• « Il nous faut retrouver une forme d’hygiène numérique »
    https://le1hebdo.fr/journal/silence-on-vous-surveille/298/article/il-nous-faut-retrouver-une-forme-d-hygine-numrique-3865.html

    Quelles traces numériques laissons-nous au quotidien ? Elles sont de plus en plus nombreuses. L’image d’Épinal de ces « traces » renvoie surtout au profil que l’on se construit sur un réseau social. On y renseigne son nom, son état civil, son âge, sa profession, ses goûts… Mais ces données personnelles ne constituent que la face la plus visible, la plus évidente du traçage numérique. Ce que l’on saisit peut-être moins, c’est la transformation de toutes nos petites actions quotidiennes en signaux (...)

    #Airbus #Clearview #Datakalab #DGSI #Google #In-Q-Tel #Microsoft #Palantir #Ring #CIA #FBI #Amazon #Facebook #Gmail #ProtonMail #algorithme #Alexa #CCTV #domotique #InternetOfThings #Navigo #Siri #technologisme #vidéo-surveillance #COVID-19 #écoutes (...)

    ##santé ##surveillance ##CNIL ##LaQuadratureduNet

  • Starlink vise la conquête marchande de l’espace
    https://reporterre.net/Starlink-vise-la-conquete-marchande-de-l-espace

    ENQUÊTE 3/3 - Le réseau de satellites Starlink doit rendre l’accès à internet haut-débit possible partout sur la planète. Les militaires et les particuliers isolés — s’ils en ont les moyens — pourraient en bénéficier mais ce ne sera pas le cas d’une grande partie de la population mondiale. Ce déploiement servira en revanche d’appui pour les projets de conquête marchande de l’espace. « Je me sens désormais comme une personne normale, Starlink est ma bouée de sauvetage. » Sur le site de Starlink, les (...)

    #GCHQ #SpaceX #Tesla #USArmy #NSA #Starlink #GPS #écologie #militaire #domination (...)

    ##finance

  • Starlink, le plan géant d’Elon Musk pour occuper l’espace
    https://reporterre.net/Le-plan-geant-d-Elon-Musk-pour-occuper-l-espace

    ENQUÊTE 1/3 - Le projet du milliardaire Elon Musk se concrétise. Son offre d’une connexion haut-débit à internet sur toute la planète via une constellation de satellites est déjà en fonctionnement aux États-Unis. Et ses antennes domestiques sont désormais disponibles en France en précommande. 550 kilomètres nous séparent des premiers satellites de SpaceX, la société d’Elon Musk. En plus de les voir rayonner parmi les vraies étoiles de notre ciel une fois la nuit tombée, les 12.000 satellites prévus à (...)

    #ARCEP #SpaceX #satellite #WiFi #5G #technologisme #domination #Starlink

  • Tous chasseurs cueilleurs !
    https://www.franceinter.fr/emissions/comme-un-bruit-qui-court/comme-un-bruit-qui-court-08-juin-2019

    Quand la civilisation menace l’#environnement... retour à la chasse et la cueillette. Entretien avec James C. Scott autour de son livre "#HomoDomesticus, une histoire profonde des premiers Etats".

    On a tous en tête des souvenirs d’école sur les débuts de l’Histoire avec un grand H. Quelque part entre le Tigre et l’Euphrate il y a 10 000 ans, des chasseurs-cueilleurs se sont peu à peu sédentarisés en domestiquant les plantes et les animaux, inventant dans la foulée l’#agriculture, l’écriture et les premiers Etats. C’était l’aube de la #civilisation et le début de la marche forcée vers le #progrès.

    Cette histoire, #JamesScott, anthropologue anarchiste et professeur de sciences politiques, l’a enseignée pendant des années à ses élèves de l’Université de Yale. Mais les découvertes archéologiques dans l’actuel Irak des dernières années l’ont amené à réviser complètement ce « storytelling » du commencement des sociétés humaines, et par là même remettre en question notre rapport au monde dans son dernier livre : Homo Domesticus, une histoire profonde des premiers Etats (Ed. La Découverte).

    Alors même que climat et biodiversité sont aujourd’hui plus que jamais menacés par les activités humaines, James C. Scott propose de réévaluer l’intérêt des sociétés d’avant l’Etat et l’agriculture. Car ces chasseurs-cueilleurs semi-nomades ont longtemps résisté face aux civilisations agraires, basées sur les céréales et qui, en domestiquant le monde, se sont domestiqués eux-mêmes, en appauvrissant leur connaissance du monde.

    Un reportage de Giv Anquetil.
    Les liens

    James C. Scott : « Le monde des chasseurs-cueilleurs était un monde enchanté » (Le grand entretien) par Jean-Christophe Cavallin, Diakritik

    Plutôt couler en beauté que flotter sans grâce, Réflexions sur l’effondrement, Corinne Morel Darleux, Editions Libertalia

    "Amador Rojas invite Karime Amaya" Chapiteau du Cirque Romanès - Paris 16, Paris. Prochaine séance le vendredi 14 juin à 20h.

    Homo Domesticus, une histoire profonde des premiers Etats, James C. Scott (Editions La Découverte)

    Eloge des chasseurs-cueilleurs, revue Books (mai 2019).

    HOMO DOMESTICUS - JAMES C. SCOTT Une Histoire profonde des premiers États [Fiche de lecture], Lundi matin

    Bibliographie de l’association Deep Green Resistance
    Programmation musicale

    "Mesopotamia"- B52’s

    "Cholera" - El Rego et ses commandos

    #podcast @cdb_77

    • Homo Domesticus. Une histoire profonde des premiers États

      Aucun ouvrage n’avait jusqu’à présent réussi à restituer toute la profondeur et l’extension universelle des dynamiques indissociablement écologiques et anthropologiques qui se sont déployées au cours des dix millénaires ayant précédé notre ère, de l’émergence de l’agriculture à la formation des premiers centres urbains, puis des premiers États.
      C’est ce tour de force que réalise avec un brio extraordinaire #Homo_domesticus. Servi par une érudition étourdissante, une plume agile et un sens aigu de la formule, ce livre démonte implacablement le grand récit de la naissance de l’#État antique comme étape cruciale de la « #civilisation » humaine.
      Ce faisant, il nous offre une véritable #écologie_politique des formes primitives d’#aménagement_du_territoire, de l’« #autodomestication » paradoxale de l’animal humain, des dynamiques démographiques et épidémiologiques de la #sédentarisation et des logiques de la #servitude et de la #guerre dans le monde antique.
      Cette fresque omnivore et iconoclaste révolutionne nos connaissances sur l’évolution de l’humanité et sur ce que Rousseau appelait « l’origine et les fondements de l’inégalité parmi les hommes ».


      https://www.editionsladecouverte.fr/homo_domesticus-9782707199232

      #James_Scott #livre #démographie #épidémiologie #évolution #humanité #histoire #inégalité #inégalités #Etat #écologie #anthropologie #ressources_pédagogiques #auto-domestication

    • Fiche de lecture: Homo Domesticus - James C. Scott

      Un fidèle lecteur de lundimatin nous a transmis cette fiche de lecture du dernier ouvrage de James C. Scott, (on peut la retrouver sur le blog de la bibliothèque fahrenheit) qui peut s’avérer utile au moment l’institution étatique semble si forte et fragile à la fois.
      « L’État est à l’origine un racket de protection mis en œuvre par une bande de voleurs qui l’a emporté sur les autres »
      À la recherche de l’origine des États antiques, James C. Scott, professeur de science politique et d’anthropologie, bouleverse les grands #récits_civilisationnels. Contrairement à bien des idées reçues, la #domestication des plantes et des animaux n’a pas entraîné la fin du #nomadisme ni engendré l’#agriculture_sédentaire. Et jusqu’il y a environ quatre siècles un tiers du globe était occupé par des #chasseurs-cueilleurs tandis que la majorité de la population mondiale vivait « hors d’atteinte des entités étatiques et de leur appareil fiscal ».
      Dans la continuité de #Pierre_Clastres et de #David_Graeber, James C. Scott contribue à mettre à mal les récits civilisationnels dominants. Avec cette étude, il démontre que l’apparition de l’État est une anomalie et une contrainte, présentant plus d’inconvénients que d’avantages, raison pour laquelle ses sujets le fuyait. Comprendre la véritable origine de l’État c’est découvrir qu’une toute autre voie était possible et sans doute encore aujourd’hui.

