• Ankommen in Deutschland: Cities of Arrival

    Cities of Migration showcases good ideas in immigrant integration and promotes innovative practices that create inclusion and urban prosperity.
    Having the right people at the table is essential to build an integration and labour market strategy to effectively address an influx of refugees.

    In 2015, German cities were overwhelmed with the sudden influx of refugees. The #Bertelsmann_Stiftung foundation wondered how they could help. A future-focused operational foundation, its programs range across a number of activities from education to employment to social cohesion. Focused on strengthening society’s ability to help individuals reach their full potential, Bertelsmann Stiftung develops the resources needed to achieve those goals.

    With the challenges posed to receiving cities and a lack of preexisting coordination and organization to address these challenges, Bertelsmann Stiftung recognized it had a role to play and previous experience to leverage to support cities.
    #villes-refuge #Allemagne #villes #réfugiés #asile #migrations #urban_matter

    –-> Bertelsmann created an online bank of good practices to share what cities are doing, and a guidebook to share their experiences and #best_practices with the broader public. German cities still struggling with how best to integrate refugees benefit from this knowledge sharing:

  • Rammstein Deutschland video : We got an Oxford University professor to explain what on earth is going on | Louder

    Poised to release their first album in a decade and about to embark on a European tour, Rammstein have returned with a new song: Deutschland. Clocking in at nine minutes and 22 seconds, the video is a mini-epic spanning Germany history. Directed by Specter Berlin, it’s a cinematic and controversial clip that’s confusing if you’re not up on your history. We asked Dr Alexandra Lloyd, lecturer in German at the University of Oxford, to explain what the fuck is happening.

    By Dr Alexandra Lloyd (Metal Hammer) 2 days ago Metal Hammer
    Rammstein have just released a jaw-dropping video for new single Deutschland – but what exactly is it all about?

    Rammstein’s Deutschland takes us on a thrilling, violent, and moving journey through German history. At over nine minutes, it gives us a panorama of events and historical and mythical figures, and there are so many references and Easter eggs that fans and commentators will be poring over it for some time to come.

    The video opens in AD 16, on the ‘barbarian’ side of the limes, the border of the Roman Empire. Roman soldiers creep through the woods in the aftermath of the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. The Romans were ambushed by an alliance of Germanic Tribes, led by a chieftain called Arminius (the original Hermann the German). Three legionary standards were captured, a loss symbolic and moral, as well as physical, and decades were spent trying to recover them. Rome never again attempted to take the lands east of the River Rhine, known as Germania.

    ‘Germania’ refers not just to a place, somewhere partly defined by where it isn’t (Rome) as well as where it is, but also to a national figurehead, traditionally representing the German people. Germania is a strong woman, usually armour-clad and battle-ready. Various symbols appear with her, among them a breastplate with an eagle, a black, red, and gold flag, and a crown. Look out for these in the video – they come up again and again – and the colours of the contemporary flag are there in every scene.

    We get our first glimpse of Germania here (played by Ruby Commey), who stands holding Till Lindemann’s severed head. Next, astronauts appear carrying a metal and glass box shaped like a coffin. In the background we see a U-boat – a German submarine, used in World Wars I and II. Then we move to a scene set at a boxing match which takes us to Weimar Germany (1918-1933), a period known for its political instability but also greater cultural liberalism. Here, Germania appears in the cabaret costume of a flapper girl, and the boxers fight with knuckle-dusters as a crowd cheers them on.

    We see the former East Germany, complete with busts of Marx and Lenin, the national emblem of East Germany, and a lookalike of the long-serving, insular, and repressive GDR leader Erich Honecker. There’s another astronaut, or rather a cosmonaut: Sigmund Jähn, the first German in space, who flew with the USSR’s space program (and who’s also a character in the 2003 film, Good Bye Lenin!). Medieval monks feast grotesquely on the supine Germania, tearing sauerkraut and sausage from Ruby Commey’s body, prison inmates are beaten by guards dressed in police and military uniforms from different historical periods.

    The most obviously shocking scene references the Holocaust and the Nazi period. Four members of the band, in the striped uniforms of camp inmates, wait at the gallows, about to be hanged. They wear the cloth emblems used to identify their ‘crimes’: a pink triangle for homosexual prisoners, a yellow star for Jewish prisoners, a red and yellow star for Jewish political prisoners.

    This sequence, teased in an earlier promo video, has already caused controversy. Have Rammstein the right to do this? Do they trivialise the suffering of Holocaust victims? How can they justify using Holocaust imagery to promote their new video? These are important questions that are part of a much bigger debate about the ethics of using the Holocaust in art and media.

    Other scenes include the band walking away from a flaming airship, referring to the 1937 Hindenburg Disaster, in which 36 people died. Rats scuttle across the floor when the monks first appear, suggesting the Pied Piper of Hamelin, a legend with origins in the 13th century.

    Germania walks towards the camera in a leather jacket, gold jewellery and a string of bullets across her chest, resembling the chariot drawn by four horses (the ‘Quadriga’) on top of the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin. The band members’ heads are shown as white marble busts, taking us to the 19th century Walhalla memorial in Bavaria, built as German Hall of Fame, its sculpted heads of German worthies on display to this day.

    In the prison, hundreds of banknotes fall from above, suggesting the devastating hyperinflation Germany suffered in the 1920s. Nazis burn books, intercut with religious fanatics burning witches. We recognise members of the Red Army Faction (also known as the Baader-Meinhof group), a militant organisation active in the 1970s in West Germany. And in a blink-or-you-miss-it exchange, we are reminded of the much-criticised relationship between the churches and the state during the Third Reich.

    Each scene captures in a moment the icons of an era, and the video cuts between them more and more frenetically as it goes on. Events bleed into each other, linked by the presence of the band members and the red laser beam that appears throughout the video, a ‘roter Faden’ (red thread or central theme), connecting each event.

    Germany engages with its history in a very particular way. Try to imagine the video about Britain, with Britannia played by Ruby Commey. What would the equivalent events be? Quite a few of the tableaux might be similar – Romans, Crusaders, monks, 18th-century soldiers, collarless shirts and bareknuckle boxing – but would it have the same impact?

    There’s no affection, and perhaps not much hope: its pessimistic tone seems to be quite an off-brand message for post-1989 Germany, which wants to acknowledge its past critically, while also looking to its future as a state at the heart of Europe. And actually, while we get a lot of medieval and twentieth-century history, the video’s tour through the past seems to stop in the late 1980s, before the fall of the Berlin Wall and Reunification of East and West Germany. Instead, we jump into the future, where the space-suited band take Germania into the unknown, travelling in that coffin-shaped glass box.

    There’s an echo of the video for Sonne, where Snow White is trapped in a glass coffin. In fact, a piano version of Sonne plays over the end credits of Deutschland. This is a useful link for understanding something of what Rammstein is doing here. In Sonne, where the band’s characters free themselves of Snow White (naturally, they’ve been her sex-slaves), only to realise that they have made a mistake and long for her return, the overwhelming feeling of Deutschland seems to be that when it comes to Germania (or Germany): you can’t love her, and you can’t live without her.

    Alex Lloyd | Faculty of Medieval and Modern Languages

    Alexandra Lloyd, MA, PGCE, DPhil, FHEA
    Stipendiary Lecturer in German, Magdalen College & St Edmund Hall
    Alex Lloyd’s main research interests are in twentieth-century literature and film, particularly cultural memory, depictions of children and childhood, and visual culture. Her AHRC-funded doctoral thesis (Wadham College, 2012) examined post-1989 representations of childhood and youth under Nazism. She is currently running a project on the White Rose resistance movement, working with undergraduates on a new translation of the group’s pamphlets which will be published in June 2019.

    Rammstein - Engel (Official Video)

    Rammstein - Deutschland (Official Video)

    Rammstein – DEUTSCHLAND Lyrics

    [Songtext zu „DEUTSCHLAND“]

    [Strophe 1]
    Du (du hast, du hast, du hast, du hast)
    Hast viel geweint (geweint, geweint, geweint, geweint)
    Im Geist getrennt (getrennt, getrennt, getrennt, getrennt)
    Im Herz vereint (vereint, vereint, vereint, vereint)
    Wir (wir sind, wir sind, wir sind, wir sind)
    Sind schon sehr lang zusammen (ihr seid, ihr seid, ihr seid, ihr seid)
    Dein Atem kalt (so kalt, so kalt, so kalt, so kalt)
    Das Herz in Flammen (so heiß, so heiß, so heiß, so heiß)
    Du (du kannst, du kannst, du kannst, du kannst)
    Ich (ich weiß, ich weiß, ich weiß, ich weiß)
    Wir (wir sind, wir sind, wir sind, wir sind)
    Ihr (ihr bleibt, ihr bleibt, ihr bleibt, ihr bleibt)

    Deutschland – mein Herz in Flammen
    Will dich lieben und verdammen
    Deutschland – dein Atem kalt
    So jung – und doch so alt

    [Strophe 2]
    Ich (du hast, du hast, du hast, du hast)
    Ich will dich nie verlassen (du weinst, du weinst, du weinst, du weinst)
    Man kann dich lieben (du liebst, du liebst, du liebst, du liebst)
    Und will dich hassen (du hasst, du hasst, du hasst, du hasst)
    Überheblich, überlegen
    Übernehmen, übergeben
    Überraschen, überfallen
    Deutschland, Deutschland über allen

    Deutschland – mein Herz in Flammen
    Will dich lieben und verdammen
    Deutschland – dein Atem kalt
    So jung – und doch so alt
    Deutschland – deine Liebe
    Ist Fluch und Segen
    Deutschland – meine Liebe
    Kann ich dir nicht geben

    Du (übermächtig, überflüssig)
    Ich (Übermenschen, überdrüssig)
    Wir (wer hoch steigt, der wird tief fallen)
    Ihr (Deutschland, Deutschland über allen)

    Deutschland – dein Herz in Flammen
    Will dich lieben und verdammen
    Deutschland – mein Atem kalt
    So jung – und doch so alt
    Deutschland – deine Liebe
    Ist Fluch und Segen
    Deutschland – meine Liebe
    Kann ich dir nicht geben

    #musique #Allemagne #heavy_metal

  • #Traugott_Fuchs (1906-1997) : A German Exile in İstanbul

    Traugott Fuchs, a professor of German and French literature, painter and writer, left Nazi Germany in 1934 due to his political opposition to the regime and came to İstanbul, where he spent the rest of his life. He is one of the lesser-known intellectuals who emigrated from Nazi Germany to Turkey, but nonetheless, he has left a distinctive imprint on countless generations of Turkish students and academics.
    #exil #chercheurs #asile #réfugiés #université #histoire #Istanbul #science

    Quand la #Turquie accueillait les chercheurs en exil...

    voici le commentaire d’une chercheuse de Turquie, actuellement accueillie en France avec le programme PAUSE :

    While I was working at the Boğazici University Archives, I and my colleagues worked on a special collection belong to Traugott Fuchs, a scholar, painter, translator and musician who ran away from the Nazi Germany and found his way in Istanbul. I never thought that one day, many scholars from Turkey will be experiencing something similar…

    ping @reka

  • AWFJ EDA Awards IDFA 2016 Filmmaker Interview: Asli Ozarslan on DIL LEYLA | The Female Gaze

    Asli Özarslan: Almost two years ago I saw an article in a German newspaper about Leyla Imret. There was written that she is from Germany and the youngest mayor in Turkey. This informations catched my attention. My first question was: Why did she leave Germany and went to a fragile place like Cizre? It was or is still a hotspot of the kurdish resistance and it is at the border with Syria and Iraq.

