• Francia tapona el tránsito de migrantes, que vuelven a dormir en la calle junto a la frontera de #Irún

    El incremento de entradas en el sur se empieza a notar ya en el paso fronterizo del norte, donde los controles policiales son permanentes

    Entrar a Europa por el sur es una odisea para miles y miles de migrantes año tras año. Pateras, mafias o concertinas son solamente algunos de los obstáculos con los que se encuentran y no todos consiguen su objetivo. Lo que muchos de ellos no esperan es que su aventura se trunque en otra frontera, en este caso la del norte de España. En el paso entre Irún y Hendaya, aparentemente un paradigma de las libertades del espacio Schengen, existe un muro invisible para quienes quieren emprender una nueva vida en Francia o en otro país europeo. Lleva ocurriendo al menos cinco años, justamente desde que Francia elevó la alerta antiterrorista por los atentados en París. En 2020, las restricciones a la movilidad motivadas por la pandemia solamente han hecho que se visibilice más la presencia policial allí donde el reino se convierte en república y ahora que crece el flujo migratorio los controles están yendo a más.

    El incremento de entradas registrado recientemente en Canarias o en Andalucía ya se está notando en las calles de la zona fronteriza, hasta el punto de que algunas personas duermen al raso. La red ciudadana Irungo Harrera Sarea, que ha atendido ya a 15.000 personas en los últimos dos años, ha instalado unas tiendas de campaña frente al albergue de Cruz Roja para denunciar que no hay alojamiento para todos los que lo necesitan. Ese albergue, en el que nadie quiere hacer comentarios, está ubicado en un polígono industrial sobre una loma de las afueras de Irún. Se llega allí gracias a unas huellas de color verde acompañadas del logotipo de la organización que han sido instaladas por los voluntarios de Irungo Harrera Sarea.

    En la zona hay un fuerte olor a pintura y se escucha el trajín de una empresa maderera cercana. Tras un contenedor verde en el que se lee «Madera Viernes» duermen todavía a mediodía varias personas. La tienda está cerrada pero les delata el calzado en la puerta, un gesto habitual de los musulmanes. Junto a las tiendas hay alguna mascarilla usada y cartones de leche como únicos víveres. No es una imagen nueva en Irún, ya que hace dos años era habitual que grupos de migrantes se apiñaran para descansar en el pequeño cobertizo del aparcamiento de motocicletas de la estación de trenes. Entonces como ahora los controles policiales franceses les impedían seguir el viaje. Se han hecho devoluciones en caliente en pleno corazón de Europa. Se han grabado imágenes de vehículos de las autoridades francesas entrando en territorio español para expulsar a migrantes interceptados. En paralelo, la Policía Nacional española ha desarticulado en estos años mafias que se valían de estas dificultades para lucrarse de quienes querían cruzar.

    El Topo es como se llama al tren de cercanías de Euskotren que une Donostia con Irún y cuya última parada entra unos metros en suelo francés, hasta la estación de Hendaya, conocida históricamente por ser la que reunió a Hitler y a Franco en octubre de 1940. La de Belaskoenea es la parada más próxima a la Cruz Roja. Está en la trasera del cuartel de la Guardia Civil. De Belaskoenea a la puerta de entrada al Hexágono hay apenas tres paradas. Son Colón, Ficoba y Hendaya. Dos jóvenes de 17 años con mochila analizan las máquinas expendedoras. «¿Éste es el que va a Francia?», pregunta el que viste una cazadora con una gran bandera Noruega en el pecho. La pareja, que no quiere dar su nombre ni salir en imágenes pero que no miente sobre su edad, es de Guinea–Conakry. «Llegamos ayer», cuentan sobre su estancia en la zona fronteriza. Accedieron a su sueño por Ceuta. Tuvieron que saltar. El convencimiento de que les espera un seguro control policial al llegar a la terminal les desanima de gastarse los ahorros en un billete. Se dan media vuelta y optan por aprovechar una comida caliente en Cruz Roja.

    Más en el centro, en un rincón llamado Parque de las Sirenas, en la calle de la Aduana, las maletas a rebosar delatan a otro grupo amplio de migrantes. Uno de ellos enseña un folio arrugado con un billete de Alsa procedente de Sevilla. Expresan en francés que no quieren hablar mucho más sobre su situación. No lejos de allí, en el Paseo de Colón, otro grupo de tres veinteañeros valora sus posibilidades. A pocos metros, frente al Ayuntamiento y bajo unas pérgolas, es ya una tradición que Irungo Harrera Sarea atienda a los migrantes en una pequeña mesa plegables de madera.

    La ruta hacia Francia –una de ellas– lleva a Ficoba, el recinto ferial de Irún. Este viernes acoge la primera OPE para personas con discapacidad de Gipuzkoa. En una pequeña zona comercial aneja languidecen unos comercios pensados para vender tabaco y productos españoles baratos a clientes franceses que ya no existen. Desde aquí ya se ve el cartel de bienvenida a Francia al otro lado del puente de Santiago sobre el río Bidasoa. Una furgoneta de la Gendarmería para a todos y cada uno de los vehículos que pasan por ahí, como el viejo camión Scania matriculado en Murcia en 1989, aunque la Ertzaintza informa que la movilidad transfronteriza ha caído considerablemente en estas semanas de segundo estado de alarma. En el recientemente restaurado puente de la Avenida, otro control. Una pareja uniformados de la Policía Nacional se baja de su Kangoo para pedir salvoconducto a los pocos paseantes que quieren cruzar. Al otro lado espera un confinamiento total.

    Explican fuentes policiales españolas que la vigilancia es tal que incluso quienes consiguen colarse son perseguidos ya dentro de Francia. Esta semana uno grupo de migrantes ha sido interceptado cuando ya habían llegado a Burdeos, a 216 kilómetros de la muga. En Baiona, el albergue ha cerrado sus puertas por las restricciones del coronavirus. Desde Irungo Harrera Sarrera explican que el incremento de las entradas en el sur se traducirá próximamente en un mayor tapón en el norte. «Se va colapsando el sistema abajo y suben hacia arriba. En las próximas semanas esto irá a más», explica un portavoz de la organización, que recuerda que «ahora empieza el frío» y que otros años el problema de dormir en la calle ha sido menor porque el tapón se daba en los meses de verano.

    «A corto-medio plazo tenemos un drama humanitario a la vista. Francia nos devuelve a personas incluso a más de un centenar de kilómetros», coinciden desde el sindicato SUP de la Policía Nacional, que tiene comisaría en Irún, en cuyo exterior aparcan dos patrullas rotuladas como de «Fronteras». Desde el sindicato policial preguntan: «¿Qué capacidad tienen las ONG para seguir cubriendo las necesidades de estas personas?». «Instamos al Ministerio del Interior y a la Delegación del Gobierno en el País Vasco a que pongan medios para evitar que llegue ese momento. La inmigración no es un problema del País Vasco o de España, es europeo y tendría que tener una respuesta de nivel europeo», añaden. «Para nosotros, que tenemos papeles y somos blancos, es difícil pasar ahora mismo. Imagínate para ellos», razonan en Irungo Harrera Sarea.

    https://www.eldiario.es/euskadi/fronter_1_6448930.html

    #frontières #asile #migrations #réfugiés #Pyrénées #France #Espagne #fermeture_des_frontières #Hendaya #mur_invisible (terme utilisé dans l’article) #Cruz_Roja #Ficoba

    ping @isskein @karine4

  • De l’utilité (ou pas) des frontières contemporaines ?

    Dans « Nos géographies », nous parlons ce soir des frontières que nous chercherons à définir avec #Michel_Foucher et #Anne-Laure_Amilhat-Szary (@mobileborders).

    Bien plus qu’un espace plus ou moins large séparant deux territoires, un objet juridique et politique, très symbolique, l’écho d’un passé lointain ou proche, nous verrons que la notion de frontière intangible, n’a pas toujours existé. Nous constaterons l’importance des progrès de la #géographie et de la #cartographie pour en préciser les contours.

    La #pandémie de la #Covid-19 et la fermeture concomitante d’une grande partie des frontières dans le monde viennent de replacer brutalement celles-ci sous les feux de l’actualité. La crise migratoire, précédant la crise sanitaire avait déjà amorcé ce mouvement de #repli. Certes, les frontières n’avaient pas disparu mais la #mondialisation des économies avec l’accélération des échanges et l’extraordinaire essor des transports, aériens, maritimes et terrestres ces dernières décennies ont largement contribué à les faire oublier, du moins, dans de nombreuses régions. Elles réapparaissent donc. Comment interpréter le phénomène ? Est-il souhaitable, est-il durable ? Que nous dit-il de l’état de nos sociétés ?

    Pour en parler ce soir nous sommes en compagnie de deux spécialistes, Michel Foucher, géographe et ancien diplomate, titulaire de la chaire de géopolitique appliquée au Collège d’études mondiales (FMSH, Paris) et Anne-Laure Amilhat-Szary, spécialiste de géographie politique, professeure de géographie à l’Université Grenoble-Alpes et directrice du laboratoire CNRS Pacte.

    https://www.franceculture.fr/emissions/nos-geographies/les-frontieres

    #frontières #utilité #fermeture_des_frontières #crise_sanitaire

  • #Covid-19 : #Grenoble associe des citoyens à la gestion de la pandémie

    La ville pilotée par l’écologiste Éric Piolle expérimente un « #comité_de_liaison_citoyen », réuni samedi pour la première fois. Une réponse à la « gestion de crise descendante » mise en œuvre par le gouvernement et son conseil de défense. Au menu : l’organisation des #marchés et le maintien du #lien_social.

    https://www.mediapart.fr/journal/france/081120/covid-19-grenoble-associe-des-citoyens-la-gestion-de-la-pandemie?onglet=fu

    #démocratie_directe #municipalisme #néo-municipalisme #cogestion #gouvernance_politique #Groupes_d’action_municipale #Hubert_Dubedou #crise_sanitaire #débat_mouvant #violences_conjugales #SDF #sans-abrisme #isolement_social #confinement #parcs #ouverture #fermeture #espace_public #alimentation

  • –-> Les autorités grecques arrêtent et poursuivent un réfugié afghan, le père d’un enfant mort noyé pendant la traversée depuis la Turquie, pour « #mise_en_danger de l’enfant. »
    https://twitter.com/EricFassin/status/1326088902839504903

    Greek authorities arrest father of dead migrant child

    Greek authorities have arrested a migrant whose son died while attempting to reach a Greek island from the nearby Turkish coast on suspicion of endangering a life, a crime that could carry a penalty of up to 10 years in prison.

    The 25-year-old man and his 6-year-old son, both Afghans, were among a total of 25 people who were found on the shores of the eastern Aegean island of Samos early Sunday. The coast guard said the body of the 6-year-old boy was found with one woman on a part of the coast that was particularly difficult to access, while the others were found in small groups elsewhere.

    According to the coast guard, the migrants said they had come across from the Turkish coast in a dinghy. Authorities said it was unclear what had happened to the boat, and exactly how the child had died.

    The coast guard said Monday a 23-year-old who had been identified as having driven the boat was arrested on suspicion of migrant smuggling, while the boy’s 25-year-old father was arrested on suspicion of violating endangerment laws. The endangerment of a person which leads to death can result in a prison sentence of up to 10 years.

    Greece is one of the most popular routes for people fleeing conflict and poverty in the Middle East, Asia and Africa and hoping to enter the European Union. The vast majority make their way to eastern Greek islands from the nearby Turkish coast.

    Although the distance is small, the journey is often perilous, with smugglers frequently using unseaworthy and vastly overcrowded boats and dinghies that sometimes capsize or sink.

    Although it is common for Greek authorities to arrest whoever is identified as having steered a migrant vessel to Greece, in the cases of shipwrecks it is rare for the surviving parents of children who die to be charged with criminal offences.

    “These charges are a direct attack on the right to seek asylum and it is outrageous that a grieving father is being punished for seeking safety for him and his child,” said Josie Naughton, founder of the aid organization Help Refugees/Choose Love.

    “Criminalizing people that are seeking safety and protection shows the failure of the European Union to find a solution to unsafe migration routes that forced thousands to risk their lives to seek protection,” Naughton said.

    Copyright 2020 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without permission.

    https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/courts_law/greek-authorities-arrest-father-of-dead-migrant-child/2020/11/09/1b9ff304-229d-11eb-9c4a-0dc6242c4814_story.html

    #Grèce #réfugiés #asile #migrations #fermeture_des_frontières #décès #mort #responsabilité #honte #réfugiés_afghans #justice (sic)

    Je ne sais pas quels tags utilisé pour cette nouvelle... on touche tellement le fonds...

    ping @kaparia

    • Grèce : le père de l’enfant mort en mer arrêté pour « #mise_en_danger_de_la_vie_d’autrui »

      Les autorités grecques ont arrêté le père de l’enfant mort lors de la traversée de la mer Égée sur une embarcation de fortune. Cet Afghan de 25 ans est accusé de « mise en danger de la vie d’autrui » et risque jusqu’à 10 ans de prison.