      La première domestication, celle du #feu, est responsable de la première #concentration_de_population. La construction de niche de #biodiversité par le biais d’une #horticulture assistée par le feu a permis de relocaliser la faune et la flore désirable à l’intérieur d’un cercle restreint autour des #campements. La #cuisson des aliments a externalisé une partie du processus de #digestion. Entre 8000 et 6000 avant notre ère, Homo sapiens a commencé à planter toute la gamme des #céréales et des #légumineuses, à domestiquer des #chèvres, des #moutons, des #porcs, des #bovins, c’est-à-dire bien avant l’émergence de sociétés étatiques de type agraire. Les premiers grands établissements sédentaires sont apparus en #zones_humides et non en milieu aride comme l’affirment les récits traditionnels, dans des plaines alluviales à la lisière de plusieurs écosystèmes (#Mésopotamie, #vallée_du_Nil, #fleuve_Indus, #baie_de_Hangzhou, #lac_Titicata, site de #Teotihuacan) reposant sur des modes de subsistance hautement diversifiés (sauvages, semi-apprivoisés et entièrement domestiqués) défiant toute forme de comptabilité centralisée. Des sous-groupes pouvaient se consacrer plus spécifiquement à une stratégie au sein d’un économie unifiée et des variations climatiques entraînaient mobilité et adaptation « technologique ». La #sécurité_alimentaire était donc incompatible avec une #spécialisation étroite sur une seule forme de #culture ou d’#élevage, requérant qui plus est un travail intensif. L’#agriculture_de_décrue fut la première à apparaître, n’impliquant que peu d’efforts humains.
      Les #plantes complètement domestiquées sont des « anomalies hyperspécialisées » puisque le cultivateur doit contre-sélectionner les traits sélectionnés à l’état sauvage (petite taille des graines, nombreux appendices, etc). De même les #animaux_domestiqués échappent à de nombreuses pressions sélectives (prédation, rivalité alimentaire ou sexuelle) tout en étant soumis à de nouvelles contraintes, par exemple leur moins grande réactivité aux stimuli externes va entraîner une évolution comportementale et provoquer la #sélection des plus dociles. On peut dire que l’espèce humaine elle-même a été domestiquée, enchaînée à un ensemble de routines. Les chasseurs-cueilleurs maîtrisaient une immense variété de techniques, basées sur une connaissance encyclopédique conservée dans la mémoire collective et transmise par #tradition_orale. « Une fois qu’#Homo_sapiens a franchi le Rubicon de l’agriculture, notre espèce s’est retrouvée prisonnière d’une austère discipline monacale rythmée essentiellement par le tic-tac contraignant de l’horloge génétique d’une poignée d’espèces cultivées. » James C. Scott considère la #révolution_néolithique récente comme « un cas de #déqualification massive », suscitant un #appauvrissement du #régime_alimentaire, une contraction de l’espace vital.
      Les humains se sont abstenus le plus longtemps possible de faire de l’agriculture et de l’élevage les pratiques de subsistance dominantes en raison des efforts qu’elles exigeaient. Ils ont peut-être été contraints d’essayer d’extraire plus de #ressources de leur environnement, au prix d’efforts plus intenses, à cause d’une pénurie de #gros_gibier.
      La population mondiale en 10 000 avant notre ère était sans doute de quatre millions de personnes. En 5 000, elle avait augmenté de cinq millions. Au cours des cinq mille ans qui suivront, elle sera multipliée par vingt pour atteindre cent millions. La stagnation démographique du #néolithique, contrastant avec le progrès apparent des #techniques_de_subsistance, permet de supposer que cette période fut la plus meurtrière de l’histoire de l’humanité sur le plan épidémiologique. La sédentarisation créa des conditions de #concentration_démographique agissant comme de véritables « parcs d’engraissement » d’#agents_pathogènes affectant aussi bien les animaux, les plantes que les humains. Nombre de #maladies_infectieuses constituent un « #effet_civilisationnel » et un premier franchissement massif de la barrière des espèces par un groupe pathogènes.
      Le #régime_alimentaire_céréalier, déficient en #acides_gras essentiels, inhibe l’assimilation du #fer et affecte en premier lieu les #femmes. Malgré une #santé fragile, une #mortalité infantile et maternelle élevée par rapport aux chasseurs-cueilleurs, les agriculteurs sédentaires connaissaient des #taux_de_reproduction sans précédent, du fait de la combinaison d’une activité physique intense avec un régime riche en #glucides, provoquant une #puberté plus précoce, une #ovulation plus régulière et une #ménopause plus tardive.

      Les populations sédentaires cultivant des #céréales domestiquées, pratiquant le commerce par voie fluviale ou maritime, organisées en « #complexe_proto-urbain », étaient en place au néolithique, deux millénaires avant l’apparition des premiers États. Cette « plateforme » pouvait alors être « capturée », « parasitée » pour constituer une solide base de #pouvoir et de #privilèges politiques. Un #impôt sur les céréales, sans doute pas inférieur au cinquième de la récolte, fournissait une rente aux élites. « L’État archaïque était comme les aléas climatiques : une menace supplémentaire plus qu’un bienfaiteur. » Seules les céréales peuvent servir de base à l’impôt, de part leur visibilité, leur divisibilité, leur « évaluabilité », leur « stockabilité », leur transportabilité et leur « rationabilité ». Au détour d’un note James C. Scott réfute l’hypothèse selon laquelle des élites bienveillantes ont créé l’État essentiellement pour défendre les #stocks_de_céréales et affirme au contraire que « l’État est à l’origine un racket de protection mis en œuvre par une bande de voleurs qui l’a emporté sur les autres ». La majeure partie du monde et de sa population a longtemps existé en dehors du périmètre des premiers États céréaliers qui n’occupaient que des niches écologiques étroites favorisant l’#agriculture_intensive, les #plaines_alluviales. Les populations non-céréalières n’étaient pas isolées et autarciques mais s’adonnaient à l’#échange et au #commerce entre elles.
      Nombre de #villes de #Basse_Mésopotamie du milieu du troisième millénaire avant notre ère, étaient entourées de murailles, indicateurs infaillibles de la présence d’une agriculture sédentaire et de stocks d’aliments. De même que les grandes #murailles en Chine, ces #murs d’enceinte étaient érigés autant dans un but défensif que dans le but de confiner les paysans contribuables et de les empêcher de se soustraire.
      L’apparition des premiers systèmes scripturaux coïncide avec l’émergence des premiers États. Comme l’expliquait #Proudhon, « être gouverné, c’est être, à chaque opération, à chaque transaction, à chaque mouvement, noté, enregistré, recensé, tarifé, timbré, toisé, coté, cotisé, patenté, licencié, autorisé, apostillé, admonesté, empêché, réformé, redressé, corrigé ». L’#administration_étatique s’occupait de l’#inventaire des ressources disponibles, de #statistiques et de l’#uniformisation des #monnaies et des #unités_de_poids, de distance et de volume. En Mésopotamie l’#écriture a été utilisée à des fins de #comptabilité pendant cinq siècle avant de commencer à refléter les gloires civilisationnelles. Ces efforts de façonnage radical de la société ont entraîné la perte des États les plus ambitieux : la Troisième Dynastie d’#Ur (vers 2100 avant J.-C.) ne dura qu’à peine un siècle et la fameuse dynastie #Qin (221-206 avant J.-C.) seulement quinze ans. Les populations de la périphérie auraient rejeté l’usage de l’écriture, associée à l’État et à l’#impôt.