    AWFJ: What did you learn about the subject/theme from making the film?

    AO: I learned how thin the line is between hope, dreams and despair. Leyla dreamed to build up parks and playgrounds for children. She wanted to blot out the traces of the war. The childhood, which she could not have there, she wanted to give this chance to the children now. I saw how the past can be repeated. How old wounds between two parties can burst very quickly. Through political interests the situation can change immediately. After all these military operations of the Turkish government I saw how Leyla had to age within a very short time. She had to push her first goals aside – but she found new goals. And did not give up.

    I saw also how difficult it is to work as a kurdish politician in Turkey. Leyla as well as others became the target of hate campaigns. And she had to get through it. Even she was afraid she could not show it. She was always standing up. Even in very bad situations she sent messages of hope.

    AWFJ: What did you learn about filmmaking from making the film?

    AO: You can not control things and you have to be ready to relocate again. When a place gets dangerous and you were never in a situation like that before you have to take quick decisions. Should we stay or not?
    You have to take decisions and stay behind that. That sounds maybe easy but it is not at all. As we decide to break up our second shooting because of a bomb attack in a another kurdish city. I was always talking with my crew. Do we feel still safe here? This was the biggest challenge.

    „Dil Leyla“ Das Mädchen, das sich an Panzer erinnert

    Von Jenni Zylka
    Özarslan hat ein anrührendes und bezauberndes Familienporträt geschaffen. Die Familie in Deutschland fängt die fünfjährige Leyla auf, unterstützt, bestärkt. Die gleichaltrige Cousine erinnert sich an die erste Begegnung, an merkwürdig „ernste Gespräche“ zwischen kleinen Mädchen. Leylas Mutter, die in Cizre lebt, erzählt von ihren Ängsten um die Kinder. Und Leyla selbst erklärt, wie sie in Deutschland langsam erkannte, wer ihr Vater war und wofür er starb.

    #Allemagne #Turquie #Kurdistan #film #politique #documentation

  • Hatay Province

    Erdogan semble préparer une deuxième édition du coup de 1938 mais cette fois la Turquie agit loin de la mer méditerranée.

    Sovereignty over the province remains disputed with neighbouring Syria, which claims that the province was separated from itself against the stipulations of the French Mandate of Syria in the years following Syria’s independence from the Ottoman Empire after World War I. Although the two countries have remained generally peaceful in their dispute over the territory, Syria has never formally renounced its claims to it.

    The War Nerd : Cleanse Thy Neighbor

    It’s hard for us now to remember how big, how scary the Germans were in those days, but remember, they took all of Western and Central Europe in 1940 and only lost 30,000 men doing it. That’s somebody worth being scared of.

    And the French had had enough. Nobody in the Anglo world gives them much credit, but they’re the ones who held off the WW I era Germans and suffered 1.5 million dead in the process, out of a population of 40 million. They didn’t want to do it again and were desperate to make a deal.

    And that’s where the Sanjak of Alexandretta, now known as Hatay Province, comes in. The French needed friends, and Turkey had proved itself a serious military power when it crushed the Greeks, who had the advantage in weapons and international support. Turks can fight; nobody ever argued about that.

    And in WW I, they’d fought on the German side, wiping out a Commonwealth force at Gallipoli, where Ataturk made his bones with a motivational speech that went—seriously—like this: “Soldiers, I do not tell you to go out and fight; I tell you to go out and die.” And they did, along with a whole bunch of poor Kiwis and Aussies who believed that Kitchener poster.

    The French wanted the Turks to stay out of whatever next big war with Germany was brewing on the horizon. They had to offer something, and that something was Alexandretta/Hatay. Turkey was still hungry for territory, still pissed off over losing the Ottoman lands, and here was this dangling bit of coastline in northern Syria, with a mixed population: mostly Alawite Arabs and Armenian Christians, but about one-third or one-quarter Turks.

    Well, if you’re a French administrator sweating over Hitler, that’s an easy one: throw the Turks a bone, keep ’em happy. Nobody ever cared about the Armenians; nobody does even now, except the Israeli lobby that doesn’t want them talking about their genocide and ruining the total uniqueness of the Holocaust. And the Alawites, after all, had their little piece of land a little way down the coast; they could just move.

    So the French and the Turks made a deal in 1937: there’d be an official plebiscite (those were big years for phony plebiscites; the word just reeks of the 30s) but the Turks were old hands at creating ethnic unity even where there wasn’t any.

    And they did, using their usual methods: they marched into the Sanjak, expelled all the Alawites and all the Armenians and imported loyal Turks. When the Alawites and Armenians objected, the Turks pulled a classic move and blamed the rioting for the crackdown, a nice reversal-on-reality that still works.

    By 1939—just two years after taking over—the official language of Hatay Province was Turkish. French, not Arabic, was the official second language. The Turks wanted to de-Arabize their new Hatay province at all costs, and kept shunting Turkish-speaking loyalists to Hatay to make sure they swamped the native Arab population. The city that used to be Alexandretta, a Franco-Latin name, was renamed “Iskander,” the Turkish version of “Alexander” (and the name of a damn good type of kebab, too).

    Every single village, well, palm tree and stray dog in the province went through the same process, which is why there is now not one single Arabic name in the whole province, though it used to be Arab land.

    Der türkische Nationalismus in neuer Blüte | Telepolis

    19. Februar 2018 Elke Dangeleit
    Politik hat nichts mit Moral zu tun, das ist eine bittere Wahrheit. Und so können wir nur staunend zuschauen, wie sich der amtierende Außenminister Gabriel mit der Freilassung von Deniz Yücel brüstet. Yücel hatte deutlich gemacht, dass er für Deals zu seiner Freilassung nicht zur Verfügung stände. Das ist politische Größe und zeigt Rückgrat. Aber er hat die Rechnung ohne die Bundesregierung gemacht.

    Nicht nur die Türkei hat ihn als Geisel benutzt. Auch die Bundesregierung hat auf seine Kosten agiert. Was mussten sich Journalisten alles anhören? Nicht zu viel Protest, wir können es uns nicht verscherzen wegen der Verhandlungen zu Deniz Yücel etc.

    In den letzten Wochen seit dem Angriff auf Afrin kommt zu Tage, was ein Preis für Yücels Freilassung war: Eine weitere Verschärfung der Kriminalisierung der kurdischen Bevölkerung in Deutschland, die mittlerweile nicht mehr nur die Fahnen von der YPG/YPJ auf Demonstrationen zeigen dürfen.

    Dem kurdischen Dachverband Nav-Dem wurde im Zuge des Demonstrationsverbotes in Köln mitgeteilt, sie bräuchten überhaupt keine Demos mehr anmelden, denn diese würden sowieso verboten werden.

    Auch die türkischen Militärangehörigen, die in Deutschland um Asyl gebeten hatten und anerkannt wurden, haben sich offensichtlich aus Angst, dass die deutsche Politik sie ausliefert, in ein europäisches Land außerhalb des Schengenraums aus dem Staub gemacht.

    Zur Situation der kurdischen Bevölkerung in Afrin und in der Türkei schweigt die Bundesregierung bzw. gibt sich höchstens besorgt - und schaut dem herannahenden Genozid zu. Wie gesagt, Politik hat nichts mit Moral zu tun.

    #Turquie #Syrie #France #Allemagne #histoire #guerre

  • Kimberly-Clark pays for layoffs with Trump tax cuts - Business Insider Deutschland

    Kimberly-Clark — the maker of Huggies and Kleenex — is cutting up to 5,500 jobs.
    The company said it would use savings from the new Republican tax plan to fund the layoffs and restructuring.
    Other companies have pledged to offer bonuses to workers based on their savings — but the result hasn’t always been as positive as it seems.

    While many companies are using President Trump’s tax cuts to give workers bonuses or raise wages, the maker of Kleenex and Huggies is doing the opposite.

    Kimberly-Clark announced on Tuesday that it would cut between 5,000 and 5,500 jobs, or roughly 12 or 13% of the company’s employees.

    The personal care product company also announced plans to shut down 10 manufacturing facilities. The restructuring program is estimated to save Kimberly-Clark $500 to $550 million by the end of 2021.

    The company said it plans to use savings from the Republican tax plan to fund the cuts and other restructuring efforts, The New York Times reported. Tax savings would additionally be used for capital investments and to allocate capital to shareholders, CFO Maria Henry said in a call with analysts.

    A number of companies have announced pay hikes and bonuses in response to the new tax plan. Walmart said that it would give employees bonuses due to the new tax plan — on the same day that it laid off thousands after closing more than 60 Sam’s Club locations.

    #USA #travail #capitalisme #licenciement

  • Bukowski’s last stand : Hank’s final poetry reading from 1980 | Dangerous Minds

    Good and original poets spawn bad and imitative poetry.