      Un Afghan de 25 ans, père de l’enfant de six ans dont le corps a été retrouvé dimanche en mer Égée, a été arrêté par les autorités grecques. Le père et son fils avaient embarqué sur une embarcation de fortune, composée de 23 autres personnes, depuis les côtes turques dans le but de rejoindre les îles grecques.

      Il risque jusqu’à 10 ans de prison. C’est à notre connaissance la première fois que le parent d’un enfant mort lors d’une traversée de la mer est inculpé. Cette arrestation, inédite, inquiètent les ONG.
      « Attaque directe contre le droit de demander l’asile »

      « Cette accusation est une attaque directe contre le droit de demander l’asile. Il est scandaleux qu’un père en deuil soit puni pour avoir cherché la sécurité pour lui et son enfant », a réagi à l’AFP Josie Naughton, fondatrice de l’organisation humanitaire Help Refugees / Choose love.

      « La criminalisation des personnes qui recherchent une protection montre l’échec de l’Union européenne à trouver une solution aux routes migratoires dangereuses », a ajouté la militante.

      Le Conseil européen pour les réfugiés et exilés a pour sa part estimé que « cette nouvelle tragédie montre la nécessité urgente de trouver des voies sûres et légales » permettant aux demandeurs d’asile de rejoindre l’Europe en toute sécurité.
      Un autre passager arrêté pour trafic de migrants

      Selon les autorités, le corps du petit garçon a été découvert sur une partie de la côte difficile d’accès, avec une femme rescapée à ses côtés.

      Les raisons de ce naufrage sont pour l’heure encore floues, ont affirmé les garde-côtes grecs, tout comme les circonstances ayant entraînées la mort de l’enfant de six ans.

      Les passagers de ce canot avaient dans un premier temps été portés disparus. Une partie d’entre eux ont été retrouvés dimanche sur les rives de l’île de Samos, Dix personnes ont été secourues non loin de l’île grecque et six autres ont réussi à rejoindre les côtes à la nage.

      Un jeune de 23 ans, identifié comme le capitaine du bateau, a quant à lui été arrêté pour trafic de migrants.

      https://www.infomigrants.net/fr/post/28411/grece-le-pere-de-l-enfant-mort-en-mer-arrete-pour-mise-en-danger-de-la

  • France : Macron annonce un doublement des #forces_de_sécurité aux frontières

    Le président français Emmanuel Macron a annoncé jeudi un doublement des forces contrôlant les frontières de la France, de 2.400 à 4.800, pour lutter contre la menace terroriste, les trafics et l’immigration illégale.

    Le président français Emmanuel Macron a annoncé jeudi un doublement des forces contrôlant les frontières de la France, de 2.400 à 4.800, pour lutter contre la menace terroriste, les trafics et l’immigration illégale.

    Ce doublement a été décidé « en raison de l’intensification de la #menace » après les récents #attentats, dont celui de Nice (Sud-Est), a expliqué le chef de l’État à la frontière franco-espagnole, au #col_du_Perthus, où « quatre unités mobiles » sont « en cours de déploiement ».

    Accompagné du ministre de l’Intérieur Gérald Darmanin et du secrétaire d’Etat chargé des Affaires européennes Clément Beaune, Emmanuel Macron s’est également dit « favorable » à une refondation « en profondeur » des règles régissant l’#espace_Schengen de #libre_circulation en Europe, et à « un plus grand contrôle » des frontières.

    « Je porterai en ce sens des premières propositions au Conseil » européen de décembre, pour « repenser l’organisation » de #Schengen et « intensifier notre protection commune aux frontières avec une véritable #police_de_sécurité_aux_frontières_extérieures », a-t-il ajouté. Avec la « volonté d’aboutir sous la présidence française », au premier semestre 2022.

    Cette refondation doit rendre l’espace Schengen « plus cohérent », pour qu’il « protège mieux ses frontières communes », qu’il « articule mieux » les impératifs de responsabilité de protection de frontières et de « #solidarité » et que « la charge ne soit pas qu’aux pays de première entrée ».

    « La France est un des principaux pays d’arrivée d’#immigration_secondaire », lorsque les migrants #déboutés d’un pays tentent leur chance dans un autre en Europe, et « je souhaite profondément aussi qu’on change les règles du jeu », a-t-il dit.

    Il a également plaidé pour « intensifier » la lutte contre l’#immigration_clandestine et les réseaux de #trafiquants « qui, de plus en plus souvent, sont liés aux réseaux terroristes ».

    « Nous prendrons les lois qui sont nécessaires, si elles correspondent à des besoins identifiés », a-t-il ajouté, mais la situation « ne justifie pas de changer la Constitution », a-t-il assuré, face à des pressions de responsables politiques de droite et d’extrême droite.

    Arrivé à la mi-journée au col du Perthus, Emmanuel Macron s’est entretenu avec les policiers de la #police_aux_frontières (#PAF) qui contrôlent les véhicules entrant en France par l’autoroute ou la nationale qui le traversent. L’un d’eux lui a notamment fait la démonstration d’un drone surveillant les voies de passage et les sentiers frontaliers.

    Puis il a visité le Centre franco-espagnol de coopération policière et douanière, où sont affectées 24 personnes des deux pays à plein temps. « Nous partageons un espace de travail et de convivialité (...) La coopération marche très bien », lui a assuré un responsable espagnol.

    « Depuis 2017, la coordination entre les services de renseignement a été renforcée et confiée à la DGSI (sécurité intérieure, ndlr). Les moyens financiers, humains et technologiques ont été considérablement augmentés », a déclaré Emmanuel Macron dans un tweet posté durant sa visite.

    Quelque 35.000 véhicules passent tous les jours sur l’autoroute et la route qui franchissent le col, entre les villes du Perthus en France et de La Jonquera en Espagne.

    L’#Espagne est l’une des principales portes d’entrée des immigrés clandestins en France, qui arrivent par la côte en provenance d’Afrique du nord. Plus de 4.000 migrants ont été refusés ces trois derniers mois dans le département des #Pyrénées-Orientales, selon un responsable de la PAF. Une partie d’entre eux étaient des Algériens tentant d’entrer en France.

    https://www.mediapart.fr/journal/fil-dactualites/051120/france-macron-annonce-un-doublement-des-forces-de-securite-aux-frontieres

    #fermeture_des_frontières #frontières #France #terrorisme #migrations #immigration_illégale #militarisation_des_frontières

  • Facs fermées, prépas ouvertes : l’enseignement supérieur à marche différenciée

    Lundi, les étudiants des #classes_préparatoires et des #BTS, formations assurées dans des lycées, pourront suivre leurs cours en présentiel, contrairement aux étudiants de l’#université.

    En prépa maths-physique au lycée Camille-Jullian, à Bordeaux, Morgane Kramer est soulagée de pouvoir revenir en cours lundi, au retour des vacances de la Toussaint. « C’est une chance, je suis très contente. Même si c’est un peu bizarre, alors que tous mes amis, à la fac, vont rester à la maison », raconte la jeune femme de 19 ans. Le confinement du printemps, Morgane l’avait plutôt bien vécu : rentrée chez ses parents à Toulouse, elle avait suivi ses cours sur Zoom et Discord. « C’était pas si compliqué, on pouvait poser des questions, les profs étaient disponibles… Et puis, j’avais moins de transports, plus de temps pour travailler. Mais les vrais contacts me manquaient ».

    Avec ce nouveau confinement, les formations de l’enseignement supérieur ne sont pas toutes logées à la même enseigne. Jeudi soir, Jean Castex donnait des détails sur le fonctionnement à venir des universités – cours basculés intégralement en ligne, bibliothèques ouvertes sur réservation, restaurants accessibles seulement pour la vente à emporter, personnel en télétravail mais possibilité d’accès aux laboratoires, examens maintenus, dérogations possibles pour les cours en travaux pratiques…

    De son côté, Gabriel Attal, porte-parole du gouvernement, écrivait dans un post Instagram que les 85 000 étudiants de classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles (CPGE) continueraient, eux, d’aller en cours lundi, car les lycées restent ouverts. Tout comme les 260 000 élèves des BTS et formations assimilées assurés dans les établissements d’enseignement secondaire. Les Instituts universitaires de technologie (IUT), autres formations post-bac en deux ans, mais dépendants des universités, basculent leurs cours à distance.

    https://www.lemonde.fr/campus/article/2020/10/31/facs-fermees-prepas-ouvertes-l-enseignement-superieur-a-marche-differenciee_

    #facs #prépas #grandes_écoles #fermeture #ouverture #covid-19 #coronavirus

  • France : fermeture de la mosquée de Pantin pour six mois, le désarroi des fidèles
    RFI - Publié le : 23/10/2020
    https://www.rfi.fr/fr/france/20201023-france-fermeture-mosqu%C3%A9e-pantin-six-mois-d%C3%A9sarroi-fid%C3%A8le

    La mosquée de Pantin a été fermée en milieu de semaine pour six mois. Ce lieu de culte, qui rassemble près de 1.300 fidèles dans la banlieue Nord de Paris, a été épinglé par les autorités après avoir relayé une des vidéos dénonçant le cours du professeur d’histoire Samuel Paty, assassiné la semaine dernière. Un recours a été déposé contre cette fermeture.

    Devant la mosquée de Pantin, les fidèles rencontrés contestent l’arrêté de fermeture placardé sur les grilles. « C’est une sanction, cette fermeture, on la vit très, très mal, confie un fidèle à Sylvie Koffi, du service société de RFI. C’est une erreur du président d’avoir partagé une vidéo. Il n’aurait pas dû. Pour un acte d’une personne, ça sanctionne toute une communauté ». L’homme s’inquiète surtout des fidèles âgés qui devront faire plusieurs kilomètres pour aller se recueillir. « les petits papas, des retraités... ils ne savent plus où aller... Maintenant, pour aller prier il faudrait qu’ils marchent plusieurs kilomètres. Encore pour les jeunes, c’est faisable, mais pour les vieux, on ne sait plus comment faire.

    Le président (de la mosquée), il faudrait qu’il prenne ses responsabilités. Nous, en tant que fidèles, on a parlé avec lui et il reconnaît totalement son erreur. »

    M’Hammed Henniche, le président de la Fédération des musulmans de Pantin, a donc exprimé ses regrets après avoir partagé la vidéo sur le compte facebook de la Mosquée.
    (...)
    « Les vingt-cinq représentants de la Fédération musulmane de Pantin sont tous républicains et opposés fermement aux doctrines salafistes. Il n’y a dès lors pas matière à parler de lien avec le salafisme », souligne encore le recours déposé par Me William Bourdon.(...)

    #Punition_collective

    • Mosquée de Pantin : hier courtisé, aujourd’hui décrié, qui est M’hammed Henniche ?
      Par Gwenael Bourdon et Thomas Poupeau - Le 22 octobre 2020
      https://www.leparisien.fr/seine-saint-denis-93/mosquee-de-pantin-hier-courtise-aujourd-hui-decrie-qui-est-m-hammed-henni

      Le responsable de la mosquée de Pantin, visée par un arrêté de fermeture contre laquelle il a déposé un recours mercredi, est aussi depuis des années un familier des pouvoirs publics et de nombreux élus.
      (...)
      Président de l’Union des associations musulmanes (UAM) du 93, qu’il a contribué à fonder en 2001, l’homme est « un notable musulman », note un vieil observateur de la vie locale.
      Et si l’histoire de la Seine-Saint-Denis se feuilletait comme un vieil album photo, il y a fort à parier que M’hammed Henniche apparaîtrait sur bien des clichés : le 6 novembre 2005, par exemple, il fait partie des quelques associatifs du 93 conviés en urgence au ministère de l’Intérieur par un certain Nicolas Sarkozy. Il s’agit à l’époque de tenter d’éteindre le feu des émeutes de banlieue. En mars 2012, là, il aide l’UMP à conduire, par bus entiers, des fidèles musulmans au meeting de Sarkozy, désormais candidat à sa réélection, à Villepinte.
      Il faut dire que, assez vite, des liens se tissent avec certains élus de droite de l’époque. C’est ce que raconte Corinne Raoult, ex-collaboratrice et épouse de l’ancien député-maire (UMP) du Raincy, Eric Raoult. « Mon époux a produit un rapport, en 2010, sur le port du voile. Effectivement, nous cherchions un représentant de musulmans qui soit modéré. On ne voulait pas d’un responsable religieux trop radical. On a fait de M’hammed Henniche notre relais. »
      (...)
      Juppé, Pécresse, Fillon... répondent à ses invitations
      Pour resserrer les liens, l’UAM 93 a aussi pris l’habitude, depuis quinze ans, d’inviter les politiques à ses Iftar (NDLR : les repas de rupture du jeûne) ou des rencontres. Et les cartons d’invitation dépassaient largement les frontières du 93 : Alain Juppé en 2015, François Fillon en 2014, Nathalie Kosciuszko-Morizet en 2015, ou encore Valérie Pécresse, à Pantin en 2013 et au Blanc-Mesnil en 2015.
      « Tous s’y précipitaient, persifle un observateur. Ironique, quand on voit que, aujourd’hui, tous condamnent la mosquée de Pantin et adhèrent à sa fermeture… » Contactée Valérie Pécresse balaie l’attaque. « Dans le cadre du dialogue interreligieux, on a besoin d’interlocuteurs. Monsieur Henniche en est un. Mais je n’ai pas de rapports de soutiens politiques avec lui. Disons, des rapports polis. » (...)

