• How the ECtHR is eroding migrants’ fundamental rights

    Once focused on protecting fundamental rights, the European Court of Human Rights has increasingly become concerned with state sovereignty. The consequences of prioritising borders above human life will be detrimental to all.

    Last month, at least 37 more humans lost their lives in the name of a European border.

    On 24th June 2022, an estimated 2,000 sub-Saharan Africans approached the 13km-long perimeter fence that divides Morocco from the autonomous Spanish enclave of Melilla.

    What ensued was a massacre. The Spanish and Moroccan officials beat, kicked, and attacked migrants. Images emerged of piles of bodies – of those who had been murdered and of those still alive but in need of urgent medical care – as the authorities stood by.

    The Melilla massacre is doubtless the outcome of unchecked police brutality, the impunity of border authorities, and the primacy that so-called ‘state sovereignty’ takes over human life. Worse yet – it’s also the consequence of a landmark European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) judgement in 2020 that paved the way for the killings just two years later.

    The debate on migrant rights at the ECtHR long predates the last-minute interim measures that blocked the UK’s Rwanda flight last month – but this incident has come to characterise the public discourse.

    This is a mischaracterisation of the matter. In reality, the question of the future of the ECtHR concerns to what extent everyone in Europe – with or without citizenship – can access the Court when their rights have been violated.

    The ability of the ECtHR to hold governments accountable to unchecked state power is being eroded; both by the states party to the Court, like the UK, and by the Court itself, as it strips migrants of their rights, and undermines its very role.

    ’A carte blanche for violent pushbacks’

    In August 2014, around 500 sub-Saharan Africans attempted to scale the same border fence in Melilla, for the same reasons. Whilst migrants who can pass as Moroccans are able to present themselves at the border crossing to lodge an asylum claim, black migrants have long been prevented from accessing the border crossing due to racial profiling.

    And so, N.D. and N.T., two men from Mali and Côte D’Ivoire respectively (and known by their initials to protect their identity) were forced to scale the three interior fences that morning in August 2014.

    N.D. and N.T. reached the top of the inner border fence by early morning. There, they waited for several hours in the heat, exhausted, without food, water, or medical assistance, before the Spanish police forced them down.

    Instead of being processed in Spain in accordance with Spanish, EU, and international law, they were handcuffed as they stepped onto European soil, and returned to Morocco.

    International law requires states to identify and individually assess each person who enters their territory, regardless of how they crossed the border. Furthermore, the European Convention on Human Rights prohibits collective expulsion under Article 4 of Protocol 4.

    It was on this basis that N.D. and N.T.’s case was heard in the European Court of Human Rights in February 2020, six years after that fateful morning.

    The ECtHR, however, ruled that N.D. and N.T.’s own “culpable conduct” – namely, scaling the wall rather than using the official border crossing at the Moroccan town Beni Enzar – justified their removal as a “consequence of their own conduct”.

    The ECtHR did not accept that racial profiling in Morocco was a justification for scaling the border fence, or that it was a reason to consider that official border crossings were in fact not accessible to black migrants like N.D. and N.T. – despite detailed submissions from the UN refugee agency at the time.

    Following the judgement, human rights activists described N.D. N.T. v Spain as a ‘carte blanche for violent pushbacks everywhere in Europe.’ Their warning went unheeded, and pushbacks have indeed become the modus operandi of European border authorities.

    ’Crimmigration’

    The ECtHR is specifically and uniquely mandated for human rights, not for border control or state sovereignty – and yet, the latter has taken priority in recent years. In doing so, migrants have become “objects of state sovereignty rather than subjects of human rights,” argued Marie-Bénédicte Dembour in her book When Humans Become Migrants.

    Professor Albuquerque, who sat on the ECtHR between 2011 and 2020, found resonance in Dembour’s words. He describes ND NT v Spain as a trial conducted topsy turvy: instead of responding to the violation of N.D and N.T’s rights, the Court treated them as if they were “defendants accused of intentionally disruptive and aggressive behaviour,” he told The New Arab.

    N.D N.T v Spain is not a unique example of the ECtHR presiding over the erosion of migrants’ and refugees’ basic rights – indeed, the Court ruled similarly in another case concerning collective expulsion from North Macedonia to Greece.

    This has not gone unnoticed by ECtHR judges like Albuquerque or academics; a field of academic research warns against the trajectory of the ECtHR, which is moving towards a conflation of criminal and immigration law termed ‘crimmigration’.