    Look at all the verbiage spewed out by those green and dappled flecked imitators after Dylan Thomas had one too many on a New York afternoon; or all the poems about PMT, swollen ankles and the indifference of men that came forth after Sylvia Plath’s sad demise; or the short men who swaggered after Charles Bukowski died, juggling six-pack and pen, writing long anaemic poetry about drinking, fighting and love. Yes, good poetry does often inspire bad poets.

    It doesn’t always appear after death, sometimes it rubs shoulders with the living poet in hope of capturing some of their spark. I recall when the cool got hip to Bukowski and he appeared in Andy Warhol’s Interview talking with actor Sean Penn, that everyone including Penn was writing long three word a line poems about nothing much in particular, but this how it is if you’re a poet and you know sensitive and you gotta live that kinda life on the edge kinda thing blah-de-blah-de-blah. Suddenly it was hard to find a magazine that didn’t have some sub-Bukowskian ode in it, that looked like the stuff from high school poetry clubs and always made me think of G.K. Chesterton’s line that:

    To have a right to do a thing is not at all the same as to be right in doing it.

    Bukowski did not give many readings during his lifetime. Biographers have claimed he hated giving readings, but did it for the two hundred or three hundred dollars to keep him in booze, smokes and a wager on the horses. But this all changed in the 1980s, when money started coming in via checks and royalties for books and film options and Bukowski no longer needed that extra couple of hundred to tide him over. Bukowski gave his last poetry reading at the Sweetwater music club in Redondo Beach, California on March 31, 1980, almost a decade and a half before he died in 1994. The whole reading was (thankfully) filmed by Jon Monday, who left the performance unedited as he believed the sections between Bukowski reading his poems gave some insight into the man and his temperament. It certainly does, as Oliver Hardy would say, and shows why the original poet will always be better than the imitators.

    Charles Bukowski - The Last Straw 1980

    The Last Straw is a film documenting the very last live poetry reading given by Charles Bukowski, even though he lived and wrote for another 14 years. The reading was given at The Sweetwater, a music club in Redondo Beach, California on March 31, 1980. It is produced and directed by Jon Monday

    Klassenkrampf | Telepolis

    Ich meine, dass Bukowski in Deutschland nicht „missverstanden“ wurde, er hatte auch in Carl Weissner einen ausgesprochen versierten Übersetzer. In Deutschland-West und dann natürlich -Ost breitete sich das Prekariat ja bereits in den Siebziger- und Achtzigerjahren aus - und Bukowski führte genau diese Lebenssituation vor. Er musste keine marxistische Gesellschaftskritik hintanhängen, er musste sich nicht, wie Günter Wallraff, maskieren, um das Leben der Menschen „ganz unten“ zu studieren.

    Er hatte es jahrelang, Tag für Tag, miterlebt. Und er schrieb gewissermaßen das Drehbuch für die Jahre von damals bis heute — denn das Leben eines Bukowski ist heute überall in Europa Alltag. Kein Wunder, dass die WELT eine Dosis Klassenkrampf über dem Autor ausschüttet, wie Säure über dem Leichnam, der auch nach über 20 Jahren nicht aufhört, äußerst lebendig zu bleiben.

    Hier noch etwas zum Nachlesen: Bukowskis Dankesbrief an seinen Verleger und Gönner, John Martin, der dem begabten Autor ein Stipendium von 100 Dollar im Monat spendierte, damit er die Maloche bei der Post aufgeben und sich ganz dem Schreiben widmen konnte.

    Wie Bukowski schrieb: „50 Jahre meines Lebens hab ich vertan, jetzt muss ich auf die Tube drücken, um irgendwas von dem zu realisieren, was mir vorschwebte.“ Immerhin, es kamen noch rund 50 Bände Storys und Gedichte zusammen - und dann nochmal so viele in Form von posthumen Briefen und sonstigen Traktaten.

    Eine schöne Sammlung von Robert-Crumb-Illustrationen zu Geschichten von Bukowski findet sich hier.

    Tom Appleton

    #poésie #USA #Californie

  • Percy Bysshe Shelley, „The Mask of Anarchy“

    The Cremation of Percy Bysshe Shelley, oil on canvas, Louis Édouard Fournier (1857-1917)

    Peterloo Massacre

    Friedrich Engels - Deutsche Zustaende

    Brief II, The Northern Star Nr. 417 vom 8. November 1845
    Die Niederschlagung der Französischen Revolution wurde gefeiert durch die Niedermetzelung von Republikanern im Süden Frankreichs, durch das Auflodern der Scheiterhaufen der Inquisition und die Wiederherstellung des heimischen Despotismus in Spanien und Italien sowie durch die Maulkorbgesetze und „Peterloo“ in England. Wir werden nun sehen, daß die Ereignisse in Deutschland einen ähnlichen Verlauf nahmen.

    Das Königreich Preußen war der erste unter allen deutschen Staaten, der Napoleon den Krieg erklärt hatte. Es wurde damals regiert von Friedrich Wilhelm III., mit dem Spitznamen „der Gerechte“,
    er kannte nur zwei Gefühle - Furcht und feldwebelhafte Anmaßung. Während der ersten Hälfte seiner Herrschaft war sein vorherrschender Geisteszustand die Furcht vor Napoleon, der ihn mit der Großmut der Verachtung behandelte, indem er ihm die Hälfte seines Königreichs zurückgab, die zu behalten er nicht der Mühe für wert hielt.

    Es war diese Furcht, die ihn antrieb, einer Partei von Halb-und-halb-Reformern - Hardenberg, Stein, Schön, Schamhorst etc. - zu gestatten, an seiner Stelle zu regieren, die eine liberalere Gemeindeorganisation einführten, die Erbuntertänigkeit abschafften, die feudalen Dienste in Rente oder in eine fixe Summe mit fünfundzwanzigjähriger Tilgung verwandelten und vor allem die militärische Organisation einführten, die dem Volk gewaltige Macht verschafft und früher oder später gegen die Regierung gebraucht werden wird.

    The Mask of Anarchy:
    Written on the Occasion of the Massacre at Manchester
    By Percy Bysshe Shelley

    As I lay asleep in Italy
    There came a voice from over the Sea,
    And with great power it forth led me
    To walk in the visions of Poesy.

    I met Murder on the way—
    He had a mask like Castlereagh—
    Very smooth he looked, yet grim;
    Seven blood-hounds followed him:

    All were fat; and well they might
    Be in admirable plight,
    For one by one, and two by two,
    He tossed them human hearts to chew

    Which from his wide cloak he drew.
    Next came Fraud, and he had on,
    Like Eldon, an ermined gown;
    His big tears, for he wept well,
    Turned to mill-stones as they fell.

    And the little children, who
    Round his feet played to and fro,
    Thinking every tear a gem,
    Had their brains knocked out by them.

    Clothed with the Bible, as with light,
    And the shadows of the night,
    Like Sidmouth, next, Hypocrisy
    On a crocodile rode by.

    And many more Destructions played
    In this ghastly masquerade,
    All disguised, even to the eyes,
    Like Bishops, lawyers, peers, or spies.

    Last came Anarchy: he rode
    On a white horse, splashed with blood;
    He was pale even to the lips,
    Like Death in the Apocalypse.

    And he wore a kingly crown;
    And in his grasp a sceptre shone;
    On his brow this mark I saw—

    With a pace stately and fast,
    Over English land he passed,
    Trampling to a mire of blood
    The adoring multitude.

    And a mighty troop around,
    With their trampling shook the ground,
    Waving each a bloody sword,
    For the service of their Lord.

    And with glorious triumph, they
    Rode through England proud and gay,
    Drunk as with intoxication
    Of the wine of desolation.

    O’er fields and towns, from sea to sea,
    Passed the Pageant swift and free,
    Tearing up, and trampling down;
    Till they came to London town.

    And each dweller, panic-stricken,
    Felt his heart with terror sicken
    Hearing the tempestuous cry
    Of the triumph of Anarchy.

    For with pomp to meet him came,
    Clothed in arms like blood and flame,
    The hired murderers, who did sing
    `Thou art God, and Law, and King.

    We have waited, weak and lone
    For thy coming, Mighty One!
    Our purses are empty, our swords are cold,
    Give us glory, and blood, and gold.’

    Lawyers and priests, a motley crowd,
    To the earth their pale brows bowed;
    Like a bad prayer not over loud,
    Whispering — `Thou art Law and God.’ —

    Then all cried with one accord,
    `Thou art King, and God, and Lord;
    Anarchy, to thee we bow,
    Be thy name made holy now!’

    And Anarchy, the Skeleton,
    Bowed and grinned to every one,
    As well as if his education
    Had cost ten millions to the nation.

    For he knew the Palaces
    Of our Kings were rightly his;
    His the sceptre, crown, and globe,
    And the gold-inwoven robe.

    So he sent his slaves before
    To seize upon the Bank and Tower,
    And was proceeding with intent
    To meet his pensioned Parliament

    When one fled past, a maniac maid,
    And her name was Hope, she said:
    But she looked more like Despair,
    And she cried out in the air:

    `My father Time is weak and gray
    With waiting for a better day;
    See how idiot-like he stands,
    Fumbling with his palsied hands!

    `He has had child after child,
    And the dust of death is piled
    Over every one but me—
    Misery, oh, Misery!’

    Then she lay down in the street,
    Right before the horses’ feet,
    Expecting, with a patient eye,
    Murder, Fraud, and Anarchy.

    When between her and her foes
    A mist, a light, an image rose,
    Small at first, and weak, and frail
    Like the vapour of a vale:

    Till as clouds grow on the blast,
    Like tower-crowned giants striding fast,
    And glare with lightnings as they fly,
    And speak in thunder to the sky,

    It grew — a Shape arrayed in mail
    Brighter than the viper’s scale,
    And upborne on wings whose grain
    Was as the light of sunny rain.

    On its helm, seen far away,
    A planet, like the Morning’s, lay;
    And those plumes its light rained through
    Like a shower of crimson dew.

    With step as soft as wind it passed
    O’er the heads of men — so fast
    That they knew the presence there,
    And looked, — but all was empty air.

    As flowers beneath May’s footstep waken,
    As stars from Night’s loose hair are shaken,
    As waves arise when loud winds call,
    Thoughts sprung where’er that step did fall.

