    Y es así como la sensatez deberá prevalecer en China en su futura relación con Venezuela, y cobrar lo que se le adeuda será la prioridad con mayor peso. La irreductible solidaridad política de antaño con la revolución bolivariana tendrá que pasar a un segundo plano. Cuando se perfore el secretismo que rodea la realidad de las cifras envueltas en los empréstitos y las turbias condiciones de los endeudamientos salgan a la luz, cuando del examen de los contratos y negociaciones entre las partes se evidencien elementos de corrupción que con frecuencia acompañan estos compromisos, cuando exista claridad meridiana sobre los procedimientos no cumplidos y las autorizaciones no otorgadas en cada una de las inversiones conjuntas y en los fondos que acompañaron las relaciones bilaterales, China tendrá frente a sí un problema mayúsculo a resolver. Y más le vale en ese momento, haber actuado del lado de quienes están dando por finiquitado el desorden, las ineficiencias, los “negociado_s” y el saqueo del país.

    “_Quien a buen árbol se arrima…” no es un adagio chino, estoy segura, pero no dudo de que la sabiduría milenaria que caracteriza al Imperio del Medio sabrá, desde esta temprana hora, quién es su mejor aliado en la lejana y díscola Venezuela, ahora en proceso de rehabilitación bajo la férula de Juan Guaidó.


  • Long, strange trip: How U.S. ethanol reaches China tariff-free | Reuters
    https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-trade-ethanol-insight-idUSKCN1PW0BR

    NEW YORK/KUALA LUMPUR (Reuters) - In June, the High Seas tanker ship loaded up on ethanol in Texas and set off for Asia.

    Two months later - after a circuitous journey that included a ship-to-ship transfer and a stop in Malaysia - its cargo arrived in China, according to shipping data analyzed by Reuters and interviews with Malaysian and Chinese port officials.

    At the time, the roundabout route puzzled global ethanol traders and ship brokers, who called it a convoluted and costly way to get U.S. fuel to China.

    But the journey reflects a broader shift in global ethanol flows since U.S. President Donald Trump ignited a trade war with China last spring.

    Although China slapped retaliatory tariffs up to 70 percent on U.S. ethanol shipments, the fuel can still legally enter China tariff-free if it arrives blended with at least 40 percent Asian-produced fuel, according to trade rules established between China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the regional economic and political body.


  • Approximate Bayesian computation with deep learning supports a third archaic introgression in Asia and Oceania.

    The deep learning analysis has revealed that the extinct hominid is probably a descendant of the Neanderthal and Denisovan populations.

    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-08089-7

    #Préhistoire #Paléolithique #Evolution #Neandertal #Denisova


  • Beware ! Les hordes asiatiques vont déferler sur l’Occident !
    Il s’agit de produits intermédiaires (diesel) raffinés en Chine.

    Armada of Giant New Tankers Lines Up to Ship Diesel Out of Asia - Bloomberg
    https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-01-24/armada-of-giant-new-tankers-lines-up-to-ship-diesel-out-of-asia


    Photographer : Tim Rue/Bloomberg

    • Maintenance season in Europe seen pulling cargoes West
    • New China refineries, weak local demand seen driving shipments

    A fleet of giant newly built oil tankers is gearing up to ship diesel out of East Asia.

    Five very large crude carriers, which typically carry about 2 million barrels of oil each, are currently positioned in the seas off China’s eastern and southern coasts, according to shipping intelligence and tracking company Kpler. Two more newbuilds are set to swell that fleet shortly. If all were fully loaded, they would haul a total approaching what is currently held in independent storage in Europe’s key trading hub of the Amsterdam, Rotterdam and Antwerp ports.

    It’s a large volume coming at once,” said Olivier Jakob, director at Petromatrix GmbH in Zug, Switzerland.

    China is boosting output, with more refinery capacity coming online, while weak local demand for middle distillates is helping to push products west, said Jakob. The start of refinery maintenance season in Europe also stoking Western demand for the fuel. China’s first round of export quotas also signaled an increase in diesel exports at the start of the year, while independent gasoil/diesel stocks in ARA are at their lowest seasonally since 2014.

    Three of the seven VLCCs highlighted by Kpler — the San Ramon Voyager, Ascona and Olympic Laurel — have already taken on board a combined 3.5 million barrels of diesel, according to a Bloomberg calculation from Kpler data, but are not yet fully loaded. Of the remaining four, one is currently loading, one is en route to Singapore where it may take on product, and two have yet to fully leave their construction yards.

    We expect the majority of these cargoes to head west around the Cape of Good Hope,” said Eli Powell, a Kpler analyst. Discharging is likely in northwest Europe, with possible partial discharges in West Africa.

    European demand conditions are quite favorable,” said Harry Tchilinguirian, global head of commodity markets strategy at BNP Paribas in London. “It would make sense to try to move a lot of volume into Europe in short order to meet that demand.