    As for the impact upon migrants, Albuquerque argues that this has opened the door to a situation in which “migrants can be treated worse than ordinary criminals” and detained systematically, “simply because efficiency trumps liberty in migration law”.

    Subconscious bias

    In certain cases, the ECtHR has indeed ruled in favour of a protective environment for migrants. In M.H. v Croatia, concerning the death of a six-year-old Afghan girl at the Croatian border, the Court ruled that there had been a violation of the right to life, the prohibition of torture, and the prohibition of collective expulsion.

    “M.H. v Croatia sent an important message to Croatia that pushbacks are illegal,” Hanaa Hakiki, a senior legal advisor with the European Centre for Constitutional and Human Rights, told The New Arab. Still, Hakiki voiced concern as to the future of the Court.

    “As grandparents and parents, it seems the Court could better relate to the humanity of the victims in this horrible case. But still, it’s outrageous that applicants have to rely on the sympathy of judges in order to access their basic human rights. We should not need this level of tragedy for the Court to acknowledge that the law should apply at our borders,” she added.

    Bureaucracy obstructing justice

    Raising a case with the Court has proven increasingly difficult. Due to a backlog of thousands of cases resulting in years of delays, and the requirement for the lawyer to be in contact with the claimant throughout, it can be hard to sustain a case with individuals who, pending a just resolution to their case, “are on the move and live in prolonged periods of undocumentation,” explained Marion Bouchetel, a lawyer with Legal Center Lesvos.

    Where the ECtHR does in fact rule in favour of the claimant, the ‘just satisfaction’ remedy provided is often financial, and at a maximum of a few thousand euros, is barely enough to disincentive the state from committing said violations again. Most importantly, financial remedies do little to address claimants’ original desire to access international protection in Europe or to be reunited with family.

    This notwithstanding, Bouchetel is still keenly aware of the important role that the ECtHR has to play in keeping state accountability in check. With her colleagues at Legal Center Lesvos, she has filed multiple interim measures with the ECtHR that prevent illegal deportations of unregistered asylum seekers.

    The question for her is more about recommitting to the Court’s foundational values – and she warns against the black and white debate that doesn’t address the current limitations of the Court in upholding migrants’ rights, and on the other hand, in its crucial role in preventing state violence.

    The future of the ECtHR

    Hakiki’s and Bouchetel’s work cannot be separated from the historical significance of the court. “The ECtHR is a legacy of World War II, when the merits of unbridled state sovereignty came under question,” said Hakiki.

    As Europe confronts the rise of illiberalism, the role of the ECtHR could not be more crucial. “Illiberal democracies always argue that they apply the law – but that is a misnomer in an illiberal democracy that by definition does not recognise human rights,” she added.

    In these situations, it is always the most vulnerable, including migrants and asylum seekers, who are the first to have their rights stripped from them. The ECtHR is particularly important for migrants, who can’t vote and only have the protection of fundamental rights, but the consequences of the degradation of the Court, as well as basic protections, will have consequences that span across society.

    Where empathy and exhortations to morality fall short with the general public, activists warn that undermining the role of the ECtHR as guarantor of human rights only serves to minimise the protection of everyone’s rights.

    As the United Kingdom ponders withdrawing from the Court, Albuquerque stresses that countries simply remaining in the ECtHR is not enough; more must be done to ensure its focus remains on human rights rather than state sovereignty.

    Those in favour of limiting the accountability that the ECtHR demands of member states out of suspicion of migrants need only wait for their rights to be curtailed in turn.

    https://english.alaraby.co.uk/analysis/how-ecthr-eroding-migrants-fundamental-rights

    #CourEDH #CEDH #droits_humains #droits_fondamentaux #érosion #Etats-nations #nationalisme #souveraineté_nationale #frontières #indépendance #bureaucratie #justice

  • Hidden Menace : Massive #methane leaks speed up climate change | AP News
    https://apnews.com/article/science-texas-trending-news-climate-and-environment-0eb6880f7c4532a845155a3b

    Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency have largely failed to regulate the invisible gas. That leaves it up to oil and gas producers — in some cases the very companies who have been fighting regulations — to cut methane emissions on their own.

    ##états-unis #leadership #climat

  • After Uvalde, a Kindergarten Teacher Trains to Carry a Gun In School - The New York Times
    https://www.nytimes.com/2022/07/31/us/teachers-guns-schools.html

    A decade ago, it was extremely rare for everyday school employees to carry guns. Today, after a seemingly endless series of mass shootings, the strategy has become a leading solution promoted by Republicans and gun rights advocates, who say that allowing teachers, principals and superintendents to be armed gives schools a fighting chance in case of attack.