      La #paysannerie ne produisait pas automatiquement un excédent susceptible d’être approprié par les élites non productrices et devait être contrainte par le biais de #travail_forcé (#corvées, réquisitions de céréales, #servitude pour dettes, #servage, #asservissement_collectif ou paiement d’un tribu, #esclavage). L’État devait respecter un équilibre entre maximisation de l’excédent et risque de provoquer un exode massif. Les premiers codes juridiques témoignent des efforts en vue de décourager et punir l’#immigration même si l’État archaïque n’avait pas les moyens d’empêcher un certain degré de déperdition démographique. Comme pour la sédentarité et la domestication des céréales, il n’a cependant fait que développer et consolider l’esclavage, pratiqué antérieurement par les peuples sans État. Égypte, Mésopotamie, Grèce, Sparte, Rome impériale, Chine, « sans esclavage, pas d’État. » L’asservissement des #prisonniers_de_guerre constituait un prélèvement sauvage de main d’œuvre immédiatement productive et compétente. Disposer d’un #prolétariat corvéable épargnait aux sujets les travaux les plus dégradants et prévenait les tensions insurrectionnelles tout en satisfaisant les ambitions militaires et monumentales.

      La disparition périodique de la plupart de ces entités politiques était « surdéterminée » en raison de leur dépendance à une seule récolte annuelle d’une ou deux céréales de base, de la concentration démographique qui rendait la population et le bétail vulnérables aux maladies infectieuses. La vaste expansion de la sphère commerciale eut pour effet d’étendre le domaine des maladies transmissibles. L’appétit dévorant de #bois des États archaïques pour le #chauffage, la cuisson et la #construction, est responsable de la #déforestation et de la #salinisation_des_sols. Des #conflits incessants et la rivalité autour du contrôle de la #main-d’œuvre locale ont également contribué à la fragilité des premiers États. Ce que l’histoire interprète comme un « effondrement » pouvait aussi être provoqué par une fuite des sujets de la région centrale et vécu comme une #émancipation. James C. Scott conteste le #préjugé selon lequel « la concentration de la population au cœur des centres étatiques constituerait une grande conquête de la civilisation, tandis que la décentralisation à travers des unités politiques de taille inférieure traduirait une rupture ou un échec de l’ordre politique ». De même, les « âges sombres » qui suivaient, peuvent être interprétés comme des moments de résistance, de retours à des #économies_mixtes, plus à même de composer avec son environnement, préservé des effets négatifs de la concentration et des fardeaux imposés par l’État.

      Jusqu’en 1600 de notre ère, en dehors de quelques centres étatiques, la population mondiale occupait en majorité des territoires non gouvernés, constituant soit des « #barbares », c’est-à-dire des « populations pastorales hostiles qui constituaient une menace militaire » pour l’État, soit des « #sauvages », impropres à servir de matière première à la #civilisation. La menace des barbares limitait la croissance des États et ceux-ci constituaient des cibles de pillages et de prélèvement de tribut. James C. Scott considère la période qui s’étend entre l’émergence initiale de l’État jusqu’à sa conquête de l’hégémonie sur les peuples sans État, comme une sorte d’ « âge d’or des barbares ». Les notions de #tribu ou de peuple sont des « #fictions_administratives » inventées en tant qu’instrument de #domination, pour désigner des #réfugiés politiques ou économiques ayant fuit vers la périphérie. « Avec le recul, on peut percevoir les relations entre les barbares et l’État comme une compétition pour le droit de s’approprier l’excédent du module sédentaire « céréales/main-d’œuvre ». » Si les chasseurs-cueilleurs itinérants grappillaient quelques miettes de la richesse étatique, de grandes confédérations politiques, notamment les peuples équestres, véritables « proto-États » ou « Empires fantômes » comme l’État itinérant de #Gengis_Kahn ou l’#Empire_Comanche, constituaient des concurrents redoutables. Les milices barbares, en reconstituant les réserves de main d’œuvre de l’État et en mettant leur savoir faire militaire au service de sa protection et de son expansion, ont creusé leur propre tombe.

      Dans la continuité de Pierre Clastres et de David Graeber, James C. Scott contribue à mettre à mal les récits civilisationnels dominants. Avec cette étude, il démontre que l’apparition de l’État est une #anomalie et une #contrainte, présentant plus d’inconvénients que d’avantages, raison pour laquelle ses sujets le fuyait. Comprendre la véritable origine de l’État c’est découvrir qu’une toute autre voie était possible et sans doute encore aujourd’hui.

      https://lundi.am/HOMO-DOMESTICUS-Une-Histoire-profonde-des-premiers-Etats
      #historicisation

  • Le Retour des domestiques - Mon blog sur l’écologie politique
    http://blog.ecologie-politique.eu/post/Le-Retour-des-domestiques

    Cette mesure n’est pas seulement non-redistributive, elle est anti-redistributive puisqu’elle ne redistribue que dans la mesure d’une dépense qui dépend de la disposition à payer. Ce boom des emplois domestiques, faiblement qualifiés, est dû en partie à des politiques publiques directes et en partie à un contexte qui est celui de la montée des inégalités de revenu en France depuis les années 1990. L’emploi n’a cessé de se polariser, avec la création d’emplois qualifiés et d’emplois peu qualifiés et peu rémunérés pendant que sont détruits des emplois du milieu. Et cela est particulièrement marqué pour les femmes ; tandis que celles qui ont les moyens recourent aux services de celles qui n’ont pas de meilleures opportunités professionnelles, l’égalité femmes-hommes ne progresse pas, elle est seulement atténuée dans certaines classes. Cette polarisation encourage l’emploi domestique et tous types de services : ils coûtent moins cher en valeur absolue comme en valeur relative puisque les revenus des consommateurs ont augmenté.

    #livre #recension #Aude_Vidal #service #domestique

  • Héritages coloniaux. Les #Suisses_d'Algérie

    Quels rapports les pays européens entretiennent-ils avec leur #passé_colonial ? La manière dont ils traitent, relisent, reconstruisent, oublient ou dissimulent ce volet de leur histoire est déterminante pour comprendre la géopolitique mondiale d’aujourd’hui, et questionner nos sociétés actuelles.
    La Confédération, sous sa cape de #neutralité, a longtemps nié son implication dans des processus coloniaux. Pourtant, des Suisses ont participé du #peuplement de « l’#Algérie_française », où ils ont exercé des formes de #domination, notamment via des #investissements_privés. À la proclamation de l’indépendance algérienne, la Confédération s’est trouvée face à la délicate organisation du « #retour » des colons helvètes. Suite aux nationalisations et aux expropriations outre-mer, des biens ont dû être protégés, des pensions versées.
    Ce livre offre de précieux outils pour appréhender l’#histoire_coloniale dans un monde décolonisé. Étayée par des sources d’archives suisses, françaises, italiennes et anglaises – pour la plupart inédites –, cette étude reconstitue les jeux d’échelles et met en évidence le rôle déterminant de l’Association des Suisses spoliés d’Algérie ou d’outre-mer.

    https://www.seismoverlag.ch/fr/daten/heritages-coloniaux

    #colonialisme #colonisation #Suisse #Algérie #Association_des_Suisses_spoliés_d'Algérie_ou_d'outre-mer (#ASSAOM) #Marisa_Fois
    #livre

    –—

    Ajouté à la métaliste sur la Suisse coloniale :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/868109

    ping @cede

  • Data giant given ‘emergency’ Covid contract had been wooing NHS for months
    https://www.thebureauinvestigates.com/stories/2021-02-24/revealed-data-giant-given-emergency-covid-contract-had-been-w

    Controversial tech firm Palantir now holds £23m deal to oversee critical data store of patient records A trove of internal UK government documents disclosed to the Bureau has revealed that Palantir, the controversial US tech giant running the NHS’s Covid data store, had launched a charm offensive to sell its services to NHS chiefs as long ago as summer 2019. Palantir, once funded by the CIA and known in the US for its involvement with defence and immigration agencies, shot to prominence in (...)