  • A l’horizon des migrations

    Bienvenue dans cette nouvelle édition de "Nos géographies". Dès demain, vendredi 2 octobre, et jusqu’à dimanche, la géographie tient son Festival international à Saint-Dié-des-Vosges. France Culture en parle avec nos deux invités, #François_Gemenne et #Lucie_Bacon, qui discuteront migrations.

    Une édition certes un peu différente des précédentes éditions, sans doute dans sa forme, mais tout aussi riche et variée autour d’un thème fort, les climats. Nous vous avons proposé la semaine dernière, les regards croisés de géographes sur l’épidémie de Covid-19, tels qu’ils ont été rassemblés et seront présentés dans ces journées. Ce soir, nous partons à l’horizon des migrations. Nos deux invités, François Gemenne et Lucie Bacon, par des voies différentes et à bonne distance des discours politiques si souvent réducteurs, explorent la diversité des parcours de migrants en prêtant attention à leur complexité. Pour l’un, à la transformation des frontières sous l’effet de la mondialisation et du changement climatique, pour l’autre, aux stratégies mises en place par les femmes et les hommes engagés sur une route semée d’obstacles, en rappelant aussi des vérités parfaitement vérifiables et pourtant obstinément inaudibles.

    Lucie Bacon, doctorante en géographie Laboratoire Migrinter (CNRS), Poitiers et Laboratoire Telemme, université Aix-Marseille. Elle achève une thèse : « La fabrique du parcours migratoire : la « route des Balkans » au prisme de la parole des migrants », un travail de terrain au plus près des intéressés.

    François Gemenne, spécialiste des questions de géopolitique de l’environnement, invité à Saint-Dié pour présenter son dernier livre au titre explicite : On a tous un ami noir. Pour en finir avec les polémiques stériles sur les migrations, (Fayard, 2020). Il a été directeur exécutif du programme de recherche interdisciplinaire « Politiques de la Terre » à Sciences Po (Médialab), et est par ailleurs chercheur qualifié du FNRS à l’Université de Liège (CEDEM).

    https://www.franceculture.fr/emissions/nos-geographies/a-lhorizon-des-migrations

    A partir de la minute 44’24 François Gemenne parle de #réfugiés_climatiques / #réfugiés_environnementaux

    #paradigme_de_l'immobilité #asile #migrations #réfugiés #frontières #im/mobilité #mobilité #idées_reçues #préjugés #frontières_ouvertes #fermeture_des_frontières #ouverture_des_frontières

    • On a tous un ami noir ; pour en finir avec les polémiques stériles sur les migrations

      Sans angélisme ni dogmatisme, ce livre apaisera le débat public sur le sujet de l’immigration, en l’éclairant de réflexions inédites : celles issues d’expériences étrangères, celles produites par la recherche et celles de l’auteur enfin, spécialiste de ces questions et lui-même étranger vivant en France depuis plus de douze ans. Pas une semaine ne s’écoule sans qu’éclate une nouvelle polémique sur les migrations : violences policières, voile dans l’espace public, discriminations, quotas, frontières... Les débats sur ces sujets sont devenus tendus, polarisés et passionnels, tandis que la parole raciste s’est libérée, relayée avec force par des activistes identitaires. Collectivement, on a accepté de penser les migrations à partir des questions posées par l’extrême-droite, en utilisant même son vocabulaire. Quant à nous, chercheurs, nous nous sommes souvent retrouvés réduits à devoir débusquer rumeurs et mensonges, qu’il s’agisse de dénoncer le mythe de l’appel d’air ou du grand remplacement. Nos sociétés resteront malades de ces questions tant qu’elles continueront à les envisager sous l’unique prisme des idéologies. C’est toute l’ambition de ce livre : montrer qu’il est possible de penser ces sujets de manière rationnelle et apaisée, en les éclairant de réflexions et de faits qui sont bien trop souvent absents des débats. En montrant, par exemple, que les passeurs sont les premiers bénéficiaires de la fermeture des frontières. Ou que la migration représente un investissement considérable pour ceux qui partent, alors qu’ils se retrouvent souvent décrits comme la « misère du monde ». Les questions d’identité collective doivent être des enjeux qui nous rassemblent, plutôt que des clivages qui nous opposent. À condition de reconnaître et d’affronter les problèmes structurels de racisme dans nos sociétés. Après tout, on a tous un ami noir.

      https://www.librairie-sciencespo.fr/livre/9782213712772-on-a-tous-un-ami-noir-pour-en-finir-avec-les-pole

      #livre #On_a_tous_un_ami_noir

    • Migrants : ouvrir les frontières, quelle idée ! Et pourtant...

      François Gemenne, enseignant et chercheur sur les politiques du climat et des migrations, vient de publier « On a tous un ami noir », chez Fayard. Un ouvrage en forme d’outil pour répondre aux idées trop vite convenues, dans le débat sur les migrations. Une manière depuis longtemps oubliée de penser cette épineuse question de société.

      https://www.lavoixdunord.fr/891788/article/2020-11-11/migrations-ouvrir-les-frontieres-quelle-idee

  • "Si un migrant est dans la région de Vintimille, c’est qu’il veut partir"

    À la frontière italo-française, des dizaines de migrants venus de tous horizons sont refoulés chaque jour après avoir tenté de passer en France. Solution de repli pour les refoulés fatigués de ce jeu du chat et de la souris, la ville de Vintimille, située à 10 kilomètres, est devenue ces derniers mois un territoire sans pitié pour les migrants.

    « Comme un ballon de foot »

    Visage masqué et pieds nus, Mohamed Ahmed a les yeux tournés vers la mer. Depuis le muret en pierres sur lequel il est assis à l’ombre des pins, il a une vue imprenable, splendide. La Méditerranée scintillante. La côte vallonnée - italienne d’abord, puis française un peu plus loin. Et la ville de Menton, facilement reconnaissable de l’autre côté de la baie, première cité de l’Hexagone en venant de cette partie de l’Italie. Mais le jeune homme ne semble pas apprécier ce paysage digne d’une carte postale. Il le regarde sans le voir. Bien que proche, Menton, et donc la France, lui est inaccessible.

    Inaccessible car Mohamed Ahmed est un migrant, soudanais, âgé de 25 ans, originaire du Darfour. Il a passé une partie de la nuit à marcher, dans l’espoir de traverser illégalement la frontière. L’autre partie, il l’a passée dans un préfabriqué exigu et sans toit appartenant à la PAF (police aux frontières) de Menton. Le matin venu, il a été remis sur la route avec pour ordre de retourner en Italie à pieds. L’Italie ne veut pourtant pas plus que la France de Mohamed Ahmed. « Je me sens comme un ballon de football sur un terrain entre deux équipes. L’une c’est l’Italie, l’autre c’est la France », dit-il.

    Face aux « difficultés migratoires », les deux pays semblent pourtant faire front commun. Fin juillet, Rome et Paris ont même annoncé la création prochaine d’une brigade conjointe à leur frontière pour lutter contre les filières de passeurs. De quoi compliquer davantage les passages. « Si les gens sont ici, c’est qu’ils veulent partir, ils sont déterminés. La police ne fait que les ralentir et les pousse à prendre plus de risques », regrette Maurizio Marmo, responsable de l’ONG Caritas Vintimille qui vient en aide aux migrants dans cette région italienne. En moyenne, il faut cinq essais à une personne avant de parvenir à passer en France. Mohamed Ahmed est dans la moyenne haute : c’est sa septième tentative en cinq jours. Il y en aura d’autres.

    Depuis la fin du confinement, et la reprise des voyages de migrants qui s’en est suivie, des dizaines de personnes essaient chaque jour de franchir cette frontière dans la région de Vintimille. Les moyens sont divers pour ceux qui ne sont pas conduits dans des véhicules de passeurs : à pieds, il y a le long de la mer - chemin qui n’a ’’quasiment aucune chance’’ étant donné la surveillance policière, glisse le membre d’une association -, les voies de chemins de fer ou, plus risqué, la montagne via un sentier surnommé sans équivoque ’’le passage de la mort’’. Il y a également les trains et les risques d’électrocutions pour ceux qui s’aventurent dessus.

    Chaque jour, aussi, des dizaines de personnes sont interpellées par la police française et sont refoulées. Des « #push-backs » souvent considérés comme illégaux car menés au mépris de l’asile demandé par les intéressés. La PAF de #Menton est d’ailleurs bien connue pour son fonctionnement opaque. Déjà visée par une enquête sur de possibles infractions, cette police avait refusé, en octobre 2019, à une députée le droit de visiter les lieux où sont retenus les migrants.

    Ce jeudi, ils sont une cinquantaine, comme Mohamed Ahmed, à avoir été renvoyés par la police dès le matin, selon un registre tenu par les associations. Un chiffre constant.

    L’apprentissage de la #méfiance

    Sur le bord de la route qui ramène à Vintimille, ville de repli et de transit pour les migrants, des associations ont installé un poste de ravitaillement pour accueillir les refoulés sur le retour. Au frais sous les arbres, du pain, des biscuits, des fruits et des réchauds pour faire du café les attendent. Une infirmière italienne est aussi là pour examiner les éventuelles blessures. Exténués et en sueur après une longue montée, ceux qui arrivent devant cette tablée affichent de larges sourires, agréablement surpris de voir qu’ici, pour une fois, des gens les attendent pour les aider. ’’C’est gratuit, c’est gratuit’’, rassure l’un des participants, les enjoignant à se servir.

    Au soulagement qu’apporte ce réconfort cède toutefois rapidement l’inquiétude. Car beaucoup de ceux présents - pour la plupart très jeunes - semblent dans un état de confusion totale. Faut-il prendre le bus pour se reposer à Vintimille ou retenter sa chance tout de suite ? Quel chemin emprunter ? Est-ce vrai que des militaires se cachent dans les buissons sur le sentier ’’de la mort’’ pour attraper les migrants qui y marchent la nuit ? « Est-ce que je dois dire que je veux demander l’asile en France quand un policier m’interpelle ? Tu peux m’écrire sur un bout de papier comment on dit ça en français ? » Les questions et les regards perdus se bousculent. Le silence tombe aussi soudainement, parfois. Au jeu du chat et de la souris qui se déroule à cette frontière, les grands perdants sont ceux qui ne maîtrisent pas les règles.

    Au point de ravitaillement les migrants peuvent acheter des tickets de bus pour aller Vintimille Crdit InfoMigrants

    « On m’a volé mon sac à dos dans la PAF », lance Nabil Maouche, Algérien de 27 ans, l’air hagard. À l’intérieur se trouvait tout ce qu’il possédait : ses vêtements, 50 euros et, surtout, son téléphone et son chargeur. « Je ne peux plus appeler ma famille », lance le jeune homme qui a embarqué début août depuis les côtes africaines à bord d’un petit bateau de fortune ayant, assure-t-il, réussi à atteindre la Sardaigne. Selon Chiara, membre de l’association italienne Projetto 20k, les pertes d’objets personnels sont monnaie courante durant les nuits au poste : « Les affaires des migrants sont gardées dans un vestiaire dans la PAF, c’est une pièce dans laquelle il y a beaucoup de passage… »

    Binu Lama, Tibétaine de 22 ans, montre pour sa part des documents dont elle peine à comprendre la signification. Un « refus d’entrée » de la police française et un procès verbal des forces de l’ordre italiennes, qui lui ont été délivrés coup sur coup. Elle ne parle ni français, ni italien, ne sait pas ce qu’elle doit en faire. Mais elle jure que, si près du but, cette paperasse ne l’empêchera pas de retenter sa chance dans quelques heures seulement. Accompagnée de son mari et d’un groupe d’amis, elle veut « trouver du travail et envoyer de l’argent à [sa] famille » depuis la France, où elle croit savoir qu’elle pourra obtenir l’asile plus facilement qu’en Italie. « Je ne suis pas découragée et je n’ai pas peur. Je suis habituée maintenant à traverser les frontières », lance celle qui a déjà marché à travers la Turquie, la Grèce, l’Albanie, le Monténégro, la Bosnie, la Croatie et la Slovénie.