    At least 29 states allow individuals other than police or security officials to carry guns on school grounds, according to the National Conference of State Legislatures. As of 2018, the last year for which statistics were available, federal survey data estimated that 2.6 percent of public schools had armed faculty.

    The count has likely grown.

    #états-unis #armes #folie_furieuse

  • Millions of Americans have long COVID. Many of them are no longer working
    https://text.npr.org/1114375163

    Survey data suggests millions of people aren’t working because of long COVID
    As the number of people with post-COVID symptoms soars, researchers and the government are trying to get a handle on how big an impact long COVID is having on the U.S. workforce. It’s a pressing question, given the fragile state of the economy. For more than a year, employers have faced staffing problems, with jobs going unfilled month after month.

    Now, millions of people may be sidelined from their jobs due to long COVID. Katie Bach, a senior fellow with the Brookings Institution, drew on survey data from the Census Bureau, the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis and the Lancet to come up with what she says is a conservative estimate: 4 million full-time equivalent workers out of work because of long COVID.

    That is just a shocking number,” says Bach. “That’s 2.4% of the U.S. working population.

    • 2% à 3% de la population active… Il me semble qu’il y a la même statistique pour le Royaume-Uni, mais je ne la retrouve pas ce matin

    • Economically inactive Britons with long Covid have ‘doubled’ in a year | UK unemployment and employment statistics | The Guardian (04/08/2022)
      https://www.theguardian.com/business/2022/aug/04/number-of-economically-inactive-britons-with-long-covid-has-doubled-say

      One in 20 people unemployed and not seeking work have symptoms, says ONS

      One in 20 people in the UK who are neither employed nor seeking paid work are suffering from long Covid, with the figure more than doubling in the past year, official data has revealed.

      The proportion is far higher than for the one in 29 people who are unemployed but seeking work who have long Covid symptoms, or the one in 30 employed people who are sufferers, data released by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) shows.

      Individuals who are not employed and are not looking for paid work are classified as being economically inactive.

      The data suggests the long-term impacts of the virus could be driving people into this category, or into retirement.

      The self-reported data shows that the proportion of economically inactive people with long Covid symptoms jumped from 2.4% in August 2021 to 5% in July 2022. Students and retirees, while also classed as economically inactive, are not included in this figure.

      The level of long Covid among retired people has also increased from 1.3% to 2.9% during the same period – and from 1.9% to 3.5% among the unemployed. The level has risen more slowly, from 2% to 3.3% for those who are employed.

      The ONS said the increase in long Covid among retired people and the economically inactive “may be driven by people already in these groups developing long Covid symptoms, or people with long Covid moving into these groups from other employment status categories”.

      Long Covid has been defined by the ONS as people with symptoms of coronavirus that have persisted for more than four weeks after the initial infection. The most common symptoms are fatigue, shortness of breath, loss of smell and muscle aches.

      The total number of people in the UK suffering from long Covid was estimated to be just under 1.8 million at the beginning of July.

      The significant number of people suffering the long-term consequences of the virus is costing the UK up to £1.5bn a year in lost earnings, according to the research from the the Institute for Fiscal Studies.

      People left unable to work by the virus are losing an average of £1,100 a month, according to the thinktank.

      The rapid spread of Covid-19 infections throughout the UK in the past month has seen staff absence rates soar.

      Some employers were forced to close their businesses as the BA.4 and BA.5 Omicron subvariants left staff too unwell to work.

  • Poivrons farcis au maïs
    https://www.cuisine-libre.org/poivrons-farcis-au-mais

    Ajouter une partie du fromage au maïs et saupoudrer de sel, de poivre et de paprika. Battre les jaunes de 2 œufs ; ajouter et mélanger. Incorporez ensuite les blancs battus en neige. Retirer le dessus des poivrons ; retirer les graines et remplir avec le mélange. Saupoudrer de fromage râpé et de chapelure sur le dessus et cuire à #Four chaud. #Poivron_vert, #États-Unis, #Maïs_doux, #Petits_farcis / #Sans viande, #Sans lactose, #Végétarien, Four

  • F.T.C. Chair Lina Khan Upends Antitrust Standards by Suing Meta - The New York Times
    https://www.nytimes.com/2022/07/28/technology/ftc-lina-khan-meta.html

    WASHINGTON — Early in her tenure as chair of the Federal Trade Commission, Lina Khan declared that she would rein in the power of the largest technology companies in a dramatically new way.