    The surge in Asian exports mirrors an increase in shipments of oil products, much of it diesel, from India and the Middle East into Europe in recent weeks. January’s monthly arrivals from India are set to hit their highest since at least 2017, and shipments from the Persian Gulf will be at their highest since July last year.


  • Child Inmates of South Korea’s Immigration Jail

    Helene* had a challenge that no mother would want. She, with her husband, was a refugee in a foreign land with a foreign language, trying despite all odds to raise her children as best she could. If this weren’t enough of a challenge, Helene was in jail, locked up in a 10-person cell with others she didn’t know. The only time she could leave her cell was for a 30-minute exercise time each day. But her task was more daunting still. Her children were locked up with her.

    Helene’s jail was an immigration detention facility, and her crime was not having enough money to begin refugee applicant proceedings. She spent 23 days in that cell with her two sons. Her oldest, Emerson, was three years and eight months old, and her youngest, Aaron, was only 13 months old. She watched their mental health and physical health slowly deteriorate while her pleadings for help fell on deaf ears.

    *

    In June, American news media were shocked by the revelation that migrant children, who were only guilty of not possessing legal migrant status, were being held in large-scale detention facilities. This was something new—a part of President Donald Trump’s ‘tough on immigration’ stance.

    In South Korea, detaining children simply due to their migration status, or the migration status of their parents, is standard practice.

    Children make up a very small percentage of the total picture of unregistered migrants in South Korea. However, as the nation’s foreign population reaches 2 million and beyond, that small percentage becomes a large number in real terms. The Ministry of Justice (MOJ) doesn’t keep statistics on the exact number of unregistered child migrants in the country.

    Most unregistered child migrants in South Korea fall into one of two broad categories: teenagers who come alone, and infants or toddlers brought by their parents or born to migrants already living in the country. In both cases, the majority of children (or their parents) come from other parts of Asia seeking work in the industrial sector.

    These children often end up in detention facilities when immigration authorities carry out routine crackdowns targeting workplaces in industrial districts or transportation routes workers use to get to these districts. Authorities, by policy, detain any unregistered migrant who is 14 or older. Younger children are technically exempt from detention orders, but parents are often caught in crackdowns while with their children. The parents can’t leave their children on the street to fend for themselves, and so, left with no other options, they choose to bring their children with them into the detention facilities.

    Helene’s case was different. She and her husband brought their sons to South Korea with them when they fled religious persecution in their home country of Liberia. The South Korean government rejected their refugee applications, and the family only had enough money to begin a legal challenge for one person. Emerson and Aaron, along with Helene, became unregistered migrants.

    How they were detained would be comical if their case were not so tragic. After a trip to a hospital, the family was trying to board a subway to return home. Their stroller could not fit through the turnstiles, and after a brief altercation an upset station manager called the police. The police asked to see the family’s papers, but only Helene’s husband had legal status. The police were obligated to arrest Helene due to her unregistered status and turn her over to immigration authorities. Because her children were very young – the youngest was still breastfeeding – she had no viable option but to bring her children with her.

    *

    Helene and her sons were sent to an immigration detention facility in Hwaseong, some 60 kilometers southwest of Seoul. Inside and out, the facility is indistinguishable from a prison. Detainees wear blue jumpsuits with the ironic Korean phrase “protected foreigner” printed in large white letters on the back. They live in 10-person cells with cement walls and steel bars at the front. Each cell has a small common area up front with tables, a sleeping area in the middle, and a bathroom at the back.

    For detainees, these cells become the entirety of their existence until they are released. Food is delivered through a gap in the bars, and the only opportunity to leave the cell is for a brief 30-minute exercise period each day.

    These facilities were never intended to house children, and authorities make little to no effort to accommodate them. Young children have to live in a cell with a parent and as many as eight other adults, all unknown to the child. The detention center doesn’t provide access to pediatricians, child appropriate play and rest time, or even food suitable for young children.

    Government policy states that education is provided only for children detained for more than 30 days. Children have no other children to interact with, and no space to play or explore. During daytime, when the sleeping mats are rolled up and stored, the sleeping area becomes a large open space where children could play. According to Helene, whenever her sons entered that area guards would shout at them to come back to the common area at the front of the cell.

    Emerson’s fear of the guards’ reprimand grew to the point that he refused to use the toilets at the back of the cell because that would mean crossing the sleeping area, instead choosing to soil himself. Even after the family was eventually released, Emerson’s psychological trauma and his refusal to use bathrooms remained.

    The stress and anxiety of being locked in a prison cell naturally takes a severe toll on children’s wellbeing. Like the adults they’re detained with, they don’t know what will happen to them or when they will be released. Unlike the adults, they don’t understand why they are in a prison cell to begin with. Without any way to alleviate the situation, the stress and anxiety they feel turn into mental disorders. These conditions can include depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and even increased rates of suicide and self-harm.

