• As #Scott_Warren retrial nears, judge orders lawyer for volunteer nurse in migrant harboring case

    As Scott Warren — a No More Deaths volunteer charged with two counts of human smuggling — again faces trial, the judge has assigned a lawyer for a volunteer nurse who works with the humanitarian group, in one of several rulings issued Monday morning.

    Warren, a 36-year-old geography professor, faced trial in May on three felony charges, including one count of criminal conspiracy to transport and harbor illegal aliens, and two counts of harboring, stemming from his January 2018 arrest by U.S. Border Patrol agents in Ajo, Ariz.

    In early June, after days of deliberation, a jury refused to convict Warren, but did not find him not guilty. The judge declared a mistrial because of the hung jury.

    Undaunted by the jury’s non-decision, federal prosecutors announced in July that they would seek a new trial, but dropped the conspiracy charge against Warren. They also announced a possible plea deal for Warren, which he did not accept by the prosecution’s deadline.

    As the case has moved toward a second trial, federal prosecutors and Warren’s defense team have issued a flurry of motions and counter-motions that will set the stage for the new court proceeding, slated to begin November 12.

    Among these motions was a request that Susannah Brown, a nurse who regularly provides medical aid to migrants crossing the desert, be assigned a lawyer. Federal prosecutors Nathaniel Walters and Anna Wright argued that Brown should retain a lawyer because “as the government argued in closing” her testimony “demonstrated that she conspired with the defendant to harbor” two men at a ramshackle building used as a staging area for humanitarian organizations, called “the Barn” in Ajo.

    Along with Warren, BP agents arrested Kristian Perez-Villanueva, a 23-year-old man from El Salvador, and Jose Arnaldo Sacaria-Goday, a 21-year-old man from Honduras. The men arrived together and stayed for four days and three nights at the Barn after crossing the desert days earlier, ending up at a gas station in Why, Ariz., in the desert west of Tucson.

    During the trial, Brown became a surprising target for federal prosecutors who tried to show that Warren was involved in a “plan,” along Brown, and an organizer of shelters in Mexico — Irineo Mujica — to smuggle the two men into the United States.

    While Brown sat in the courtroom looking shocked, federal prosecutors essentially accused her of a felony, and showed as part of their evidence video from Perez-Villanueva’s phone. In the video, Brown briefly spoke with the Salvadorian during a Christmas Day celebration at the shelter in Sonoyta, Sonora. In the video, Perez-Villanueva asks Brown her name, and she responds with the same question.

    As Perez-Villanueva turns his camera, Mujica comes into view and tells the man to put the phone down. Mujica and Warren had repeatedly emailed about the shelter and its needs, according to documents shown during the trial. This included a plan to arrange a Jan. 12 visit to the shelter, and that a group of No More Deaths volunteers went to Mexico to bring water and operate a temporary medical clinic. The next day, Perez-Villanueva and Sacaria-Goday began their journey by climbing over the fence that separates the U.S. and Mexico.

    In motions, Warren’s lawyers told the court that Brown could invoke her 5th Amendment rights during a retrial “given the accusations” made against her.

    Collins also considered a motion filed by Greg Kuykendall and Amy Knight, who argued that they should be able to submit evidence that shows Border Patrol agents may “hold biases or prejudices against No More Deaths in general and Dr. Warren in particular.”

    In their motion, Kuykendall and Knight, argued that the jury should be shown evidence that the two agents who arrested Warren—Border Patrol agents Brendan Burns and John Marquez—might have had reasons to “perceive Dr. Warren in a negative light and/or shade their testimony against him.”

    During the trial, the two Border Patrol agents said they set up an observation post about 200-300 yards from the Barn, just across from a rural road on a patch of federally owned land.

    As part of an anti-smuggling unit called the “disrupt unit,” the agents said they worked to break up smuggling organizations, but on Jan. 17—the same day that No More Deaths published a report that was highly critical of the agency, including videos of Border Patrol agents destroying water drops that immediately went viral—the two plain-clothes agents parked themselves near the Barn, and using a spotting scope, zeroed in on Warren “gesturing” to the mountains with two men they believed to be illegally in the U.S.

    Kuykendall and Knight argued that “the government depended heavily on these agents’ subjective impressions and intentions.”

    “This case was essentially a credibility contest—the agents’ interpretation set against the NMD volunteers’ explanations for their actions. The government argued that everything the defense had described was a cover-up engineered to avoid criminal liability,” Warren’s attorneys wrote. “In this context, it is crucial for jurors to understand the various possible reasons the agents may portrayed Dr. Warren as they did.”

    They also argued that Warren’s arrest was part of campaign of selective enforcement carried out by Border Patrol because the agents were upset that NMD had “that very morning, released a humiliating report and accompanying video footage exposing the Border Patrol’s gleeful destruction of humanitarian aid supplies, giving them a specific reason to resent NMD and the people associated with it.”

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    More by Paul Ingram

    Posted Oct 21, 2019, 1:59 pm

    Paul Ingram TucsonSentinel.com

    As Scott Warren — a No More Deaths volunteer charged with two counts of human smuggling — again faces trial, the judge has assigned a lawyer for a volunteer nurse who works with the humanitarian group, in one of several rulings issued Monday morning.

    Warren, a 36-year-old geography professor, faced trial in May on three felony charges, including one count of criminal conspiracy to transport and harbor illegal aliens, and two counts of harboring, stemming from his January 2018 arrest by U.S. Border Patrol agents in Ajo, Ariz.

    In early June, after days of deliberation, a jury refused to convict Warren, but did not find him not guilty. The judge declared a mistrial because of the hung jury.

    Undaunted by the jury’s non-decision, federal prosecutors announced in July that they would seek a new trial, but dropped the conspiracy charge against Warren. They also announced a possible plea deal for Warren, which he did not accept by the prosecution’s deadline.

    As the case has moved toward a second trial, federal prosecutors and Warren’s defense team have issued a flurry of motions and counter-motions that will set the stage for the new court proceeding, slated to begin November 12.

    Among these motions was a request that Susannah Brown, a nurse who regularly provides medical aid to migrants crossing the desert, be assigned a lawyer. Federal prosecutors Nathaniel Walters and Anna Wright argued that Brown should retain a lawyer because “as the government argued in closing” her testimony “demonstrated that she conspired with the defendant to harbor” two men at a ramshackle building used as a staging area for humanitarian organizations, called “the Barn” in Ajo.

    Along with Warren, BP agents arrested Kristian Perez-Villanueva, a 23-year-old man from El Salvador, and Jose Arnaldo Sacaria-Goday, a 21-year-old man from Honduras. The men arrived together and stayed for four days and three nights at the Barn after crossing the desert days earlier, ending up at a gas station in Why, Ariz., in the desert west of Tucson.

    During the trial, Brown became a surprising target for federal prosecutors who tried to show that Warren was involved in a “plan,” along Brown, and an organizer of shelters in Mexico — Irineo Mujica — to smuggle the two men into the United States.

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    While Brown sat in the courtroom looking shocked, federal prosecutors essentially accused her of a felony, and showed as part of their evidence video from Perez-Villanueva’s phone. In the video, Brown briefly spoke with the Salvadorian during a Christmas Day celebration at the shelter in Sonoyta, Sonora. In the video, Perez-Villanueva asks Brown her name, and she responds with the same question.

    As Perez-Villanueva turns his camera, Mujica comes into view and tells the man to put the phone down. Mujica and Warren had repeatedly emailed about the shelter and its needs, according to documents shown during the trial. This included a plan to arrange a Jan. 12 visit to the shelter, and that a group of No More Deaths volunteers went to Mexico to bring water and operate a temporary medical clinic. The next day, Perez-Villanueva and Sacaria-Goday began their journey by climbing over the fence that separates the U.S. and Mexico.

    In motions, Warren’s lawyers told the court that Brown could invoke her 5th Amendment rights during a retrial “given the accusations” made against her.

    Collins also considered a motion filed by Greg Kuykendall and Amy Knight, who argued that they should be able to submit evidence that shows Border Patrol agents may “hold biases or prejudices against No More Deaths in general and Dr. Warren in particular.”

    In their motion, Kuykendall and Knight, argued that the jury should be shown evidence that the two agents who arrested Warren—Border Patrol agents Brendan Burns and John Marquez—might have had reasons to “perceive Dr. Warren in a negative light and/or shade their testimony against him.”

    During the trial, the two Border Patrol agents said they set up an observation post about 200-300 yards from the Barn, just across from a rural road on a patch of federally owned land.

    As part of an anti-smuggling unit called the “disrupt unit,” the agents said they worked to break up smuggling organizations, but on Jan. 17—the same day that No More Deaths published a report that was highly critical of the agency, including videos of Border Patrol agents destroying water drops that immediately went viral—the two plain-clothes agents parked themselves near the Barn, and using a spotting scope, zeroed in on Warren “gesturing” to the mountains with two men they believed to be illegally in the U.S.

    Kuykendall and Knight argued that “the government depended heavily on these agents’ subjective impressions and intentions.”

    “This case was essentially a credibility contest—the agents’ interpretation set against the NMD volunteers’ explanations for their actions. The government argued that everything the defense had described was a cover-up engineered to avoid criminal liability,” Warren’s attorneys wrote. “In this context, it is crucial for jurors to understand the various possible reasons the agents may portrayed Dr. Warren as they did.”

    They also argued that Warren’s arrest was part of campaign of selective enforcement carried out by Border Patrol because the agents were upset that NMD had “that very morning, released a humiliating report and accompanying video footage exposing the Border Patrol’s gleeful destruction of humanitarian aid supplies, giving them a specific reason to resent NMD and the people associated with it.”

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    Collins accepted their argument in part, ruling that “the defense will be able to inquire as to the possible bias or prejudice of the government witnesses.” However, Collins ruled that a document released by No More Deaths itself “will not come into evidence and will not go to the jury.”

    Collins also denied and granted in part a motion filed by Warren’s lawyers to withhold the description of Perez-Villanueva and Sacaria-Goday’s journey in the United States. “The telling of the journey from Mexico to the United States is no longer relevant,” Collins wrote. However, what the two men said to Warren “is relevant and that can come in.”

    Collins also ruled that video from the Why-Not gas station could be played because the video shows the men moving around, buying sports drinks and food before they later received a ride to Ajo.

    “The Court will also allow the playing of the video at the gas station since the extent of the migrants’ injury is still an issue in the case,” Collins wrote.

    Along with this, Collins also will allow testimony that Warren made during a separate trial for misdemeanor charges that he was hit with for entering the Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge and leaving food and water.

    Collins did accept a motion to allow the defense to submit testimony made during the first trial by Ed McCullough, who showed maps describing where people have died attempting to cross the desert, but was unavailable to testify a second time.

    He also rejected a motion filed by prosecutors that would have kept Warren’s defense team from arguing that NMD had legal “protocols” that were established through consultation with Professor Andrew Silverman and that Warren was acting under the advice of counsel when he brought the two men into the Barn and gave them food, water, and medical care.

    During the first trial, Silverman told the jury that Warren was working under legal protocols that he had helped write, however, federal prosecutors had asked Collins to preclude the defense from “introducing evidence in support of an advice of counsel defense, including evidence pertaining to No More Deaths’ protocols and volunteer training.”