    “We’re trying to be forward looking, anticipating problems and taking fast action,’’ Ms. Khan said in an interview last month. She promised to focus on “next-generation technologies,” and not just on areas where tech behemoths were already well established.

    This week, Ms. Khan took her first step toward stopping the tech monopolies of the future when she sued to block a small acquisition by Meta, the company formerly known as Facebook, of the virtual-reality fitness start-up Within. The deal was significant for Meta’s development of the so-called metaverse, which is a nascent technology and far from mainstream.

    In doing so, Ms. Khan upended decades of antitrust standards, potentially setting off a wholesale shift in the way Washington enforces competition across corporate America. At the heart of the F.T.C.’s lawsuit is the idea that regulators can apply antitrust law without waiting for a market to mature to the point where it is clear which companies hold the most power. The F.T.C. said such early action was justified because Meta’s deal would probably eliminate competition in the young virtual-reality market.

    The F.T.C.’s lawsuit against Meta in the budding virtual-reality market is a “deliberately experimental case that seeks to extend the boundaries of merger enforcement,” said William Kovacic, a former chair of the agency. “Such cases are certainly harder to win.”

    The F.T.C.’s action immediately caused a ruckus within antitrust circles and across the tech industry. Silicon Valley tech executives said that moving to block a deal in an embryonic area of technology might stifle innovation and spook technologists from taking bold leaps in new areas.

    For Ms. Khan, winning the lawsuit may be less of a priority than showing it’s possible to file against a tech deal while it is still early. She has said regulators were too cautious in the past about intervening in mergers for fear of harming innovation, allowing a wave of deals between tech giants and start-ups that eventually cemented their dominance.

    “What we can see is that inaction after inaction after inaction can have severe costs,” she said in an interview with The New York Times and CNBC in January. “And that’s what we’re really trying to reverse.”

    The F.T.C. accused Meta of building a virtual reality “empire,” beginning in 2014 with its purchase of Oculus, the maker of the Quest virtual-reality headset. Since then, Meta has acquired around 10 virtual-reality app makers, such as the maker of a Viking combat game, Asgard’s Wrath, and several first-person shooter and sports games.

    By buying Within and its Supernatural virtual-reality fitness app, the F.T.C. said, Meta wouldn’t create its own app to compete and would scare potential rivals from trying to create alternative apps. That would hobble competition and consumers, the agency said.

    “This acquisition poses a reasonable probability of eliminating both present and future competition,” according to the lawsuit. “And Meta would be one step closer to its ultimate goal of owning the entire ‘Metaverse.’”

    The F.T.C. is reviewing other tech deals, including Microsoft’s $70 billion acquisition of the gaming company Activision and Amazon’s $3.9 billion merger with One Medical, a national chain of primary care clinics. In addition, the agency has been investigating Amazon on claims of monopoly abuses in its marketplace of third-party sellers.

    Ms. Khan appears to be prepared for long legal battles with the tech giants even if the cases do not end up going the F.T.C.’s way.

    In her earlier interview with The Times and CNBC, she said, “Even if it’s not a slam-dunk case, even if there is a risk you might lose, there can be enormous benefits from taking that risk.”

    #Lina_Khan #Federal_Trade_Commission #Etats-Unis #Concurrence #Economie_numérique

  • Columpio #LosAngeles
    https://chusmachusma.noblogs.org/post/2022/07/27/columpio-l-a

    As a young Mexican-American kid growing up in this city in the 80s & 90s, being in & using public space always felt like a constant war with the police (& other private security apparatuses). Any real venues or clubs were too expensive or would not cater to the Eastside punk scene I was a part of (or simply would not want us.) And in this constant war with the police over public space, spaces which were never meant to be opened-up or transformed become the places where young, especially racialized Angelenos gather.

    We would gather on undeveloped hillsides, under bridges, in the Los Angeles River cement bed, downtown when it would get largely abandoned at night in the past, in abandoned houses or in empty warehouses that de-industrialization left in its wake. What is happening on the bridge is nothing new. Within Fortress L.A., there has also always been a running current Columpio Los Angeles, or “Playground Los Angeles”: racialized proles have always carved out their own spaces out of necessity . And because there is a lack of ready-made public space, time becomes a factor: the city se pone cabrón at night.