    Kim Jong Chul has seen many examples of these symptoms firsthand. Kim is a lawyer with APIL, a public interest law firm, and he’s worked to secure the release of many migrant children held in detention.

    In one such case, May, a 5-year-old migrant from China, spent 20 days in a detention facility with her mother. Over those 20 days, May’s extreme anxiety produced insomnia, a high fever, swollen lips and more. Despite this, her guards never brought a doctor to examine her.

    For most migrants in immigration custody, children included, their release comes only when they are deported. In 2016, authorities held 29,926 migrants in detention, and 96 percent of them were deported. The whole deportation process, from arrest to boarding a plane, typically takes ten days.

    But for children, ten days in detention are enough to develop severe stress and anxiety. Special cases, including refugee applications or a migrant laborer with unpaid wages, can take much longer to process. South Korea’s immigration law doesn’t set an upper limit on migrant detention, and there are cases of migrants held for more than a year. The law also doesn’t require regular judicial review or in-person checks from a case worker at any point in the process. According to Kim from APIL, the longest child detention in recent years was 141 days.

    Existing children’s welfare services would benefit migrant children, but the MOJ opposes any such idea. In the view of the MOJ and the Ministry of Health and Welfare, welfare facilities should be reserved only for citizens and foreigners with legal status.

    Children between the ages of 14 and 18 are yet another matter. The MOJ’s stance is that most of these children are physically similar to adults, highly likely to commit crimes and in general a danger to society, and they need to be detained.

    Kim argues that it’s hard to interpret the MOJ’s stance that migrant teenagers are all potential criminals as anything other than institutional racism. South Korean citizens who are under 18 are considered minors and treated differently in the eyes of the law.

    International treaties ban detaining children, including teenagers, due to migration status, and the South Korean government has signed and ratified each of the UN treaties that relate to children’s rights. It means that under the country’s constitution, the treaties have the same power as domestic law. And yet abuses persist.

    Lawmaker Keum Tae-seob from the ruling Minjoo Party—often called one of the most progressive members of the National Assembly— is fighting this reality. He has proposed a revision to the current immigration law that would ban detention of migrant children, but it has met opposition from the MOJ. Ironically, the ministry argues that because South Korea has signed the relevant international treaties, there is no need to pass a separate domestic law that would ban such detention. This is despite the fact that immigration authorities, who belong to the MOJ, have detained over 200 children over the past 3 years, including many under the age of 14.

    To rally support for a ban on detaining migrant children, APIL and World Vision Korea launched an awareness campaign in 2016, complete with a slick website, emotional videos and a petition. As of this writing, the petition has just under 9,000 signatures, and APIL is hoping to reach 10,000.
    Back in June of last year, another petition received significant media attention. A group of Yemeni refugee applicants—fewer than 600—arrived on the island of Jeju, and in response a citizen’s petition against accepting refugees on the office of the president’s website garnered over 714,000 signatures. A collection of civic groups even organized an anti-refugee rally in Seoul that same month.

    APIL’s campaign has been underway for more than two years, but the recent reaction to Yemeni refugees in Jeju has unveiled how difficult it will be change the government’s position on asylum seekers. A Human Rights Watch report released on Thursday also minced no words in critiquing the government policies: “even though [South Korean president] Moon Jae-in is a former human rights lawyer,” he “did little to defend the rights of women, refugees, and LGBT persons in South Korea.”

    For now, Keum’s bill is still sitting in committee, pending the next round of reviews. Helene’s family has been in the UK since her husband’s refugee status lawsuit failed.

    *Helene is a pseudonym to protect the identity of her and her family.

    https://www.koreaexpose.com/child-migrant-inmates-south-korea-immigration-jail-hwaseong
    #enfants #enfance #mineurs #rétention #détention_administrative #Corée_du_Sud #migrations #sans-papiers #réfugiés #asile


  • Facebook Artist In Residence Program 5 Year Anniversary
    https://www.refinery29.com/en-us/2017/09/173614/facebook-artist-in-residence-program