    “Such testimony is irrelevant, improper, and likely to confuse the jury about a material issue in this case,” they argued. Warren and his lawyers had “failed to establish any of the elements of an advice of counsel defense,” because they “did not offer any evidence that [Warren] consulted directly with any attorney and, in fact, objected to disclosing this information to the government.”

    “The defendant’s alleged compliance with the No More Deaths’ protocols also cannot satisfy the elements of the advice of counsel defense,” they wrote.
    First trial ended in jury deadlock

    Warren’s first felony trial began on May 29, and after a seven-day trial, jurors deliberated for about 11 hours over two days before they told the court they were struggling to reach a decision. Collins told the jurors to continue their deliberations, and issued an “Allen charge” instructing jurors to try to reach an unanimous verdict. Among the instructions read by Collins in court, jurors were told to "reexamine their own views, but not to change “an honest belief” because of the opinions of fellow jurors or “for the mere purpose of returning a verdict.”

    But,the next day, the third of deliberations, it became clear that the jury could not reach an unanimous verdict, and Collins declared a hung jury. Following the announcement, Collins set a new hearing for July 2, giving prosecutors time to consider whether they would pursue a retrial.

    During the trial, prosecutors argued that Warren “harbored and shielded from detection” two men in the country illegally at the Barn, and that he was at “hub” of a plan to transport and protect the two men after they illegally crossed the border by climbing over the border fence somewhere near Sonoyta, a Mexican border town.

    Warren, along with two men in the country without authorization, was arrested during at raid by several Border Patrol agents at “the Barn,” a ramshackle building on the town’s outskirts regularly used as a staging point for volunteers who have been working to stem an increasing number of deaths in the remote wildlife refuges west of the unincorporated town.

    As the trial loomed, Warren’s prosecution took on national and international importance, and humanitarian volunteers lead by No More Deaths collected more than 120,000 signatures and submitted them to the U.S. Attorney’s Office in Tucson just days before the trial began, asking for them to drop the charges.

    Warren’s prosecution also came to the attention of human rights experts from the United Nations, who wrote that “providing humanitarian aid is not a crime. We urge the U.S. authorities to immediately drop all charges against Scott Warren.”

    In a letter written by Michael Forst, a special rapporteur on the situation of human rights defenders, the UN body said that Warren’’s work is “vital and legitimate,” and said that No More Deaths" upholds the right to life and prevents the deaths of migrants and asylum seekers at the US-Mexican border."

    “The prosecution of Scott Warren represents an unacceptable escalation of existing patterns criminalising migrant rights defenders along the migrant caravan routes,” they said.

    Forst also noted that Warren’s arrest came “hours after the release of a report” by No More Deaths which linked Border Patrol agents to the “systematic destruction of humanitarian supplies, including water stores, and denounced a pattern of harassment, intimidation and surveillance against humanitarian aid workers.”

    The decision to retry Warren will be the first high-profile test for U.S. Attorney Michael Bailey, who was nominated by President Trump in February and just confirmed by the Senate on May 23. Bailey replaced Elizabeth Strange, who served as the acting U.S. attorney for more than two years after John S. Leonardo stepped down from the position in January 2017.

    Warren’s case is one of three high-profile prosecutions launched against No More Deaths volunteers, including two misdemeanor trials — one also involving Warren — for the group’s efforts to leave food, water, medicine, and other aid in the Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge.

    Warren’s trial in the misdemeanor charges concluded in May, but Collins has not rendered a verdict in the bench trial, leaving Warren’s fate in those charges also up in the air.

    After the announcement, Warren thanked supporters supporters and castigated the government for bringing charges against him.

    “In the time since I was arrested in January 2018, no fewer than 88 bodies were recovered from the Arizona desert,” Warren said. “The government’s plan in the midst of this humanitarian crisis? Policies to target undocumented people, refugees, and their families. Prosecutions to criminalize humanitarian aid, kindness, and solidarity. And now, the revelation that they will build an enormous and expensive wall across a vast stretch of southwestern Arizona’s unbroken Sonoran Desert.”
    Re-trial would be complete re-do of case

    With the jury deadlocked and the proceedings declared a mistrial, Collins scheduled a hearing for July 2 to review the felony case. Prosecutors may attempt to re-try Warren on the charges, as the jury did not render a verdict. If they do so, the second trial would be a complete re-do, including the selection of a new jury.

    During final arguments, prosecutors argued that Warren “harbored and shielded from detection” two men in the country illegally at “the Barn,” a ramshackle house used as a staging point for aid organizations trying to stem what volunteers like Warren have called a “humanitarian crisis” in the deserts west and south of Ajo, an unincorporated town about 110 miles west of Tucson. Prosecutors said he was at “hub” of a plan to transport and protect the two men after they illegally crossed the border by climbing over the border fence somewhere near Sonoyta, a Mexican border town.

    Warren testified in his own defense telling jurors that his spiritual values compel him to help those who “stumble” out of the desert into the neighborhoods of Ajo, Ariz., and that doing so is “good and right, especially in a place that feels like a low-intensity conflict.”

    No More Deaths has maintained that the arrests of Warren and others were retribution for the release that same day of a report by the humanitarian aid group, documenting claims that Border Patrol agents vandalized water caches placed for migrants crossing the desert.

    After the trial closed, Warren noted that “the other men arrested with me that day Jose Sacaria-Goday and Kristian Perez-Villanueva, have not received the attention and outpouring of support that I have. I do not know how they are doing now, but I do hope they are safe.”

    Warren and other volunteers testified that the men needed medical care, as they were suffering from blisters on their feet, a minor cold, and injuries from being in the desert. However, prosecutors said that this was a “smokescreen,” and repeatedly referred to selfie photos captured from Perez-Villanueva’s cellphone and surveillance video from the Why-Not gas station in Why, Arizona to show that the men were not injured or sick.

    Evidence of a humanitarian crisis, and the loss of lives in the desert didn’t matter , because border crossers haven’t died in Ajo. “That’s not this case, that’s a smokescreen and a distraction for this case,” assistant U.S. Attorney Anna Wright said during her closing arguments.

    As the case went to the jury, the Border Patrol said that it recovered the body of a Guatemalan woman who died trying to cross the Barry M. Goldwater bombing range, which sits just to the north of Ajo and straddles Highway 85.

    Wright said that after Perez-Villanueva and Sacaria-Goday arrived at the barn, Warren called Brown, a registered nurse who volunteers for No More Deaths, not in an effort to get the men medical attention, but rather because she was involved in the “plan” to smuggle the men.

    Brown sat in the courtroom and appeared shocked when she heard the federal prosecutor implicate her in a felony.

    Perez-Villanueva’s phone remained a linchpin to the prosecutor’s case, and Wright highlighted as much saying that while other people who testified might have a bias, the photos and video were evidence that “doesn’t lie.”

    As the trial began, assistant U.S. Attorney Nathaniel Walters told the jury that federal authorities are not targeting humanitarian aid along the border with Mexico.

    “No More Deaths is not on trial,” Walters told the jury. “Scott Warren is.”

    But during the trial, prosecutors argued that these calls and the visit was part of a plan to illegally aid migrants, and noted later that night, Perez-Villanueva and Sacaria-Goday decided to cross the border.

    This brief interaction was enough to show a nexus of relationships between Warren, Mujica, Perez-Villanueva and Brown that could not be a coincidence, Wright argued.

    While Warren testified Wednesday, Mujica was arrested in Sonoyta by Mexican authorities.

    Mujica was later released, and the case against Mujica later collapsed, although there are signs that Mexican officials could once agains launch a case against the organizer, even as he now moves freely from Sonora to areas where there are large numbers of African and Cuban migrants seeking asylum in Tapachula.

    Questions about the timing of Mujica’s arrest and the Mexican government’s case remain.

    During the trial, a Border Patrol agent testified that he reviewed 14,000 pages of data from Warren’s phone, and from those thousands of pages the agent produced a one-page report. “They were not interested in innocence,” Kuykendall said.

    Defense attorney Greg Kuykendall said during his closing argument that it was “frankly terrifying, just terrifying” that his client was charged with a “total lack of evidence.”

    “It’s just supposition,” he said.

    In his opening statement two weeks ago, Kuykendall said Warren did not intend to break the law when he came across two undocumented immigrants early last year.

    “Scott intended to perform basic human kindness,” he told jurors, and was acting in accordance with his Christian faith.

    After the jury said it was deadlocked, Kuykendall was asked if “humanitarian aid being targeted by the federal government?,” Kuykendall responded, “you should ask the federal government. And use your own common sense.”

    Kuykendall also told the court last week that emails between Mujica and Warren, along with others showed that Warren was working on search and rescue and recovery efforts, and that when volunteers went to help the “Hope Shelter” there, they should contact Mujica.

    The U.S. government, he said, had all the power and resources to direct the agent to investigate and present all the evidence to the jury, he said. He also argued that the government failed to interview Mujica, noting that as one of the agents, Burns, who arrested Warren testified, he was called to a checkpoint after Mujica was held in a secondary inspection area, and yet he did not “interrogate” the man who might be at the center of the conspiracy.

    Photos from Perez-Villanueva’s phone shows the two men inside a van, after apparently leaving a gas station in Ajo. In the warrant for Warren’s phone, another agent noted that in Mujica’s vehicle Burns found black water bottles, a notebook containing a “detailed account” of travel through Mexico, and identity cards of men who were later apprehended by Border Patrol. However, Mujica wasn’t arrested by Burns, and weeks later, a passenger in his van was apprehended for being in the country illegally, leaving questions about Mujica’s role in Warren’s case.

    During opening arguments, assistant U.S. Attorney Nathaniel Walters tried to downplay the case’s consequences for humanitarian aid in the borderlands. While Warren is a “high-ranking member” of No More Deaths, the group was not on trial, rather Warren is “on trial,” Walters said.

    “This case is not about humanitarian aid or anyone in medical distress,” Walters said. “But, rather, this is about an attempt to shield two illegal aliens for several days,” from law enforcement, he said.

    However, during her closing arguments, Wright focused on the idea that Warren was a “high-ranking member” of No More Deaths, and she admitted that Warren did not receive a financial benefit, but said that instead, Warren “gets to further the goals of the organization” and “thwart the Border Patrol at every turn.”

    During the trial, the two Border Patrol agents— Burns and John Marquez —said they set up an observation post about 200-300 yards from the Barn, just across from a rural road on a patch of federally owned land.

    As part of an anti-smuggling unit called the “disrupt unit,” the agents said they worked to break up smuggling organizations, but on Jan. 17—the same day that No More Deaths published a report that was highly critical of the agency, including videos of Border Patrol agents destroying water drops that immediately went viral—the two plain-clothes agents parked themselves near the Barn, and using a spotting scope, zeroed in on Warren “gesturing” to the mountains with two men they believed to be illegally in the U.S.

    Warren said during the trial that he was trying to “orient” the men, who were preparing to head north, and that he was telling them to stay inside a valley between Child’s Mountain and Hat Peak, where they “if they got in trouble” they could head to Highway 85 and seek help. Prosecutors said that Warren was telling the men how to bypass a Border Patrol checkpoint on the highway and that Warren was giving them a pathway to follow from Ajo toward Interstate 8.