    #Palantir #NHS #domination #données #COVID-19 #santé #CIA #In-Q-Tel #ICE

    ##santé

  • Bâillonner les #quartiers. Comment le #pouvoir réprime les #mobilisations populaires

    Pourquoi les quartiers populaires ne se révoltent-ils pas plus souvent ? Alors qu’ils sont ravagés depuis des décennies par un #urbanisme au rabais, le #chômage de masse et les #humiliations policières, #Julien_Talpin explore les raisons pour lesquelles ces quartiers peinent à asseoir leurs intérêts. Il montre que les entraves aux mobilisations collectives tiennent moins à ce qui serait l’apathie fataliste des habitants qu’aux multiples tactiques répressives déployées par les #pouvoirs_publics.
    Les différents chapitres décortiquent les logiques disciplinaires qui, sans avoir même besoin d’être coordonnées, garantissent le maintien du #statu_quo. À l’arrière-plan de la #répression_policière et judiciaire, se déploient quotidiennement le #chantage clientélaire aux subventions, la #disqualification islamophobe des opposants ou les piqures anesthésiantes de la #démocratie_participative.
    En documentant la manière dont cette #répression à bas bruit traverse les mobilisations contemporaines, ce livre en dégage la dimension systémique. Il place sous les projecteurs cette trappe à révolte qui fabrique la #domestication_politique, encourage l’#autocensure_collective et suscite la #résignation_individuelle. En livrant les recettes de l’adversaire, il veut contribuer au long chemin des luttes autonomes pour l’#égalité.

    https://lesetaques.org/2020/01/29/baillonner-les-quartiers
    #livre #quartiers_populaires #résistance #révoltes #répression_judiciaire #Julien_Talpin

    ping @cede @karine4

  • Google Analytics : Stop feeding the beast
    https://casparwre.de/blog/stop-using-google-analytics

    The beast that is Google There was a time when Google was a small, quirky company with a single product so awesome that it blew away the competition. That time is long gone. These days Google is a gigantic multinational mega-corp. But that’s understating it a little. Think of Google as a kind of Godzilla that slurps up data about its users at one end and craps out gold ingots at the other. It does both of these at huge scale. When thinking about Google, there are three things that are not (...)

    #Google #GoogleAnalytics #GoogleMaps #GoogleSearch #algorithme #domination #bénéfices #microtargeting #notation #profiling (...)

    ##publicité

  • Je ne veux pas d’une vie entièrement numérique
    https://reporterre.net/Je-ne-veux-pas-d-une-vie-entierement-numerique

    Dans la nuit du 16 au 17 février, dans la vallée de la Drôme, le feu a détruit un poste répartiteur d’Orange. Comme huit mille abonnés, notre chroniqueuse s’est réveillée sans téléphone fixe ni portable, sans wifi ni 4G. L’occasion de s’interroger sur la place du numérique dans nos vies. Ce 17 février était un mercredi, jour de marché, haut lieu de circulation d’informations dans le Diois. On y apprit l’incendie de Crest. La première réaction spontanée, disons-le, fut un sentiment de jubilation, celle de (...)

    #Orange #technologisme #domination #bug

  • An Australia With No Google ? The Bitter Fight Behind a Drastic Threat
    https://www.nytimes.com/2021/01/22/business/australia-google-facebook-news-media.html

    The big tech platforms are facing a challenge unlike any other as Australia moves to make them pay for news. SYDNEY, Australia — In a major escalation, Google threatened on Friday to make its search engine unavailable in Australia if the government approved legislation that would force tech companies to pay for journalism shared on their platforms. Facebook, which appeared with Google at an Australian Senate hearing, reaffirmed a threat of its own, vowing to block users in Australia from (...)

    #Google #Facebook #censure #domination

  • Les nouveaux pouvoirs à l’ère de l’intelligence artificielle
    https://blogs.mediapart.fr/emmanuel-prados/blog/220221/les-nouveaux-pouvoirs-l-ere-de-l-intelligence-artificielle

    L’avènement de l’économie de la donnée bouleverse l’ensemble des paradigmes économiques et politiques. De nouvelles formes de pouvoir systémiques apparaissent, cristallisées autour des Big Tech (en particulier les GAFAM). Celles-ci viennent heurter les fonctions étatiques en termes de souveraineté, de gestion de l’espace public et d’exercice démocratique... L’avènement de l’économie de la donnée bouleverse l’ensemble des paradigmes économiques et politiques. De nouvelles formes de pouvoir systémiques (...)

    #éthique #domination #BigData #GAFAM

  • How Facebook plans to take over the world
    https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/apr/23/facebook-global-takeover-f8-conference-messenger-chatbots

    Social network went from digital directory for college kids to communications behemoth – and it’s planning for prosperity with its global takeover It’s late afternoon on a blustery spring day on the waterfront at San Francisco’s Fort Mason, a former military base that’s now hired out for corporate functions. Vast warehouses, once used to store army supplies, are awash with sleek signs, shimmering lights and endless snacks. Behind them is an Instagram-ready view of Alcatraz island. In front, a (...)

    #Facebook #domination #bénéfices #microtargeting #profiling #publicité #surveillance

    ##publicité
    https://i.guim.co.uk/img/media/a43dea72a2aefa144c797ea07188cd8c0460ae4f/151_202_2849_1709/2849.jpg

  • The inside story of Facebook’s biggest setback
    https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/may/12/facebook-free-basics-india-zuckerberg

    The social network had a grand plan to connect millions of Indians to the internet. Here’s how it all went wrong Until Mark Zuckerberg arrived in a bright orange helicopter in October 2014, Chandauli had never seen a celebrity visitor. One of 44,795 villages in the state of Rajasthan, Chandauli is only three or four hours’ drive from Delhi, but it exists alone and forgotten, tucked away, a kilometre off a quiet highway. Last year, when a local boy used the internet to buy a used motorcycle, (...)

    #Facebook #domination #SocialNetwork

    https://i.guim.co.uk/img/media/e6caf7600fe49feaf4802e1e7b200a7bb44539f1/27_15_10362_6220/10362.jpg

  • Facebook reverses ban on news pages in Australia
    https://www.bbc.com/news/world-australia-56165015

    Facebook has announced it will restore news content to its users in Australia. The tech giant has blocked news to Australians on its platform since last Thursday amid a dispute over a proposed law which would force it and Google to pay news publishers for content. Australian Treasurer Josh Frydenberg said Facebook chief Mark Zuckerberg had told him the ban would end “in the coming days”, after the pair had talks. Mr Frydenberg said amendments would be made to the law. "Facebook has (...)

    #Facebook #censure #domination

  • Sexual violence against boys is far more common than we think - The Washington Post
    https://www.washingtonpost.com/magazine/2021/02/22/why-we-dont-talk-about-sexual-violence-against-boys-why-we-should/?arc404=true

    Boys are more likely than girls to die in their second decade of life, and they use more alcohol and tobacco, habits that erode their health as they age, Blum said. But even more troubling, Blum’s team found that boys suffered higher levels of physical violence, neglect and sexual abuse by adults than girls. And the more a boy was victimized, the more likely he was to do violence to others.
    Those findings should serve as a gut punch. We can’t solve the problem of violence against girls and women without also addressing violence against men and boys. And we won’t succeed in teaching our sons to care for other people’s bodies until we learn to care for theirs.

    • Yet we rarely hear about any of this on the news. We hardly ever talk about it. Stories of sexual misconduct are everywhere, but the tellers of those stories are mostly girls and women. The stories of men and boys still remain mostly hidden, unacknowledged and undiscussed.

    • The default in discussions about sexual violence is to think of boys and men as perpetrators and women as victims. But that is an oversimplification that is built on a damaging stereotype about male invulnerability, and it obscures the truth: Boys can be victims, and boys can need help. We’ve just built a world that makes it hard for them to admit it — and for the rest of us to acknowledge it. If we want to raise boys differently, we must start believing that they are equally capable of feeling pain and doing violence.

    • ah là je comprends enfin ce truc du viol comme rapport de pouvoir, tout sauf du sexe donc (ça parle d’une agression de vestiaire de foot avec un manche à balais) :

      The freshman intuitively understood and endorsed the argument that scholars make in academic circles: This kind of sexual assault has nothing to do with sex. It’s about power. It’s about older boys establish­ing their place at the top, putting younger players in their place.