    Broken mirrors, multicolored string, silk organza, rhinestones, vinyl records, and dollhouse furniture are just some of the less-than-expected materials you’ll find in Facebook offices around the world. They hang from the walls, are suspended from light shafts, and decorate otherwise dark corners in 26 of the company’s offices.
    All of these materials are part of artwork that has been produced by members of Facebook’s Artist in Residence program (AIR), a project that began at the company’s Menlo Park headquarters in 2012 and has since expanded globally. This year, the program saw its largest expansion yet, arriving in offices in Asia and Latin America. Facebook is celebrating that growth and the program’s five-year anniversary with a new book, Open Form, which pulls together 225 of the pieces (the number created as of May 2017) under one binding.
    Advertisement
    While Facebook, like almost every other tech company, struggles with the gender gap, its Artist in Residence program is a bright spot. There is an almost equal ratio of male to female artists, with 114 men and 108 women included thus far. When you consider the fact that many museums are still called out for institutional sexism, this becomes even more impressive. While gender parity in one niche program doesn’t signal the end of the need for progress, it is still heartening to see.
    “Initially, it took work to try to achieve the gender split,” Drew Bennett, the founder and director of Facebook’s AIR program, told Refinery29. “But as my curatorial team and I have gone deeper, we’ve found we’re only naturally finding women we want to work with. It’s funny to get to that point where we’re like ’Oh, shoot, we should probably find a man.’”
    In Open Form, you’ll find work by Swoon, a mixed media artist who rose to fame for her street art; she created an image of a woman breastfeeding for Facebook’s Menlo Park office. Then there’s the colorful creation by Black Salt Collective, a group of four women who address contemporary non-linear identity in their work. Their piece includes various wheatpasted prints, featuring sayings such as “Your Body Your Ship” and “Respect And Protect The Black Woman.”
    Bennett argues that the art in Facebook’s offices is a bit different from what you’ll find in a typical corporate space, since the company puts a premium on finding artists whose work and creative process both reflects and challenges the beliefs of its employees.
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    “More traditionally, art would come in through a third party person and the artist would never visit the place where the art is,” Bennett said.
    This is also shown in how the program is run: When an artist is invited to join AIR, they work in the office, alongside everyone else, from the programmers to the janitors. Bennett refers to it as a “social model,” with the artist and those who will view the art on a daily basis interacting and seeing each other’s problem solving methods. This process is befitting of the social network’s ethos, and artists in the program seem to embrace it, too: Val Britton, a San Francisco-based artist who spent hours suspending 600 individually-cut pieces of paper from string inside a light shaft between floors, said the amount of engagement during the installation was the most enjoyable part of the process.
    Val Britton/Courtesy of Facebook.
    At the beginning of the AIR program, Bennett says he focused on looking for artists who “shared a sense of hacker spirit,” by using materials in innovative and expressive ways that mirrored the company’s value of experimentation. But as the program grew, that emphasis has shifted. Now, Bennett says he looks for those who “come from a culture or background that is not the predominant one” and will express a unique worldview in their art.
    “The greater diversity we can bring aesthetically and in terms of the identities of the artists, the better we can try to promote empathy in our spaces physically and visually,” he explains.
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    This thinking is in line with the shift in Facebook’s mission statement, which Mark Zuckerberg laid out at the beginning of 2017. Instead of simply connecting users with their already existing communities, the company’s redefined goal is to build an inclusive “global community,” Zuckerberg wrote in a post, where users are consistently exposed to new ideas.
    This mission is an aspirational one. Facebook can show diversity on its walls, but the desire to create an inclusive, diverse community still has a long way to go before it is realized online. In the past few weeks the company has reckoned with anti-Semitic ad targeting and the role it played in the 2016 presidential election. As these issues are addressed, the hope is that life will imitate art.

    #Facebook #Art_residence #Marketing #Blurb


  • Banana natural biodiversity mapping · iNaturalist.org
    https://www.inaturalist.org/projects/banana-natural-biodiversity-mapping

    #Cartographie_participative de la diversité des #bananes

    The objectives of this project are:

    • to bring elements to understand and decipher the history of the diffusion of Musa, for instance its diffusion to Africa from SE Asia,
    • to obtain a precise picture of the natural geographical diversity of Musa to foresee the evolution of cultivating areas in connection with expected climate changes and to identify collecting gaps, endangered diversity areas and more globally,
    • to map the distribution of CWRs and landraces in primary and secondary centres of diversity

    Depending on the objectives of the planned study, image requirements may vary. However and precisely to ensure that any analysis is possible, all the banana natural biodiversity that can be recorded is interesting.


  • People behind bars in Europe / Data news / News / Home - edjnet
    https://www.europeandatajournalism.eu/eng/News/Data-news/People-behind-bars-in-Europe

    Globally, since 2000, the prison population “has grown by 24 percent”, the document says.

    Also, the study highlights trends relative to macro-regions. Since the beginning of the century, the variation in absolute numbers are positive in all regions (Africa +29 percent, the Americas +41 percent, Asia +38 percent, Oceania +86 percent), except for Europe (-22 percent).[...]

    A closer look at Europe

    From the outset, it is important to state that in the report the European macro-region includes as well Russia. Crucially, it is stated that the positive trend that has characterised Europe compared to other parts of the globe is due to the performance of Russia over the past 20 years or so (-45 percent in the prison population).

    So what can be said relatively to the Member States of the EU only? We extracted data.