    Warren said that he stayed outside and was working on building a fire in preparation for students from a high-school in Flagstaff to come the Barn, when he saw a “convoy” of vehicles heading his way. Once agents came up to the barn, Warren said during testimony that he was handcuffed within two minutes, but that he offered to walk into the Barn with the agents.

    Burns and Marquez arrived moments later, and went around to the back where Perez-Villanueva was sitting on the threshold in the bathroom door. Inside, Sacaria-Goday was hiding behind the shower curtain.

    Wright attacked Warren’s credibility, saying that by seeking “context” he was actually trying to “distract” from the central issue and that Warren use of the word “orientation” was just a “fancy word for giving people directions.” When he was outside and spotted by Border Patrol agents, he was giving the men information so they could go “from point A, Ajo, to point B, Interstate 8.” These directions gave the men a “path” to follow away from the Border Patrol checkpoint allowing them to “further their journey,” she said.
    Warren: ’Haunting crisis’

    During his testimony, Warren said that he went to Ajo in order to work on his dissertation as a doctoral candidate at Arizona State University. He became increasingly interested in issues in Ajo and met with members of the Ajo Samaritans after he attended one of the Border Patrol’s citizen academies, a six-week course designed to inform the public about the agency’s mission.

    He said that as he stayed in Ajo, his eyes were “really opened” to the humanitarian crisis in the desert surrounding the small desert town, and that he became heavily involved in the community, becoming an elected member of the West Pima County Community Council. “It’s an elected position, but everyone runs unopposed,” Warren quipped.

    As he lived in Ajo, it became clear that everyday migrants “are stumbling” out of the wilderness aching for food, water and shelter, and that helping them is a “ubiquitous experience,” for residents in the town. After months in Ajo, Warren found himself part of an effort to recover the remains of a migrant who had perished in the nearby Barry M. Goldwater Bombing Range, and the experience of finding human bones in the desert, “felt like a big transition for me,” Warren testified.

    “This crisis became real to me, in a haunting kind of way,” Warren said. He was used to finding animal bones in the desert, but the bones from a human being who had died “not long before,” stuck with him, he said.

    After finding the bones, he found that when he saw someone come out of the desert, he again saw the decaying bones at the “same time, almost like a split-screen,” and that he was struck by the “disturbing reality of how people who are living can be disappeared and lost to the desert,” he said.

    Warren testified that he has helped find and recover 18 sets of human remains in the desert around Ajo, and that the work is a “deeply profound effort.”

    During the hearing, Warren’s lawyer Kuykendall asked him, “what are you doing, spending your whole life helping strangers?”

    “It feels choice-less,” Warren said. “How could you not do that when there are people dying around you?” he asked. “How could you not respond?”

    “Everyone who enters that desert will suffer,” he said. Migrants attempt to cross the desert will have to walk a “long, long way” to cross the desert, and they’ll witness death, either of other migrants or their companions, along the way.

    “It’s an epic undertaking, you have to put everything you’ve got on the line in order to make it,” Warren said, telling the jury that migrants often have already faced danger and deprivation in Mexico before they even attempt “the hardest thing they’ve ever done in their lives.”

    Nonetheless, Warren testified that he felt it was important to follow the law, in part to protect the students and volunteers who came to the Barn.

    “Why would you want to understand the legal limits,” asked Kuykendall.

    “I want to work within the border of the law, and not be doing something illegal and put students in a situation where they’re doing something illegal,” Warren said.
    Payback?

    On the day Warren was arrested, NMD released a report that said that from 2012 to 2015, 415 caches of water left for crossers in the 800-square-mile corridor near Arivaca were vandalized, spilling nearly 3,600 gallons of water into the desert.

    During this same time period, the bodies of 1,026 people were found in the Sonoran Desert, according to records from the Pima County Office of the Medical Examiner.

    Using statistical analysis, including land-use patterns, as well as video from trail cameras, and personal experiences to support their claims, the group said that U.S. Border Patrol agents “are responsible for the widespread interference with essential humanitarian efforts.”

    As part of the report’s release, NMD also published videos of Border Patrol agents intentionally destroying water bottles, including a video in which a female Border Patrol agent systematically kicks a half-dozen water bottles, spilling their contents, and a 2017 video in which an agent punctures a water bottle with a knife.

    This report embarrassed and infuriated agents, prompting one to say that NMD had “gone too far” and “messed with the wrong guy,” according to a motion filed by Warren’s defense lawyers in March.

    Previous prosecutions
    Federal officials have attempted to prosecute humanitarian volunteers before, though after two high-profile cases in 2005 and 2008, the government avoided formal prosecutions until 2017, when nine No More Deaths volunteers–including Warren—were charged with entering a wildlife refuge without a permit and leaving food, water, and other supplies on the Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge, a 800,000-acre wilderness, west of Ajo.

    In 2005, agents arrested Shanti A. Sellz and Daniel M. Strauss after they stopped the two volunteers, and found three people in the country without authorization in their car. However, that indictment was tossed by U.S. District Judge Raner Collins—the same judge who is overseeing Warren’s case.

    In 2008, U.S. Fish and Wildlife officers cited volunteer Dan Millis for littering on the Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refugee after he left water jugs there, however, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals overturned his conviction.

    But, after eight years, a detente between the group and Border Patrol began to collapse, beginning with surveillance of the group’s camp on private land south of Arivaca in 2016, and followed by a June 2017 incident when, with a warrant in hand, Border Patrol agents raided the camp and arrested four men, all migrants suspected of being in the country illegally.

    That raid followed an announcement by then-Attorney General Jeff Sessions who told reporters during a press conference in Nogales on April 11, 2017 that federal prosecutors “are now required to consider for prosecution” the “transportation or harboring of aliens.”

    Sessions announcement was part of the Trump administrations “zero tolerance” policies as part of a hard-nosed crackdown on border and immigrant communities, and just nine months later, prosecutors in Tucson sought an indictment against Warren.

    Kuykendall also questioned the credibility of the agents, noting their use in messages in a group chat of the word “tonc.”

    The term “tonc” or “tonk” is widely used by agents to refer to border-crossers, but the term’s origin is unclear. Some have argued that the term refers to the sound of a metal flashlight hitting a skull, while others have said that it stands for “temporarily outside naturalized country,” or “true origin not known.”

    And, Kuykendall said that Burns did not know that the Barn remained unlocked and unsecured. After Warren’s arrest on Jan. 17, 2018, Border Patrol agents waited until Jan. 22 to execute a warrant and search the property. Burns appeared to not know that detail until he was told so by Kuykendall in court.

    “What kind of investigation is this, that leaves the building unsecured for 120 hours?,” the attorney rhetorically asked the jury.

    Kuykendall also argued that the two men who also arrested with Warren were given immunity from immigration charges so they would testify in a video deposition shown to the jury on Monday.

    “They are the government’s own witnesses” and yet they disputed some of Wright’s arguments. “This is the best the government can come up with?” he asked.

    Kuykendall said that government’s lack of evidence, “if it weren’t so scary, it would be laughable.”

    No More Deaths vows to continue aiding migrants
    “A hung jury means the government could not prove its case,” Warren defense attorney Amy Knight said. “Scott remains innocent and admirable.”

    Chris Fleischman, a volunteer with No More Deaths, said the organization plans to continue its humanitarian aid work following the announcement.

    “It’s still good to know that the Trump administration’s attempt to criminalize humanitarian aid has failed,” he said. “But we will still be working to end death and suffering in the borderlands.”

    It wasn’t immediately clear after the trial whether the government will seek a new case against Warren.

    “I would think that they wouldn’t waste their effort to do that,” Fleischman said, adding, “We’re concerned for his freedom. That he could be prosecuted for doing what we all had thought is legal anyway.”

    http://www.tucsonsentinel.com/local/report/102119_warren_trial/as-scott-warren-retrial-nears-judge-orders-lawyer-volunteer-nurse-mi

    #procès #justice #asile #migrations #réfugiés #délit_de_solidarité #solidarité #frontières #USA #Etats-Unis #USA

    Plus sur Scott Warren ici:
    https://seenthis.net/messages/784076

    ping @isskein

  • Drownings of Turkey’s Purge
    –-> 31 Turkish citizens drowned in the Aegean sea while seeking to escape the ongoing post-coup crackdown in Turkey.

    Thousands of people have fled Turkey over the past three years due to a massive witch-hunt launched by the Justice and Development Party (AK Party) government against its critics such as academics, Kurdish politicians and especially the real or imagined sympathizers of the Gülen group, in the wake of a failed coup attempt on July 15, 2016. The gov’t accuses the group of masterminding the failed coup while the group denies any involvement.

    More than 500,000 people have been investigate and some 96,000 including academics, judges, doctors, teachers, lawyers, students, policemen and many from different backgrounds have been put in pre-trial detention over Gulen links July 2016.

    Many try to escape Turkey via illegal ways as the government cancelled their passports. Purge-victim Turks often cross Evros river to escape from the snowballing persecution. Around 14,000 people crossed the Evros frontier from January through September of 2018, a Wall Street Journal said, underlining that around half of those crossing the Evros river were Turkish citizens.


    https://turkeypurge.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/combinepdf.pdf
    #purge #Turquie #morts #décès #Evros #frontières #Mer_Egée #mourir_aux_frontières #Grèce #mourir_en_mer #migrations #asile #réfugiés #coup

    ping @isskein

  • Illich et la guerre contre la subsistance,
    hier et aujourd’hui

    Jean Robert

    https://lavoiedujaguar.net/Illich-et-la-guerre-contre-la-subsistance-hier-et-aujourd-hui

    Durant l’automne de 2013, l’essayiste public que je prétends être a dû faire face à deux tâches hétérogènes entre lesquelles j’ai eu l’intuition de convergences à explorer, mais aussi la certitude immédiate d’incompatibilités. Ce furent, d’une part, la rédaction d’un essai et la traduction française de textes d’un collègue mexicain sur la « petite école » zapatiste qui eut lieu en août, et, d’autre part l’élaboration de l’article que le lecteur a sous les yeux.

    La première de ces tâches consistait à mettre au net, d’abord en espagnol et puis en français, les souvenirs des jours passés au Chiapas à étudier, sous la conduite de paysans et paysannes indigènes, l’expérience zapatiste, depuis 2003, de construction d’un monde de liberté et de justice concrètes, c’est-à-dire proportionnées aux communautés qui les pratiquent. La seconde : la rédaction du présent article sur un homme — un penseur, un historien, un philosophe et un théologien qui se défendait de l’être — qui m’honora de son amitié du début des années 1970 à sa mort, en 2002 : Ivan Illich. Quel rapport y a-t-il entre ce qui en 2002 était encore un mouvement insurgé indigène et ce penseur « radical au vrai sens du mot » ? (...)

    #Ivan_Illich #zapatistes #EZLN #Mexique #Guillermo_Bonfil #Ernst_Bloch #État-nation #Marché #subsistance #guerre #travail #autonomie #modernité #développement #aliénation #Karl_Polanyi #Marx #transports #villes #conquête #invasion #faim #misère #Bentham #Mumford

  • 72 heures, et des #miracles
    https://www.lecommercedulevant.com/article/29390-72-heures-et-un-miracle

    En 72 heures, les partis politiques au pouvoir ont fait un miracle : adopter un budget et l’envoyer au Parlement dans les délais constitutionnels ! Du jamais vu depuis au moins vingt ans. Comme quoi quand on veut, on peut.