    Phénomène vieux de plusieurs années, ces tentatives de passages dans la région de Vintimille ont ceci de nouveau qu’elles rassemblent désormais des personnes aux profils et aux origines plus variés qu’avant. Des Tibétains, par exemple, Jacopo Colomba, représentant de l’ONG We World, n’en avait pas vus dans le coin depuis deux ans. Il y a par ailleurs davantage de migrants désillusionnés par l’Italie « qui veulent tenter leur chance ailleurs », affirme Maurizio Marmo, de Caritas Vintimille. Ils s’ajoutent aux primo-arrivants dans le pays, largement majoritaires parmi ceux qui tentent le passage. Venus de la route des Balkans ou de l’île de Lampedusa dans le but de rejoindre la France ou d’autres pays du nord de l’Europe, ils sont nombreux à expliquer leur désir de quitter la péninsule par le fait qu’ils ne parlent pas italien, qu’ils ne connaissent personne dans ce pays ou, tout simplement, par l’ordre qu’ils ont reçu d’en partir.

    Ce dernier cas de figure est celui de Mohamed Ahmed et de ses deux compagnons de voyage, eux aussi originaires du Darfour. L’un d’eux tchipe lorsqu’on lui demande son prénom, en signe de refus. Il ne le donnera pas. Il tchipe de plus belle, en guise de désapprobation, lorsque son ami accepte, lui, de donner le sien. Le parcours migratoire de ce trentenaire l’a rendu méfiant, sur la défensive. Il ne sait plus qui croire ni à quel sein se vouer. Comme beaucoup de migrants, il a appris la méfiance envers les autorités, envers les journalistes, la méfiance des uns envers les autres.

    Et pour cause : cet homme sans nom est allé de mauvaises surprises en désillusions. Comme Mohamed Ahmed, il a fui le Soudan en guerre pour aller travailler en Libye, pays qu’il croyait prospère alors qu’il est en proie au chaos et à la loi du plus fort depuis 2011. Il y restera bloqué deux ans. À leur arrivée à Lampedusa au terme d’une traversée en bateau, les comparses soudanais sont placés en quarantaine pour détecter d’éventuels cas de coronavirus. Cette période censée durer 14 jours sera renouvelée et doublée, sans qu’on leur fournisse la moindre explication. À leur sortie, les autorités italiennes leur ont donné sept jours pour quitter le territoire.

    « À Vintimille, il n’y a plus d’endroit pour les choses intimes »

    Une fois refoulés par les autorités françaises, les migrants n’ont guère d’autres choix que d’aller à Vintimille, cité balnéaire de 24 000 habitants, loin d’être accueillante mais qui a l’avantage de se trouver à seulement 10 kilomètres de la frontière. Dans les rues de la ville, ils sont désoeuvrés. Chaque nuit, les associations dénombrent entre 100 et 200 migrants qui dorment où ils peuvent, gare, plages, arrière des buissons, sans tente. « Regardez comment c’est ici », lance, écœuré, un jeune Tchadien, arrivé depuis seulement trois jours, en pointant le bitume jonché de déchets. « Moi je dors plus bas, près de la rivière. » Il n’est pas le seul : les berges de la rivière Roya, recouvertes de végétation, sont habitées par de nombreux sangliers imposants et peu farouches.

    Le nombre de migrants à la rue à Vintimille représente une situation inhabituelle ces dernières années. Elle résulte, en grande partie, de la fermeture fin juillet d’un camp humanitaire situé en périphérie de la ville et géré par la Croix-Rouge italienne. Cette fermeture décrétée par la préfecture d’Imperia a été un coup dur pour les migrants qui pouvaient, depuis 2016, y faire étape. Les différents bâtiments de ce camp de transit pouvaient accueillir quelque 300 personnes - mais en avait accueillis jusqu’à 750 au plus fort de la crise migratoire. Des sanitaires, des lits, un accès aux soins ainsi qu’à une aide juridique pour ceux qui souhaitaient déposer une demande d’asile en Italie : autant de services qui font désormais partie du passé.

    « On ne comprend pas », lâche simplement Maurizio Marmo. « Depuis deux ans, les choses s’étaient calmées dans la ville. Il n’y avait pas de polémique, pas de controverse. Personne ne réclamait la fermeture de ce camp. Maintenant, voilà le résultat. Tout le monde est perdant, la ville comme les migrants. »

    Alors, qu’est-ce qui explique cette fermeture ? La préfecture est restée silencieuse à nos questions. Selon des associations, les autorités en auraient eu assez du cadre juridique bancal sur lequel avait été ouvert ce camp, unique en son genre dans le nord de l’Italie. D’autres avancent que la tenue prochaine d’élections régionales, fin septembre, aurait motivé cette décision dans l’espoir de glaner les votes de l’électorat anti-migrants. Difficile à savoir. Début septembre, plus d’un mois après sa fermeture, les préfabriqués du « campo » n’étaient en tout cas toujours pas démantelés, permettant à certains de parier sur une réouverture future.

    Toujours est-il qu’en attendant, la vie des migrants s’organise désormais à l’intérieur même de la ville, autour de la Via Tenda. Sur un parking, entre le cimetière et une voie rapide, l’association Kesha Niya distribue de la nourriture et de l’eau les soirs. Les matins, des collations sont servies dans les locaux de Caritas Vintimille, à proximité. Entre les deux, plus grand chose.

    « Les mineurs et les familles n’ont aucun accueil, s’offusque Maurizio Marmo. Les mineurs restent dehors. » En solution d’urgence, l’église San Nicola a récemment accepté, sous l’impulsion de Caritas, d’ouvrir ses portes aux familles le temps de quelques nuits seulement.

    Mais les portes, en général, se ferment davantage qu’elles ne s’ouvrent. « Avant, on louait un local là, près de la rivière, dit Chiara de Projetto 20k. Les migrants pouvaient s’y reposer en sécurité, charger leur téléphone, passer du temps tranquilles pour les choses intimes… Ça marchait bien. Mais le propriétaire a voulu mettre fin à cette location en janvier 2019. Maintenant le lieu est fermé et il n’y a plus d’endroit sécurisé à Vintimille pour ce genre de choses. »

    Même des services aussi essentiels que les douches ne sont plus accessibles aux migrants dans la ville. Les salles de bains de l’association Caritas, seules options, sont fermées pendant la belle saison. « Les douches sont très compliquées à gérer, justifie Maurizio Marmo, alors, l’été, ils vont dans la mer. »

    Abdelkhair a choisi la rivière. Accroupi sous un pont, penché en avant, il lave un t-shirt dans le faible débit de la Roya, asséchée en cette fin d’été. Il en profite pour se mouiller le visage. Originaires du Bangladesh, lui et ses compagnons ne peuvent pas s’attarder ici. « C’est le coin des Somaliens », prévient un autre migrant, qui s’est levé à la hâte du matelas encrassé sur lequel il était allongé à la vue d’un visiteur. Des murmures et des frémissements nous font comprendre que d’autres hommes se cachent tout autour, dans les interstices du pont, d’où dépasse un pan de couette, et dans les buissons. Les sangliers, eux, gambadent en plein jour non loin de là.

    À la recherche des femmes

    Les passeurs, aussi, agissent à découvert dans Vintimille. Dans le centre-ville, il n’est pas rare que des groupes d’hommes, connus pour être là pour du business, rodent autour de la gare. « Quand on les voit se diriger vers les quais, c’est qu’ils ont été prévenus qu’un train arrivait », indique un membre d’une association qui préfère garder l’anonymat.

    Mohamed Sheraz, rencontré en dehors de la ville, est si à l’aise qu’il donne son nom. Âgé de 25 ans, ce réfugié pakistanais en France dit venir en Italie pour « aider ses frères » en parallèle de son travail dans le secteur du bâtiment. En l’occurrence, il « aide » cinq hommes, quatre Pakistanais et un Afghan, moyennant 150 euros par tête. La nuit dernière, les migrants n’en ont pas eu pour leur argent, ce fut un échec.

    Mais d’autres trafics, plus secrets, inquiètent davantage les associations. Parmi les migrants livrés à eux-mêmes, les femmes, particulièrement vulnérables, sont l’objet de plusieurs attentions. « Dans les deux derniers mois, on a pu entrer - brièvement - en contact avec trois femmes, dit Jacopo Colomba, de l’ONG We World. Elles semblaient être contraintes par quelque chose et cherchaient une manière de s’échapper mais des hommes ont interrompu notre conversation. Nous ne les avons pas revues. »

    Grâce à des maraudes hebdomadaires, Jacopo Colomba, qui a rejoint le projet « Hope this helps » financé par le département et la région Ligurie pour documenter ces trafics, estime qu’environ 50 femmes transitent tous les mois par Vintimille. Avant de disparaître, sitôt les pieds posés dans la ville.

    « C’est une dynamique facile à observer, détaille Jacopo Colomba. Des femmes, généralement ivoiriennes [la mafia nigériane, très active il y a quelques années dans la ville, a elle vu son activité baisser, NDLR] arrivent par train de Milan ou de Gêne et sont tout de suite accueillies par une personne de leur nationalité. Elles sont menées près du fleuve. D’autres personnes les attendent et un échange de papiers a lieu. Puis, elles sont conduites dans des maisons, nous ne savons pas où exactement. » L’humanitaire, qui précise avoir prévenu la police mais ne pas savoir si « le mot a circulé », assure que ces femmes sont par la suite intégrées à des réseaux de prostitution en France et notamment à Marseille.

    « Les femmes ne sont pas inexistantes à Vintimille mais elles sont invisibles », affirme pour sa part Adèle, membre de l’association Kesha Niya, durant une distribution de nourriture à laquelle participent uniquement des hommes. « C’est dur de savoir comment elles vont et où elles sont. »

    Auparavant le camp de la Croix-Rouge hébergeait plusieurs d’entre elles. En cela non plus, sa fermeture n’a pas été bénéfique.

    Loin des trafics et des luttes de pouvoir, il reste un lieu à Vintimille où le business est un vilain mot. Le café Hobbit, tenu par la charismatique Delia, engrange même si peu de recettes que le commerce peine à ne pas mettre la clé sous la porte. Car Delia sert boissons et focaccias gratuites aux personnes dans le besoin depuis plusieurs années. Cet élan de générosité, inspiré par l’afflux de migrants dans la ville, a fait fuir les locaux. Eux ne mettent plus les pieds dans « le café des migrants ». « Mon commerce est un désastre », dit Delia, sans songer une seconde à changer de stratégie. Pour la gérante, les passeurs, les migrants laissés à l’abandon, la frontière italo-française et ses contrôles incessants, tout cela s’inscrit dans une même logique, qu’elle refuse de suivre. « Tout dans ce monde est affaire d’argent et de profit. La seule chose qui ne rapporte rien, c’est sauver les êtres humains. »

    https://www.infomigrants.net/fr/webdoc/209/si-un-migrant-est-dans-la-region-de-vintimille-c-est-qu-il-veut-partir

    #asile #migrations #réfugiés #frontière_sud-alpine #Italie #frontières #France #Vintimille #refoulement #refoulements #push-back #café_Hobbit #femmes #SDF #sans-abri #camp_humanitaire #Croix-Rouge #fermeture #Delia

  • Refugee protection at risk

    Two of the words that we should try to avoid when writing about refugees are “unprecedented” and “crisis.” They are used far too often and with far too little thought by many people working in the humanitarian sector. Even so, and without using those words, there is evidence to suggest that the risks confronting refugees are perhaps greater today than at any other time in the past three decades.

    First, as the UN Secretary-General has pointed out on many occasions, we are currently witnessing a failure of global governance. When Antonio Guterres took office in 2017, he promised to launch what he called “a surge in diplomacy for peace.” But over the past three years, the UN Security Council has become increasingly dysfunctional and deadlocked, and as a result is unable to play its intended role of preventing the armed conflicts that force people to leave their homes and seek refuge elsewhere. Nor can the Security Council bring such conflicts to an end, thereby allowing refugees to return to their country of origin.

    It is alarming to note, for example, that four of the five Permanent Members of that body, which has a mandate to uphold international peace and security, have been militarily involved in the Syrian armed conflict, a war that has displaced more people than any other in recent years. Similarly, and largely as a result of the blocking tactics employed by Russia and the US, the Secretary-General struggled to get Security Council backing for a global ceasefire that would support the international community’s efforts to fight the Coronavirus pandemic

    Second, the humanitarian principles that are supposed to regulate the behavior of states and other parties to armed conflicts, thereby minimizing the harm done to civilian populations, are under attack from a variety of different actors. In countries such as Burkina Faso, Iraq, Nigeria and Somalia, those principles have been flouted by extremist groups who make deliberate use of death and destruction to displace populations and extend the areas under their control.

    In states such as Myanmar and Syria, the armed forces have acted without any kind of constraint, persecuting and expelling anyone who is deemed to be insufficiently loyal to the regime or who come from an unwanted part of society. And in Central America, violent gangs and ruthless cartels are acting with growing impunity, making life so hazardous for other citizens that they feel obliged to move and look for safety elsewhere.

    Third, there is mounting evidence to suggest that governments are prepared to disregard international refugee law and have a respect a declining commitment to the principle of asylum. It is now common practice for states to refuse entry to refugees, whether by building new walls, deploying military and militia forces, or intercepting and returning asylum seekers who are travelling by sea.