    #prison #incarcération #visualisation #cartographie


  • The Border Patrol Has Been a Cult of Brutality Since 1924
    https://theintercept.com/2019/01/12/border-patrol-history

    Since its founding in the early 20th century, the U.S. Border Patrol has operated with near-complete impunity, arguably serving as the most politicized and abusive branch of federal law enforcement — even more so than the FBI during J. Edgar Hoover’s directorship. The 1924 Immigration Act tapped into a xenophobia with deep roots in the U.S. history. The law effectively eliminated immigration from Asia and sharply reduced arrivals from southern and eastern Europe. Most countries were now (...)

    #ICE #migration #frontières #surveillance


  • 6 Pillars for Building a #product Team
    https://hackernoon.com/6-pillars-for-building-a-product-team-7d0325784dbc?source=rss----3a8144e

    Earlier this year, I packed my bags and left NYC for the UK to join a #startup called Simprints. After 6 years of building products at large Fortune 200 companies, I went to work for a young #tech company that builds software and hardware to improve the distribution of health, education, and cash transfer services in remote regions of Africa and Asia.My doppelgängerI came on-board to build the product management team and guide the company’s product maturity through its growth stage. It’s been an amazing experience so far. The startup is growing. The product is improving. And everyday I learn more about what it takes to build an effective product organization.Over the past 6+ years I’ve had the opportunity to build product teams from different stages of maturity: pre-market, growth, and (...)

    #product-development #product-management


  • Amid an Export Boom, the U.S. Is Still Importing #Natural_Gas - Bloomberg
    https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-12-27/amid-an-export-boom-the-u-s-is-still-importing-natural-gas

    The U.S. may be exporting natural gas at a record clip, but that hasn’t stopped it from accepting new imports. A tanker with fuel from Nigeria has berthed at the Cove Point import terminal in Maryland, while a second ship with Russian gas is idling outside Boston Harbor.

    Pipeline constraints, depleted stockpiles and a 98-year-old law barring foreign ships from moving goods between U.S. ports is opening the way for liquefied natural gas to be shipped from overseas with prices expected to spike as the East Coast winter sets in.

    The two tankers are carrying about 6 billion cubic feet of #LNG, enough to power 150,000 homes for a year. At one point Thursday, the ship carrying Nigerian fuel to Cove Point passed another tanker in the Chesapeake Bay filled with U.S. gas that was headed abroad.

    It is ironic,’” said John Kilduff, a partner at Again Capital LLC in New York. But the “super cheap gas” produced in the nation’s shale fields “is trapped down west of the Mississippi unable to serve its own market,” he said by phone. “The gas is where the people aren’t.

    bout the money. The companies shipping the gas into Maryland — BP Plc and Royal Dutch Shell Plc — will likely have it stored until freezing East Coast temperatures push prices higher as local suppliers struggle to meet demand, according to Trevor Sikorski, head of natural gas, coal and carbon with the London-based industry consultant Energy Aspects Ltd. in a note to clients on Wednesday.

    Meanwhile, the gas being exported out will likely fetch higher prices right now in Europe and Asia. Dominion Energy Inc., which owns the Cove Point terminal, didn’t respond to emailed and telephone requests seeking comment.

    Other factors are at play as well. For instance, American providers can’t just ship LNG from shale fields in the south because the giant ships that transport the super-chilled fuel sail under foreign flags. Under the 1920 #Jones_Act, that means none can legally transport LNG to the Northeast from existing export terminals in Louisiana and Texas.

    At the same time, even the vast pipeline network feeding the region can quickly develop bottlenecks at a time when stockpiles are sitting at their lowest levels for this time of year since 2002. While production is soaring, strong demand from more and more U.S. power plants using the fuel, along with new export terminals, soaks up much of that new supply.

    There’s still some logistics and pipelines that need to be built to match out to where the demand is,” Kilduff said.

    #GNL


  • Why 536 was ‘the worst year to be alive’ | Science | AAAS
    https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2018/11/why-536-was-worst-year-be-alive

    536. In Europe, “It was the beginning of one of the worst periods to be alive, if not the worst year,” says McCormick, a historian and archaeologist who chairs the Harvard University Initiative for the Science of the Human Past.

    A mysterious fog plunged Europe, the Middle East, and parts of Asia into darkness, day and night—for 18 months. “For the sun gave forth its light without brightness, like the moon, during the whole year,” wrote Byzantine historian Procopius. Temperatures in the summer of 536 fell 1.5°C to 2.5°C, initiating the coldest decade in the past 2300 years. Snow fell that summer in China; crops failed; people starved.

    Wow.


  • Another year of military dictatorship in Thailand
    https://www.cetri.be/Another-year-of-military

    Monarchy, military and preparations for an #Election dominated Thailand’s politics this year, as they have since the 2014 coup. General Prayuth Chan-ocha and his junta continued to repress their political opponents, while making the military’s intention to dominate Thailand’s future politics more obvious. Two tasks defined the military junta’s political agenda upon seizing power in 2014. One was to undermine former prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra’s political appeal and crush his electoral (...)