    [...]

    Mais le principal signe d’un changement « total de mentalité » selon les termes du Premier ministre, c’est la substitution de tous les investissements publics par des investissements privés, surtout étrangers. Et c’est une très bonne nouvelle car c’est bien connu « les investisseurs étrangers n’acceptent pas le gaspillage et la corruption (sic) ». On est sauvé.

    #Liban #délire

  • « Travailler pour des plateformes ne peut pas rendre heureux »
    https://www.liberation.fr/france/2019/10/21/travailler-pour-des-plateformes-ne-peut-pas-rendre-heureux_1758964

    Deux anciens livreurs qui se sont retournés contre les multinationales ont visionné « Sorry We Missed You » de Ken Loach. Ils racontent à « Libération » en quoi le film fait écho à leur expérience. Ils ont eu l’impression de se voir à l’écran. Avant la sortie de Sorry We Missed You, décrivant le quotidien d’une famille victime de l’ubérisation, Libération a convié deux anciens livreurs à une projection presse du dernier film de Ken Loach. Au fil de l’histoire, on les a vus parfois amusés, parfois émus de (...)

    #Deliveroo #Uber #algorithme #travail #terms #CLAP #TokTokTok #Amazon #géolocalisation

  • Romania forest murder as battle over logging turns violent - BBC News
    https://www.bbc.com/news/amp/world-europe-50094830

    Romania is home to more than half of Europe’s last remaining old-growth and primeval forests — valuable ecosystems home to bears, wolves, lynx, and wildcat.

    There is considerable alarm at the levels of violence illegal loggers are willing to use in order to steal wood. That wood can end up anywhere across Europe, from furniture to paper or building materials.

    “We are deeply concerned that forest rangers and activists like us are being killed while investigating illegal logging in Romania.”

    Romania’s state-owned forest management company, Romsilva, which manages 48% of the country’s forests, strongly condemned the latest killing and cited alarming numbers of attacks against forestry workers who were trying to protect against “wood thieves”.

    It has counted 16 attacks on its forestry workers this year alone.

    The head of the Silva Trade Union Federation, Silviu Geana, complains that rangers are unable to defend themselves and six rangers have now lost their lives in recent years.

    Research by Greenpeace Romania estimates that Romania is losing as much as three hectares of its total forest cover every hour as a result of degradation, illegal and legal logging — including swathes of its pristine old-growth forests.

    Last month three NGOs, Agent Green, ClientEarth and EuroNatur, filed a complaint to the European Commission against Romania’s government, alleging that its logging practices often contravened EU law on nature protection.

    “There is a lot at stake because Romania is home to the last, vast old-growth and primeval forest cover — but they are simply becoming chipboard for furniture.” Gabriel Paun said.

    The government in Bucharest says it has boosted efforts to fight illegal logging, with better inspection and monitoring, but the EU says big challenges lie ahead.

    #forêt #bois #braconnage #Roumanie

  • Écrire le paysage en mouvement
    http://liminaire.fr/liminaire/article/ecrire-le-paysage-en-mouvement

    Composé de salles d’exposition, d’un centre de ressources documentaires et d’un espace des arts vivants, le Parc culturel ouvre le domaine de Rentilly à la création contemporaine. Le Parc culturel de Rentilly – Michel Chartier propose une programmation de spectacles et d’ateliers en direction du jeune public tous les mercredis de mars à juillet et de septembre à janvier, au cours de deux saisons, printemps-été et automne-hiver. Les bibliothécaires de l’Orangerie m’ont confié les ateliers d’écriture de (...) #Liminaire / #Architecture, #Art, #Atelier, #Écriture, #Langage, #Peinture, #Photographie, #Numérique, #Poésie, #Récit, #Ville, #Dérive, (...)

    #Nature
    https://www.facebook.com/parcculturelrentilly
    http://www.marneetgondoire.fr/en/accueil-de-groupes/decouverte-du-fonds-du-centre-de-ressources-documentaires-lorangerie
    https://www.guidigo.com/fr
    http://www.marneetgondoire.fr/en/culture/parc-culturel-de-rentilly-michel-chartier-234.html
    https://www.google.fr/maps/place/Parc+culturel+de+Rentilly+-+Michel+Chartier/@48.8483834,2.6672484,16.2z/data=!4m5!3m4!1s0x47e605327c6035bf:0xef992095c8ea366b!8m2!3d48.8483494!4d2.67
    https://www.fraciledefrance.com
    https://www.fraciledefrance.com/d

  • Haïti : « Seule la justice sociale permettra un retour à la paix et à la stabilité »
    https://www.bastamag.net/Haiti-corruption-justice-sociale-manifestations-Jovenel-Moise-demission

    Le Collectif Haïti de France s’inquiète fortement de la crise sociale, #Politique et humanitaire sans précédent qui touche Haïti. « La corruption et l’impunité ne peuvent plus être tolérées », souligne le collectif. Tribune. Le Collectif Haïti de France, association de défense des droits humains regroupant 80 associations de solidarité avec des partenaires haïtiens, s’inquiète fortement de la crise sociale, politique et humanitaire sans précédent qui touche Haïti. La colère du peuple dure depuis plus d’un an (...) #Débattre

    / Politique, #Luttes_sociales, #Amériques, #Droits_fondamentaux

  • Your Right to Know campaign: What is it about?
    https://www.smh.com.au/national/a-culture-of-secrecy-what-is-the-right-to-know-campaign-about-20191018-p5323

    Media companies say their journalists are being stopped from holding the powerful to account. What’s stopping them? What do they want government to do about it? Why should you care?

    [...]

    Did anything, in particular, spark this?

    Media organisations in Australia have long been concerned about threats to journalism, but the issue exploded into the public consciousness following two consecutive police raids earlier this year.

    #médias#presse_libre” «#démocraties‘’ ”#pays_libres#Australie #presse #censure #air_du_temps #intimidation

  • A Calais, la frontière tue ! In Calais, the border kills !


    http://timeglider.com/timeline/65ecd96fa599a9c6

    –-----
    Deaths at the Calais Border

    Uncountable lives are wasted and suffer at the hands of the Calais border regime. There is no accurate count of how many people have died. This is a list of people known in Calais or from news reports.

    For sure there will have been more, their deaths ignored, the facts covered up or altogether unreported. Many already go unnamed, without vigils and protests, without families or friends to advocate on their behalf.

    But we will never let these deaths be silenced. We will not forgive and we will never forget.

    These borders kill! One death is too many!

    https://calaismigrantsolidarity.wordpress.com/deaths-at-the-calais-border

    #morts #décès #mourir_aux_frontières #Calais #France #frontières #Angleterre #UK #migrations #asile #réfugiés #base_de_données #database #liste #timeline #ligne_du_temps #mourir_dans_la_forteresse_Europe #visualisation #infographie

    ping @reka @simplicissimus @karine4

  • Facebook Says It’s Here to Help—But It Can’t Explain How – Mother Jones
    https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2019/10/mark-zuckerberg-georgetown-facebook

    Free speech and more social cohesion, handled in a sustainable, responsible way, are unequivocally good, but Zuckerberg and Facebook no longer have the public confidence to warrant uncritical trust that they’ll handle these issues sustainably and responsibly. Over the last several years, United Nations investigators have said that Facebook helped exacerbate genocide in Myanmar, played a role in radicalizing people to dangerous ideologies, gave Russian trolls a tool to influence the 2016 presidential election and, more generally, created a forum for the rapid dissemination of misinformation.

    None of that even very limited selection of the company’s missteps came up in the speech, though Zuckerberg did briefly deviate from talking vaguely about theory to sprinkle in examples of the historic value of free speech—citing points of history that Facebook never existed in and wouldn’t be relevant to.

    #enfumage #GAFA #démocratie #débat_public

  • Des enfants migrants non accompagnés injustement poursuivis en France

    Faute d’accès à un hébergement, les enfants ont trouvé refuge dans un #squat.


    À Marseille, des enfants migrants non accompagnés auxquels l’#Aide_sociale_à_l’enfance (#ASE) n’a pas fourni d’hébergement squattent dans un bâtiment inoccupé du diocèse. Les enfants sont maintenant poursuivis en justice pour #occupation_illégale de ce bâtiment, alors même que c’est le département des #Bouches-du-Rhône qui a failli à son obligation de les protéger.

    Cette situation perverse illustre les #défaillances des autorités françaises dans la protection de ces enfants. Environ 170 enfants non-accompagnés vivent dans le bâtiment, selon le Collectif 59 Saint-Just et le Réseau éducation sans frontières travaillant auprès de ces jeunes.

    Le squat est surpeuplé et infesté de punaises, et n’est en rien un hébergement approprié pour des enfants. Mais parce que l’ASE ne les a pas pris en charge comme elle aurait dû le faire, ce squat était la seule solution à leurs yeux.

    Certains des enfants convoqués devant le tribunal ont été reconnus mineurs par un juge et devraient en conséquence être pris en charge par les services de protection de l’enfance. D’autres sont en attente d’une évaluation de leur âge, parfois depuis des semaines, et devraient bénéficier d’une mise à l’abri. Selon les associations locales, 36 enfants vivant encore dans le squat à la date d’hier ont reçu une ordonnance de placement par un juge des enfants et auraient dû être pris en charge, comme le prévoit la loi.

    Les procédures d’évaluation de l’âge en France sont souvent injustes, et Human Rights Watch a documenté des procédures défectueuses d’évaluation de l’âge à Paris et dans les Hautes-Alpes. Mais à Marseille, même des enfants reconnus mineurs après ces procédures se retrouvent à la rue.

    Le 11 octobre, le tribunal administratif de Marseille a reconnu que les conditions de vie dans le squat ne sont pas acceptables pour des enfants non accompagnés et a enjoint le département des Bouches-du-Rhône d’assurer l’hébergement et la prise en charge de l’enfant requérant.

    Bien que forcés de vivre dans des conditions précaires du fait des défaillances des autorités, ce sont les enfants qui ont dû se présenter devant un tribunal à cause de la procédure d’expulsion les visant. C’est inacceptable. Il est grand temps que les autorités assument leurs responsabilités envers ces enfants, y compris ceux en attente d’une évaluation de leur âge, et leur garantissent la prise en charge et la mise à l’abri auxquelles ils ont droit.

    https://www.hrw.org/fr/news/2019/10/18/des-enfants-migrants-non-accompagnes-injustement-poursuivis-en-france
    #MNA #Marseille #France #hébergement #logement #justice #mineurs_non_accompagnés #asile #migrations #réfugiés #SDF

    ping @karine4

  • Un dimanche triomphal pour les écologistes suisses

    Les Verts ont engrangé un succès historique lors des élections fédérales de ce dimanche. Les #Verts_libéraux sont les autres grands gagnants du scrutin. A l’instar de l’UDC, tous les partis traditionnels perdent des plumes.

    https://www.swissinfo.ch/fre/politique/elections-f%C3%A9d%C3%A9rales-2019_le-visage-du-nouveau-parlement-suisse/45209962
    #Suisse #verts #Les_Verts #Suisse #élections #élections_fédérales #écologie

  • #Eric_Piolle sur France inter

    Le maire écologiste de Grenoble est l’invité d"Eric Delvaux à l’occasion de la parution aux éditions Les liens qui libèrent de son livre « Grandir ensemble. Les villes réveillent l’espoir ».

    https://www.franceinter.fr/emissions/l-invite-du-week-end/l-invite-du-week-end-20-octobre-2019
    #Grenoble

    –----------

    Quelques extraits :

    « C’est à l’échelle des villes qu’on peut allier #justice_sociale et #justice_environnementale, qui fait défaut à l’échelle nationale ».