    In the Global North, the refugee policies of the industrialized increasingly take the form of ‘externalization’, whereby the task of obstructing the movement of refugees is outsourced to transit states in the Global South. The EU has been especially active in the use of this strategy, forging dodgy deals with countries such as Libya, Niger, Sudan and Turkey. Similarly, the US has increasingly sought to contain northward-bound refugees in Mexico, and to return asylum seekers there should they succeed in reaching America’s southern border.

    In developing countries themselves, where some 85 per cent of the world’s refugees are to be found, governments are increasingly prepared to flout the principle that refugee repatriation should only take place in a voluntary manner. While they rarely use overt force to induce premature returns, they have many other tools at their disposal: confining refugees to inhospitable camps, limiting the food that they receive, denying them access to the internet, and placing restrictions on humanitarian organizations that are trying to meet their needs.

    Fourth, the COVID-19 pandemic of the past nine months constitutes a very direct threat to the lives of refugees, and at the same time seems certain to divert scarce resources from other humanitarian programmes, including those that support displaced people. The Coronavirus has also provided a very convenient alibi for governments that wish to close their borders to people who are seeking safety on their territory.

    Responding to this problem, UNHCR has provided governments with recommendations as to how they might uphold the principle of asylum while managing their borders effectively and minimizing any health risks associated with the cross-border movement of people. But it does not seem likely that states will be ready to adopt such an approach, and will prefer instead to introduce more restrictive refugee and migration policies.

    Even if the virus is brought under some kind of control, it may prove difficult to convince states to remove the restrictions that they have introduced during the COVD-19 emergency. And the likelihood of that outcome is reinforced by the fear that the climate crisis will in the years to come prompt very large numbers of people to look for a future beyond the borders of their own state.

    Fifth, the state-based international refugee regime does not appear well placed to resist these negative trends. At the broadest level, the very notions of multilateralism, international cooperation and the rule of law are being challenged by a variety of powerful states in different parts of the world: Brazil, China, Russia, Turkey and the USA, to name just five. Such countries also share a common disdain for human rights and the protection of minorities – indigenous people, Uyghur Muslims, members of the LGBT community, the Kurds and African-Americans respectively.

    The USA, which has traditionally acted as a mainstay of the international refugee regime, has in recent years set a particularly negative example to the rest of the world by slashing its refugee resettlement quota, by making it increasingly difficult for asylum seekers to claim refugee status on American territory, by entirely defunding the UN’s Palestinian refugee agency and by refusing to endorse the Global Compact on Refugees. Indeed, while many commentators predicted that the election of President Trump would not be good news for refugees, the speed at which he has dismantled America’s commitment to the refugee regime has taken many by surprise.

    In this toxic international environment, UNHCR appears to have become an increasingly self-protective organization, as indicated by the enormous amount of effort it devotes to marketing, branding and celebrity endorsement. For reasons that remain somewhat unclear, rather than stressing its internationally recognized mandate for refugee protection and solutions, UNHCR increasingly presents itself as an all-purpose humanitarian agency, delivering emergency assistance to many different groups of needy people, both outside and within their own country. Perhaps this relief-oriented approach is thought to win the favour of the organization’s key donors, an impression reinforced by the cautious tone of the advocacy that UNHCR undertakes in relation to the restrictive asylum policies of the EU and USA.

    UNHCR has, to its credit, made a concerted effort to revitalize the international refugee regime, most notably through the Global Compact on Refugees, the Comprehensive Refugee Response Framework and the Global Refugee Forum. But will these initiatives really have the ‘game-changing’ impact that UNHCR has prematurely attributed to them?

    The Global Compact on Refugees, for example, has a number of important limitations. It is non-binding and does not impose any specific obligations on the countries that have endorsed it, especially in the domain of responsibility-sharing. The Compact makes numerous references to the need for long-term and developmental approaches to the refugee problem that also bring benefits to host states and communities. But it is much more reticent on fundamental protection principles such as the right to seek asylum and the notion of non-refoulement. The Compact also makes hardly any reference to the issue of internal displacement, despite the fact that there are twice as many IDPs as there are refugees under UNHCR’s mandate.

    So far, the picture painted by this article has been unremittingly bleak. But just as one can identify five very negative trends in relation to refugee protection, a similar number of positive developments also warrant recognition.

    First, the refugee policies pursued by states are not uniformly bad. Countries such as Canada, Germany and Uganda, for example, have all contributed, in their own way, to the task of providing refugees with the security that they need and the rights to which they are entitled. In their initial stages at least, the countries of South America and the Middle East responded very generously to the massive movements of refugees out of Venezuela and Syria.

    And while some analysts, including the current author, have felt that there was a very real risk of large-scale refugee expulsions from countries such as Bangladesh, Kenya and Lebanon, those fears have so far proved to be unfounded. While there is certainly a need for abusive states to be named and shamed, recognition should also be given to those that seek to uphold the principles of refugee protection.

    Second, the humanitarian response to refugee situations has become steadily more effective and equitable. Twenty years ago, it was the norm for refugees to be confined to camps, dependent on the distribution of food and other emergency relief items and unable to establish their own livelihoods. Today, it is far more common for refugees to be found in cities, towns or informal settlements, earning their own living and/or receiving support in the more useful, dignified and efficient form of cash transfers. Much greater attention is now given to the issues of age, gender and diversity in refugee contexts, and there is a growing recognition of the role that locally-based and refugee-led organizations can play in humanitarian programmes.

    Third, after decades of discussion, recent years have witnessed a much greater engagement with refugee and displacement issues by development and financial actors, especially the World Bank. While there are certainly some risks associated with this engagement (namely a lack of attention to protection issues and an excessive focus on market-led solutions) a more developmental approach promises to allow better long-term planning for refugee populations, while also addressing more systematically the needs of host populations.

    Fourth, there has been a surge of civil society interest in the refugee issue, compensating to some extent for the failings of states and the large international humanitarian agencies. Volunteer groups, for example, have played a critical role in responding to the refugee situation in the Mediterranean. The Refugees Welcome movement, a largely spontaneous and unstructured phenomenon, has captured the attention and allegiance of many people, especially but not exclusively the younger generation.

    And as has been seen in the UK this year, when governments attempt to demonize refugees, question their need for protection and violate their rights, there are many concerned citizens, community associations, solidarity groups and faith-based organizations that are ready to make their voice heard. Indeed, while the national asylum policies pursued by the UK and other countries have been deeply disappointing, local activism on behalf of refugees has never been stronger.

    Finally, recent events in the Middle East, the Mediterranean and Europe have raised the question as to whether refugees could be spared the trauma and hardship of making dangerous journeys from one country and continent to another by providing them with safe and legal routes. These might include initiatives such as Canada’s community-sponsored refugee resettlement programme, the ‘humanitarian corridors’ programme established by the Italian churches, family reunion projects of the type championed in the UK and France by Lord Alf Dubs, and the notion of labour mobility programmes for skilled refugee such as that promoted by the NGO Talent Beyond Boundaries.

    Such initiatives do not provide a panacea to the refugee issue, and in their early stages at least, might not provide a solution for large numbers of displaced people. But in a world where refugee protection is at such serious risk, they deserve our full support.

    http://www.against-inhumanity.org/2020/09/08/refugee-protection-at-risk

    #réfugiés #asile #migrations #protection #Jeff_Crisp #crise #crise_migratoire #crise_des_réfugiés #gouvernance #gouvernance_globale #paix #Nations_unies #ONU #conflits #guerres #conseil_de_sécurité #principes_humanitaires #géopolitique #externalisation #sanctuarisation #rapatriement #covid-19 #coronavirus #frontières #fermeture_des_frontières #liberté_de_mouvement #liberté_de_circulation #droits_humains #Global_Compact_on_Refugees #Comprehensive_Refugee_Response_Framework #Global_Refugee_Forum #camps_de_réfugiés #urban_refugees #réfugiés_urbains #banque_mondiale #société_civile #refugees_welcome #solidarité #voies_légales #corridors_humanitaires #Talent_Beyond_Boundaries #Alf_Dubs

    via @isskein
    ping @karine4 @thomas_lacroix @_kg_ @rhoumour

    –—
    Ajouté à la métaliste sur le global compact :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/739556

  • Lo spot anti frontalieri. Lo spot dell’Udc svizzera contro la libera circolazione

    Voici le texte, en italien:

    Vedo una natura bella e incontaminata.
    Vedo montagne grandi e imponenti.
    Abbiamo fiumi con acque trasparenti.
    La mia mamma mi dice sempre che viviamo nel Paese più bello del mondo.
    Lo so, dobbiamo proteggere il nostro paesaggio.
    Siamo liberi e non conosciamo guerre.
    Possiamo dire apertamente ciò che pensiamo.
    Io vado a scuola e stiamo ancora abbastanza bene.
    Il mio papà mi dice sempre che la nostra cultura è molto importante. Dobbiamo difenderla e promuoverla.
    Siamo un piccolo paese per il quale il nonno ha lavorato duramente.
    Quando sarò grande mi impegnerò anch’io come lui.
    Da sempre dobbiamo fare attenzione. Molta gente crede di poter approfittare del nostro Paese.
    Sempre più persnoe vogliono venire in Svizzera. E ciò, anche se non c’è posto per tutti.
    C’è sempre più gente sulle strade. Ci sono code e tante auto ovunque.
    Il papà ha da poco perso il suo lavoro.
    Giocare davanti a casa nel quartiere è diventato meno sicuro.
    Nella mia classe, ormai solo Sara e Giorgio sono svizzeri.
    Ogni giorno la televisione parla di ladri e criminali. E ho paura quando in inverno torno da sola da scuola.
    Dappertutto ci sono uomini che gironzolano in strada e alla stazione invece che lavorare.
    Il tram è sempre pieno e non posso mai sedermi.
    Non stiamo esagerando? Perché lasciamo andare così il nostro paese?
    E’ il momento di dire basta!
    Avete la responsabilità del nostro futuro e di quello della Svizzera.
    Per favore, pensate a noi.

    https://www.laprovinciadicomo.it/videos/video/lo-spot-anti-frontalieri_1047819_44
    #anti-migrants #UDC #Suisse #vidéo #campagne #libre_circulation #frontières #fermeture_des_frontières #migrations #extrême_droite #nationalisme #identité #paysage #géographie_culturelle #liberté #chômage #criminalité #stéréotypes #sécurité #trafic #responsabilité

    #vidéo publiée dans le cadre de la campagne de #votation «#oui_à_une_immigration_modérée»:


    https://www.udc.ch/campagnes/apercu/initiative-populaire-pour-une-immigration-moderee-initiative-de-limitation
    #initiative

    Site web de la campagne:


    https://www.initiative-de-limitation.ch

    #votations

    via @albertocampiphoto et @wizo

    ping @cede

    • A lire sur le site web de l’UDC...

      Iniziativa per la limitazione: chi si batte per il clima dovrebbe votare SI

      Chi si batte per il clima dovrebbe votare SI all’iniziativa per la limitazione. Sembra un paradosso, ma in realtà non è così: è in realtà una scelta molto logica e sensata. Vediamone il motivo.

      Dall’introduzione della piena libertà di circolazione delle persone nel 2007, un numero netto di circa 75.000 persone è immigrato in Svizzera ogni anno, di cui 50.000 stranieri dell’UE. Ognuna di queste persone ha bisogno di un appartamento, un mezzo di trasporto, usa servizi statali e consuma acqua ed elettricità. Allo stesso tempo, la Svizzera dovrebbe ridurre le emissioni di CO2, smettere di costruire sui terreni coltivati e tenere sotto controllo i costi sanitari.

      Per dare abitazione al circa 1 milione di immigrati abbiamo dovuto costruire nuove abitazioni su un’area grande come 57.000 campi da calcio. Si tratta di 407 milioni di metri quadrati di natura che sono stati ricoperti di cemento. Questo include circa 454.000 nuovi appartamenti.

      Un milione di immigrati significa anche 543.000 auto in più e 789 autobus in più sulle strade e 9 miliardi di chilometri percorsi in più. Se la Svizzera dovesse raggiungere davvero entro il 2030 la popolazione di 10 milioni di abitanti, sarà necessario un ulteriore aumento della rete stradale, in quanto sempre più auto saranno in circolazione, emettendo anche ulteriore C02. L’ufficio federale dello sviluppo territoriale prevede infatti che il numero di automobili in circolazione nel 2040 aumenterà ancora del 26%.