    #USA #ÉtatsUnis

  • À Dallas, les élèves devront porter des sacs à dos transparents Sarah Rahmouni

    Le district scolaire de Dallas, comme d’autres au Texas, a adopté lundi de nouvelles mesures de sécurité à la suite du massacre d’Uvalde en mai dernier : à compter de l’année scolaire 2022-2023, une grande partie de ses élèves devront utiliser des sacs à dos transparents ou en filet à l’école.

    Ces nouvelles règles s’appliqueront aux élèves de la 6e à la 12e année — de la dernière année du primaire à la dernière année du secondaire, donc. Les autres types de sacs ne seront plus autorisés.


    Les élèves pourront toutefois avoir dans leur sac à dos une pochette non transparente d’une taille maximale de 14 cm par 21 cm (5,5 po par 8,5 po) — l’équivalent d’une feuille de papier pliée en deux — pour y transporter des objets personnels, comme un téléphone portable, de l’argent ou des produits d’hygiène. . . . . . . .

    https://www.ledevoir.com/monde/etats-unis/735516/les-eleves-de-dallas-devront-porter-des-sacs-a-dos-transparents

    #armes #massacre #etats-unis #violence #tuerie #racisme #usa #massacre #états-unis #tueries

  • Stop au carnaval, par Sandrine Aumercier - Critique de la valeur-dissociation. Repenser une théorie critique du capitalisme
    http://www.palim-psao.fr/2022/07/stop-au-carnaval-par-sandrine-aumercier.html

    L’actualité ne cesse de donner les signes de notre enfoncement collectif dans les impasses d’un mode de production dont cependant les connexions systémiques des différents phénomènes persistent à être isolées les unes des autres — comme des problèmes à part, comme des « dossiers » à régler au coup par coup. Il y a de quoi faire perdre la boussole à tous les acteurs du système et les pousser dans des extrémités parfois grotesques. Qu’on en juge : alors que Joe Biden était élu notamment pour son engagement climatique et sa promesse de politique migratoire « juste et humaine », le même a déjà signé davantage de permis de forage pétroliers que son prédécesseur climato-négationniste et le nombre d’arrestations de migrants illégaux n’a jamais été aussi élevé dans l’histoire du pays qu’en 2021 [1]. Il est indéniable que Biden a cherché à modifier dans un sens politiquement plus « progressiste » une série de législations migratoires prises par Donald Trump, mais quelles positions personnelles et promesses de campagne d’un Président pourraient opérer des transformations structurelles, puisqu’il n’est pas moins ligoté qu’un autre par les contradictions internes du système ?

    […]

    Le sommet de la farce a été atteint ces derniers jours, lorsqu’après des années de défiance diplomatique remontant à l’assassinat du journaliste Jamal Khaschoggi, Biden ne craint plus — sous la pression de l’inflation galopante, les élections de mi-mandat approchant — de se rendre en Arabie Saoudite pour mendier à l´État « paria » de mettre davantage de pétrole sur le marché. Il s’agit d’enrayer la hausse mondiale des prix du pétrole. C’est sans compter sur le fait que les pays du Golfe tirent de cette hausse des prix une substantielle augmentation de leur PIB (même si on ne sait pas s’ils ont surpassé Dieu) : dans la jungle économique, le malheur des uns fait le bonheur des autres. Mais là où la farce devient sinistre, c’est que cette demande américaine intervient dans un contexte où l´Arabie saoudite a, pour sa part, doublé depuis le début de la guerre en Ukraine ses importations de pétrole russe. Le pétrole russe pestiféré, « blanchi » par son passage en Arabie saoudite — devenue en quelques mois moralement plus fréquentable que la Russie — est utilisé pour la fabrication d’électricité domestique par les Saoudiens, qui en échange exportent davantage leur propre pétrole [3]. Il est clair que le malheur des Yéménites ne pèse pas comme celui des Ukrainiens dans la balance mondiale.

    #pétrole #énergie #États-Unis #Arabie_Saoudite #Russie #Ukraine #Yémen #capitalisme #Sandrine_Aumercier

  • High deductibles helped UnitedHealth reach $7 billion in profits in Q2 as a 14-year-old begs for deductible assistance on GoFundMe.
    https://wendellpotter.substack.com/p/high-deductibles-helped-unitedhealth

    Fourteen-year-old Ava Hope’s life is at stake. Treatment is available, and she has health insurance. But because of unaffordable deductibles and the way UnitedHealth and other insurance companies now dictate how and where patients can be treated, her mother has turned to GoFundMe to beg for $5,000 to cover the deductibles and other out-of-pocket expenses United demands her family pay before treatment can begin.