    « Pour relever le défi de justice sociale et environnementale, il faut cultiver ensemble des #biens_communs, garantir des sécurités pour chacun »

    « Les habitants du territoire quels qu’ils soient, c’est des habitants légitimes pour travailler sur des budgets participatifs, pour aménager un morceau de quartier, pour s’entraîner à la #démocratie_locale »
    –-> « Le gouvernement Macron nous a attaqués au tribunal pour notre dispositif de #votation_citoyenne parce qu’il était ouvert aux + de 16 ans, parce qu’il était ouvert à tous les résidents quel que soit leur statut par rapport aux listes électorales et parce que les élus, c’était le troisième argument, ne pouvaient pas se déposséder de leur capacité de décision ».

    ping @karine4

  • Sudanese refugees in Syria? The story of hundreds of people who fled one civil conflict to end up in another

    Sudanese refugees in Syria are a community of hundreds of people who came fleeing the war in Sudan only to be trapped by another deadly civil conflict in Syria. They wait to be resettled in other countries as part of a UN program to help refugees. But decades after their arrival, they are still waiting with no end in sight.

    A group of African men chatting in the heat of the afternoon is not something you see very often in Damascus. More people stop by the makeshift stands to look at the vendors than they do to look at the products.

    But here in Kshakoul district, this is becoming a usual scene since Abdulkarim and Savok Monteh started working here in late 2018. Both men arrived from Sudan to Syria fleeing civil violence in late 1999, but, since then, a lot has changed.

    When they arrived, they were both Sudanese nationals, but now Abdulkarim is from Sudan while Savok is a national of South Sudan that gained independence in 2005. Moreover, they came to Syria, which was then one of the safest countries in the world before it plunged into deadly violence. However, they continue to share the hardship they had tried to escape.

    “All I can remember even from my days as a child is suffering from Sudan to here,” says Abdulkarim, the 54-year-old man who has had two heart bypasses and have been unemployed for a while.

    Abdulkarim sells secondhand clothing in one of the most impoverished parts of Damascus. “I have been in Syria for nearly 20 years and I don’t have a job I did. The only thing I can do is this flea market. As a refugee, finding a steady job is difficult and there is a war in Syria and life is becoming more and more expensive, especially rent.”

    The obvious question would be why he stays in the country that has seen one of the worst conflicts of modern times. But options for people like Abdulkarim are not abundant. “I came to flee war in Darfur and now I find war here and I have no source of income but the aid I get. I can’t go back to Darfur. The situation there is worse than here. I would love to travel anywhere else where it is safe, just some place safe. Throughout the war here in Syria, rockets were coming down and just in this market, I saw three or four people dying right here in front of us.”

    Like the rest of the Sudanese nationals in Syria, Abdulkarim and Savok are registered as refugees with the UN refugee agency UNHCR, awaiting resettlement.

    But that much promised trip never came through for either of them, despite the dire need. Savok works at one of the stands with a Syrian partner. On a good business day, their stand would make around 1,000 Syrian pounds a day, which is less than two U.S. dollars.

    “If we make 1,000 pounds a day, and if we do, he gives me 200, and sometimes we make no money,” he talks to me as he restocks his merchandise of secondhand shoes.

    “Sometimes I think of going back to Sudan but recent turmoil there is making it more and more difficult, let alone the economic situation.”

    It seems difficult to believe that some refugees decided to come to Syria as the conflict was flaring up like Ahmad Mohamad who arrived in 2015. “I went abroad for treatment but couldn’t finish my treatment after I ran out of money. So I came back and got treatment in Syria because I can enter without a visa. Here I went to the UN and they registered me as a refugee and they helped me get into hospital and got an operation done. The situation in Sudan is uncertain and I can’t go back there as I lost my house there.”

    For many of Sudanese refugees, getting resettlement in a third country is about getting over a very difficult past; but for others like Ringer, it is his only chance at a future.

    Ringer came to Syria 20 years ago. He was a six-year-old child then. He stayed after his parents went back to Sudan as he was finishing college. “It is true that there was war here and rockets were falling around but in Syria I can get university degree for free.” He tells me that his parents told him that it will be impossible for him to find work in their part of Sudan now, so he’d better stay in Syria and wait for the UN-sponsored resettlement.

    “Just think about it. I am a stranger to my native country, a foreigner in the country I grew up in and after waiting for 20 years, I am still waiting to get to a place I can call home,” Ringer summed up as we walked through the streets of old Damascus. Like the rest of his community, he understands that his tale might not have a happy ending ever after.

    https://news.cgtn.com/news/2019-10-09/Sudanese-refugees-in-Syria-Flee-one-civil-conflict-to-another-KEcpjA3eUM/index.html
    #réfugiés_soudanais #Soudan #Syrie #asile #migrations #réfugiés #deux_fois_réfugiés

  • Comment le monde est pensé par les hommes... pour les hommes - Marie Claire
    https://www.marieclaire.fr/comment-le-monde-est-pense-par-les-hommes-pour-les-hommes,1326873.asp

    Le 29 mars dernier, les astronautes Christina Koch et Anne McClain devaient effectuer la première sortie dans l’espace exclusivement féminine. Un évènement historique finalement annulé par la NASA : Christina Koch préférait une combinaison taille M, mais une seule étant prête pour sa collègue de vol, c’est un homme qui la remplacera. Tweet de la porte-parole de la NASA (@schierholz) : « Dans ce cas, il est plus facile (et plus rapide) de changer d’astronaute que de préparer une nouvelle combinaison. »

    Vous êtes-vous déjà demandé pourquoi l’été, vous baissez la climatisation de votre open space ? Pourquoi vous mettez tant de temps à émerger d’un sommeil comateux après avoir pris un somnifère ? Et pourquoi vous avez du mal à manipuler votre smartphone d’une seule main ?
    Des hommes qui créent à leur image

    Vous n’êtes, certes, pas une astronaute, mais une femme qui vit sur une planète où tout ou presque a été pensé par et pour les hommes.

    Cinquante ans plus tard, c’est une autre ineptie qui fait bondir les féministes. En septembre 2018, Apple présente ses iPhone XS, XS Max et XR… qui ne seraient pas adaptés à toutes les mains. Zeynep Tufekci, journaliste du New York Times dégaine aussitôt sur Twitter : "Les femmes comme moi avec de petites mains qui ont besoin d’un téléphone le plus sécurisé possible sont coincées avec un appareil qu’elles ne peuvent pas tenir et qui risque de tomber à tout moment."Suivie par Sophie Walker, figure du Women’s Equality Party au Royaume-Uni qui, elle, préfère ironiser : « Évidemment, les gars de chez Apple sont obsédés par la taille, mais parfois le rendement est aussi important. »

    On sourit, mais il existe des situations où cet aveuglement sexiste a des conséquences bien plus dramatiques. Pendant trois ans, Caroline Criado Perez (3) a enquêté sur l’invisibilité des femmes dans la conception de nombreux objets du quotidien, et relevé, entre autres, de nombreuses sources de danger sur les chantiers et dans les métiers de la sécurité. En cause, des outils et vêtements conçus sans tenir compte de la morphologie des femmes. Ainsi, en 1997, une policière anglaise qui avait dû retirer son gilet pare-balle inadapté avant d’utiliser un bélier a été poignardée lors d’une intervention.

    En France, nos forces de l’ordre utiliseraient, selon une ex-policière, un réglage « d’aisance » sur les gilets pare-balle. Pourtant, dans une note de la CGT Douanes de Roissy en mars 2016, les personnels de surveillance féminins s’inquiétaient : « Les fameux gilets tant attendus qui devaient être adaptés à l’anatomie de chacune se sont transformés en gilets basiques, plats, totalement inadaptés aux morphologies. Ces gilets ne sont pas coqués, ils n’épousent pas les formes et sont donc plus proches des gaines du XIXe siècle que d’autre chose… »

    #Genre #Design

  • « 7 giorni con i curdi » : il mio diario dal campo profughi di #Makhmour

    Una settimana nell’Iraq settentrionale per toccare con mano un modello di democrazia partecipata messo in piedi da 13mila profughi. Che sperano in un futuro diverso.

    Questi non sono appunti di viaggio, ma di un’esperienza in un campo profughi che in questi mesi è diventato un campo di prigionia. Il campo di Makhmour è sorto nel 1998, su un terreno arido assegnato dall’Iraq all’ONU per ospitare i profughi di un viaggio infinito attraverso sette esodi, dopo l’incendio dei villaggi curdi sulle alture del Botan nel 1994 da parte della Turchia.

    Niente di nuovo sotto il sole, con Erdogan.

    Quei profughi hanno trasformato quel fazzoletto di terra senza un filo d’erba in un’esperienza di vita comune che è diventata un modello di democrazia partecipata del confederalismo democratico, l’idea di un nuovo socialismo elaborata da Apo Ocalan nelle prigioni turche, attorno al pensiero del giovane Marx e di Murray Bookchin.

    Il campo di Makhmour non è un laboratorio, è una storia intensa di vita.

    Da vent’anni questi tredicimila profughi stanno provando a realizzare un sogno, dopo aver pagato un prezzo molto, troppo elevato, in termini di vite umane. Nel campo vi sono tremilacinquecento bambini e il 70% della popolazione ha meno di 32 anni. La loro determinazione a vivere una vita migliore e condivisa ha superato finora tutti gli ostacoli. Anche l’assalto da parte dell’ISIS, respinto in pochi giorni con la riconquista del campo. Il loro campo.

    Da alcuni mesi sono sottoposti a un’altra dura prova. Il governo regionale del Kurdistan iracheno ha imposto, su istigazione del regime turco, un embargo sempre più restrittivo nei loro confronti. Nessuno può più uscire, né per lavoro né per altri motivi.

    Siamo stati con loro alcuni giorni, in un gruppo di compagni e compagne dell’Associazione Verso il Kurdistan, condividendo la loro situazione: dalla scarsità di cibo, che si basa ormai solo sull’autoproduzione, alla difficoltà di muoversi al di fuori del perimetro delimitato e dimenticato anche dall’ONU, sotto la cui tutela il campo dovrebbe ancora trovarsi.

    Le scritte dell’UNHCR sono sempre più sbiadite. In compenso, le scritte e gli stampi sui muri del volto e dello sguardo di Apo Ocalan sono diffusi ovunque.

    Anche nella Casa del Popolo in cui siamo stati ospiti, dormendo per terra e condividendo lo scarso cibo preparato con cura dagli uomini e dalle donne che ci ospitavano.

    Ma per noi ovviamente questo non è nulla, vista la breve temporaneità della nostra presenza. Per loro è tutto.