      L’immigrazione incontrollata ha conseguenze anche sul consumo di energia. Con la Strategia energetica 2050, la Svizzera ha deciso che entro la fine del 2035 il consumo di energia pro-capite deve diminuire del 43% rispetto al 2020. Ciò per compensare l’elettricità prodotta dalle centrali nucleari, che devono essere chiuse per motivi politici. Tra l’anno di riferimento 2000 e il 2018, il consumo di energia pro-capite è diminuito del 18,8%, soprattutto a causa del progresso tecnico (motori a combustione efficienti, nuova tecnologia edilizia, lampade a LED, apparecchi a basso consumo, produzione interna di energia solare, ecc.) Nello stesso periodo, tuttavia, il consumo totale di energia in Svizzera è diminuito solo dell’1,9%. In altre parole, gli effetti di risparmio di ogni singolo svizzero sono quasi completamente assorbiti dalla crescita della popolazione a causa dell’immigrazione incontrollata

      Secondo l’accordo sul clima di Parigi, la Svizzera dovrebbe ridurre le emissioni di C02 del 50% entro il 2030. Quando la Svizzera siglò il trattato, nel 1990, aveva però 6,5 milioni di abitanti. Con la libera circolazione delle persone, nel 2030 in Svizzera vivranno 10 milioni di persone, che consumano, si spostano e producono CO2. Anche supponendo un graduale rinuncio alle automobili e una netta riduzione di emissioni nel settore industriale, con una popolazione così grande sarà impossibile per una Svizzera con oltre 10 milioni di abitanti di raggiungere l’obbiettivo previsto dell’accordo di Parigi.

      È pertanto necessario che la Svizzera torni a gestire in modo autonomo la propria immigrazione. Una Svizzera da 10 milioni di abitanti non è sostenibile né dal punto di vista economico ne dal punto di vista climatico.

      https://www.iniziativa-per-la-limitazione.ch/artikel/iniziativa-per-la-limitazione-chi-si-batte-per-il-clim

      #climat #changement_climatique

    • C’était il y a 3 ans et déjà (encore, plutôt,…) l’UDC.

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pqvqq7Tt3pQ

      L’affiche du comité contre la naturalisation facilitée, représentant une femme voilée, a suscité une vaste polémique. Nous avons visité l’agence qui l’a conçue.
      Extrait du 26 minutes, une émission de la Radio Télévision Suisse, samedi 21 janvier 2017.

      #26_minutes, un faux magazine d’actualité qui passe en revue les faits marquants de la semaine écoulée, en Suisse et dans le monde, à travers des faux reportages et des interviews de vrais et de faux invités. Un regard décalé sur l’actualité, présenté par Vincent Veillon et Vincent Kucholl de l’ex-120 secondes.

  • Region in northwestern Bosnia sets up roadblocks to deter migrants

    Authorities in northeastern Bosnia have deployed police officers along a main transit highway to prevent migrants from entering their territory. The migrants are finding themselves trapped as neighboring regions are blocking them from walking back too.

    The local authorities in Krajino, in the northwestern part of Bosnia, have begun enforcing their decision to ban all new migrant arrivals and have set up roadblocks to prevent migrants who are headed to western Europe from entering their territory. The Krajino authorities allege that they are bearing the brunt of ongoing migration and that other parts of the country are failing to step in and help out.

    The deployment of police and the order to turn back all the migrants they encounter is an apparent violation of Bosnia’s human rights and immigration laws, AP reports.

    The roadblocks are set up on the main highway connecting Krajina to the rest of the country. Police in neighboring administrative regions of Bosnia in turn started blocking migrants from walking back, reports AP.
    Ali Razah, a Pakistani migrant, is one of hundreds trapped in the middle. He told AP that various police units had blocked him and other migrants from moving in any direction. “There is no food, no water, nothing and we are staying on the grass,” he said.

    Anti-migrant protests

    The Krajino region, on the border with Croatia, is a major transit point for migrants and refugees who aim to reach the European Union. The two towns Bihac and Velika Kladusa with their refugee and migrant camps are located in the region’s northwestern corner and have become a bottleneck for migrants — as Croatian authorities have sealed the border to the EU-member state and are reported to conduct pushbacks across the border using violence against the migrants.

    Recently, local residents of Velika Kladusa have repeatedly staged anti-migrant protests, accusing migrants of assaults and violence against the local population. On Monday August 17, hundreds of people reportedly blocked a road near a migrant reception center, complaining of harassment and increasing misbehavior by migrants in the city. The residents claim that cases of aggression and intimidation by migrants had multiplied, and that migrants from rival groups often fought or set fire to warehouses or dilapidated buildings where they they were staying.

    There are about 1,300 irregular migrants in Velika Kladusa, according to estimates by the authorities reported in the media, many of whom are sleeping rough in the surrounding area. In northwestern Bosnia-Herzegovina along the Croatian border there are more than 7,000 migrants, according to ANSA.

    Political infighting

    Most migrants enter Bosnia across the Drina River on the eastern border with Serbia. From there, they cross the country to reach Krajina.

    Bosnia since 1995 has been split along ethnic lines into two highly autonomous parts - the Serb-run Republika Srpska and the Bosniak-Croat Federation. Local authorities in Krajina have long accused Bosnia’s central government of not doing enough to resolve the crisis in Bosnia and of using the migration issue to fuel political infighting.

    So far, the Bosnian Serb hard-line leader Milorad Dodik has blocked efforts to deploy the army along the border with Serbia to stem the arrival of migrants, AP writes, and he is said to have used the migration issue to promote his Serbian-first position. He has repeatedly pressed for Serbs to separate from multi-ethnic Bosnia and unite with Serbia. Dodik refused to accommodate any migrants in the country’s autonomous Serb-run half and instead pushed them into Krajina.

    ’Closing borders is not a solution’

    Migrant aid groups working on the ground, however, stress that local authorities lack the willingness for practical solutions too. “The big problem is that we do not see a willingness from the different governments – international, national or local – to make a solution, to sit together with different groups and try to find a way to make the situation less hard for everyone,” a member of the NGO ’No Name Kitchen’ which helps migrants and refugees in Bosnia and Serbia told the Balkan Investigative Reporting Network Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIRN), reported the BalkanInsight, in light of growing tensions towards migrants.

    “Opening camps and closing borders is not a solution,” they told BIRN. “It is just a patch. So we have people in transit who have nowhere to go, no tents, no blankets… If they try to reach an EU country, it is common that they get pushed back and normally with violence. Camps paid for by EU money are full and renting a house is not allowed. At the same time, locals are exhausted,” ’No Name Kitchen’ told BIRN.

    https://www.infomigrants.net/en/post/26832/region-in-northwestern-bosnia-sets-up-roadblocks-to-deter-migrants

    #militarisation_des_frontières #asile #migrations #réfugiés #Balkans #route_des_Balkans #frontières #Bosnie #barrages_routiers #fermeture_des_frontières #Krajino

  • The Next Great Migration. The Beauty and Terror of Life on the Move

    The news today is full of stories of dislocated people on the move. Wild species, too, are escaping warming seas and desiccated lands, creeping, swimming, and flying in a mass exodus from their past habitats. News media presents this scrambling of the planet’s migration patterns as unprecedented, provoking fears of the spread of disease and conflict and waves of anxiety across the Western world. On both sides of the Atlantic, experts issue alarmed predictions of millions of invading aliens, unstoppable as an advancing tsunami, and countries respond by electing anti-immigration leaders who slam closed borders that were historically porous.

    But the science and history of migration in animals, plants, and humans tell a different story. Far from being a disruptive behavior to be quelled at any cost, migration is an ancient and lifesaving response to environmental change, a biological imperative as necessary as breathing. Climate changes triggered the first human migrations out of Africa. Falling sea levels allowed our passage across the Bering Sea. Unhampered by barbed wire, migration allowed our ancestors to people the planet, catapulting us into the highest reaches of the Himalayan mountains and the most remote islands of the Pacific, creating and disseminating the biological, cultural, and social diversity that ecosystems and societies depend upon. In other words, migration is not the crisis—it is the solution.

    Conclusively tracking the history of misinformation from the 18th century through today’s anti-immigration policies, The Next Great Migration makes the case for a future in which migration is not a source of fear, but of hope.

    https://www.bloomsbury.com/us/the-next-great-migration-9781635571998
    #adaptation #asile #migrations #réfugiés #mobilité #solution #problème #résilience #livre #changement_climatique #climat #réfugiés_environnementaux #migrations_environnementales #histoire #survie #crise #histoire_des_migrations

    ping @isskein @karine4 @_kg_ @reka

    • Climate migration is not a problem. It’s a solution.

      Climate migration is often associated with crisis and catastrophe, but #Sonia_Shah, author of “The Next Great Migration,” wants us to think differently about migration. On The World’s weekly look at climate change solutions, The Big Fix, Shah speaks to host Marco Werman about her reporting that considers how the world would be more resilient if people were given legal safe ways to move.

      https://www.pri.org/file/2020-08-21/climate-migration-not-problem-it-s-solution

      –—

      Sonia Shah parle aussi de #musique métissée, dont celle de #Mulatu_Astatke, qui n’aurait pas pu voir le jour sans la migrations de populations au cours de l’histoire :


      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mulatu_Astatke

      #immobilité #fermeture_des_frontières

    • Migration as Bio-Resilience : On Sonia Shah’s “The Next Great Migration”

      DURING THE UNUSUALLY frigid winter of 1949, a breeding pair of gray wolves crossed a frozen-over channel onto Michigan’s Isle Royale, a narrow spit of land just south of the US-Canadian maritime border in Lake Superior. Finding abundant prey, including moose, the pair had pups, starting a small lupine clan. Over the next almost 50 years, without access to the mainland, the clan grew increasingly inbred, with over half the wolves developing congenital spinal deformities and serious eye problems. As the wolf population declined — scientists even found one mother dead in her den, with seven unborn pups in her — the moose population came thundering back, gobbling up and trampling the forest’s buds and shoots. The ecosystem’s food chain now had a few broken links.

      The Isle Royale wolf population was saved, however, by a lone migrant. In 1997, a male wolf made his way to the island. Within a generation — wolf generations are a little less than five years — 56 percent of the young wolves carried the newcomer’s genes. In the years since, thanks to ongoing conservation efforts, more wolves have been brought to the island to provide enough genetic diversity not only to save the wolves but preserve the ecosystem’s new balance.

      This is just one of many examples of the bio-benefits of migratory species provided by Sonia Shah in her new book, The Next Great Migration. Hers is an original take on the oft-stultifying debate about immigration, most frequently argued over by unbending stalwarts on opposite extremes, or sometimes quibbled over by noncommittal centrists. There are now more displaced humans than ever — around one percent of the total human population — and the climate crises together with humanity’s ceaseless creep are driving an increasing number of nonhuman species to search for more welcoming climes. That half of the story is popularly understood: the world is on the move. What is less often acknowledged, and what Shah convincingly fills out, is its biological necessity. “Migration’s ecological function extends beyond the survival of the migrant itself,” she writes. “Wild migrants build the botanical scaffolding of entire ecosystems.” Besides spreading pollen and seeds — upon which the survival of many plants depend — migrants also transport genes, thus bringing genetic diversity. Migration is not only a human fact but a biological one.

      But the understanding of migration’s critical import — whether broadly biological or specifically human — has been a long time coming.

      “The idea that certain people and species belong in certain fixed places has had a long history in Western culture,” Shah writes. By its logic, “migration is by necessity a catastrophe, because it violates the natural order.” The so-called “natural order” is actually a construct that has been buoyed for millennia by a broad coalition of scientists, politicians, and other ideologically inflected cavillers. As for the word “migrant,” it didn’t even appear in the English language until the 17th century — when it was coined by Thomas Browne — and it took another hundred years before it was applied to humans. One important migrant-denialist, as Shah details, was Swedish-born naturalist Carl Linnaeus, most famous for formalizing binomial nomenclature, the modern system of classifying organisms as, say, Canis lupus or Homo sapiens.

      Shah goes beyond Linnaeus’s contribution to taxonomy — which, notably, is itself subject to critique, as when essayist Anne Fadiman describes it as a “form of mental colonising and empire-building” — to illuminate his blinkered fealty to the dominant narratives of the day. More than just falling in line, he worked to cement the alleged differences between human populations — crudely exaggerating, for instance, features of “red,” “yellow,” “black,” or “white” skinned people. He sparred with competing theorists who were beginning to propose then-revolutionary ideas — for instance, that all humans originated in and migrated out of Africa. With the concept of the “Great Chain of Being,” he toadied to the reigning theological explanation for the world being as it was; this concept hierarchically categorized, in ascending order, matter, plants, animals, peasants, clergy, noblemen, kings, and, finally, God. To support his views, Linnaeus took a trip to northern Sweden where he “studied” the indigenous Sami people, all the while complaining of the climate and the locals not speaking Swedish. Robbing them of a few native costumes, he then freely fabricated stories about their culture and origins. He later tried to give credence to biological differences between Africans and Europeans by committing to the bizarre fantasy that black women had elongated labia minora, to which he referred using the Latin term sinus pudoris. The cultural backdrop to his explanations and speculations was the generally held view that migration was an anomaly, and that people and animals lived where they belonged and belonged where they lived — and always had.