    And the prostrate multitude
    Looked — and ankle-deep in blood,
    Hope, that maiden most serene,
    Was walking with a quiet mien:

    And Anarchy, the ghastly birth,
    Lay dead earth upon the earth;
    The Horse of Death tameless as wind
    Fled, and with his hoofs did grind
    To dust the murderers thronged behind.

    A rushing light of clouds and splendour,
    A sense awakening and yet tender
    Was heard and felt — and at its close
    These words of joy and fear arose

    As if their own indignant Earth
    Which gave the sons of England birth
    Had felt their blood upon her brow,
    And shuddering with a mother’s throe

    Had turnèd every drop of blood
    By which her face had been bedewed
    To an accent unwithstood,—
    As if her heart had cried aloud:

    `Men of England, heirs of Glory,
    Heroes of unwritten story,
    Nurslings of one mighty Mother,
    Hopes of her, and one another;

    `Rise like Lions after slumber
    In unvanquishable number,
    Shake your chains to earth like dew
    Which in sleep had fallen on you —
    Ye are many — they are few.

    `What is Freedom? — ye can tell
    That which slavery is, too well —
    For its very name has grown
    To an echo of your own.<

    `’Tis to work and have such pay
    As just keeps life from day to day
    In your limbs, as in a cell
    For the tyrants’ use to dwell,

    `So that ye for them are made
    Loom, and plough, and sword, and spade,
    With or without your own will bent
    To their defence and nourishment.

    `’Tis to see your children weak
    With their mothers pine and peak,
    When the winter winds are bleak,—
    They are dying whilst I speak.

    `’Tis to hunger for such diet
    As the rich man in his riot
    Casts to the fat dogs that lie
    Surfeiting beneath his eye;

    `’Tis to let the Ghost of Gold
    Take from Toil a thousandfold
    More than e’er its substance could
    In the tyrannies of old.

    `Paper coin — that forgery
    Of the title-deeds, which ye
    Hold to something of the worth
    Of the inheritance of Earth.

    `’Tis to be a slave in soul
    And to hold no strong control
    Over your own wills, but be
    All that others make of ye.

    `And at length when ye complain
    With a murmur weak and vain
    ’Tis to see the Tyrant’s crew
    Ride over your wives and you—
    Blood is on the grass like dew.

    `Then it is to feel revenge
    Fiercely thirsting to exchange
    Blood for blood — and wrong for wrong —
    Do not thus when ye are strong.

    `Birds find rest, in narrow nest
    When weary of their wingèd quest;
    Beasts find fare, in woody lair
    When storm and snow are in the air,

    `Asses, swine, have litter spread
    And with fitting food are fed;
    All things have a home but one—
    Thou, Oh, Englishman, hast none!

    `This is Slavery — savage men,
    Or wild beasts within a den
    Would endure not as ye do—
    But such ills they never knew.

    `What art thou Freedom? O! could slaves
    Answer from their living graves
    This demand — tyrants would flee
    Like a dream’s dim imagery:

    `Thou art not, as impostors say,
    A shadow soon to pass away,
    A superstition, and a name
    Echoing from the cave of Fame.

    `For the labourer thou art bread,
    And a comely table spread
    From his daily labour come
    In a neat and happy home.

    `Thou art clothes, and fire, and food
    For the trampled multitude—
    No — in countries that are free
    Such starvation cannot be
    As in England now we see.

    `To the rich thou art a check,
    When his foot is on the neck
    Of his victim, thou dost make
    That he treads upon a snake.

    `Thou art Justice — ne’er for gold
    May thy righteous laws be sold
    As laws are in England — thou
    Shield’st alike the high and low.

    `Thou art Wisdom — Freemen never
    Dream that God will damn for ever
    All who think those things untrue
    Of which Priests make such ado.

    `Thou art Peace — never by thee
    Would blood and treasure wasted be
    As tyrants wasted them, when all
    Leagued to quench thy flame in Gaul.

    `What if English toil and blood
    Was poured forth, even as a flood?
    It availed, Oh, Liberty,
    To dim, but not extinguish thee.

    `Thou art Love — the rich have kissed
    Thy feet, and like him following Christ,
    Give their substance to the free
    And through the rough world follow thee,

    `Or turn their wealth to arms, and make
    War for thy belovèd sake
    On wealth, and war, and fraud—whence they
    Drew the power which is their prey.

    `Science, Poetry, and Thought
    Are thy lamps; they make the lot
    Of the dwellers in a cot
    So serene, they curse it not.

    `Spirit, Patience, Gentleness,
    All that can adorn and bless
    Art thou — let deeds, not words, express
    Thine exceeding loveliness.

    `Let a great Assembly be
    Of the fearless and the free
    On some spot of English ground
    Where the plains stretch wide around.

    `Let the blue sky overhead,
    The green earth on which ye tread,
    All that must eternal be
    Witness the solemnity.

    `From the corners uttermost
    Of the bonds of English coast;
    From every hut, village, and town
    Where those who live and suffer moan
    For others’ misery or their own.2

    `From the workhouse and the prison
    Where pale as corpses newly risen,
    Women, children, young and old
    Groan for pain, and weep for cold—

    `From the haunts of daily life
    Where is waged the daily strife
    With common wants and common cares
    Which sows the human heart with tares—

    `Lastly from the palaces
    Where the murmur of distress
    Echoes, like the distant sound
    Of a wind alive around

    `Those prison halls of wealth and fashion,
    Where some few feel such compassion
    For those who groan, and toil, and wail
    As must make their brethren pale—

    `Ye who suffer woes untold,
    Or to feel, or to behold
    Your lost country bought and sold
    With a price of blood and gold—

    `Let a vast assembly be,
    And with great solemnity
    Declare with measured words that ye
    Are, as God has made ye, free—

    `Be your strong and simple words
    Keen to wound as sharpened swords,
    And wide as targes let them be,
    With their shade to cover ye.

    `Let the tyrants pour around
    With a quick and startling sound,
    Like the loosening of a sea,
    Troops of armed emblazonry.

    `Let the charged artillery drive
    Till the dead air seems alive
    With the clash of clanging wheels,
    And the tramp of horses’ heels.

    `Let the fixèd bayonet
    Gleam with sharp desire to wet
    Its bright point in English blood
    Looking keen as one for food.

    `Let the horsemen’s scimitars
    Wheel and flash, like sphereless stars
    Thirsting to eclipse their burning
    In a sea of death and mourning.

    `Stand ye calm and resolute,
    Like a forest close and mute,
    With folded arms and looks which are
    Weapons of unvanquished war,

    `And let Panic, who outspeeds
    The career of armèd steeds
    Pass, a disregarded shade
    Through your phalanx undismayed.

    `Let the laws of your own land,
    Good or ill, between ye stand
    Hand to hand, and foot to foot,
    Arbiters of the dispute,

    `The old laws of England — they
    Whose reverend heads with age are gray,
    Children of a wiser day;
    And whose solemn voice must be
    Thine own echo — Liberty!

    `On those who first should violate
    Such sacred heralds in their state
    Rest the blood that must ensue,
    And it will not rest on you.

    `And if then the tyrants dare
    Let them ride among you there,
    Slash, and stab, and maim, and hew,—
    What they like, that let them do.

    `With folded arms and steady eyes,
    And little fear, and less surprise,
    Look upon them as they slay
    Till their rage has died away.

    `Then they will return with shame
    To the place from which they came,
    And the blood thus shed will speak
    In hot blushes on their cheek.

    `Every woman in the land
    Will point at them as they stand—
    They will hardly dare to greet
    Their acquaintance in the street.

    `And the bold, true warriors
    Who have hugged Danger in wars
    Will turn to those who would be free,
    Ashamed of such base company.

    `And that slaughter to the Nation
    Shall steam up like inspiration,
    Eloquent, oracular;
    A volcano heard afar.

    `And these words shall then become
    Like Oppression’s thundered doom
    Ringing through each heart and brain,
    Heard again — again — again—

    `Rise like Lions after slumber
    In unvanquishable number—
    Shake your chains to earth like dew
    Which in sleep had fallen on you—
    Ye are many — they are few.’

    1. The following stanza is found in the Wise MS. and in Mary Shelley’s edition of 1839, but is wanting in the Hunt MS. and in the first edition of 1832:—

    ’Horses, oxen, have a home,
    When from daily toil they come;
    Household dogs, when the wind roars,
    Find a home within warm doors.’

    2. The following stanza is found (cancelled) at this place in the Wise MS.:—

    ’From the cities where from caves,
    Like the dead from putrid graves,
    Troops of starvelings gliding come,
    Living Tenants of a tomb.’

    Percy Bysshe Shelley 4. August 1792 in Field Place, Sussex; † 8. Juli 1822 im Meer bei Viareggio in der italienischen Provinz Toskana)

    Seine Schriften blieben politisch nicht unwirksam, sie hatten etwa Einfluss auf die Chartisten. Eleanor Marx, die jüngste Tochter von Karl Marx, stellte die Bedeutung Shelleys für die Arbeiterbewegung mit den Worten heraus: „Ich habe meinen Vater und Engels wieder und wieder darüber sprechen hören, und ich habe dasselbe von den vielen Chartisten gehört, die ich glücklicherweise als Kind kennenlernen durfte.“ Sie hatten außerdem Einfluss auf einen politisch verstandenen Vegetarismus: In den Notes zu Queen Mab begründete er seine Forderung nach einem vegetarischen „Zustand der Gesellschaft, in der alle Energien des Menschen in die Schaffung gänzlichen Glücks gelenkt werden sollen“.
    Jeremy Corbyn rezitierte am 27. Juni 2017 in seiner Ansprache beim Glastonbury Festival aus Shelleys Gedicht Mask Of Anarchy:

    “Rise like Lions after slumber
    In unvanquishable number—
    Shake your chains to earth like dew
    Which in sleep had fallen on you—
    Ye are many—they are few.”

    und ermutigte die anwesenden jungen Leute, ihre gemeinsame Macht zu erkennen, durch die sie die Welt verändern könnten.

    #poésie #royaume_uni #Frankenstein #romatisme #anarchisme

  • Uber and Lyft limit personal car use, study says - Business Insider Deutschland

    Ride-hailing giants have said for years that their services will start to kill car ownership by giving urban dwellers a cheaper and more efficient way of getting around.