    #Southern_Social_Movements_Newswire

    / #Le_Sud_en_mouvement, #Thaïlande, #Militarisme, Election, Démocratie & participation, East Asia (...)

    #Démocratie_&_participation #East_Asia_Forum


  • Can Facebook Ads Tell Us Which Asian Country Is Most #crypto-Crazy?
    https://hackernoon.com/can-facebook-ads-tell-us-which-asian-country-is-most-crypto-crazy-6dc4b9

    Can Facebook Tell Us Which Asian Country Is Most Crypto-Crazy?As a marketer in the crypto/blockchain space, I’m fascinated by how similar and yet different crypto #marketing and “traditional” digital marketing are. I’ve been particularly interested in the reaction in Asia to the crypto craze, so when Facebook threw a few bucks in free #advertising credits my way, I thought: “How can I use Facebook to test crypto interest in Asia?” With that goal, I promoted a recent article about decentralized exchanges — “The Paradox of Decentralized Exchanges: Many Projects, Few Users” — targeted at 18+ year olds in China, South Korea, Japan, Singapore, Vietnam, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Taiwan, Philippines, and Myanmar, and who show an interest in cryptocurrency as a topic.Facebook (...)

    #facebook-ads #blockchain


  • The Chinese Social Network
    https://hackernoon.com/the-chinese-social-network-bb282204af9c?source=rss----3a8144eabfe3---4

    An origin story of Tencent and Chinese internet companiesSource: Fast CompanyTencent is among the largest technology companies in the world. According to The Verge, it is the most valuable company of any sort in Asia.Tencent owns WeChat, the “everything app” with almost 1 billion users — many of which are active for more than 4 hours a day. Bloomberg Businessweek says that’s more than the average time spent on Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat and Twitter combined.Tencent was founded by Ma Huateng (Pony Ma) with 4 of his friends in the city of Shenzhen during the late nineties. If you grew up or live in #china, the WeChat and QQ apps represent your social media, your teenage years, your wallet, your professional updates, your shopping sprees and your food-ordering experience all at once.The (...)

    #asia #startup #chinese-social-network #unicorns


  • The secret deal to destroy paradise
    https://news.mongabay.com/2018/11/the-secret-deal-to-destroy-paradise

    In December 2012, at a press conference on the sidelines of an Islamic business forum in Malaysia, a man named Chairul Anhar made a bold claim. His company, he said, held the rights to 4,000 square kilometers of land for oil palm plantations in Indonesia.

    If true, it would make Chairul one of the biggest landowners in the country. That land was not just anywhere, but in New Guinea, a giant island that glittered in the eyes of investors. Shared by Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, the island had the world’s biggest gold mine, untapped oil and gas, and the largest remaining tract of pristine rainforest in Asia. For the companies that had steadily logged their way through the rest of Southeast Asia, New Guinea was the last frontier. For the investor who could tame it, a fortune awaited.

    #déforestation #Indonésie #Papouasie #colonisation


  • Combating Plastic Pollution using #technology
    https://hackernoon.com/combating-plastic-pollution-using-technology-8bf367b5764f?source=rss----

    Source: vox.comThe so called progressive industrialisation has probably done more harm to our planet than good. Today, the world has found itself amidst the crisis of waste management, specifically plastic waste management.If we step back and look at the bigger picture by the numbers, the picture is much more ugly than we can even imagine.Source: sailorsforthesea.orgThey said diamond is forever, but hey! Plastic is forever too.We all know how severe the problem of waste management is, especially for the developing countries due to lack of resources. This is where technology kicks in.According to a recent study, 90 percent of plastic debris in the ocean comes from 10 rivers, eight in Asia and two in Africa.Let’s talk about solutions.There is enough plastic in this entire world that we could (...)

    #bitcoin #blockchain #environment #astronomy


  • https://www.auroraabrasive.com/7-inches-stainless-steel-cutting-disc
    The global consumption of abrasives will increase by 5.9 percent per year and will reach 38 billion by 2013. The first regions to achieve growth are Asia, the Middle East/Africa, Eastern Europe and Latin America. The demand for abrasives in the four regions will exceed that of the United States, Japan and Western Europe.
    The consumption of abrasive tools is mainly due to the steady growth of the economy and the steady development of the industry, which leads to the continuous expansion of the production of durable consumer goods and the increase in investment in fixed assets. China, India and Russia account for a large share of the sales of abrasives. In particular, China will replace the United States as the world’s largest abrasives consumer market. It is estimated that by 2013, China’s consumption of abrasive tools will account for two-thirds of the global demand for new products. Sales in Thailand and Indonesia in Southeast Asia will also show good growth.