      Ignorance — deliberate, political, or simply true and profound — of the realities of even animal migration went so far as pushing scientists to hatch myriad far-fetched theories to explain, for example, where migratory birds went in the winter. Leading naturalists at the time explained some birds’ seasonal disappearance by claiming that they hibernated in lakes — a theory first proposed by Aristotle — or hid in remote caves. Driving such assumptions was, in part, the idea of a stable and God-created “harmony of nature.” When some thinkers began to question such fixed stability, Linneaus doubled down, insisting that animals inhabited their specific climes, and remained there. The implication for humans was not only that they had not migrated from Africa, but that Africans — as well as Asians and Native Americans — were biologically distinct. This kind of racial essentialism was an important structural component of what would morph into race science or eugenics. Linnaeus divided Homo sapiens into Homo sapiens europaeus (white, serious, strong), Homo sapiens asiaticus (yellow, melancholy, greedy), Homo sapiens americanus (red, ill-tempered, subjugated), and Homo sapiens afer (black, impassive, lazy), as well as Homo caudatus (inhabitants of the Antarctic globe), and even Homo monstrosus (pygmies and Patagonian giants).

      “Scientific ideas that cast migration as a form of disorder were not obscure theoretical concerns confined to esoteric academic journals,” but, Shah writes, “theoretical ballast for today’s generation of anti-immigration lobbyists and policy makers.”

      Here Shah dredges up more vile fantasies, like that of the “Malphigian layer” in the late 17th century, which claimed that Africans had an extra layer of skin consisting of “a thick, fatty black liquid of unknown provenance.” While the Malphigian layer has been roundly dismissed, such invented differences between peoples continue to bedevil medical treatment: even today, black people are presumed to be able to tolerate more pain, and so it’s perhaps hardly surprising that more black women die in childbirth.

      The idea was “that people who lived on different continents were biologically foreign to one another, a claim that would fuel centuries of xenophobia and generations of racial violence.” Or, put more simply, Linnaeus and other believed: “We belong here. They belong there.”

      ¤

      “The classifications of species as either ‘native’ or ‘alien’ is one of the organizing principles of conservation,” Shah writes, quoting a 2007 scientific study in Progress in Human Geography. The implications of that dichotomous classification are harmful to humans and nonhumans alike, setting the stage for xenophobia and white anthropomorphism. As a case in point, the son of author and conservationist Aldo Leopold recommended in 1963, that US national parks “preserve, or where necessary […] recreate the ecologic scene as viewed by the first European visitors.” The idea of a pristine, pre-colonial era presumes an ahistorical falsehood: that humans and others left no trace, or that those traces could be undone and the ecologic scene returned to a static Eden. While many indigenous cultures certainly live less disruptively within their environment, in the case of both the Americas and Australia for example, the arrival of the first Homo sapiens heralded the swift extinction of scores of native species — in the Americas, woolly mammoths, giant sloths, saber-toothed tigers, camelops, and the dire wolf. Yet the pull toward preservation persists.

      In 1999, Bill Clinton established the National Invasive Species Council, which was tasked with repelling “alien species.” This move was an outgrowth of the relatively recently created disciplines of conservation biology, restoration biology, and even invasion biology. I recall being a boy in northern Ohio and hearing of the horror and devastation promised by the zebra mussel’s inexorable encroachment into the ecosystems of the Great Lakes. One invasion biologist, writes Shah, “calculated that wild species moving freely across the planet would ravage large swaths of ecosystems. The number of land animals would drop by 65 percent, land birds by 47 percent, butterflies by 35 percent, and ocean life by 58 percent.” And while the globe is certainly losing species to extinction, blaming mobility or migration is missing the mark, and buoying up the old “myth of a sedentary planet,” as she puts it.

      For millennia, humans had hardly any idea of how some species could spread. They had neither the perspective nor technology to understand that creepy-crawlies have creeped and crawled vast distances and always been on the move, which is not, in the big picture, a bad thing. Zebra mussels, for example, were not the only, or even the greatest, threat to native clams in the Great Lakes. Besides disrupting the local ecosystems, they also contributed to those ecosystems by filtering water and becoming a new source of food for native fish and fowl. Shah notes that Canadian ecologist Mark Vellend has found that “wild newcomers generally increase species richness on a local and regional level.” Since the introduction of European species to the Americas 400 years ago, biodiversity has actually increased by 18 percent. In other words, Shah writes, “nature transgresses borders all the time.”

      In her last chapter, “The Wall,” she tackles the immunological implications of migration. While first acknowledging that certain dangers do uncontrovertibly exist, such as Europeans bringing smallpox to the Americas, or Rome spreading malaria to the outer regions of its empire, she metaphorizes xenophobia as a fever dream. To be sure, wariness of foreign pathogens may make sense, but to guide foreign policy on such grounds or let wariness morph into discrimination or violent backlash becomes, like a fever that climbs beyond what the host organism needs, “a self-destructive reaction, leading to seizures, delirium, and collapse.” It’s like a cytokine storm in the COVID-19 era. As Shah told me, “the reflexive solution to contagion — border closures, isolation, immobility — is in fact antithetical to biological resilience on a changing planet.”

      ¤

      In 2017, a solo Mexican wolf loped through the Chihuahuan Desert, heading north, following a path that other wolves, as well as humans, have traveled for thousands of years. Scientists were especially interested in this lone wolf, known as M1425, because he represented a waning population of endangered Mexican wolves dispersing genes from a tiny population in Mexico to a slightly more robust population in the United States.

      Like the Isle Royale wolves, “[i]f the two wild populations of Mexican gray wolves can find and mate with each other, the exchange of genetic material could boost recovery efforts for both populations,” a New Mexico magazine reported. But the area where M1425 crossed the international boundary is now closed off by a border wall, and the Center for Biological Diversity counts 93 species directly threatened by the proposed expansion of the wall. This is what we should be worried about.

      https://lareviewofbooks.org/article/migration-as-bio-resilience-on-sonia-shahs-the-next-great-migration
      #bio-résilience #résilience

      signalé par @isskein

  • #CoronaCapitalism and the European #Border_Regime

    As the coronavirus pandemic continues to affect people’s lives all over the world, the violence against migrants and refugees has intensified. This article explores #CoronaCapitalism and the Border Regime in a European context. Corporate Watch uses the term “border regime” as a shorthand to mean all of the many different institutions, people, systems and processes involved in trying to control migrants.

    This article only shares the tip-of-the-iceberg of migrant experiences during the coronavirus pandemic and we know there are many other untold stories. If you would like to share your news or experiences, please contact us.

    Mass Containment Camps

    As the world descended into lockdowns in an attempt to prevent the spread of the virus, tens of thousands of people have been confined in camps in the Western Balkans and Greece, as well as smaller accommodation centres across Europe. New and existing camps were also essentially locked down and the movement of people in and out of camps began to be heavily controlled by police and/or the military.

    The Border Violence Monitoring Network (BVMN) has been trying to track what is happening across the Balkans. They write that in Bosnia-Herzegovina, “more than 5,000 people were detained in existing temporary refugee reception centres. They include about 500 unaccompanied minors and several hundred children with families. Persons in need of special care, patients, victims of torture, members of the LGBTQ population, persons diagnosed with mental disorders, and victims of domestic violence have also been locked down into ‘EU-funded’ camps.” Police officers guard the centres and emergency legislation enables them the right to ‘physically force persons trying to leave the centres to return.’

    120,000 people are locked down in containment camps across Greece and the Greek Islands. Disturbing accounts of refugee camps are ever-present but the pandemic has worsened already unbearable conditions. 17,000 refugees live at Moira Refugee Camp where there are 210 people per toilet and 630 people per shower. Coronavirus, uncertainty over suspended asylum applications and the terrible living conditions are all contributing to escalating violence.

    In detention centres in Drama and Athens in Greece, the BVMN report that, “Respondents describe a lack of basic amenities such as running water, showers, or soap. Cramped and overcrowded conditions, with up to 13 inmates housed in one caravan with one, usually non-functioning, toilet. Requests for better services are met with violence at the hands of officers and riot police. On top of this, there have been complaints that no special precautions for COVID-19 are being taken, residents inside told BVMN reporters that sick individuals are not isolated, and are dismissed as having ‘the flu’.”

    While movement restrictions were lifted for Greek residents on 4th May, lockdown is still extended for all camps and centres across Greece and the Islands. This decision triggered thousands of people to protest in Athens. Emergency legislation adopted at the start of March in Greece effectively suspended the registration of asylum applications and implied immediate deportation for those entering the Greek territory, without registration, to their countries of origin or to Turkey.

    Detention and the deportation regime

    While major country-wide lockdowns are an unusual form of restriction of movement, for decades European states have been locking people seeking safety in detention centres. Immigration Removal Centres are essentially prisons for migrants in which people are locked up without trial or time-limit. In the UK the detention system is mostly run for profit by private companies, as detailed in our UK Border Regime book.

    Despite preparing for a pandemic scenario in January 2020, it took public pressure and legal action before the British government released nearly 1000 people from detention centres. As of the end of May, 368 people were still locked up in the profit-making detention centres and many more are living in ‘accommodation centres’ where they have been unable to access coronavirus testing.

    During the pandemic, people have been revolting in several detention centres across France and Belgium. Residents at a refugee centre in Saxony-Anhalt in Germany went on a hunger strike in April to protest against a lack of disinfectant. Hunger strikes have also taken place at detention centres in Tunisia, Cyprus and France.

    Women in a police holding centre for migrants in Greece went on hunger strike in June. In a statement, they wrote: “We will continue the hunger strike until we are free from this captivity. They will either set us free or we shall die”.

    People staged a rooftop protest at a detention centre in Madrid at the start of the outbreak. This was before all the detention centres in Spain were, for the first time in their history, completely emptied. To put this into context, Spain had 6,473 detainees in 2019. Legal challenges have been leveraging the EU Returns Directive which allows detention pending deportation for up to 18 months, but stipulates that if “a reasonable prospect of removal no longer exists…detention ceases to be justified and the person concerned shall be released immediately”.

    With a worldwide reduction in flights, deportations became unfeasible, however, many are afraid that the deportation machine will restart as things “return to normal”.

    Worsening life in the ‘jungle’

    People living in squats and other improvised accommodation have also faced sweeping operations, with people being rounded up and taken to containment camps.

    For those that remained on the street, pandemic restrictions took their toll. In Greece, movement amidst the pandemic was permitted via letters and text messages. For people who did not have the right paperwork, they were fined 150 euros, sometimes multiple times.

    Similarly, in the French city of Calais, people who did not have the right paperwork were commonly denied access to shops and supermarkets, where they may have previously used the bathrooms or bought food to cook. With many volunteer groups unable to operate due to movement restrictions, the availability of food dramatically reduced overnight. Access to services such as showers, phone charging and healthcare also rapidly reduced.

    People in Calais also faced a rise in evictions: 45 evictions were recorded in the first two weeks of lockdown. These expulsions have continued throughout the pandemic. On Friday 10th July 2020, a major police raid in Calais forced more than 500 people onto buses to be taken to ‘reception centres’ across the region.

    In Amsterdam in the Netherlands, some migrants were forced to live in night shelters and made to leave during the daytime – facing constant risks of contracting COVID-19 and police harassment in the city. They protested “I would stay at home if I had one”.

    Many migrant solidarity groups working on the ground lost huge numbers of volunteers due to travel restrictions and health concerns. Access to material donations such as tents, which are commonly collected at the end of festivals, also reduced. A constant supply of these resources is needed because the police routinely take the migrants’ tents away.

    Militarisation of borders

    The pandemic has seen an increase in military forces at borders and camps, persistent police violence and the suspension of ‘rights’ or legal processes. Using ‘State of Emergency’ legislation, the health crisis has been effectively weaponised.

    In March at the beginning of the pandemic in Europe, FRONTEX, the European Border and Coast Guard Agency deployed an additional 100 guards at the Greek Land Border. This is in addition to the agency’s core of 10,000 officers working around Europe.

    In their 2020 Risk Analysis Report, FRONTEX wrote that “the closing of internal borders is binding border guard personnel, which some border authorities have long stopped planning for”. This illuminates a key complexity in border control. For years, Europe has shifted to policing the wider borders of the Schengen Area. As the virus spread between countries within that area, however, states have tried to shut down their own borders.

    Police forces and militaries have become increasingly mobilised to “protect these national borders”. In Slovenia, this meant the military was granted authority to ‘process civilians’ at the border through the government’s activation of Article 37a of the Defence Act. While in Serbia, the army was deployed around border camps to ensure mass containment. 400 new border guards were also dispatched to the Evros land border between Greece and Turkey in addition to an increase in fencing and surveillance technologies.

    Escalating Police Violence

    Although migrants are no strangers to police brutality, national states of emergency have enabled an escalation in police violence. In mid-April an open letter was published by the Eritrean community of the Calais jungle reporting escalating police brutality. It describes the actions of the CRS police (Compagnies républicaines de sécurité); the general guard of the French police, infamous for riot control and repression:

    “They don’t see us as human beings. They insult us with names such as monkey, bitch etc. And for the past few weeks, they have started to threaten our lives by beating us as soon as the opportunity arises. When for example they found a group of two or three people walking towards the food distribution, or in our tents, when we were sleeping. They accelerate in their vehicles while driving in our direction, as if they wanted to crush us. They also took people with them to places far from Calais, and beat them until they lost consciousness.”