    • @tintin, here you are :

      Raising a boy sometimes feels like traveling in a foreign land. When I gave birth to my daughter, three years before my son was born, I had no idea how to be a mother. But after decades of navigating life as a woman, I knew unequivocally what I wanted for her: to see herself as capable of anything, constrained by none of the old limits on who women must be and how they must move through the world. She could be fierce and funny and loving and steely-spined.

      “I am strong and fearless,” I taught her to say when she was 2, as she hesitated on the playground, her lips quivering as she considered crossing a rope-netting bridge strung 10 feet above the ground. There was nothing premeditated about that little sentence. It just ap­peared on my tongue, distilling what I wanted her to be and how I hoped she would think of herself.

      I had no such pithy motto for my son. Reminding a boy to be strong and fearless seemed unnecessary and maybe even counterproduc­tive, fortifying a stereotype instead of unraveling it. What could I give him to help him ignore the tired old expectations of boys? I had no idea. I didn’t know how to help him resist the stresses and stereotypes of boyhood, because I had never grappled with the fact that boys face stresses and stereotypes at all.

      But of course they do. Boys learn that they’re supposed to be tough and strong and sexually dominant, according to a massive study of gender attitudes among 10- to 14-year-olds in the United States and countries across four other continents. Girls learn that they’re supposed to be attractive and submissive, according to the study, led by researchers at Johns Hopkins University.

      The global script clearly harms girls, who face disproportionate levels of sexual violence, not to mention greater risk of early pregnancy and leaving school. But Robert Blum, a physician who has studied adolescents for 40 years and is one of the Johns Hopkins scholars leading the study, wants people to understand that it also hurts boys. “The story about boys has yet to be told, and I think it’s a really important story,” Blum explained to me. “Our data suggest that the myth that boys are advantaged and girls are disadvantaged simply isn’t true.”

      The movement for gender equality has often focused on empowering girls. But as Blum sees it, achieving gender equality also requires attention for boys. They too need to know they are not circumscribed by ideas about who and how they should be.

      Boys are more likely than girls to die in their second decade of life, and they use more alcohol and tobacco, habits that erode their health as they age, Blum said. But even more troubling, Blum’s team found that boys suffered higher levels of physical violence, neglect and sexual abuse by adults than girls. And the more a boy was victimized, the more likely he was to do violence to others.

      Those findings should serve as a gut punch. We can’t solve the problem of violence against girls and women without also addressing violence against men and boys. And we won’t succeed in teaching our sons to care for other people’s bodies until we learn to care for theirs.

      The first I heard of “brooming” was in one of those interstitial moments, a busy day on pause, waiting for my car to be repaired at an auto shop before racing to work. It was pouring outside, so I huddled along with a half­-dozen other harried customers in a small room where a television blared a local news show. Five boys, football players at a high school just outside D.C., had been charged with rape and attempted rape in the alleged attacks of their teammates with the end of a wooden broomstick.

      Not only had I never heard of such a thing, but I had never even imag­ined it. Raped with a broomstick? Long after I left, I was still trying to wrap my head around it, and as details emerged in the following days and weeks, I could not look away.

      It had happened on the last day of October, Halloween, at Damascus High, a diverse public school with a powerhouse football program in Montgomery County, Md. My colleagues at The Washington Post, where I work as an investigative reporter, reported the wrenching details of the attack. Freshmen on the junior varsity team had been changing in a locker room after school when suddenly the lights went out, and they could hear the sound of someone banging a broomstick against the wall. The sophomores had arrived. “It’s time,” one of them said. They went from freshman to freshman, grabbing four of them, pushing them to the ground, punching, stomping. They pulled the younger boys’ pants down and stabbed the broom at their buttocks, trying — and at least once succeeding — to shove the handle inside their rectums. The victims pleaded for help, the attackers laughed at them, and a crowd of other boys looked on, watching the horror unspool.

      Whenever I learn of something unconscionable, I find myself looking for clues that it could never happen to me or the people I love. That’s human nature, I guess. But like any other kind of sexual assault, brooming is not a phenomenon confined to this one high school, or to any particular type of school or community. It cuts across racial and socioeconomic lines, shows up in elite private boys’ academies and coed public schools, in big cities and rural villages and small towns that dot the heartland.

      What do you think you know about boys and sexual violence? I thought I knew that boys are victims only rarely, and I automatically equated “child sexual abuse” with adults preying on kids. But I was wrong on both counts.

      Many boys are molested by adults, that’s true. But there are strong signs that children are even more likely to be sexually abused or sexually as­saulted by other children. In one study of 13,000 children age 17 and younger, three-quarters of the boys who reported being sexually victimized said the person who violated them was another child. In a little more than half those assaults, the violator was a girl. Most boys who had been assaulted had never told an adult.

      Though sexual violence mostly affects girls and women, male victims are still astonishingly common. I was shocked to learn that as many as 1 in 6 boys is sexually abused during childhood. About 1 in 4 men is a victim of some kind of sexual violence over the course of his lifetime, from unwanted contact to coercion to rape. LGBTQ men are at greater risk than heterosexual men: More than 40 percent of gay men and 47 percent of bisexual men say they have been sexually victimized, compared compared with 21 percent of straight men.

      In 2015, a national survey by the Centers for Disease Control and Pre­vention found that nearly 4 million men (and 5.6 million women) had been victims of sexual violence just in the previous year. More than 2 million of those men were subjected to unwanted sexual contact, and more than 800,000 said they were “made to penetrate” another person — an awkward term that doesn’t show up much in the media or in public debate. It means that a man was either too inebriated to consent or was coerced or threatened into sex.

      Just as with girls and women, violation of men and boys can involve physical force or emotional coercion. Just as with girls and women, boys and men sometimes have sexual experiences to which they cannot consent because they are underage or blackout drunk — experiences that we might reflexively call sex but that we should really understand as assault. And though the perpetrators in those cases can be other boys and men, they can also be girls and women. The overwhelming majority of male rape victims say that the person who violated them was another male, but most male victims of other kinds of sexual violence say they were violated by a female.

      Boys and men who survive sexual violence can experience serious psychological and emotional fallout, including post-traumatic stress, symptoms of depression and anxiety, suicidal thoughts, substance abuse problems and sexual dysfunction.

      Yet we rarely hear about any of this on the news. We hardly ever talk about it. Stories of sexual misconduct are everywhere, but the tellers of those stories are mostly girls and women. The stories of men and boys still remain mostly hidden, unacknowledged and undiscussed.

      The default in discussions about sexual violence is to think of boys and men as perpetrators and women as victims. But that is an oversimplification that is built on a damaging stereotype about male invulnerability, and it obscures the truth: Boys can be victims, and boys can need help. We’ve just built a world that makes it hard for them to admit it — and for the rest of us to acknowledge it. If we want to raise boys differently, we must start believing that they are equally capable of feeling pain and doing violence.

      When I first began learning about locker room assaults, I wanted to know what motivated a boy to hurt another boy in this way. But along the way, I became even more puzzled — and troubled — by the victims’ experiences. They had so much difficulty identifying what had happened to them as sexual assault, and felt too much shame to admit they were hurting.

      One boy was so distressed about the prospect of being attacked by his basketball teammates during a tournament trip that he called his mother, intending to ask her for help. As frightened as he was, when it came down to it, he couldn’t bring himself to tell her what was going on. “I was going to tell her when I first got on the phone with her, but I ended up not saying nothing,” he later said. “I was going to tell her, but I didn’t know how to say that.”

      I’ll call him Martin. He was a freshman on the varsity team at Ooltewah High School, near Chattanooga, Tenn. In December 2015, he and his teammates drove to a tournament in Gatlinburg, in the Great Smoky Mountains. They stayed in a cabin where there was a pool table down­stairs in the boys’ quarters. The coaches stayed upstairs.