    In questi anni hanno provato a trasformare il campo nella loro scelta di vita, passando dalle tende alla costruzione di piccole unità in mattoni grigi, quasi tutte con un piccolo orto strappato al deserto. E, in ogni quartiere, con l’orto e il frutteto comune.

    Ci sono le scuole fino alle superiori, con un un indirizzo tecnico e uno umanistico, suddivise in due turni per l’alto numero degli alunni. Fino a tre mesi fa, terminate le superiori, potevano andare all’università a Erbil, il capoluogo del Kurdistan iracheno.

    Al mattino li vedi andare a scuola, a partire dalle elementari, con la camicia bianca sempre pulita e i pantaloni neri. E uno zaino, quando c’è, con pochi libri essenziali. Ragazzi e ragazze insieme: non è per niente scontato, in Medio Oriente.

    Durante le lezioni non si sente volare una mosca: non per disciplina, ma per attenzione. Non vanno a scuola, per decisione dell’assemblea del popolo, per più di quattro ore al giorno, proprio per evitare che il livello di attenzione scenda fino a sparire. Dovrebbe essere una cosa logica ovunque, ma sappiamo bene che non è così, dove si pensa che l’unico obiettivo sia accumulare nozioni. Le altre ore della giornata sono impegnate in diverse attività di gruppo: dalla cultura al teatro, dalla musica allo sport, autoorganizzate o seguite, in base all’età, da giovani adulti che hanno studiato e che non possono vedere riconosciuto il loro titolo. Perché sono persone senza alcun documento, da quando sono state cacciate dalla loro terra.

    Tenacemente, soprattutto le donne svolgono queste attività, lavorando alla formazione continua per ogni età, dai bambini agli anziani.

    Difficile è capire, se non si tocca con mano, il livello di protagonismo delle donne nell’Accademia, nella Fondazione, nell’Assemblea del popolo, nella municipalità e nelle altre associazioni.

    Si sono liberate dai matrimoni combinati e hanno eliminato il fenomeno delle spose bambine: non ci si può sposare prima dei 18 anni.

    Tutto viene deciso assemblearmente, tutto viene diviso equamente.

    Uno slancio di vitalità comune, in un dramma che dura da vent’anni e in un sogno di futuro che richiede anche di essere difeso, quando necessario, con le armi.

    I giovani armati vegliano sul campo dalle montagne.

    Questo esperimento di democrazia partecipata negli ultimi anni è stato adottato in Rojava, la parte di Siria abitata prevalentemente dal popolo curdo e liberata con il contributo determinante delle donne: un’esperienza da seguire e da aiutare a rimanere in vita, soprattutto in questo momento in cui la Turchia vuole distruggerla.

    Lì abitano tre milioni di persone, le etnie e le religioni sono diverse. Eppure il modello del confederalismo democratico sta funzionando: per questo rappresenta un esempio pericoloso di lotta al capitalismo per i regimi autoritari ma anche per le cosiddette democrazie senza contenuto.

    Nel caos e nel cuore del Medio Oriente è fiorito di nuovo un sogno di socialismo. Attuale, praticato e condiviso.

    Dobbiamo aiutarlo tutti non solo a sopravvivere e a resistere all’invasione da parte della Turchia, ma a radicarsi come forma di partecipazione attiva ai beni comuni dell’uguaglianza e dell’ecologia sociale e ambientale.

    L’obiettivo della missione era l’acquisto a Erbil e la consegna di un’ambulanza per il campo. Non è stato facile, vista la situazione di prigionia in cui vivono gli abitanti, ma alla fine ce l’abbiamo fatta. Il giorno dopo la nostra partenza è stato impedito dal governo regionale l’ingresso a un gruppo di tedeschi, con alcuni parlamentari, che doveva sostituirci.

    Di seguito trovate gli appunti sugli incontri, dal mio punto di vista, più significativi.

    Mercoledì 2 ottobre: il protagonismo delle donne

    Al mattino partecipiamo all’incontro delle madri al Sacrario dei caduti. Sala piena, chiamata a convalidare i risultati dell’assemblea di sabato scorso. Interviene Feliz, una giovane donna copresidente dell’assemblea del popolo, che ci sta accompagnando negli incontri in questi giorni. Il suo è un intervento forte, da leader politico. Questa ragazza è sempre in movimento, instancabile. Attorno, sulle pareti, spiccano le fotografie di almeno millecinquecento uomini e donne, spesso giovani, morti nelle varie lotte di difesa del campo. Millecinquecento su dodicimila abitanti: praticamente non esiste una famiglia che non sia stata coinvolta nella difesa drammatica dei valori comuni. Anche da qui si capisce l’identità forte dei sentimenti condivisi di una comunità.

    Le donne elette per rappresentare l’Associazione si impegnano a rispettarne i principi, tra cui difendere i valori della memoria e non portare avanti interessi personali o familiari.

    Sempre in mattinata, andiamo alla sede della Fondazione delle donne. Gestiscono cinque asili, una sartoria e l’atelier di pittura. La loro sede è stata rimessa a nuovo dopo la distruzione avvenuta nei giorni di occupazione dell’ISIS. Sulla parte bianca, spicca una frase di Apo Ocalan: “Con le nostre speranze e il nostro impegno, coltiviamo i nostri sogni”. L’impegno principale della Fondazione è per il lavoro e la dignità di donne e bambini. Nei loro laboratori sono impegnate sessanta persone. Seguono poi duecento giovani, bambini e ragazzi, dai sei ai diciassette anni, al di fuori dell’orario scolastico, che si autoorganizzano autonomamente: decidono insieme giochi, regole, organizzano teatri e feste.

    La Fondazione è gestita collettivamente, da un coordinamento, che si trova una volta alla settimana; una volta all’anno l’assemblea generale fa il punto sui risultati, i problemi, le prospettive.

    Vengono seguite anche le famiglie con problemi e si affrontano anche le situazioni di violenza domestica, ricomponibili anche con il loro intervento. Per le situazioni più drammatiche e complesse si porta il problema all’assemblea delle donne, che decide in merito. Ma il loro lavoro sul riconoscimento, il rispetto e il protagonismo delle donne avviene con tutti, anche con gli uomini, e si svolge ovunque, anche con l’educativa di strada.

    La promotrice della Fondazione, Sentin Garzan, è morta combattendo in Rojava. A mezzogiorno siamo ospiti di un pranzo preparato da chi lavora al presidio ospedaliero.

    Nel tardo pomeriggio, in un clima dolce e ventilato con vista sulla pianura e la cittadina di Makhmour, incontriamo l’Accademia delle donne. Tutto, o quasi, al campo di Makhmour, parla al femminile. Bambini e bambine giocano insieme. Le ragazze e le donne giovani non portano nessun velo, se non, a volte, durante le ore più calde della giornata. Ma è un fatto di clima, non di costume o di storia o di costrizione. Le donne più anziane portano semplici foulards.

    All’Accademia le ragazze molto giovani, in particolare psicologhe, sociologhe, insegnanti. Ma soprattutto militanti.

    Per comprendere una storia così intensa, bisogna partire dalle origini del campo, costituito, dopo sette peregrinazioni imposte a partire dal 1995, nel 1998 da rifugiati politici della stessa regione montuosa del Kurdistan in Turchia, il Botan.

    Dopo, si sono aggiunti altri rifugiati. La loro è la storia intensa dell’esodo, con i suoi passaggi drammatici. Ma anche con l’orgoglio dell’autoorganizzazione.

    Le donne dell’Accademia ci parlano del lungo e faticoso percorso svolto dall’inizio dell’esodo fino a oggi. Una delle figure di riferimento più importanti rimane Yiyan Sîvas, una ragazza volontaria uccisa nel 1995 nel campo di Atrux, uno dei passaggi verso Makhmour.

    Era molto attiva nella lotta per i diritti civili e sociali. Soprattutto delle donne. E nella difesa della natura: anticipava i tempi.

    Yiyan Sîvas è stata uccisa, colpita al cuore in una manifestazione contro un embargo simile a quello attuale. Il vestito che indossava, con il buco del proiettile e la macchia di sangue rappreso, è custodito gelosamente nella sede dell’Accademia, aperta nel 2003.

    All’Accademia si occupano di formazione: dall’alfabetizzazione delle persone anziane che non sanno leggere e scrivere, all’aiuto nei confronti di chi incontra difficoltà a scuola, lavorando direttamente nei quartieri.

    Ma il loro scopo principale è la formazione attraverso i corsi di gineologia (jin in curdo significa donna), sulla storia e i diritti di genere; e sulla geografia, che parla da sola delle loro origini. Si confrontano con le differenze, per far scaturire il cambiamento. Che consiste in decisioni concrete, prese dall’assemblea del popolo, come l’abolizione dei matrimoni combinati, il rifiuto del pagamento per gli stessi, il divieto del matrimonio prima dei diciotto anni.

    Per una vita libera, l’autodifesa delle donne è dal maschio, ma anche dallo Stato. Sono passaggi epocali nel cuore del Medio Oriente.

    «Se c’è il problema della fame», dice una di loro, «cerchi il pane. Il pane, per le donne in Medio Oriente, si chiama educazione, protagonismo, formazione. Che è politica, culturale, ideologica. Con tutti, donne e uomini».

    L’Accademia forma, l’Assemblea decide: è un organismo politico. Che si muove secondo i principi del confederalismo democratico, il modello di partecipazione ideato da Apo Ocalan, con riferimento al giovane Marx da una parte e a Murray Bookchin, da “L’Ecologia della Libertà”, a “Democrazia diretta” e a “Per una società ecologica. Tesi sul municipalismo libertario”.

    Ma il confederalismo democratico conosce una storia millenaria. Appartiene alla tradizione presumerica, che si caratterizzava come società aperta: con la costruzione sociale sumerica è iniziata invece la struttura piramidale, con la relativa suddivisione in caste.

    Si parla di Mesopotamia, non di momenti raggrinziti in tempi senza storia.
    Giovedì 3 ottobre: il confederalismo democratico

    Questa mattina incontriamo i rappresentanti dell’Assemblea del popolo. Ci sono la copresidente, Feliz, e alcuni consiglieri. Verso la fine della riunione arriva anche l’altro copresidente, reduce dal suo lavoro di pastore. Di capre e, adesso, anche di popolo.

    Feliz spiega i nove punti cardine del confederalismo democratico:

    La cultura. Si può dire che nel campo di Makhmour da mattina fino a notte si respira cultura in tutte le sue espressioni e a tutte le età;
    La stampa, per diffondere le idee, i progetti e le iniziative che il campo esprime;
    La salute: da qui l’importanza del presidio ospedaliero e dell’attività di informazione e prevenzione;
    La formazione, considerata fondamentale per condividere principi, valori e stili di vita comuni;
    La sicurezza della popolazione: la sicurezza collettiva garantisce quella individuale, non viceversa;
    I comitati sociali ed economici per un’economia comune e anticapitalista;
    La giustizia sociale;
    La municipalità, quindi il Comune, con sindaca, cosindaco o viceversa, con il compito di rendere esecutivi i progetti decisi dall’Assemblea; e, insieme, alla municipalità, l’ecologia sociale, considerata come un carattere essenziale della municipalità.
    L’ecologia sociale va oltre l’ecologia ambientale: è condizione essenziale per il benessere collettivo;
    La politica.