    The development of the global abrasives market is not optimistic compared with developing countries, its economic growth is weak, and the growth of durable consumer goods production is slow. It is expected that the demand for abrasives in the United States, Italy and France will grow by less than one percent by 2013, and the annual demand for abrasives in Japan, Germany and the United Kingdom will decline. Luo Baihui believes that the final result is that the per capita consumption of purchased abrasives will increase as the production costs of various products increase. Sales of abrasives in Canada, South Korea and Spain are expected to grow steadily with the economy and demand will increase. In the industrialized regions, the industrial output of these three countries has been in a leading position.

    The consumer demand for global abrasive tools is mainly non-metallic abrasive products, including: fixed abrasives, coated abrasives and abrasives, polishing powders, etc. It is estimated that by 2013, the sales of non-metallic abrasives will occupy most of the market, which will exceed the sales of metal abrasives, such as shot peening, steel grit, wire brush and grinding wheel. The consumer durables market is undoubtedly the largest sales target for abrasives, accounting for two-thirds of all abrasive products.


  • #taiwan: The Next Crypto Capital of the World
    https://hackernoon.com/taiwan-the-next-crypto-capital-of-the-world-d2327f23390e?source=rss----3

    The story of why I moved to Taiwan, launched a crypto startup and how this country is pioneering the future of #cryptocurrency.Imagine living on an island that is not only advancing the adoption of cryptocurrency and #blockchain technology, but is actually pumping millions of dollars into seeing this nascent industry prosper.Welcome to Taiwan, a nation state in Asia that will soon be the crypto capital of the world.Serious about innovation, Taiwan is a hotbed for tech startups focusing on blockchain, AI and IoT. There is now a proliferation of major startup accelerators and incubators that are making this a reality. This includes startup super-hubs like Taiwan Tech Arena which will spawn 100 startups per year and expedite the overseas expansion of 300 over the next three years.Blockchain (...)

    #cryptocapital #taiwan-cryptocurrency


  • The role of trade in the greenhouse gas footprints of EU diets
    https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211912418300361


    Fig. 3. Dietary emissions presented in A) food item groups (categories ‘Meat, eggs’ and ‘Dairy’ also include the emissions from feed production), B) production regions.

    Meat and egg consumption represents the largest share of food supply #emissions in all EU countries (Fig. 3A), ranging from 49% to 64% (EU average 56%), followed by the consumption of dairy products that account for 16–36% of the dietary emissions (EU average 27%). Direct consumption of cereals, rice, and maize account for 2–8% of the emissions (EU average 4%). Beverages and stimulants, and the consumption of vegetable oils for food account on average for less than 5% each. Emissions related to feed embedded in animal product consumption account for approximately 37% of the total emissions.

    Most emissions from the production and trade of the EU food supply are caused by the consumption of domestic products or imports from other European countries (EU average 64%) (Fig. 3B). Latin America (EU average 25%) is the second most important import region followed by Asia (EU average 7%) and Africa (EU average 3%). The dominance of domestic production and intra-EU trade is expected, as most of the emissions accounted in our study are related to animal product consumption. Animal products in the EU are generally produced in nearby countries, and food and feed crops are also traded from regions further away.

    #climat #agriculture


    • Fig. 2. Production- and trade-related dietary emissions of the average diets in EU countries.

      Emissions here account for the direct food consumption and the feed used in the production of the animal products that were consumed. Enteric fermentation (14–30%, EU average 22%) and manure management (15–25%, EU average 22%) are major emission sources followed by inorganic (8–26%, EU average 14%) and organic (2–6%, EU average 3%) fertilizer use (Fig. 2). International transportation emissions account only for approximately 6% of the emissions (3–20%). Non-CO2 emissions dominate the picture and account on average for over 60% of the total emissions. Land use change emissions account for on average 30% of the emissions (min 17% Latvia, max 43% the Netherlands).

    • #agriculture_et_climat

      Stocker du carbone dans le sol, un enjeu majeur - Revue Critique d’Ecologie Politique
      http://ecorev.org/spip.php?article920

      Le sol n’est pas seulement un milieu vivant support de la fertilité et de l’agronomie, c’est également un formidable « puits de carbone », c’est à dire qu’il est capable de fixer des quantités considérables de carbone sous forme de matière organique - à condition d’adopter des pratiques agricoles favorables. L’agronome Claude Aubert, co-fondateur des éditions Terre vivante et de la revue Les quatre saisons du jardinage, nous présente les données du problème et les principales solutions.

      Agriculture et climat - Revue Critique d’Ecologie Politique
      http://ecorev.org/spip.php?article959

      Fortement émettrice de gaz à effet de serre, l’agriculture est trop mal appréhendée à cet égard pour constituer un chantier important de lutte contre les dérèglements climatiques. C’est pourtant à cela que nous engage Diane Vandaele, en charge de ces questions au Réseau Action Climat.