    #états-unis #leadership

  • World Athletics Championships : Ferdinand Omanyala races to compete after travel #visa issues - BBC Sport
    https://www.bbc.com/sport/africa/62149633

    Il prend un vol de nuit de 23 heures et l’avion se pose moins de 3 heures avant le début de la compétition

    Omanyala will fly from Kenya at 18:00 local time on Thursday, and is expected to arrive in Eugene less than three hours before the men’s 100m heats begin in the evening session on day one of the World Championships.
    However, he will then need to clear United States customs, travel to the arena, pick up his accreditation and find time to warm up before bidding for a place in the semi-finals.

    Et il n’est pas le seul concerné https://www.eurosport.fr/athletisme/mondiaux/2022/athletisme-mondiaux-2022-100m-visa-accorde-ferdinand-omanyala-sera-finalement-de-la-partie-a-eugene_sto9035918/story-amp.shtml

    Reste qu’Omanyala n’est pas le seul à avoir rencontré des problèmes pour obtenir son visa pour les Etats-Unis. Le Jamaïcain Gregory Prince, spécialiste du 400 mètres, a ainsi dû retarder son départ pour les Mondiaux avant d’obtenir son visa. Plusieurs athlètes sud-africains, dont le sprinteur Gift Leotlela, étaient en Italie dans l’attente de leur visa. Les organisateurs des Mondiaux-2022, les premiers organisés aux Etats-Unis depuis la création de l’épreuve en 1983, ont indiqué dans un communiqué qu’ils « travaillaient en collaboration avec le comité olympique et paralympique américain sur la question de l’attribution des visas ».
    « La plupart des problèmes ont été résolus », ont-ils indiqué, en rappelant que « les voyages internationaux sont devenus plus compliqués en raison de la pandémie ».

    Ça n’explique pas pourquoi ça ne concerne que les ressortissants d’Afrique noire.

    #états-unis #racisme

  • #Uber_files : des #économistes à vendre | Alternatives Economiques
    https://www.alternatives-economiques.fr/laurence-scialom/uber-files-economistes-a-vendre/00104014

    On ne peut qu’être frappé par la similitude entre les pratiques d’#Uber de grassement rémunérer des économistes reconnus pour produire des études allant dans le sens de leurs intérêts, et les méthodes des marchands de doute, ces #chercheurs rémunérés par l’industrie du tabac ou de la chimie pour tenter de masquer les effets délétères des produits des entreprises qui les rémunèrent.

    Dans les deux cas, la confidentialité des données sur la base desquelles les études sont produites entrave toute possibilité de réfutation par les pairs. D’une certaine manière les économistes concernés « vendent » leur réputation dans cette opération – ce qu’Uber a bien compris comme le soulignent les échanges de mails révélés dans la presse – mais, plus grave, ils éclaboussent la réputation de leur institution de rattachement.

    La collusion entre certains économistes nord-américains célèbres et le monde de la #finance, révélée avec la crise des crédits subprime et mise en scène dans le fameux documentaire Inside Job sorti à l’automne 2010, a alimenté un vif débat aux #Etats-Unis sur l’endogamie malsaine entre la communauté des économistes et les milieux d’affaires.

    Ce débat si important a été largement éludé en France, si l’on excepte la parution de l’ouvrage de Laurent Mauduit Les imposteurs de l’économie. Les Uber Files pourraient donner à notre communauté d’économistes l’occasion d’enfin prendre à bras-le-corps cette question essentielle.

    #recherche

  • Former senior U.S. official John Bolton admits to planning attempted foreign coups | Reuters
    https://www.reuters.com/world/us/former-senior-us-official-john-bolton-admits-planning-attempted-foreign-cou

    Many foreign policy experts have over the years criticized Washington’s history of interventions in other countries, from its role in the 1953 overthrowing of then Iranian nationalist prime minister Mohammad Mosaddegh and the Vietnam war, to its invasions of Iraq and Afghanistan this century.

    But it is highly unusual for U.S. officials to openly acknowledge their role in stoking unrest in foreign countries.