    Ognuno di questi punti viene declinato nelle cinque zone del campo, ognuna composta da quattro quartieri. Il confederalismo democratico parte da lì, dai comitati di quartiere, che si riuniscono una volta alla settimana e ogni due mesi scrivono un rapporto su problemi e proposte, scegliendo alcune persone come portavoce per l’Assemblea del popolo.

    L’Assemblea del popolo è composta dalla presidente, dal copresidente e da 131 consiglieri. Presidente e copresidente sono presenti tutti i giorni, a tempo pieno.

    Le cariche durano due anni, rinnovabili per un mandato. La municipalità viene eletta dal popolo. Non sempre è facile arrivare alle decisioni, perché tutto deve essere condiviso.

    L’incontro non è formale: si discute infatti di come utilizzare il luogo individuato per l’ospedale, a partire dall’ampliamento del poliambulatorio. Si tratta di coprire la struttura e, allo stesso tempo, di decidere come utilizzare gli spazi, visto che sono troppo grandi per un ospedale di comunità. Viene esclusa l’ipotesi della scuola per la dimensione dei locali; vengono prese in considerazione altre ipotesi, come la nuova sede per le attività dell’Associazione che si prende cura dei bambini down, che ha elaborato un proprio progetto, e il laboratorio di fisioterapia. Ma il primo passo, concreto, è l’avvio dei lavori per la copertura della struttura.

    Il confederalismo democratico ritiene che le comunità, per poter coinvolgere tutti, debbano avere una dimensione ottimale di diecimila persone. Il campo è abitato da tredicimila persone e il modello, con le sue fatiche, funziona.

    Il modello in questi anni è stato adottato in Rojava, dove vi sono oltre tre milioni di persone di etnie diverse e lì il banco di prova è decisivo. Se la Turchia non riuscirà a distruggerlo.

    Ma chi lo ha proposto e lo vive non solo ci crede, lo pratica con la grande convinzione che sia il modo per cambiare dalla base la struttura sociale del Medio Oriente.

    Venerdì 4 ottobre: Incontro con “M”

    Incontriamo una rappresentante che ci parla delle donne che hanno combattuto a Kobane. Nel suo racconto, nell’analisi della situazione e nella valutazione delle prospettive, alterna passaggi piani a momenti di forte impatto emotivo.

    Si parla del protagonismo delle donne nella liberazione del Rojava. «La guerra non è mai una bella cosa», racconta, «ma la nostra è stata, è una guerra per l’umanità. Per la difesa della dignità umana. Le donne sono partite in poche: quattro o cinque di nazionalità diverse, ma unite dall’idea che fosse necessario armarsi, addestrarsi e combattere l’oppressione e il fondamentalismo per affermare la possibilità di una vita migliore. Per le donne, ma anche per gli uomini». Per tutti.

    «A Kobane la popolazione aveva bisogno di essere difesa dall’attacco dell’ISIS: da un problema di sicurezza è scaturita una rivoluzione vera. Una rivoluzione che non è solo curda, o araba, ma è una rivoluzione popolare, che sta costruendo un nuovo modello di democrazia partecipata».

    In Medio Oriente, cuore della Terza Guerra Mondiale scatenata dai conflitti interni e orchestrata dalle potenze mondiali.

    «Quando ci si crede, si può arrivare a risultati impensabili. Non importava essere in poche. All’inizio non è stato facile, nel rapporto con le altre donne: per la prima volta si trovavano davanti alla scelta della lotta armata in prima persona, dal punto di vista femminile. Poi hanno compreso, quando hanno visto le loro figlie venire con noi, crescere nella consapevolezza e nella determinazione per organizzare la resistenza popolare. L’organizzazione popolare è diventata determinante, non solo a Kobane, ma in tutto il Rojava.

    Le donne, quando vogliono raggiungere un obiettivo, sono molto determinate. E sono molto più creative degli uomini.

    Così hanno trasformato una guerra di difesa in una possibilità di cambiamento rivoluzionario, in cui tutti possono partecipare alla costruzione di un destino comune, provando a superare anche le divisioni imposte nei secoli dalle diverse religioni». Nel caos del Medio Oriente, dove in questo momento l’Iraq è di nuovo in fiamme.

    «Oggi il nemico per noi rimane l’ISIS: l’YPG (la nostra formazione guerrigliera maschile) e l’YPJ (la nostra formazione guerrigliera femminile) lo hanno sconfitto, ma rimangono sacche sparse dell’ISIS e cellule dormienti all’interno dei territori liberati. Il nemico però è soprattutto la Turchia, la cui strategia sullo scacchiere del Medio Oriente, dove tutte le potenze mondiali vogliono dare scacco al re, è l’occupazione della striscia di terra che corre sotto il confine con la Siria e che collega storicamente l’Occidente e l’Oriente.

    Questo territorio è il Rojava: per questo il regime di Erdogan vuole distruggerci. Sostiene, come ad Afrin, di volersi presentare con il ramoscello d’ulivo: in realtà, ad Afrin ha portato forme di repressione sempre più aspre, nuove forme di violenza etnica, una nuova diffusione dei sequestri di persona. Per arrivare al suo obiettivo, la Turchia sta costruendo un altro ISIS, come ha fatto con l’originale. Solo una parte delle tre milioni di persone presenti in Turchia è costituita da profughi: sono quelli che il regime vuole cacciare e spinge a viaggi disperati e rischiosi verso l’Europa. Gli altri sono integralisti, diretti o potenziali, che il regime di Erdogan intende tenere, avviandoli a scuole di formazione religiosa e militare, fino a quando li manderà di nuovo in giro a seminare il terrore.

    La Turchia utilizza i miliardi di dollari forniti dall’Europa per ricostituire un nuovo ISIS da utilizzare nello scenario della Terza Guerra mondiale». La vecchia strategia di destabilizzare per stabilizzare con il terrore.

    «La Turchia utilizza la Russia, la Russia la Turchia, la Turchia gli Europei. L’Europa, aiutando la Turchia, sta diffondendo dei nuovi veicoli di infezione.

    La vittima designata è il popolo curdo, ma il popolo curdo ha la testa dura.

    La minaccia principale incombe sul territorio libero del Rojava, dove è in corso un esperimento concreto di confederalismo democratico, con la partecipazione di tutte le etnie. Lo stiamo facendo con un forte impegno e una grande fatica, ma questa è la via per portare una vita migliore in una regione devastata dai conflitti etnici e religiosi, interni e scatenati dall’esterno».

    Particolarmente importante, in questa situazione, è la condizione della donna. «Quando le condizioni della donna migliorano, migliora la situazione per tutti, perché vincono i principi e l’ideologia della vita contro i nazionalismi e le strumentalizzazioni del capitalismo internazionale.

    Prima tutti dicevano di volerci dare una mano. Ma la memoria di molti è troppo corta. Le organizzazioni umanitarie ufficiali si schierano sempre con gli Stati, non con i movimenti di liberazione.

    Il nostro obiettivo è mantenere il Rojava libero di fronte alla minaccia dell’occupazione. Dobbiamo sensibilizzare l’opinione pubblica mondiale attorno a questa nuova speranza per il Medio Oriente e costruire un ponte tra il Kurdistan e l’Europa.

    Il potere della società è come un fiume che, scorrendo, cresce in maniera sempre più ampia. Noi vogliamo resistere per creare una vita migliore.

    Voi, delle associazioni non legate al potere degli Stati, potete aiutarci contribuendo a diffondere le nostre idee, la nostra esperienza, la nostra storia».

    Sabato 5 ottobre: incontro con i giovani che difendono il campo

    Nel tardo pomeriggio incontriamo la Guardia Armata del Campo. Ci raccontano che dopo il bombardamento con i droni dell’aprile scorso, non ci sono state altre incursioni da parte dei turchi. La tensione però rimane alta anche perché nelle vicinanze ci sono ancora gruppi sparsi dell’Isis. Facciamo qualche domanda a proposito della loro vita. Ci dicono che chi si dedica alla causa curda può arruolarsi dai 18 anni in poi, anche per sempre. Se si vuol lasciare un impegno così pieno si può farlo senza problemi, anche se i casi sono rari.

    Li vediamo al tramonto. Appartengono alla formazione che ha liberato Makhmour e soprattutto Kirkuk, dove i peshmerga, l’organizzazione armata del governo regionale del Kurdistan iracheno, si trovavano in difficoltà e stavano per essere sopraffatti dall’avanzata dell’ISIS.

    A Makhmour hanno liberato sia il campo che la città, sede del più grande deposito di grano dell’Iraq. Poi sono tornati sulle montagne.

    Con noi parla con grande convinzione uno dei ragazzi, il portavoce: gli altri condividono con gesti misurati le sue parole. Nessuno di loro ha più di venticinque anni, ma tutti e tre ne dimostrano meno.

    Il ragazzo dice che la loro scelta è stata spontanea, e che li guida l’idea della difesa del popolo dall’oppressione degli Stati: non solo quelli che incombono sul popolo curdo (Turchia, Siria, Iraq, Iran), ma sul popolo in generale. In questi giorni stanno dalla parte delle proteste popolari contro il governo che sono in atto a Bagdad: la loro lotta è contro il capitalismo e durerà fino all’affermazione del socialismo che, nella loro visione, oggi si esprime attraverso il confederalismo democratico.

    L’atmosfera è coinvolgente. Sotto, nella pianura, le prime luci si diffondono sul campo. Sopra, sulla montagna, loro proteggono e tutelano la serenità di bambini, donne e uomini.

    I bambini del campo sono tanti e cantano insieme con un’allegria contagiosa, a ripetere giochi antichi e sempre attuali: insieme, bambini e bambine.

    Loro si alzano alle quattro, poi dedicano il mattino alla formazione politica e all’addestramento fisico per chiudere la giornata con l’addestramento militare. Militanti a tempo pieno.

    Sono convinti che o il futuro del mondo è il socialismo come forma di democrazia diretta e partecipata, o sarà solo morte e distruzione, come da troppi anni è in Medio Oriente, in mano alle oligarchie di potere manovrate dagli interessi del capitalismo internazionale.

    Alla domanda se non li ferisce il fatto che la propaganda turca e di altri Paesi occidentali li chiama terroristi, la loro risposta è: «A noi interessa quello che pensa il popolo, non quello che dicono questi signori».

    Nella quotidianità questi ragazzi non conoscono giorni di riposo o di vacanza, hanno sporadici rapporti con le famiglie per motivi di sicurezza, non sono sposati.

    Proprio adesso, nel momento dell’incontro, dalla pianura salgono le musiche popolari di un matrimonio, alla cui festa vanno tutti quelli che vogliono partecipare, con le danze tradizionali e i costumi rivisitati in chiave attuale.

    Ieri, a un altro matrimonio, ci siamo stati anche noi. Si respirava un’aria autentica, come erano queste feste anche in Occidente prima di diventare un’espressione inautentica di lusso ostentato e volgare.

    I giovani guerriglieri intendono continuare fino a quando momenti come questo, di partecipazione popolare, saranno la regola di pace e non l’eccezione in un clima di guerra.