    A recent study from the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, Texas A&M Transportation Institute, and Columbia University supports that notion.

    Uber and Lyft left Austin, Texas in May 2016 after servicing the city since 2014. The ridehailing giants called it quits after voters upheld strict regulations on the companies, like issuing fingerprint-based background checks.

    Uber and Lyft returned in May after lawmakers passed a bill overriding the strict regulations.

    The departure offered a unique window of opportunity for researchers to investigate how people changed their habits after growing accustomed to ride-hailing services.

    The study surveyed 1,200 Austin locals and asked what trips they typically took using an Uber or Lyft. It then asked how they were making those same trips now that the ride-hailing services weren’t available.

    The study found that 41% switched back to their own cars to fill the void left by Uber and Lyft. Among the people who turned back to their own vehicles, 9% bought an additional car strictly for the purpose of getting around without the ride-hailing giants.

    From there, 42% of people surveyed switched to another ride-hailing company in the area. A flurry of community-based services and smaller apps entered Austin in the wake of Uber and Lyft’s departure, such as Arcade City Austin.

    Only 3% of participants surveyed said they turned to public transit.

    The takeaway isn’t so much that Uber and Lyft reduce the need to own a car, but rather they limit how often people use a car they already own, Robert Hampshire, lead author of the study, said in an interview.

    “A large faction of these people already had a car and just weren’t using it as much,” he said. “Then when Uber and Lyft left, they began to use it more often.”

    Still, it’s noteworthy that roughly 100 people felt the need to buy a car without the presence of a major ride-hailing service. Additionally, people who switched to their personal vehicle were 23 times more likely to report making more trips than those who switched to a community-based service like Arcade City Austin.

    “What I thought stood out the most was for those who did switch to their personal vehicle, they drove considerably more often,” Hampshire said.

    Having to weigh the cost of each individual ride may encourage people to take fewer trips, Hampshire said. Most people don’t think about how much they drive after purchasing a vehicle outright.

    That could be good news for major cities, which are grappling with worsening congestion. If people feel compelled to only take a Lyft or Uber when it’s absolutely necessary, that reduces the number of cars on the road. In a small number of cases, the services’ presence could compel someone to forego purchasing a car altogether.

    Hampshire said he was surprised by how few people opted to take public transportation.

    “In Austin, their public transit system is not as built out as other cities. It may not be seen as a viable option,” he said.

    Automakers are preparing for the death of car ownership in cities. General Motors launched in 2016 its car-sharing service called Maven. Maven is primarily used by millennials who may be reluctant to own a car in expensive cities like New York and San Francisco.

    Although the study bodes well for traffic relief, it’s worth taking it with a grain of salt.

    Ditching a personal car in favor of ride-hailing apps can help alleviate traffic if done on a wide enough scale. But unless more people start to rely on carpool services like Lyft Line or UberPOOL, ride-hailing still contributes to more single-occupancy cars on the road.

    Hampshire said of the people surveyed who used Uber and Lyft as their primary method for getting around, only 12% elected to use the companies’ carpool options.

    The study’s results may also vary in cities that have better access to public transportation.

    Either way, the study shows ride-hailing can make it easier to ditch personal cars in large cities.

    #Uber #disruption #USA

  • Project MUSE - Resurrecting Thomas Wolfe

    Die Schilderung, welche Thomas Wolfe von seiner Abreise aus Berlin im März 1937 in The New Republic veröffentlichte, ist so heutig wie herzzerreissend. Sie könnte sich heute, achtzig Jahre später, in Ankara oder Istambul zutragen, mit dem kleinen aber bedeutsamen Unterschied, dass ihre Botschaft nicht mehr im Rhythmus der Schienenstöße während eines langen Tages reifen dürfte, sondern als Explosion den Lärm der Jet-Triebwerke übertönen und Protagonisten wie Leser ohne Bedenkzeit zu sofortigen Entscheidungen zwingen würde. Was für eine Überforderung.

    When Thomas Wolfe died of tubercular meningitis on September 15, 1938, his literary reputation was equal in the United States to that of Faulkner, Hemingway, and Fitzgerald. In the sixty plus years since, his artistic reputation has been all but destroyed. With the exception of his first novel, Look Homeward, Angel, he is read less and less often, and the academics who design anthologies and teach influential college courses routinely dismiss his work. So on the 100th anniversary of his birth, we are compelled to ask, Who killed Thomas Wolfe?

    Thomas Wolfe – Wikipedia

    In dem expressionistischen Dichter Hans Schiebelhuth fand er für seine ersten beiden Romane einen kongenialen Übersetzer, der dazu beitrug, dass Wolfe sich zeitweise in Deutschland höher geschätzt fühlte als in seiner Heimat. In Amerika gehörte William Faulkner, in Deutschland Hermann Hesse zu seinen Bewunderern. Er starb 1938 an Gehirntuberkulose und wurde in seiner Heimatstadt Asheville, die er als Altamont unsterblich gemacht hatte, im Familiengrab beigesetzt. Geweb und Fels und Es führt kein Weg zurück wurden postum aus den hinterlassenen Manuskriptmassen zusammengestellt.

    Wolfe spent much time in Europe and was especially popular and at ease in Germany, where he made many friends. However, in 1936 he witnessed incidents of discrimination against Jews, which upset him and changed his mind about the political developments in the country. He returned to America and published a story based on his observations (“I Have a Thing to Tell You”) in The New Republic. Following its publication, Wolfe’s books were banned by the German government, and he was prohibited from traveling there.

    Thomas Wolfe: I Have a Thing to Tell You: II | New Republic

    Look Homeward, Angel. A Story of the Buried Life.
    Wolfe, Thomas, 1929

    Thomas WOLFE (1900-1938)
    Look Homeward, Angel (1929)—Text—ZIP—HTML
    Of Time and The River (1935)—Text—ZIP—HTML
    You Can’t go Home Again—Text—ZIP—HTML

    #Deutschand #Berlin #Geschichte #Nazis #Rassegesetze #Juden #Literatur #Bahnhof_Zoo #Kurfürstendamm #Charlottenburg

  • Hamburg is transforming itself into an Orwellian dystopia for the G20 Summit | openDemocracy

    Yet on July 7 and 8, your city will take security measures that are extreme even by G20 standards. Andy Grote, your senator of the interior, went back on a previous promise to not ban demonstrations and declared a general decree forbidding any kind of assembly in a territory of 38 km2.

    Predator drones, usually deployed in warzones, will circle the skies, tanks will be out on the streets, and over 15,000 police officers are expected to be on patrol, including those on horseback and with dogs.

    Robots deployed by U.S. secret services will crawl through sewers and subway tunnels (doing what exactly? No-one knows since the U.S. won’t give us any information about them!) Hamburg will be transformed into an Orwellian dystopia of complete surveillance, enforced by paramilitary means; a democracy-free area.

    Senators, these moves are a travesty against the democratic identity of the “free and hanseatic city of Hamburg”, to use its official name. They are a blow to the standing of European democracy as a whole and its perception across the world.

    G20: Überwachungsdrohnen in Hamburg | ZEIT ONLINE

    glaubt man der neuesten Ausgabe des „Playboy“ Deutschland, kommt auf uns während des G20-Gipfels in Hamburg genau das zu, was man aus einschlägigen US-Agentenfilmen kennt – nur noch ein wenig potenziert. Wenn der immer noch amtierende US-Präsident Donald Trump anreise, berichtet das Magazin, hätten seine Leibwächter vom Secret Service Überwachungsgerät dabei, das noch niemals außerhalb von Kriegsgebieten im Einsatz gewesen sei. Etwa Überwachungsdrohnen vom Typ Predator, die aus 5000 Meter Höhe mit hochleistungsfähigen Kameras halb Hamburg erfassen und Hunderttausende von Menschen – einzeln und in Echtzeit – identifizieren können, durch Wolkendecken hindurch und auch nachts (wir wollen gar nicht wissen, wobei!). Spezialsoftware sorge für den sekundenschnellen Abgleich mit internationalen Fahndungsprofilen

  • HCR | Le HCR appelle à suspendre les renvois de demandeurs d’asile vers la Hongrie, selon le règlement Dublin de l’UE

    Le HCR, l’Agence des Nations Unies pour les réfugiés, a appelé ce jour à la suspension temporaire, par d’autres pays européens, de tous les renvois de demandeurs d’asile vers la Hongrie, en application du règlement Dublin. Le règlement Dublin est un instrument européen déterminant l’État européen responsable de l’examen d’une demande d’asile.

  • Kodak Alaris Reintroduces Iconic #EKTACHROME Still Film

    J’avoue que je préfère les couleurs d’ #Agfacolor et ses dérivés #ORWOcolor et #SOWcolor

    ROCHESTER, N.Y. and LAS VEGAS, NV (PRWEB) January 05, 2017

    Kodak Alaris announced at CES 2017 that it would be reintroducing the iconic KODAK PROFESSIONAL EKTACHROME Color Reversal Film for professional and enthusiast photography. The new EKTACHROME film will support 135-36x camera formats and be available in fourth quarter 2017.

    KODAK PROFESSIONAL EKTACHROME Film has a distinctive look that was the choice for generations of photographers before being discontinued in 2012. The film, known for its extremely fine grain, clean colors, great tones and contrasts, became iconic in no small part due the extensive use of slide film by National Geographic Magazine over several decades.

    Agfacolor – Geschichte eines Farbverfahrens

    Agfacolor - Lexikon der Filmbegriffe

    Propagandawaffe Agfacolor Goebbels’ Farbenlehre

    Der Entwicklung des Farbfilms in Nazi-Deutschland haben Michael Krüger, Gert Koshofer und Friedemann Beyer den aufwändigen Band „UFA in Farbe - Technik, Politik und Starkult zwischen 1936 und 1945“, der beim Verlag Collection Rolf Heyne erschienen ist, gewidmet. Reich bebildert stellt das Buch die Farbfilme des „Dritten Reichs“ vor. In ausführlichen Texten wird die Entstehungsgeschichte der Werke rekapituliert.