      By the fourth day, Martin knew the upperclassmen were coming for him. They had already gone after the other three fresh­men; every evening, he had seen the brandishing of a pool cue and he had heard the screaming. He knew he was next; that’s when he called his mother. And yet he didn’t know how to ask for help without embarrassing himself and violating an unwritten code of silence. He just couldn’t get the words out.

      Soon after the phone call with his mother, three of Martin’s teammates assaulted him. Even after the attack — which ulti­mately landed him in the hospital with a months-long recovery ahead of him — Martin did not immediately tell the truth about what had been done to him. He told his coach that he and his attackers had been “wrestling” and he insisted he was fine — until he peed blood, then collapsed and had to go to the emergency room. It was only because of his extreme injury that the truth came to light.

      Later, during a sworn deposition, a lawyer asked Martin if the attack had to do with sexual orientation. Was the older boy gay? No, Martin said. It wasn’t that at all. “I feel like he tried to make me — belittle me,” he said. “Tried to make me feel like less than a man, less than him.” (I spoke to Martin’s lawyer but didn’t speak to Martin. This account is based on court records, media accounts and video testimony.)

      The freshman intuitively understood and endorsed the argument that scholars make in academic circles: This kind of sexual assault has nothing to do with sex. It’s about power. It’s about older boys establish­ing their place at the top, putting younger players in their place.

      This particular way of flexing power depends on the cluelessness or tacit acceptance of the adults who are paid to keep boys safe. It also depends on the silence of victims, who — like most teenagers — want desperately to belong, which means bearing pain, handling it and definitely not snitching. But it’s dangerous and unfair to expect boys to bear the responsibility for protecting themselves, Monica Beck, one of the attorneys who represented Martin in a lawsuit against the school sys­tem, told me. Boys, like girls, deserve the protection and help of their coaches, their teachers, their parents and their principals.

      After Martin collapsed and underwent surgery, he spent six days in the hospital and nine months recovering, including relearning how to walk. One of the attackers was convicted of aggravated rape, the other two of aggravated assault.

      Even with these horrifying facts, not everyone agreed that what happened to Martin should actually be considered sexual violence. The police officer who investigated the crime filed charges of aggravated rape, a crime that in Tennessee does not require sexual motivation. But he suggested in state court that what happened was not in fact a sexual assault. It was instead, he said, “something stupid that kids do” that “just happened” to meet the definition of aggravated rape.

      Later, Martin sued the school district for failing to protect his civil rights. As the trial approached, lawyers representing the school board asked the judge to prohibit Martin’s legal team from using certain terms in front of a jury: rape, aggravated rape, sexual battery, sexual assault.

      The judge never had to decide, because the school district’s insurance carrier settled with Martin for $750,000, avoiding a trial. But it’s notable that this was even a potential issue of debate. Imagine that a girl was attacked as Martin was. Would anyone doubt that it qualified as a sexual assault?

      Sports is a refuge for so many children and an engine for so much good. Kids can learn to communicate and depend on each other. They can learn to push and surpass their own athletic limits. They can learn to win, and to lose, with humility and grace. Kids who play organized sports tend to do better in school than kids who don’t, have stronger social skills and higher self-esteem, and are healthier physically and men­tally, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics.

      But as anyone who has spent much time on the sidelines of a youth soccer or basketball or football game can tell you, sports can also be de­structive. Coaches and parents can be verbally abusive, teaching kids that winning is more important than integrity and that disrespect is part of the game. Kids can learn to prize the use of force and violence.

      It’s this darker side of sports that turns it into a breeding ground for hazing, initiation rituals that older players use to belittle and humiliate junior teammates. For boys who find themselves on teams with such a poisonous culture, sports are not a refuge. They are a nightmare.

      Over the past generation, hazing pranks that once seemed innocuous — ­think dressing up in silly costumes or singing an embarrassing song in public — have evolved, becoming increasingly dangerous and sexual, according to social scientists who study hazing and consultants to high school athletic teams. Sexualized hazing, some argue, is an expression of a narrow version of masculinity that is celebrated in sports — a version of masculinity that is not just about strength but about dominating at all costs, about hiding pain and enduring weakness, and about degrading anyone or anything that seems feminine or gay. Even as a growing number of alternative niches gives boys places to thrive as proud geeks and artists and gender nonconformists, many sports have remained staunchly macho in this way.

      We don’t have comprehensive data on how common it is for boys to sexually assault other boys in the context of athletics. In 2000, researchers from Alfred University, a small private school in western New York, conducted the first national survey of high school hazing. They wanted to ask about sexualized hazing, but they were stymied. In those early days of the Internet, they had to send their survey out to students in the mail, and they got access to a database of student addresses only on the condition that they not ask any questions having to do with sex or sexuality. (In general, researchers have trouble getting permission to ask children under 18 questions about anything related to sex, sexual violence or abuse — which is understandable, but which also hobbles our understanding of kids’ experiences.)

      Norm Pollard, one of the lead researchers on the Alfred University sur­vey, found students’ replies to one open-ended question shocking. “They talked about being sexually assaulted at away matches, in the back of the bus and in locker rooms,” Pollard said. “It was devastating to read those reports from kids that were just trying to be part of a team or a club.”

      Psychologist Susan Lipkins has studied hazing since 2003, when she traveled to a small town near her home in New York to interview the parents and coach of high school football players who had been sexually abused by teammates at a preseason training camp. None of the victims reported the abuse to a coach, a parent or any other adult. It came to light only because one of the boys sought medical help — and the cover story he told doctors to explain his injuries didn’t make sense.

      She and other experts said they have seen noticeably more media reports and court filings alleging ritualized sexual violence among high school boys, leading them to believe that it is becoming more common and more severe. Boys tell each other and themselves that they are taking part in a tradition: This is what it takes to be part of the team, this is what it takes to belong. First you are assaulted; then you become a bystander, watching as others are brutalized; finally, you get your turn at the top, your turn to attack.

      Boys who report being sexually assaulted face the humiliation of hav­ing to describe how they were violated out loud, to another person, and then they face what Lipkins calls a “second hazing” — a blowback of harassment and bullying not unlike that heaped on female victims of rape. Lipkins noted that she has seen parents and students band together to protect their team, their coach, even local real estate values against allegations of sexualized hazing. “Communities support the perpetrators and say, You’re a wimp, why did you report it,” she said.

      As a result of all that pressure, she said, it’s common for boys to remain silent even after being assaulted. Not only do boys not want to tattle on their teammates, but they often don’t even recognize that they’re victims of an unacceptable violation and of a crime. No one has told them. “Hazing education is in the Dark Ages,” Lipkins said.

      She believes that young people and adults, includ­ing parents, coaches and administrators, need much more training to recognize this kind of behavior as an unacceptable form of harm rather than a tradition to be upheld. And Lipkins believes it won’t end until groups of players stand up together to stop it, either as active bystanders who protect victims or as victims who together find the courage to speak out.

      Of course, when they speak out, they need grown-ups to hear them and protect them. Coaches must understand that building a healthy team culture and guarding players’ safety are crucial parts of their job. And we par­ents must tell our boys the same thing we tell our girls — that their bodies are their own, that no one should touch them without their consent, that we will not tolerate violation of their physical autonomy.

      Boys who are raped or sexually assaulted face a particular kind of disbelief. They may not be accused, as girls often are, of reinterpreting a consensual sexual encounter as nonconsensual. They’re perhaps less likely to be accused of straight-up lying, or of being crazy. Instead, they’re accused of taking things too seriously. Sexual assault? No! It was just messing around. Just a joke. Just boys being boys. Just hazing.

      The language we use to describe what happens to boys helps feed the problem, argues Adele Kimmel, who has become one of the leading lawyers for male and female victims of sexual assault. “Terminology matters,” Kimmel, a wiry woman with jet-black hair, told me on a rainy day in downtown Washington at the sleek offices of the nonprofit firm Public Justice, where she is a senior attorney. “Some of these boys don’t even recognize that they’ve been sexually assaulted be­cause it’s been normalized by the adults. They call it these euphemistic terms — they call it horseplay, roughhousing, poking, hazing. They don’t call it sexual assault. They don’t call it rape.”