    Nelle parole e nei gesti sono sobri e austeri, quasi oltre la loro età.

    Dopo un’ora si alzano dalle rocce su cui ci siamo trovati e, dopo averci salutato con un abbraccio intenso, si avviano verso la montagna, veloci e leggeri.

    Non esibiscono le armi; appartengono loro come uno strumento di difesa e di protezione. Come il bastone del pastore, che vigila sul suo gregge.

    Non sono ombre, ma appaiono solari nel tramonto che scende lentamente verso la Siria.
    Domenica 6 ottobre: l’uscita dal campo

    Oggi tocchiamo con mano che cosa vuol dire l’embargo per il campo di Makhmour imposto dal governo regionale del Kurdistan iracheno, in accordo con la Turchia. Il popolo del campo da tre mesi non può uscire, né per lavoro, né per altri motivi. Il rappresentante delle relazioni esterne ha chiesto il permesso per poterci accompagnare fino a Erbil, ma il permesso è stato negato. Potranno accompagnarci solo fino al primo check point, dove ci aspettano dei tassisti della città di Makhmour. Da lì in avanti è una sequenza di controlli: sbrigativi quelli ai due posti di controllo iracheni, sempre più lunghi e insistenti ai tre posti di controllo del governo regionale.

    Tra il campo e l’esterno è stata posta una serie di barriere a ostacoli.

    Ci vogliono oltre due ore per arrivare ad Erbil, dove arriviamo in un normale albergo dopo dieci notti sul pavimento della casa del popolo. Non mi piace per nulla questo passaggio: ho già nostalgia di quei giorni, con il poco cibo curato con grande attenzione, e di quelle notti in sette per stanza, su dei tappeti stesi a terra.

    Lucia e altri compagni del gruppo vanno a chiudere la pratica di acquisto dell’autoambulanza. Finalmente, dopo giorni estenuanti per la difficoltà di comunicare con l’esterno dal campo. La pratica viene risolta subito e inaspettatamente, anche con l’aiuto di alcuni compagni dell’HDP, il partito di sinistra nel Kurdistan iracheno. L’ambulanza, nuovissima, viene portata dallo stesso concessionario, una persona sensibile alla questione curda, al campo (lui, essendo un cittadino di Erbil, può muoversi), dove un video registra l’ingresso al presidio ospedaliero. Missione compiuta.

    Con gli altri del gruppo andiamo a fare un giro in città, verso la cittadella. Ma Erbil mi ricorda troppo il nostro mondo, tra l’inquinamento dei pozzi petroliferi alla periferia, le centinaia di autocisterne in fila per il rifornimento, un traffico caotico. Unica differenza con le città occidentali, il suk mischiato alle firme della moda che hanno infettato le città di tutti i continenti. Torno in albergo e guardo lo scorrere delle code dalle vetrate: ho bisogno ancora di una barriera per affrontare questo mondo. Se è ancora un mondo.
    Lunedì 7 ottobre: la differenza

    Saliamo in gruppo alla cittadella di Erbil, patrimonio mondiale dell’Unesco. La più antica cittadella fortificata del mondo, costruita su undici strati successivi. Incontriamo il direttore del sito, che ci accoglie come dei vecchi amici e ci porta a visitare i luoghi ancora chiusi al pubblico per i lavori di scavo.

    Parla fluentemente tedesco e inglese, ha abitato in Germania; poi, in piena guerra, nel 2002 è stato chiamato a ricoprire il ruolo di sindaco della città.

    Lo ha fatto fino al 2016. Erbil ha più di un milione di abitanti, il Kurdistan iracheno non supera i quattro milioni di abitanti. Eppure negli anni scorsi sono stati accolti oltre due milioni di profughi fuggiti di fronte all’avanzata dell’ISIS. E loro li hanno ospitati senza alcun problema. E chi ha voluto rimanere, è rimasto. Mi viene in mente che da noi, noi?, si parla indecentemente di invasione di fronte a poche migliaia di migranti che rischiano la vita attraversando il mare. C’è chi guarda avanti, e forse ha un futuro; e c’ è chi non sa guardare da nessuna parte, e non ha passato, presente e futuro.

    Nella notte tra il 7 e l’8 ottobre si parte. Verso la notte dell’Occidente.

    https://valori.it/curdi-diario-viaggio-campo-profughi
    #camp_de_réfugiés #camps_de_réfugiés #Kurdes #Irak #réfugiés_kurdes #asile #migrations #réfugiés #Öcalan #Apo_Ocalan #Ocalan #Confédéralisme_démocratique #utopie #rêve #jardins_partagés #agriculture #éducation #écoles #jardins_potagers #formation_continue #femmes #démocratie_participative #égalité #écologie_sociale #Assemblée_du_peuple #Rojava #Kurdistan_irakien

  • Entretien téléphonique avec #Lougar, depuis la #Commune_Internationaliste à #Derik, nord-est du #Rojava. Organisation, position, activités, projet et aspirations de la #Commune_libre et considération sur l’agression turque, ses enjeux et la résistance qui a cours.

    http://libradio.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/CommInternationaliste_Master.mp3

    #Syrie #Kurdistan #guerre #conflit #Kurdes #Turquie

  • Info-#Rojava 18.10.2019 Complément

    Le « #Kurds_Freedom_Convoy » résiste autour de #Serekanyie. Malgré la proclamation du cessez-le-feu au moins 30 personnes ont été tuées à Serakanyie par l’#aviation et des #drones turques. Le convoi humanitaire de civils qui depuis hier se dirigeait vers la ville pour rompre le #siège et demander l’ouverture d’un couloir humanitaire à été à nouveau attaqué. Au même moment d’autres personnes sont venues grossir la ceinture humaine qui encercle les assiégeants turco-djihadistes. 80 voitures et 400 civils. Le Kurds Freedom Convoy a rejoint à pied le village de #Mishrafa près de Serakanyie. Le village a été rasé au sol. Il y a de nombreux corps de civils tués. Sont également signalé des civils blessés dans d’autres villages avoisinants assiégées par les turques. L’on dénombre 8 tués à #Bab-al-Xer. C’est littéralement du #nettoyage_ethnique qui a cours !
    Quelques images du convoi humanitaires près de Serakanyie. En particulier le village de Mishrafa rasé par les troupes turco-djihadistes.


    http://libradio.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/K_Info18102019_Compl%C3%A9ment.pdf
    #convoi #guerre #évacuation #convoi_humanitaire #Kurdistan #Syrie #Kurdes #Turquie #attaque #décès #morts

  • Summer 1961: When France Was Considering Creating a “French Israel” in Algeria - THE FUNAMBULIST MAGAZINE
    https://thefunambulist.net/history/summer-1961-france-considering-creating-french-israel-algeria

    De Gaulle commissions French parliamentary Alain Peyrefitte to consider scenarios of a partition of Algeria in which French interests will remain. In a report that was shortly later published as a book, Peyrefitte thus imagine six hypotheses of partition in a program that he (and many with him) candidly calls an “Israelization of Algeria.” The idea would be to declare the Sahara southern region a “neutral” territory, while the populated north of Algeria would be divided between the new independent Algerian state and another one gathering the European settlers and Algerians who would like to remain French, closely affiliated to France. Although Peyrefitte systematically refers to Israel and its successes (!) throughout his report, he writes that he would prefer a “French-Muslim Lebanon” than “a French Israel” — he indeed considers the hostility of Israel’s neighbors as somehow not desirable for this new state! The most limited scenario would consists in two French ‘islands’ around the cities of Oran and Bone (current Anaba), where the settlers are in majority, while the most extensive one would cover the entire northwestern part of Algeria, all the way to Algiers, which is imagined as a shared city in all hypotheses — remember, we are in the summer of 1961, exactly when the Berlin wall starts to be built.

  • Géographie, d’Anne-Sophie Barreau
    http://liminaire.fr/livre-lecture/article/geographie-d-anne-sophie-barreau

    Le dernier #Livre d’Anne-Sophie Barreau prolonge et développe les thèmes de son précédent livre, que j’ai eu le plaisir d’éditer chez Publie.net, qui évoquait la versatilité de notre mémoire à l’ère du numérique à travers la disparition d’un téléphone lors d’un #Voyage effectué avec son compagnon aux États-Unis, le jour de son anniversaire. Dans Géographie, la narratrice qui travaille à Paris et occasionnellement à l’étranger, aime un homme souvent en mission à l’étranger pour son travail. Le couple vit donc (...) Livre & #Lecture / Livre, Lecture, #Amour, #Dérive, Voyage, #Art, #Histoire, #Écriture, #Récit, #Journal, #Quotidien, (...)

    #Livre_&_lecture #Sensation
    https://www.publie.net/livre/macguffin-anne-sophie-barreau
    https://www.editions-jclattes.fr/geographie-9782709661713

  • La migration par le travail n’est pas toujours une expérience émancipatrice pour les femmes

    Le #déclassement professionnel est souvent au rendez-vous en migration. Il est particulièrement marqué pour les #femmes_chinoises formées sous le régime communiste qui sont arrivées à #Paris à la fin des années 1990. Elles se retrouvent assignées à des activités qui leur seraient « naturellement » destinées en tant que femmes et surtout femmes chinoises.


    http://icmigrations.fr/2019/10/15/defacto-012-03
    #migrations #émancipation #femmes #travail #France #femmes_migrantes

  • Caen. Huit intermittents du spectacle au tribunal le 21 octobre
    https://www.ouest-france.fr/normandie/caen-14000/caen-huit-intermittents-du-spectacle-au-tribunal-le-21-octobre-6568187

    Dans un communiqué, la Koordination des #intermittents_du_spectacle du Calvados s’insurge contre Pôle emploi qui assigne au tribunal huit intermittents du spectacle.

    #Pôle_emploi a, à nouveau convoqué huit artistes le 21 octobre au tribunal de grande instance pour allocations indûment perçues. Dans un communiqué, la Kic, Koordination des intermittents du spectacle du Calvados s’insurge contre Pôle emploi qui assimile les artistes et techniciens du spectacle « à ce qu’ils ne sont pas, c’est-à-dire des éducateurs, formateurs, animateurs et enseignants ».

    Les intermittents du spectacle ont déjà été confrontés à cette situation. La Kic rappelle qu’en 2015, Pôle emploi avait perdu son procès « contre huit intermittents du spectacle auxquels étaient réclamés au total près de 160 000 € pour des indemnités chômage ». La justice avait jugé illégales les retenues effectuées sur les allocations par Pôle Emploi « pour rembourser la soi-disant #dette ». Et Pôle emploi avait été condamné à rétablir les artistes dans leurs droits.

    « Pôle emploi recommence et attaque ces mêmes artistes pour leur réclamer les mêmes sommes sur les mêmes contrats en qualifiant ces contrats et déclarations de fraude. C’est une manœuvre de plus pour exclure un maximum de personnes de l’assurance chômage ! Nous ne l’acceptons pas, notre mobilisation se poursuivra ! ».
    La Koordination des intermittents du spectacle du Calvados conclut en évoquant les nouvelles règles d’assurance chômage décrétées par le gouvernement : « Elles accroissent les sanctions envers les chômeurs, rendent plus difficile l’accès aux #allocations et en réduisent le montant et la durée ».

    #droit_au_chômage