    “John Bolton, who’s served in highest positions in the U.S. government, including UN ambassador, casually boasting about he’s helped plan coups in other countries,” Dickens Olewe, a BBC journalist from Kenya, wrote on Twitter.

    #états-unis #impunité #sans_vergogne

  • Will the Blob Win the Russo-Ukrainian War? | The National Interest
    https://nationalinterest.org/feature/will-blob-win-russo-ukrainian-war-203386

    […] the return of America to a full Cold War-style anti-Russian mindset will distract U.S. attention from those domestic reforms that are essential if America is to compete successfully with China in terms of economic performance, national solidarity, and state efficiency.

    But then, that is precisely one key reason why confrontation with Russia is so welcome to the U.S. Blob. Strengthening America for successful competition with China requires serious thought, hard choices, civic courage, and real patriotism. How wonderful instead for them to be able to wrap themselves again in the good old reassuring blanket of the Cold War paradigm, which demands none of these things.

    #états-unis

  • Opioïdes, l’insurmontable crise aux Etats-Unis - 107 000 morts par overdose en 2021 Valérie de Graffenried

    Nouveau record américain : 107 000 morts par overdose en 2021. La responsabilité des entreprises pharmaceutiques et médecins qui prescrivent des antidouleurs trop facilement est montrée du doigt.

    Comment ne pas être pris de vertige ? En mai, les autorités sanitaires américaines annonçaient un nouveau « record » : 107 000 morts par overdose en 2021, 15% de plus que l’année précédente. L’équivalent, en moyenne, d’une personne toutes les cinq minutes. La spirale infernale ne s’arrête pas. Si les chiffres augmentent chaque année, la hausse était encore plus marquée entre 2019 et 2020 : +30%. Malgré les efforts de prévention, de lutte contre les trafiquants de drogues ou de distribution plus large de naloxone, qui permet de « ressusciter » une personne en train de faire une overdose via un spray nasal ou une injection, ce mal qui ronge la société américaine peine à se résorber. La pandémie n’a fait qu’aggraver la situation. . . . . . . . . .

    La suite payante, le lien : https://www.letemps.ch/monde/opioides-linsurmontable-crise-aux-etatsunis

    #McKinsey #oxycodone #naloxone #opioides #sackler #big_pharma #santé #fentanyl #opiacés #addiction #opioïdes #drogues #drogue #pharma #mafia #usa #santé_publique #etats-unis #purdue_pharma #oxycontin #carfentanil #overdose #constipation

  • Géopolitique : Couper les cartes

    Sous une apparence « naturelle », les #frontières ne sont qu’artifices. Fruit de jeux de pouvoir, elles façonnent les imaginaires.

    Sur les fonds de carte, une même ligne fine trace le contour des continents et celui des découpages politico-administratifs. Les frontières interétatiques se trouvent ainsi naturalisées. Pourtant, les frontières sont des artifices et ce sont justement les cartes qui ont rendu possible un découpage symbolique du globe (1). Cette pratique du découpage est même ancienne : avec les traités de Tordesillas (1494) et de Saragosse (1529), la Castille et le Portugal se sont partagé le monde le long des lignes imaginaires de deux méridiens, l’un mordant sur le Brésil, l’autre coupant le Pacifique sur sa longueur. L’espace maritime et aérien est quadrillé de frontières fictives sujettes à disputes. Le découpage en secteurs de l’Antarctique n’a pas réglé la question des revendications territoriales ou, plutôt, les a motivées. Ces décisions arbitraires, bien que pratiques, nous imposent la logique d’une territorialisation politique du monde.
    La tyrannie de la frontière ligne

    Plaquer la frontière politique sur des limites prétendues « naturelles », une ligne de crête ou un cours d’eau, ne sert qu’à prétendre à la légitimité spatiale d’une autorité politique quelconque (2).

    L’#instrumentalisation de l’histoire des peuplements sert la même #justification.

    Depuis les #traités_de_Westphalie (1648), les #États-nations exercent leur #souveraineté sur un territoire délimité par une ligne tracée d’abord sur le papier, ce que font notamment les traités de paix qui fixent le sort de millions d’êtres humains (3). Les conférences et traités de paix sont autant de redécoupages du monde par un pouvoir investi d’une autorité symbolique dont le discours performatif « produit à l’existence ce qu’il énonce » (4). Les puissances coloniales se sont ainsi partagé le monde autour d’un bureau, s’attribuant des possessions fictives qu’il s’agissait de concrétiser sur un terrain inconnu et un espace humain ignoré, par l’occupation et le bornage. La « #frontiérisation » du continent africain est un héritage territorial endossé par les populations après la décolonisation (5).