  • WATCH | “There is a minefield sign and the migrants will go into this area because they know the police won’t be there”. Hans von der Brelie (@euronewsreport) is reporting from the Bosnia-Herzegovina border.

    https://twitter.com/euronews/status/1058409250043633671

    #Bonsie_Herzégovine #Bosnie #migrations #asile #réfugiés #mines_anti-personnel #frontières #Croatie

    Ici le reportage:
    On the ground at the Bosnian-Croatian border where migrant tensions are rising

    Tensions are rising on the Bosnian-Croatian border, where scores of migrants are demanding entry to the European Union, amid reports this week of fresh police clashes, plummeting temperatures and inadequate living conditions.

    Thousands of migrants and refugees fleeing wars and poverty in North Africa and Asia are sleeping rough near the border, which they hope to cross to gain access to the EU.

    Several people were injured on Wednesday in clashes with Croatian police, with migrants accusing officers of beating them and smashing their phones.

    Meanwhile, Doctors Without Borders warned that “as temperatures drop the situation becomes more difficult and tensions are rising.”

    Euronews correspondent Hans von der Brelie is at the scene. Take a look at his pictures and videos below to find out what is really happening on the ground:
    https://twitter.com/euronews/status/1058409250043633671
    Matiola and Nazir want to enter the European Union without visas. However, they can’t cross the well-protected Bosnian border with Croatia.

    They are stuck in the northwestern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina, in Bihac, sleeping rough — protected against rain by plastic sheets.

    Tensions are rising on the Bosnian-Croatian border, where scores of migrants are demanding entry to the European Union, amid reports this week of fresh police clashes, plummeting temperatures and inadequate living conditions.

    Thousands of migrants and refugees fleeing wars and poverty in North Africa and Asia are sleeping rough near the border, which they hope to cross to gain access to the EU.

    Several people were injured on Wednesday in clashes with Croatian police, with migrants accusing officers of beating them and smashing their phones.

    Meanwhile, Doctors Without Borders warned that “as temperatures drop the situation becomes more difficult and tensions are rising.”

    Euronews correspondent Hans von der Brelie is at the scene. Take a look at his pictures and videos below to find out what is really happening on the ground:

    Matiola and Nazir want to enter the European Union without visas. However, they can’t cross the well-protected Bosnian border with Croatia.

    They are stuck in the northwestern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina, in Bihac, sleeping rough — protected against rain by plastic sheets.

    A torn EU umbrella lays on top of destroyed tents and garbage in a public park of #Bihac.

    Hundreds of migrants had put their tents here, but they are no longer tolerated and the camp was dismantled.


    Migrants rebuild a shelter in Bihac park.

    These friends from the Kurdish part of Iraq have stayed together throughout the difficult journey. They dream of building a future in Germany or France.

    This is 24-year-old Muhamed Suliman. He worked as a taxi driver in Dubai before heading towards Europe. It was "too hot to stay there. Not enough pay. Too many fines,” he said.

    Suliman said his dream is to reach Italy, but there is no way to cross into Croatia.

    “I will try again. Again and again,” he said.

    Wearing plastic sandals, he said Croatian police took his shoes.


    The remains of a dismantled tent camp in Bihac park.

    Kurdish Iraqi migrants discuss their broken smartphone. “The Croatian police smashed it,” they said.

    Ageed, Muhemed, Jalal, Karwan, Lawin, Ahmad, Tahiro are from Iraq. They speak Kurdish.

    They have been staying for many weeks in the public park of Bihac, the starting point to cross illegally over the external EU border.

    They have tried several times to enter Croatia but were always caught by border guards.

    Muhamed claims he was surrounded by seven Croatian policemen and beaten up.

    This is a former students dormitory building in Bihac park, where almost 1,000 migrants and refugees sleep rough. They mainly come from Afghanistan, Pakistan, Northern Africa, Bangladesh, Iran and Iraq.

    People cook on an open fire in front of a former students’ dormitory in Bihac.

    The migrants from Pakistan are aiming to cross the nearby external EU border illegally into Croatia and travel further towards Italy, Germany, France and Spain.

    This official tries to detect migrants crossing into Croatia illegally every day and night.

    Ivana and Josip are two of 6,300 police officers controlling the Croatian border with Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    As it prepares to join the EU’s Schengen zone soon, Croatia has invested heavily in human resources.

    “We have really a lot of colleagues around here at the external border of the EU”, Ivana and Josip told Euronews.

    This is just one out of many watchtowers and observation posts on the Croatian side of the external EU border with Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    “No need to build a border fence here,” says Damir Butina, head of the border police unit in Cetingrad.

    This is the famous “#green_border” between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. The tiny creek marks the exact borderline.

    The left side of the picture is Croatia, the right is Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Dozens of migrants try to cross the border every day and every night. While there is no fence, there is hidden high tech surveillance all around. You move — and you will be detected.

    https://www.euronews.com/2018/11/02/on-the-ground-at-the-bosnian-croatian-border-where-migrant-tensions-are-ri
    #frontière_verte #militarisation_des_frontières