      Kimmel represented an Oklahoma middle school boy who was in music class when one of his football teammates held him down and assaulted him. The principal called it horseplay but acknowledged in an interview with a state investigator that if the same thing had happened to a girl, he would have considered it sexual assault. The boy was branded as a tattletale for reporting what had happened to him and became the target of fierce bullying at school. His father asked for help. “What do you want me to do, hold his hand?” the principal said, according to the lawsuit the family later filed.

      When we convey to boys that unwanted touch is a serious issue of sexual assault only when it affects girls and not when it affects boys, we are sending a message that only girls’ bodies are worthy of protection. That message leaves our sons vulnerable to abuse, and it presents them with a knotty question: Why should boys treat other people’s bodies with dignity and respect if their own bodies are not also treated with dignity and respect?

      Violence prevention programs often focus on debunking rape myths about female victims. No, wearing a short skirt is not the same thing as consenting to sex. But they less often delve into male victims — particularly those men who are violated by women. The idea that a man would have to be forced or coerced into sex with a woman runs counter to our cultural scripts about how sex works. But that’s just another misleading stereotype, and one that makes it hard for boys and men to recognize and deal with their own experiences. By now, for example, stories about college campus rape have firmly established that some men assault women who are too drunk to consent. There’s no counternarrative about men being raped when they have had too much to drink — usually, that’s just called sex. But whether they con­sider it assault, men on campus can and do have unwanted sex. One student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology told me for a 2015 Washington Post series on sexual assault how uncom­fortable he felt when he was pursued by a woman he wasn’t interested in. He found himself unable to say no to her persistent advances, even though he knew he didn’t want to have sex with her. “You don’t want to be rude,” he said. “You don’t want to be weird.”

      College fraternities have a reputation for tolerating and even encour­aging sexual violence against women, and there is some evidence that fra­ternity brothers are at greater risk than other college men of committing assault. But there is also other, perhaps less widely known evidence that fraternity members are at greater risk than other students of being as­saulted themselves. In a study of fraternity men at one Midwestern college, more than a quarter — 27 percent — said that someone had had sex with them without their consent, either through the use of force or by taking advantage of them when they were drunk.

      But many people do not define a man pushed into nonconsensual sex as a person who has been sexually assaulted. A 2018 survey of 1,200 adults found that 1 in 3 would not quite believe a man who said he was raped by a woman, and 1 in 4 believed men enjoy being raped by a woman. There’s a belief that men cannot be raped be­cause women aren’t strong enough to physically force them, and a convic­tion that straight men want sex so much and so consistently that they just aren’t that bothered by a woman who refuses to listen when he says no. These ideas are embedded in our institutions, from media to medicine to law to scholarship.

      It wasn’t until 2012 that the FBI recognized that men could be raped. Until then, the bureau defined rape as “the carnal knowledge of a female, forcibly and against her will.” Now it uses gender-neutral terms; rape is defined as “the penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim.”

      Scholars studying sexual violence have often asked men only about their own sexual aggression and women only about being violated, an approach that fails to acknowledge — much less measure — the existence of male victims, female perpetrators or same-sex assault. When researchers have asked about sexual violence in gender-neutral terms, they have made startling discoveries. One survey of 300 college men found that half had experienced some type of sexual victimization, and an astonishing 17 percent — nearly 1 in 5 — had been raped, meaning they had unwanted sex because they were threatened, physically forced or taken advantage of while too intoxicated to consent.

      Lara Stemple, an assistant dean at UCLA School of Law, is a feminist who has focused some of her research on highlighting the large number of men who have expe­rienced sexual violence and the institutional biases that have obscured their experiences. She told me that her efforts to bring attention to male victims — and to the surprisingly high rates of female perpetration of such violence — have at times triggered false accusations that she is aligned with men’s rights activists, who are known for anti-feminist and misogynistic language and ideology.

      But as Stemple argues, acknowledging the invisibility of men’s suffering does not mean dismissing or doubting violence against women. It is not one or the other. Both problems are tangled up in some of the same deeply ingrained notions about what it means — or what we think it means — to be a man.

      The #MeToo movement has been built out of stories, one after the other, a flood that helped us see how men in positions of power abuse women and then keep their violence secret. In those stories, the world saw evidence of a sprawling problem in urgent need of solutions. Women found solidarity in acknowledging what had happened to them and in declaring that it was not tolerable and was not their fault.

      Now boys need to hear more of these stories from men. Media coverage of high-profile cases of sexual violence against men and boys has helped open Americans’ eyes to the fact that the sexual victimization of boys is not just possible but deeply scarring, psychologist Richard Gartner, who specializes in treating male victims, told me. When Gartner began speaking publicly about male victims in the 1990s, he was often greeted with blank stares and dis­belief.

      But then came revelations about widespread abuse by Catholic priests, by Penn State assistant football coach Jerry Sandusky, by Boy Scout troop lead­ers. Those stories forced people to begin to recognize the vulnerability of young boys. When actor and former NFL player Terry Crews came for­ward to say he had been groped by a male Hollywood executive, it forced people to consider the vulnerability even of strong adult men. And it made room for more boys and men to come to terms with their own experiences as victims of abuse, Gartner says: “Every time that happens, some boy somewhere says, well, if he can come forward, maybe I should be talking to someone.”

      Perhaps it is starting to happen more often. Over the past few years, the women who came forward in droves to speak out about sexual violence were joined by men who said they had been abused, including allegedly by powerful, high-profile men such as actor Kevin Spacey and film director Bryan Singer. In one remarkable reckoning, more than 300 former Ohio State University students said they had been sexually abused by an Ohio State doctor, Richard Strauss, and sued the university for failing to protect them.

      In 2019, an independent investigation commissioned by the university found that Ohio State officials knew of complaints about Strauss as early as 1979 but allowed him to continue prac­ticing until he retired with honors two decades later. Strauss committed nearly 1,500 acts of sexual abuse, including 47 acts of rape, the university told fed­eral authorities in 2019. The stories Ohio State graduates tell about Strauss bear remarkable similarity to the stories that hundreds of women told about the abuse they suffered at the hands of Larry Nassar, the former Michigan State University physician and former USA Gymnastics national team doctor. If the collective power of Nassar’s victims forced the nation to con­front the ways in which institutions ignore girls and young women who report sexual assault, then the graduates of Ohio State may help force us to see how we have dismissed boys and young men.

      For now, though, many men still see reasons to keep their stories to themselves. Gartner has written extensively about the shame, trauma and confusion that his patients struggle with as they try to make sense of how they were victimized. Many fear that admitting violation will be seen as evidence of personal weakness. They fear they won’t be believed. And they fear they were somehow complicit.

      Boys who report assault or abuse need to hear from their parents and the people close to them that they are unconditionally loved. “The most important thing to say is, ‘I believe you, and it wasn’t your fault ... and we still love you,’ ” Gartner says. And parents who want to prevent their boys from being abused, he explains, should be telling their sons all the same things they tell their daughters about their right to control access to their bodies.

      When we fail to recognize and address violence against boys, not only are we failing to protect boys, but we also may be stoking violence against women. These problems are to some extent intertwined: While most do not go on to lives of violence, criminality or delinquency, victimized children are at greater risk of doing harm to others.

      If you had asked me, before I started this research, whether I believed that boys and men could be victims of sexual assault, I would have said of course. If you had asked me whether I bought into the notion that boys and men always want sex, I might have rolled my eyes: Um, no. But listening to the stories of male victims taught me that I didn’t com­pletely believe what I thought I believed. I noticed my own knee-jerk resistance to the reality that unwanted sexual contact can traumatize boys just as it does girls — and to the reality that it can matter just as much to them. Deep down, somewhere under my skin, I was holding on to some seriously wrongheaded assumptions — ideas so ingrained I did not even notice them, ideas that rendered boys as something less than human.