    #Sovcolor negative film type B | Timeline of Historical Film Colors

    List of color film systems

    Paul Simon - Kodakchrome

    #photographie #Kodakchrome

    • Le problème avec Kodakchrome c’était qu’il fallait toujours l’envoyer chez Kodak alors qu’à la maison on mâitrisait tous les procédés Agfachrome - bien entendu ceux de la dernière génération, pas les films ORWO ni Sovcolor . C’est le genre d’expérience qui marque ta perception des couleurs pour toute ta vie.

      Malheureusement on n’est pas près d’une réapparition des pellicules de chez Agfa qui s’apprête sous le nom de Bayer à acheter Monsanto.

      Kodak dit qu’ils vont sortir une pellicule pour le 24x36, alors on ne pourra pas se lancer avec nos appreils 6x6 à découvrir le présent avec nos compétences et expériences analogues ;-)

  • The Nature Of The Nazi State And The Question Of International Criminal Responsibility Of Corporate Officials At Nuremburg : Revisiting Franz Neumann’s Concept Of Behemoth At The Industrialists Trials

    Après la lecture de cet article on comprend mieux pourquoi les juges soviétiques du premier procès de Nuremberg expriment souvent un jugement différent de celui des juges désignés par les alliés de l’Ouest. En 1947 le conflit entre l’URSS et les puissances de l’Ouest empêche leur participation aux cours de justice internationale.

    Ce sont alors uniquement des juges de pays capitalistes qui décident sur la responsabilité pour la guerre et les massacres et du sort des industriels allemands. En conséquence les juges sont obligés de baser leurs démarche sur des paradigmes, textes de lois et définitions juridiques qui ne fournissent pas d’arguments suffisants pour identifier la responsabilité des chefs de l’industrie nazie.

    Les idées politiques et juridiques de l’Ouest servent à justifier et stabiliser un système économique identique à celui qui conduit à l’introduction du système nazi en Allemagne. Par des jugements reconnaissant ce fait le système économique et politique de l’Ouest aurait été mis en question. A cause de cette proximité entre le monde des juges et des coupables il est impossible pour les tribunaux des vainqueurs occidentaux d’identifier et de juger les profiteurs économiques du nazisme.

    Le texte suivant décrit les détails de ce dilemme sans le nommer explicitement.

    German industrialists did terrible things during Nazi rule. Yet, they were not held responsible for most of these acts at the subseqeunt trials at Nuremberg.1 History provides several explanations for this impunity gap. In this article I focus on the influence of a conceptual gap on this result. This article explores how various conceptions of the Nazi totalitarian state influenced the prosecution and decisions of the Industrialist Trials at Nuremberg. Drawing on archival materials, I argue that the debate over the Industrialist responsibility could be read as a struggle between competing theories of the totalitarian state.

    This paper exposes how Franz Neumann (1900-1954), who was involved in the Nuremberg trials during its early stages, informed central elements in the prosecutors’ theory of business responsibility at Nuremberg.2 Inspired by the *967 Hobbesian terminology, Neumann used the antinomy of the Behemoth archetype as a contrast to the common understanding of the modern state as a Leviathan. For Neumann, like many others, the Hobbesian Leviathan embodied a conventional conception of the modern state. In that conception, the state is the sole entity which exercises monopoly over violence within a specific territory. In its totalitarian form, the Leviathan exercise of control is cohesive and absolute. Unlike the understanding of the Nazi state as a Leviathan, the Behemoth model lacked a centralized control over violence and was characterized by competing authorities.

    These conflicting theories of the Nazi regime proved highly consequential for the allocation of business responsibility at Nuremberg. The prosecution, who followed central aspects in Neumann’s theory of the Nazi state as Behemoth, argued that the industrialists were equal partners with other groups such as the party and the military in the decision to go to war and in practices of spoliation and enslavement. In terms of structure and operations, the Behemoth theory of the totalitarian state focused on its incoherence and lack of rule of law. The judgments of the Tribunals, though different from one case to another, chose to depict Nazi Germany as a mega-Leviathan. These epistemological choices translated to different theories of responsibility. In the Neumanesque scheme, businesses shared responsibility equally with other actors. In the *968 strong Hobbesian state, envisioned by the Tribunals’ decisions, the companies were subordinates of the state, both in the decision to go to war and later in the involvement in its crimes. But the judges at the Industrialist Trials also followed the Neumannesque lead, conveyed by the prosecution. Though choosing to regard the Nazi state as Leviathan, they implicitly accepted the importance of the state as a key to establishing criminal responsibility in international law. The emphasis on the state and its structure is evident in their reasoning, but departs from a description of the Nazi state as Behemoth. Instead, the decisions described the Nazi totalitarian state as reminiscent of the Hobbesian Leviathan; a state characterized by complete control, coherence, and authority over the Industrialist actors.

    The judges’ choice of the Hobbesian theory was not incidental. The notion of the state as a monolithic power that monopolizes violence is often a default-position in the theory of international legal responsibility. But the Hobbesian model of the state is an ideal-type. Neumann’s critique sought to expose the extent to which the Nazi regime deviated from this ideal-type model. The Tribunals’ insistence on a functioning Leviathan in Nazi Germany significantly limited their ability to scrutinize the practices of business actors. Regarding the ideal-type of the Leviathan as an assumed reality undermined its normative significance. At the same time, the prosecutors’ use of Neumann’s Behemoth ran the risk of interpreting his critique as an acceptance of this model as a basis for responsibility under international law. My critique, therefore, is not a call to follow the prosecutors and adopt Neumann’s model as a basis for international criminal responsibility. Rather, Neumann’s critical analysis is examined here to expose the need for an informed understanding of the state, and the political regime more broadly, in a theory of responsibility in international law.

    The state is not the only corporate structure considered in this article. Alongside the theory of the state, I expose the disregard of the company itself, its corporate structure and governance as well as its relationship with the institutions of the state. The article critically examines the ramifications of this disregard. I argue that understanding these corporate structures (of the state and the company as well as the relationship between them) is essential for a theory of individual responsibility *969 of business officers in international law. Indeed, the greatest novelty of the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg (IMT) was the recognition of individual responsibility under international law for the commission of international crimes.3 According to this historical precedent, “the screen between international law and the individual, normally constituted by state sovereignty, was pierced.”4 However, the attempt to “pierce the sovereign veil” of the corporate entity of the state, and later the company in the Industrialist Trials, without an informed understanding of the structure of authority that constituted them, had the problematic consequence of reifying both.

    Die Transformation des Ausnahmezustands. Ernst Fraenkels Analyse der NS-Herrschaft und ihre politische Aktualität,_Der_Doppelstaat
    Le social-démocrate Ernst Fraenkel développe sa théorie du double-état après avoir exercé le métier d’avocat sous les nazis jusqu’à son émigration. Il ne resoud pas le dilemme capitaliste mentionné plus haut et sert aujourd’hui aux adeptes de la théorie du totalitarisme à développer l’idée de l’identité des système oppressifs nazis et stalinistes.

    Wie Carl Schmitt dachte Fraenkel das NS-Regime vom Ausnahmezustand her. „Die Verfassung des dritten Reiches ist der Belagerungszustand. Die Verfassungsurkunde des dritten Reiches ist die Notverordnung vom 28.2.1933.” Mit diesen Sätzen begann Fraenkel seine Analyse des Doppelstaats. Aber während Schmitt nur absolute Zustände des Entweder-Oder kannte und 1921 eine bloß „kommissarische Diktatur”, die die bestehende Verfassung für eine begrenzte Zeit suspendiere, von der „souveränen Diktatur” unterschied, die eine „wahre Verfassung” herbeizuführen suche, um wenig später jenen berühmten programmatischen Satz zu formulieren: „Souverän ist, wer über den Ausnahmezustand entscheidet”, dynamisierte Fraenkel den Gedanken des Ausnahmezustands.

    Sein „Doppelstaat” war die Analyse eines politischen und rechtlichen Transformationsprozesses.

    Nach dem Krieg war Fraenkel bis 1950 als Legal Adviser der US-Behörden in Südkorea tätig und an der Ausarbeitung der südkoreanischen Verfassung beteiligt. Anschließend wurde er Berater des amerikanischen Hohen Kommissars in Deutschland und nahm 1953 einen Ruf als Professor für Vergleichende Lehre der politischen Herrschaftssysteme an der Freien Universität Berlin an. Seine theoretischen Überlegungen für ein modernes, pluralistisches Demokratiekonzept prägten die Politikwissenschaft der folgenden Jahrzehnte.

    Mit seinen Analysen zum Nationalsozialismus befasste sich Frankel kaum noch. Erst als 1969 eine Neuauflage von „The Dual State” in den USA erschien, gab er dem Drängen vieler seiner Freunde nach und stimmte einer deutschen Ausgabe zu, die aus dem Amerikanischen rückübersetzt werden musste.

    Es kennzeichnet die theoretische Anschlussfähigkeit des „Doppelstaats”-Konzepts, dass jüngst auch Forscher auf Fraenkel Bezug nehmen, die sich mit der Geschichte der Sowjetunion beschäftigen. Stefan Plaggenborg zum Beispiel hat Fraenkels Konzept in innovativer Weise umgedreht und nach den Bedingungen gefragt, wie sich aus der Anomie des Bürgerkriegs und dem stalinistischen Maßnahmenstaat Ende der 1950er-Jahre ein sowjetischer Normenstaat ent-wickeln konnte.


    In a land mark study of government in the Third Reich[1] , Ernst Fraenkel distinguished between the normative and positive state. His thesis has been given crisp expression as follows by Richard Evans:

    On the one hand was the ‘normative state’, bound by rules, procedures, laws and conventions, and consisting of formal institutions, such as the Reich Chancellery, the Ministries, local authorities and so on, and on the other there was the ‘prerogative state’, an essentially extra-legal system that derived its legitimation entirely from the supra-legal authority of the leader.