    Les puissances coloniales se sont partagé le monde autour d’un bureau.

    La frontière est autant le produit d’enjeux géopolitiques qu’elle est elle-même productrice de l’imaginaire national, du sentiment d’identité nationale, donc d’une réalité culturelle et sociale. La silhouette du pays est devenue lieu de mémoire au même titre que l’hymne national. Quand les aléas des événements contredisent cette construction, l’historiographie officielle invente un mythe fondateur (6).

    Ces jeux de pouvoir ne peuvent être envisagés sans la carte, image du monde et guide de nos actions. Ces frontières tyranniques se disputent, se décident et se reconnaissent. Elles sont autant le fruit des guerres que leur cause. Les grandes institutions internationales, pas plus que Google, n’engagent d’ailleurs leur responsabilité à propos des cartes qu’elles produisent.

    Les lignes sur les cartes, avant de légitimer des possessions territoriales, montraient plutôt des pistes, des sentiers, des cheminements. Elles étaient tracées dans le sable ou chantées, telles les lignes de chant aborigènes. Les cartes étaient utiles au quotidien, car l’être humain a besoin de décomplexifier et de représenter le monde pour ne pas s’y perdre. Mais parce qu’il est un animal faible et craintif, il va le simplifier à outrance. Dans tous les domaines, il le pensera de façon binaire : le dedans/le dehors, le familier/l’étranger, l’admis/le tabou, les femmes/les hommes… avec une assignation spatiale spécifique et une barrière entre les deux, dont le franchissement est fortement codifié. Pourtant, comme dans le genkan des maisons japonaises – l’endroit après la porte d’entrée dans lequel vous retirez vos chaussures –, il s’agit toujours de lieux de passage. Les limites, en réalité, sont faites pour être franchies.

    Entre le « front » militaire qui a donné la frontière française, le polonais granica (borne) à l’origine de la Grenze allemande et la zone du boundary anglais, toutes les natures de frontières sont envisageables (7). Pour Étienne Balibar, « on ne peut attribuer à la frontière une essence qui vaudrait pour tous les lieux et tous les temps, pour toutes les échelles de lieux et de temps, et qui serait incluse de la même façon dans toutes les expériences individuelles et collectives (8) ».

    Pour Friedrich Ratzel, comme pour Élisée Reclus, les limites géographiques imaginées par les humains sont arbitraires : « Qu’elles soient déterminées par le scientifique d’après des mensurations, ou par la diplomatie d’après des traités, ces lignes sont toujours des objets irréels […] tandis que la frontière réelle, par sa nature même, n’est pas nettement définie, donc on ne peut pas la déterminer avec certitude (9). » Les limites entre les groupes humains, qu’elles soient culturelles, linguistiques ou ethniques sont en réalités épaisses, rhizomatiques, plastiques, mobiles dans le temps et l’espace.

    (#paywall)

    https://www.politis.fr/articles/2022/07/geopolitique-couper-les-cartes-44630

    #cartographie #visualisation

    by @nepthys et @reka

  • A ‘#Regime’ Is a Government at Odds With the US Empire - FAIR
    https://fair.org/home/a-regime-is-a-government-at-odds-with-the-us-empire

    Interestingly, the US itself meets many of the criteria for being a “regime”: It can be seen as an oligarchy rather than a democracy, imprisons people at a higher rate than any other country, has grotesque levels of inequality and bombs another country every 12 minutes. Yet there’s no widespread tendency for the corporate media to describe the US state as a “regime.”

    #états-unis #MSM

  • Maxime Combes sur Twitter : "

    [Surprise !] Le projet de loi #PouvoirDAchat prévoit d’alléger les règles environnementales pour accélérer la construction d’un terminal gazier au Havre afin d’importer plus de #GazDeSchiste des #Etats-Unis, repoussant la sortie des énergies #fossiles. Je vous explique 🧵 ⤵️ 1/n » / Twitter
    https://twitter.com/MaximCombes/status/1545285249348915203

    […]

    Vous trouvez surprenant qu’un projet de loi portant sur le "pouvoir d’achat", c’est-à-dire sur la capacité des ménages à maintenir leur niveau de vie, comporte une procédure visant à accélérer la construction d’un terminal d’importation de gaz de schiste ?

    Moi aussi.

    #France