  • Facebook va restaurer les contenus d’actualité en Australie
    https://www.lemonde.fr/economie/article/2021/02/23/facebook-va-restaurer-les-contenus-d-actualite-en-australie_6070859_3234.htm

    Le gouvernement a accepté d’amender la loi, décriée par Google et Facebook, visant à contraindre les géants de la tech à rémunérer les médias pour la reprise de leurs contenus. Facebook a fait marche arrière. Le réseau social a annoncé, mardi 23 février, la levée « dans les prochains jours » du blocage en Australie des contenus d’actualité. Le ministre australien des finances, Josh Frydenberg, et le directeur général de Facebook Australia, Will Easton, ont dit avoir trouvé un compromis sur un des points-clés (...)

    #Facebook #censure #domination #NewsCorp

  • Penser le numérique : dix questions, dix débats, dix livres
    https://www.franceculture.fr/emissions/soft-power/soft-power-le-magazine-des-internets-emission-du-dimanche-21-fevrier-2

    Pour comprendre les mutations du numérique et mesurer leurs enjeux politiques, Soft Power cartographie l’actualité de la pensée des nouvelles technologies. Cybersécurité, GAFA, surveillance, algorithme, réseaux sociaux, etc. : 10 thèmes pour dresser un état des lieux des idées du numérique. Sarah T. Roberts, Derrière les écrans, les nettoyeurs du web à l’ombre des réseaux sociaux, éd. La Découverte, octobre 2020, 264 pages. Il s’agit d’une vaste enquête sur les nettoyeurs du web, ces travailleurs employés (...)

    #algorithme #manipulation #domination #GAFAM #GigEconomy #SocialNetwork #surveillance (...)

    ##travail

  • Facebook’s botched Australia news ban hits health departments, charities and its own pages
    https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2021/feb/18/facebook-blocks-health-departments-charities-and-its-own-pages-in-botch

    Social media company’s ban on sharing news has also affected dozens of government, not-for-profit and community pages The Bureau of Meteorology, state health departments, the Western Australian opposition leader, charities and Facebook itself are among those to have been hit by Facebook’s ban on news in Australia. On Thursday morning Facebook began preventing Australian news sites from posting, while also stopping Australian users from sharing or viewing content from any news outlets, both (...)

    #Facebook #censure #domination

    https://i.guim.co.uk/img/media/c9d0a932bdc83d0e64d32d2a4816083ac3d98b2b/0_4_5472_3283/master/5472.jpg

  • Amazon’s Data Dragnet
    https://www.techtransparencyproject.org/articles/amazons-data-dragnet

    Amazon is expanding into every corner of people’s lives with its growing list of products and services. That’s allowing it to collect far more data about its users than many people realize. Facebook, Google, and Twitter have faced hard questions about the data they collect on their users and what they do with that information. Often lost in this justifiable alarm over online privacy, however, is a platform that knows a staggering amount about its customers’ home lives, spending habits, and (...)

    #WholeFoods #Amazon #Ring #AmazonWebServices-AWS #AmazonsPrime #algorithme #Alexa #cookies #domotique #Echo #InternetOfThings #Kindle #famille #géolocalisation #domination #données #émotions #BigData #CloudComputing #domicile #écoutes #finance (...)

    ##surveillance ##publicité ##voisinage ##voix ##consommation

  • Facebook’s Australia news ban is the best decision it’s ever made
    https://www.wired.co.uk/article/facebook-australia-rupert-murdoch

    Facebook and Google are giant advertising platforms, not tenets of an open web. It’s time to start treating them as such Facebook did the right thing. Its decision to ban all Australian media organisations from its platform has been derided as a brazen act of censorship. It isn’t. For too long Facebook founder and CEO Mark Zuckerberg has pretended that his creation is a “town square” – a place for friends and communities to connect freely. Recently, Zuckerberg pivoted, insisting instead that (...)

    #Google #Facebook #algorithme #manipulation #domination #bénéfices #publicité

    ##publicité

  • Australie : Facebook bloque le partage d’articles, y compris pour les services de secours et de santé
    https://www.lemonde.fr/economie/article/2021/02/17/en-signe-de-defi-au-gouvernement-et-aux-medias-facebook-pret-a-bloquer-les-i

    Le groupe californien dénonce ainsi un projet de loi voulant forcer les plates-formes à rémunérer les médias pour la reprise de leurs contenus. Google a cédé. Facebook, lui, met ses menaces à exécution. Le géant des réseaux sociaux a restreint le partage d’articles et de vidéos d’information en Australie, en représailles à un projet de loi qui veut forcer les plates-formes à rémunérer les médias pour la reprise de leurs contenus. « Nous faisons face à un choix désagréable : essayer de nous conformer à une (...)

    #publicité #législation #domination #censure #Facebook #NewsCorp #Google

    ##publicité

  • Réponses de Jacques Philipponneau au questionnaire
    de La Décroissance envoyées le 12 février 2021
    et refusées par son comité de rédaction

    https://lavoiedujaguar.net/Reponses-de-Jacques-Philipponneau-au-questionnaire-de-La-Decroissanc

    (...) La domination est devenue ouvertement catastrophiste et, par la force des choses, elle doit intégrer le réformisme écologique dans cette sur-bureaucratisation du monde seule à même de gérer, dans cette société, les catastrophes qu’elle produit.

    Cet écologisme de caserne, normatif et culpabilisant, dernier avatar du péché chrétien (les indulgences pontificales du bilan carbone, le flygskam — la honte de prendre l’avion du luthérianisme nordique —, la niaiserie antispéciste anglo-saxonne) qui n’attaque jamais frontalement l’État ni le capitalisme, mais seulement leurs « dévoiements » ou leurs « excès », remplace la vieille social-démocratie morte à la tâche dans sa fonction intégrative à la société telle qu’elle est.

    La crise sanitaire actuelle (quelle que soit son origine et la gravité qu’on lui accorde) a contraint la domination à afficher son programme. Sa conception de la vie.

    Elle se résume à celle-ci : le mode de vie industriel n’est pas négociable et les représentations catastrophistes, si complaisamment diffusées depuis une dizaine d’années, ne sont pas conçues pour y faire renoncer mais pour faire accepter les restrictions et aménagements qui permettront de le perpétuer. En gros, faire régresser la liberté humaine à sa seule fonction animale de « conserver l’espèce », la « vie nue » réduite à sa seule réalité biologique : l’exemple le plus trivialement actuel en est le lâche soulagement devant une vaccination — de fait obligatoire — permettant de retrouver la vie « normale ». (...)

    #Philipponneau #fantasmes #domination #sujets_automates #États #capitalisme #techno-science #réformisme_écologique #résistance_active

  • Big Tech’s Next Big Problem Could Come From People Like ‘Mr. Sweepy’
    https://www.nytimes.com/2021/02/16/technology/google-facebook-private-antitrust.html

    Government antitrust lawsuits have created openings for numerous private cases against Big Tech, with more expected to come. If successful, the cases could cost them dearly. Google is facing antitrust cases from Europe’s top competition enforcer, the Justice Department and attorneys general from more than 30 states and territories. Then there are the lawsuits from people like Mr. Sweepy. The operator of a website called Sweepstakes Today, Mr. Sweepy — a nickname used by Craig McDaniel — (...)

    #Google #Facebook #procès #domination #publicité #FTC

    ##publicité

  • Google épinglé pour son classement des hôtels, amende transactionnelle à la clef
    https://www.nextinpact.com/lebrief/46054/hotellerie-google-epingle-pour-son-classement-hotels-amende-transactionn

    « Saisie de plaintes d’hôteliers dénonçant l’affichage sur Google d’un classement trompeur des hébergements touristiques, la DGCCRF a contrôlé en 2019 et 2020 la nature et la loyauté des informations délivrées par la plateforme ». Suite à cette enquête, elle analyse le service comme une pratique commerciale trompeuse. « Les classements de plus de 7500 établissements ont été automatiquement collectés et ont fait l’objet d’un traitement algorithmique : l’étude de la concordance entre le classement Google et le (...)

    #Google #GoogleSearch #algorithme #manipulation #domination #DGCCRF