    1942 - Review of The Dual State : A Contribution to the Theory of Dictatorship, By Ernst Fraenkel, WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY

    Lenhard on Wildt, ’Hitler’s Volksgemeinschaft and the Dynamics of Racial Exclusion : Violence against Jews in Provincial Germany, 1919-1939’ | H-Antisemitism | H-Net

    Wildt refers to Ernst Fraenkel’s book The Dual State in describing two apparently contradictory political spheres which were constitutive for the National Socialist reign of terror: on the one hand, the “normative state” under the rule of law, which was valid only for members of the Volksgemeinschaft; on the other hand, the violence of the paramilitary groups SA and SS, who drew the boundaries between “us” and “them.”[3] The application of Fraenkel’s theory enables Wildt to withstand the fashionable addiction within social sciences to Carl Schmitt’s existentialist distinction between friend and foe—a distinction that justifies rather than explains the struggle against the Jews.[4] Consequently, Wildt strictly deals with Schmitt only as a historical source. And yet one has to bring to mind some crucial problems in Fraenkel’s theory as well: Is a state that suspends parts of its constitution and imprisons the political opposition still under the rule of law? Is thus a concomitance between the “normative state” and the “prerogative state” even thinkable?

    Wildt solves these problems by painting the picture of a multiple power structure with competing factions within the framework of the National Socialist state. The fight between these groups—or, as Max Horkheimer put it aptly, “rackets”—revealed a corrosion of the state’s monopoly on violence and led to new dimensions of anti-Semitic attacks (p. 147).[5] Regional chapters of the NSDAP and the SS behaved differently and sometimes even contradictorily; local non-party members occasionally joined boycott actions against Jewish shops or damaged Jews’ property. But Wildt makes clear right from the start that the “bystanders” and “passers-by” were also part of the National Socialist project—deliberately or not. Either one was “in” or “out”—tertium non datur, although the status of “Aryans” could change quickly with regard to their behavior. Passivity under these circumstances meant participation, and thus the creation of the Volksgemeinschaft needed a public stage where people could either partake in the “play” or just remain part of the audience.

    #histoire politique #droit #nazis #Allemagne #USA

  • Peter Thiel on funding Gawker lawsuit - Business Insider Deutschland

    Le milliardaire libertaire Peter Thiel investit dans la censure juridique.

    Billionaire Silicon Valley investor Peter Thiel has acknowledged that he secretly financed Hulk Hogan’s lawsuit against Gawker Media in an effort to put the news website out of business, according to The New York Times.

    In an interview published Wednesday by The Times, Thiel said “it was worth fighting back” against the outlet, which in 2007 published an article titled “Peter Thiel is totally gay, people.”

    Thiel, who cofounded PayPal and sits on Facebook’s board of directors, provided millions of dollars for Hogan’s lawsuit and is apparently funding other cases.

    The Times’ Andrew Ross Sorkin noted that Thiel declined to reveal which other cases he supported.

    “It’s less about revenge and more about specific deterrence,” Thiel told the newspaper in his first interview since the rumors that he funded the lawsuit reached a tipping point on Tuesday.

    “I saw Gawker pioneer a unique and incredibly damaging way of getting attention by bullying people even when there was no connection with the public interest,” Thiel said.

    Source :

    #droit #politique #disruption

  • 10,000 refugee children are missing, says Europol | World news | The Guardian

    At least 10,000 unaccompanied child refugees have disappeared after arriving in Europe, according to the EU’s criminal intelligence agency. Many are feared to have fallen into the hands of organised trafficking syndicates.

    In the first attempt by law enforcement agencies to quantify one of the most worrying aspects of the migrant crisis, Europol’s chief of staff told the Observer that thousands of vulnerable minors had vanished after registering with state authorities.

    #réfugiés #exil #enfant #enfance

  • 10 Pro-Gun Myths, Shot Down

    By cutting off federal funding for research and stymieing data collection and sharing, the National Rifle Association has tried to do to the study of gun violence what climate deniers have done to the science of global warming. No wonder: When it comes to hard numbers, some of the gun lobby’s favorite arguments are full of holes.
    #infographie #armement #statistiques #chiffres

  • 中国有句俗话 - Chinesische Sprichworte Ostasieninstitut - Hochschule Ludwigshafen am Rhein

    Cette collection raconte l’histoire derrière les plus célèbres cheng-yu / proverbes chinois et en explique la signification. Elle commece par les soi-disant proverbes chinois complètement inconnus en Chine.

    Zhōngguó yǒu jù súhuà.
    Geschichten und Geschichte von chinesischen Sprichwörtern
    Eine chinesische Germanistikstudentin berichtet vom unterschiedlichen Stellenwert, den Sprichwörter in Deutschland und China einnehmen:

    „Wir mussten während unseres Germanistikstudiums viele deutsche Sprichwörter lernen, da man bei uns glaubt, Sprichwörter im Deutschen sind genau so wichtig, wie diese Sprüche oder Cheng-yu in China. Doch dann kam eine deutsche Lektorin an unsere Hochschule. Wir mussten bei ihr Interpretationen deutscher Literatur schreiben. Und da waren wir völlig verwirrt, als sie nach Rückgabe der ersten Interpretationen uns mitteilte, es sei in Deutschland nicht üblich, wissenschaftliche Arbeiten mit Sprichwörtern zu schmücken.“
    (Margrith A. Lin-Huber: Chinesen verstehen lernen.)

    Wenn in Deutschland jemand durchgehend in Allgemeinplätzen daherpalavert, möchte man ihm den Mund verbieten, aber in China zeugt es von gutem Stil, Spruchweisheiten zu zitieren. Chinesische Sprichwörter spielen meist mit Doppeldeutigkeiten. Klartext wird jedenfalls nicht gesprochen.

    A noter également la collection suivante :

    L’opuscule des Trente-six Stratagèmes

    L’opuscule des Trente-six Stratagèmes (trente-six, carré de six,
    étant ici le symbole de toutes les possibilités de situations et
    d’actions) expose l’ensemble des principes de stratégie par le commentaire de 36 proverbes ou expressions idiomatiques courantes ayant une application dans l’art de la guerre, de la politique, de la diplomatie ou des tractations commerciales. Rédigé, semble-t-il, à l’époque de la dyn. 清 Qing (1644-1911), il a été redécouvert et publié en 1941, etest redevenu très populaire comme manuel pouvant conduire au succès.

    Cette page est plus pragmatique.

    20 Actually Useful Chengyu (成语)

    Unfortunately, there are few resources – both on the web or in print – that actually tell you which chengyu are worth remembering. This is actually an important question considering that there are tens of thousands of them. Most textbooks simply give you a list of 100 or so and expect you to memorise them all, without actually telling you how they fit into a modern context. The worst are those massive lists you find on the Internet, often sourced from Chinese schools. These are merely lists of idioms that Chinese students are expected to learn at school and, whilst many of them may be well-known, native speakers simply don’t use them as often as you would expect.

    Alors on y va ...

    1. 脱颖而出 tuōyǐng’érchū

    Baidu Hits: 51,100,000 Google Hits: 32,100,000
    Explanation (解释): Literally, “a sharp stick points out.”
    Translation (翻译): To fully expose one’s talent.
    Similar English Expression (类似英文成语): To come to the fore.
    Example (例子): 他在比赛中脱颖而出。Tā zài bǐsài zhōng tuōyǐngérchū. — He came to the fore in the competition.

    2. 一丝不苟 yīsībùgǒu

    Baidu Hits: 25,000,000 Google Hits: 12,800,000
    Explanation (解释): Literally, “一丝 [even] a little bit 不苟 not careless – to attend to every thread.”
    Translation (翻译): To be meticulous; to attend to every detail.
    Similar English Expression (类似英文成语): To cross one’s T’s
    Example (例子): 他做事从来都是一丝不苟。Tā zuòshì cónglái dōu shì yīsībùgǒu. — He’s always meticulous in everything he does.

    3. 司空见惯 sīkōngjiànguàn

    Baidu Hits: 14,400,000 Google Hits: 8,570,000
    Explanation (解释): Long story short – 司空 comes from the title of “the Minister of Construction” in ancient China who commented on “sing-song girls” during a feast as 见惯 (“a common sight”).
    Translation (翻译): To be an everyday occurrence; nothing unusual.
    Similar English Expression (类似英文成语): None (unless you can think of one).
    Example (例子): 在中国,闯红灯是司空见惯的事。Zài Zhōngguó, chuǎnghóngdēng shì sīkōngjiànguàn de shì. — In China, people running red lights is a common sight.

    4. 半途而废 bàntú’érfèi

    Baidu Hits: 13,400,000 Google Hits: 8,360,000
    Explanation (解释): Literally, “半途 half-way 而 yet 废 is given up/is wasted.”
    Translation (翻译): To give up halfway; to leave something unfinished.
    Similar English Expression (类似英文成语): To throw the towel in (sort of).
    Example (例子): 小时候我学钢琴半途而废。Xiǎoshíhou wǒ xué gāngqín bàntúérfèi. — When I was little I tried to learn how to play the piano but gave up.

    5. 不可思议 bùkěsīyì

    Baidu Hits: 100,000,000 Google Hits: 7,930,000
    Explanation (解释): Literally, “不可 cannot be 思议 conceived.”
    Translation (翻译): To be inconceivable; unbelievable.
    Similar English Expression (类似英文成语): None (off the top of my head).
    Example (例子): 对我来说,吃狗肉是不可思议的事情。Duì wǒ lái shuō, chī gǒuròu shì bùkěsīyì de shìqíng. — The way I see it, eating dog is inconceivable.

    6. 一鸣惊人 yīmíngjīngrén

    Baidu Hits: 11,600,000 Google Hits: 7,760,000
    Explanation (解释): Literally, “one chirp [which] surprises people”, a metaphor for someone suddenly displaying talent.
    Translation (翻译): To become famous overnight.
    Similar English Expression (类似英文成语): To set the world on fire.
    Example (例子): 李玉春一鸣惊人。Lǐ Yǔchūn yīmíngjīngrén. — Li Yuchun became famous overnight.

    7. 一窍不通 yīqiàobùtōng

    Baidu Hits: 11,900,000 Google Hits: 7,570,000
    Explanation (解释): 一 (“all”) 窍 (the [seven] orifices”) 不通 (“not linked up”).
    Translation (翻译): To be completely ignorant about something; to be out of one’s depth.
    Similar English Expressions (类似英文成语): To not know one’s arse from one’s elbow (hah!); to be “all Greek” to someone.
    Example (例子): 他对电脑一窍不通。Tā duì diànnǎo yīqiàobùtōng. — He doesn’t know the first thing about computers.

    8. 谈何容易 tánhéróngyì

    Baidu Hits: 11,600,000 Google Hits: 7,420,000
    Explanation (解释): 谈 (“to speak”) + 何 (classical Chinese, meaning “什么” [what]) + 容易 (“easy”); “in what way is it easy?”
    Translation (翻译): To be no means easy; difficult to do.
    Similar English Expression (类似英文成语): Easier said than done.
    Example (例子): 我跟他分手谈何容易。Wǒ gēn tā fēnshǒu tánhéróngyì. — Breaking up with him is easier said than done.

    9. 自由自在 zìyóuzìzài

    Baidu Hits: 31,400,000 Google Hits: 6,160,000
    Explanation (解释): 自由 (“free”) + 自在 (“lacking restrictions”)
    Translation (翻译): To be carefree; to be peaceful and relaxed.
    Similar English Expressions (类似英文成语): To not have a care in the world; to be footloose and fancy-free; to be man or woman of leisure.
    Example (例子): 我想自由自在的生活。Wǒ xiǎng zìyóuzìzài de shēnghuó. — I want a carefree life.

    10. 乱七八糟 luànqībāzāo

    Baidu Hits: 59,300,000 Google Hits: 4,200,000
    Explanation (解释): 乱 (“chaotic”) + 七 (“seven”) + 八 (“eight”) + 糟 (“rotten; in a wretched state”)
    Translation (翻译): To be in a huge mess.
    Similar English Expression (类似英文成语): To be at sixes and sevens.
    Example (例子): 这个公司的管理乱七八糟。Zhè ge gōngsī de guǎnlǐ luànqībāzāo. — This company’s administration is a complete mess.

    11. 一见钟情 yījiànzhōngqíng

    Baidu Hits: 37,200,000 Google Hits: 3,850,000
    Explanation (解释): 一见 (“upon first seeing”) + 钟情 (“to fall deeply in love”)
    Translation (翻译): To fall in love at first sight.
    Similar English Expression (类似英文成语): Same as above.
    Example (例子): 我跟我的男朋友一见钟情。Wǒ gēn wǒ de nán péngyǒu yījiànzhōngqíng. — I fell in love with my bofriend at first sight.
    12. 爱不释手 àibùshìshǒu

    Baidu Hits: 24,500,000 Google Hits: 2,460,000
    Explanation (解释): Literally, “to love and not let go of.”
    Translation (翻译): To love something too much to part with it.
    Similar English Expression (类似英文成语): None (that I can think of).
    Example (例子): 我对我的新玩具爱不释手!Wǒ duì wǒ de xīn wánjù àibùshìshǒu! — I simply can’t put down my new toy!

    13. 一无所有 yīwúsuǒyǒu

    Baidu Hits: 29,500,000 Google Hits: 2,220,000
    Explanation (解释): 一 (in classical Chinese it means 全 or 都 [“everything”]) + 无 (“not”) + 所有 (“have”)
    Translation (翻译): To not own a thing in the world.
    Similar English Expression (类似英文成语): To not have a thing to one’s name.
    Example (例子): 如果你离开了我,我就一无所有。Rúguǒ nǐ líkāi le wǒ, wǒ jiù yīwúsuǒyǒu. — If you leave me, I’ll have nothing left.

    14. 自相矛盾 zìxiāngmáodùn

    Baidu Hits: 9,270,000 Google Hits: 747,000
    Explanation (解释): 自相 (“self-”) + 矛盾 (“contradictory”), from the famous story about the man who bragged he could sell a spear (矛) that could pierce anything in the world and a shield (盾) that was impenetrable to any spear, an obvious paradox.
    Translation (翻译): To contradict oneself.
    Similar English Expression (类似英文成语): None (I’m guessing).
    Example (例子): 你说的话自相矛盾。Nǐ shuō de huà zìxiāngmáodùn. — You’re contradicting yourself.

    15. 倾盆大雨 qīngpéndàyǔ

    Baidu Hits: 6,680,000 Google Hits: 468,000
    Explanation (解释): 倾盆 (“pouring hard”) + 大雨 (“heavy rain”)
    Translation (翻译): Heavy rain; downpour.
    Similar English Expression (类似英文成语): To rain cats and dogs.
    Example (例子): 今 天上午突然下起了倾盆大雨,所以比赛临时取消了。Jīntiān shàngwǔ tūrán xiàqǐ le qīngpéndàyǔ, suǒyǐ bǐsài línshí qǔxiāo le. — The competition was postponed this morning because of the sudden downpour.

    16. 画蛇添足 huàshétiānzú

    Baidu Hits: 6,340,000 Google Hits: 447,000
    Explanation (解释): Literally, “[when] drawing [a] snake, add [a] foot”.
    Translation (翻译): To ruin the effect my adding something superfluous.
    Similar English Expression (类似英文成语): To gild the lily (old-fashioned).
    Example (例子): 发明这两个多余的电钮纯粹是画蛇添足。Fāmíng zhè liǎng gè duōyú de diànniǔ chúncuì shì huàshétiānzú — The two extra buttons on this invention is really overdoing it.

    17. 守口如瓶 shǒukǒurúpíng

    Baidu Hits: 5,220,000 Google Hits: 438,000
    Explanation (解释): Literally,”to keep [one’s] mouth shut, like [a] bottle.”
    Translation (翻译): To keep one’s mouth shut; to not breathe a word.
    Similar English Expression (类似英文成语): To keep one’s lips sealed.
    Example (例子): 总理对这个问题守口如瓶。Zǒnglǐ duì zhège wèntí shǒukǒurúpíng. — The president was tight-lipped about this issue.

    18. 塞翁失马 sàiwēngshīmǎ

    Baidu Hits: 4,800,000 Google Hits: 319,000
    Explanation (解释): 塞翁失马: ”When the old man from the frontier lost his horse…”, often followed by the second part 焉知非福: ”How could one have known that it would not be fortuitous?” You can read more about the story in both English and Chinese at Wiktionary.
    Translation (翻译): A setback may turn out to be a blessing in disguise.
    Similar English Expression (类似英文成语): A blessing in disguise; every cloud has a silver lining.
    Example (例子): 我 不小心摔倒了,碰伤了自己,但却在地板上发现了一张50元的纸币,真是塞翁失马 啊!Wǒ bù xiǎoxīn shuāi dǎo le, pèng shāng le zìjǐ, dàn què zài dìbǎn shàng fāxiàn le yī zhāng wǔ shí yuán de zhǐbì, zhēnshi sàiwēngshīmǎ a— I fell over and hurt myself, but on the floor I found a fifty dollar note – what a blessing in disguise!

    19. 对牛弹琴 duìniútánqín

    Baidu Hits: 4,400,000 Google Hits: 276,000
    Explanation (解释): “To play a qin (a traditional Chinese musical instrument) to a cow.”
    Translation (翻译): To address the wrong listener.
    Similar English Expression (类似英文成语): To cast pearls before swine. (old-fashioned)
    Example (例子): 跟一个不讲道理的人讲道理是对牛弹琴。Gēn yīgè bù jiǎng dàolǐ de rén jiǎng dàolǐ shì duìniútánqín. — Trying to talk sense to an irrational person is like casting pearls before swine.

    20. 九牛一毛 jiǔniúyīmáo

    Baidu Hits: 3,190,000 Google Hits: 225,000
    Explanation (解释): Literally, “nine cows, one hair.”
    Translation (翻译): An insignificant number in the midst of an enormous quantity.
    Similar English Expression (类似英文成语): A drop in the ocean; a drop in a bucket.
    Example (例子): 一块钱对一个大款来说是九牛一毛。Yīkuài qián duì yīgè dàkuǎn lái shuō shì jiǔniúyīmáo. — One dollar to a millionaire is a drop in the ocean.

    ... sans oublier que ...

    Disclaimer: Although example sentences are original and checked for smoothness, don’t forget that chengyu are, by their nature, formal/literary constructions and so are not commonly used in conversation (unless you want to sound highly educated). Thus this stuff is most useful for diary entries, stories, websites and other written documents. Be sure to check your own constructed sentences with a native speaker before memorising them!

    #Chine #chinois #langue

  • En Allemagne, les violences se multiplient contre les foyers de réfugiés, cibles des néo-nazis

    La page a entretemps été supprimée par Google. Mais elle est restée assez longtemps en ligne pour choquer l’Allemagne. Début juillet, des néonazis ont posté sur la toile une google map qui recensait très précisément, avec adresses et nombre d’habitants, les centres d’hébergement de demandeurs d’asile à travers tout le pays. La démarche a d’autant plus inquiété que les attaques contre les foyers d’accueil de réfugiés se multiplient depuis plusieurs mois en Allemagne. Le 15 juillet encore, un futur centre (...)

    En bref

    / #Droites_extrêmes, #Europe, #Discriminations, #Migrations

  • Berliner Student gründet Online-Uni für Flüchtlinge ohne Papiere

    Bildung gilt als einer der Schlüssel von Integration—eine eigentlich naheliegende Erkenntnis, die sich aber nur erschreckend langsam unter deutschen Politikern durchsetzt. Denn an der Umsetzung einer humaneren Flüchtlingspolitik hapert es nicht nur bei der Seenotrettung auf den Überfahrtrouten nach Europa, sondern auch beim Aufbau eines Bildungssystems, dass die Refugees in Deutschland mit offenen Armen aufnimmt. Denn die aktuellen Gesetze sind so gestrickt, dass Flüchtlinge von der Bildung eher ferngehalten werden sollen. Vor dem Weg in einen deutschen Hörsaal steht ein oft langwieriger bürokratischer Spießroutenlauf—der nicht selten ohnehin in der Abschiebung endet, bevor die Option einer Weiterbildung überhaupt in greifbare Nähe rückt.

    #Berlin #Allemagne #réfugiés #sans-papiers #université #intégration #éducation #solidarité

  • Mapping the far right vote in the Berlin state elections, 2011 | on/off ... but mostly off

    Mapping the far right vote in the Berlin state elections, 2011
    Hisham Ashkar / December 7, 2011

    (NPD, pro Deutschland, Die Freiheit)

    #cartographie #berlin #extrême-droite #Hisham_Ashkar