    The statement continues with a chronological list of events whereby people were beaten up, hit, gassed, had their arms broken, and were struck on the head so hard they lost consciousness and were taken to hospital by ambulance.

    With fewer people on the streets during the pandemic, police evictions that were not previously possible due to street-level resistance became successful. This was evidenced in the eviction of the Gini occupation at the Polytechnic University in Exarchia, Greece, a location that the police have not dared enter for decades. Dozens of migrant families were rounded up and taken to a detention centre.

    Violent pushbacks across borders

    There has also been an increase in illegal and violent pushbacks. Pushbacks are the informal expulsion (without due process) of individuals or groups to another country. This commonly involves the violent removal of people across a border.

    For example, on April 22nd in North Macedonia, a group of people from Palestine, Morocco and Egypt were pushed back into Greece. Two men were approached by officers in army uniforms and forced onto a bus where officers began to beat them with batons and guns. So much force was used that one man’s arm was fractured. The other members of the small group were later found and abruptly woken by officers. One man was stamped on and kicked across his body and head. Their shoes were removed and they were told to walk the 2km back to the border where they were met with the other group that had been taken there.

    A group of 16 people in Serbia (including one minor) were told they were being taken to a new camp for COVID prevention. They were then forced into a van and driven for nine hours with no stops, toilet or water. They were released at a remote area of hills and told to leave and cross the border to North Macedonia by the officers with guns. When found attempting to cross again days later they were told by police officers, “Don’t come again, we will kill you”.

    In Croatia, police have also started tagging people that they have pushed back with orange spray paint.

    There are also reports that Greek authorities are pushing people back to Turkey. According to the Border Violence Monitoring Network, many people shared experiences of being beaten, robbed and detained before being driven to the border area where military personnel used boats to return them to Turkey across the Evros river. In mid April in Greece, approximately 50 people were taken from Diavata camp in the morning and removed to a nearby police station where they were ordered to lie on the ground – “Sleep here, don’t move”. They were then beaten with batons. Some were also attacked with electric tasers. They were held overnight in a detention space near the border, and beaten further by Greek military officers. The next day they were boated across the river to Turkey by authorities with military uniforms. Another group were taken to the river in the dark and ordered to strip to their underwear.

    As pushbacks continue, people are forced to take even more dangerous routes. In Romania in mid-April, a group were found drowning in the Danube River after their boat capsized. One person was found dead and eight are still missing, while the survivors suffered from hypothermia.

    Danger at Sea

    During the pandemic, increasing numbers of disturbing accounts have been shared by migrants experiencing violence at sea. Between mid March and mid May, Alarm Phone (a hotline for boat people in distress) received 28 emergency calls from the Aegean Sea.

    On the 29th April, a boat carrying 48 refugees from Afghanistan, Congo and Iran, including 18 children, tried to reach Lesvos Island in the early hours of the day. They were pushed back to Turkish waters:

    “We were very scared. We tried to continue towards Lesvos Island. It was only 20 minutes more driving to reach the Greek coast. The big boat let a highspeed boat down, which hunted us down. There were six masked men in black clothes. They stopped us and made many waves. With a long stick they took away our petrol and they broke our engine. They had guns and knives. Then they threw a rope to us and ordered us to fix it on our boat. Then they started pulling us back towards Turkey. After a while they stopped and cut the rope. They returned to the big boat and took distance from us. It was around 6am.

    Then two other boats of the Greek coastguard arrived which were white and grey and drove very fast towards us, starting to make circles around our boat. They created big waves which were pushing us in the direction of Turkish waters. Our boat was taking in water and the kids were screaming. Our boat started breaking from the bottom. We were taking out the water with our boots. We threw all our belongings in the sea to make our boat lighter. Many of us had no life vests. A pregnant lady fainted. The Greeks continued making waves for a long period. A Turkish coastguard boat arrived and stood aside watching and taking photos and videos for more than six hours. Only after 13:30 o’clock the Turkish coastguard boat finally saved us. We were brought to Çanakalle police station and detained for five days.”

    During two months of lockdown, civil monitoring ships (volunteers who monitor the Aegean sea for migrants arriving via boat) were not permitted. In Italy, ports were closed to rescue ships, with many feared lost at sea as a result. Allegations have also emerged that Greece has been using inflatable rafts to deport asylum seekers. These are rafts without motors or propellers that cannot be steered.

    The Maltese Army also hit the headlines after turning away a boat of migrants by gunpoint and giving them the GPS coordinates for Italy. This is after recent reports of sabotaging migrant vessels, and pushing back migrant boats to Libya resulting in 12 people dying. The Maltese government recently signed a deal with the Libyan government to “to coordinate operations against illegal migration”. This includes training the Libyan coastguards and funding for “reception camps”.

    The threat of the virus and worsening conditions have also contributed to a record number of attempts to cross the Channel. The courage and commitment to overcome borders is inspiring, and more successful crossings have taken place during the pandemic. Between March 23rd (when the UK coronavirus lockdown began) and May 11th at least 853 migrants managed to cross the Channel in dinghies and small boats.

    State Scapegoating and the empowerment of the far right

    Far-right politicians and fascist activists have used the pandemic as an opportunity to push for closed borders.

    The election of a new Far Right government in Slovenia in March brought with it the scapegoating of refugees as coronavirus vectors. News conglomerate, NOVA24, heavily publicised a fake news story that the first COVID-19 patient in Italy was a Pakistani person who came via the Balkan route.

    Meanwhile, Hungary’s Government led by Vicktor Orbán moved to deport resident Iranians after claiming they were responsible for the country’s first coronavirus outbreak.

    In Italy, Matteo Salvini, the populist leader of the opposition Lega party tried to blame the movement of migrants from Africa across the Mediterranean as a “major infection threat” shortly before the country was overwhelmed with the pandemic and its rising death toll.

    The racist scapegoating ignores data that proves that initially the virus was transmited predominatnly by tourists’ and business people’s globe-trotting in the service of global capitalism and the fact that those whose movement is restricted, controlled and perilous, who do not have the power and wealth, are the most likely to suffer from the worst effects of both the virus itself and the shut downs.

    The Aftermath of Asylum suspension

    Access to asylum has drastically shifted across Europe with the suspension of many face-to-face application processing centres and appeal hearings. This ‘legal limbo’ is having a severe impact on people’s lives.

    Many people remain housed in temporary accommodation like hotels while they wait for their claim to be processed. This accommodation is often overcrowded and social-distancing guidelines are impossible to follow there. One asylum seeker in South London even shared to The Guardian how two strangers were made to share his double bed for a week in one room. One of the people was later taken to hospital with coronavirus.

    Closed-conditions at Skellig Accomodation Centre, a former hotel in Cahersiveen, Co. Kerry, Ireland enabled the rapid spread of the virus between the 100 people living there. Misha, an asylum seeker confined there, said she watched in horror as people started falling sick around her.

    “We were sharing bedrooms with strangers. We were sharing the dining room. We were sharing the salt shakers. We were sharing the lobby. We were sharing everything. And if you looked at the whole situation, you cannot really say that it was fit for purpose.”

    People were ordered to stay inside, and meanwhile coronavirus testing was delayed. Protests took place inside and locals demonstrated in solidarity outside.

    Asylum seekers in Glasgow have been protesting their accommodation conditions provided by the Mears Group, who Corporate Watch profiled in 2019. Mears Group won a £1.15 billion contract to run the refugee accommodation system in Scotland, Northern Ireland and much of the north of England. Their profiteering, slum landlord conditions and involvement in mass evictions have been met with anger and resistance. The pandemic has only worsened the experiences of people forced to live in Mears’ accommodation through terrible sanitation and medical neglect. Read our 2020 update on the Mears Group here.

    In the UK, the Home Office put a hold on evictions of asylum seekers during lockdown. The Red Cross stated this spared 50,000 people from the threat of losing their accommodation. Campaigners and tenants fear what will happen post-corona and how many people will face destitution when the ban on evictions lifts this August.

    In addition, a face-to-face screening interview is still needed for new asylum claims. This creates an awful choice for asylum seekers between shielding from the virus (and facing destitution) or going to the interviews in order to access emergency asylum support and begin the formal process. While meagre, the £37.75 per week is essential for survival. One of the reasons the Home Office make face-to-face applications compulsory is because of biometric data harvesting e.g. taking fingerprints of asylum seekers. One asylum seeker with serious health problems has had to make three journeys from Glasgow to Liverpool in the midst of the pandemic to submit paperwork.

    Access to food and other support is also very difficult as many centres and support services are closed.

    Barriers to Healthcare

    It is widely recognised that systemic racism has led to the disproportionate deaths of Black, Asian and minority ethnic people throughout the pandemic. Research has shown Black people are four times more likely to die than white people, and Bangladeshi or Pakistani groups are three times more likely. Many people from these communities are migrants, and many work in the National Health Service and social care sector.

    Research by Patients not Passports, Medact, Migrants Organise and the New Economics Foundation has shown that many migrants are avoiding seeking healthcare. 57% of respondents in their research report that they have avoided seeking healthcare because of fears of being charged for NHS care, data sharing and other migration enforcement concerns. Most people are unaware that treatment for coronavirus is exempt from charging. They also often experience additional barriers including the absence of translation and interpretation services, digital exclusions, housing and long distances from care services.

    Undocumented migrants are incredibly precarious. A project worker interviewed for the Patients not Passports Report shared that:

    “One client lived in a care home where she does live-in care and she has been exposed to Corona but has stated that she will not seek treatment and would rather die there than be detained.”

    Elvis, an undocumented migrant from the Philippines, died at home with suspected coronavirus because he was so scared by the hostility of Government policies that he did not seek any help from the NHS.

    For those that do try to access healthcare, issues such as not having enough phone credit or mobile data, not having wifi or laptops for video appointments, and simply not being able to navigate automated telephone and online systems because of language barriers and non-existent or poor translation, are having a very real impact on people’s ability to receive support. Fears of poor treatment because of people’s past experiences of discrimination and racism even if they access the services is another barrier.

    Exploiting Migrant Labour

    The exploitation of migrant labour has always been essential to sustaining capitalist economies. The pandemic generated contradictory responses from politicians and capitalists alike. Germany’s agricultural sector lobbied hard for opening the border after they were closed, leading the country to lift its ban and let in over 80,000 seasonal workers from Eastern Europe. Yet dilapidated living conditions and overcrowding are sparking new COVID-19 outbreaks, such as the 200 workers that contracted the virus at a slaughterhouse in western Germany.

    In mid May, the Italian government passed a law regularising undocumented migrants, whereby undocumented workers have been encouraged to apply for six-month legal residency permits. There are believed to be about 600,000 undocumented workers in Italy but only people doing ‘essential’ work during the pandemic can apply, mostly in the agricultural sector. Thousands of people live in makeshift encampments near fruit and vegetable farms with no access to running water or electricity.

    Working conditions carry risks of violence. On 18 May, five days after Italy’s regularisation law passed, a 33-year old Indian migrant working in a field outside of Rome was fired after asking his employer for a face mask for protection while at work. When the worker requested his daily wage, he was beaten up and thrown in a nearby canal.

    Conclusion

    The coronavirus crisis has exposed and intensified the brutality required to sustain capitalism – from systemic racism, to violent border controls, to slave labour for industrial agriculture, the list goes on. Despite extremely difficult conditions, undocumented migrants have formed strong movements of solidarity and collective struggle in many European countries. From revolts in detention centres to legal actions to empty them, people are continually resisting the border regime. As people reject a ‘return to normal’ post pandemic, the fall of the border regime must be part of a vision for freedom and liberation in a world beyond capitalism.

    https://corporatewatch.org/coronaborderregime
    #capitalisme #covid-19 #coronavirus #frontières #Europe #migrations #violence #asile #réfugiés #camps #camps_de_réfugiés #containment #rétention #campements #technologie #militarisation_des_frontières #Grèce #Turquie #violences_policières #police #refoulements #push-backs #Balkans #route_des_Balkans #santé #accès_aux_soins #travail #exploitation #pandémie #Frontex #confinement #grève_de_la_faim #fermeture_des_frontières

    ping @isskein @karine4 @rhoumour @_kg_ @thomas_lacroix

  • La Sicile défie Rome en décidant de fermer tous ses centres de migrants

    Le président de la région Sicile, #Nello_Musumeci, a défié dimanche le gouvernement italien en publiant un arrêté de fermeture sur son territoire de tous les centres d’accueil de migrants, qu’il juge propices à la diffusion du coronavirus.

    https://twitter.com/Musumeci_Staff/status/1297247841807749127?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw%7Ctwcamp%5Etweetembed%7Ctwterm%5E12

    Des sources du ministère italien de l’Intérieur ont immédiatement précisé que cette mesure régionale était invalide, car de la #compétence de l’#Etat. « D’ici demain minuit, tous les migrants présents dans les « hot spots » et dans tous les centres d’accueil de Sicile devront être impérativement transférés vers des installations situées en dehors de l’île », peut-on lire dans l’arrêté d’une trentaine de pages.

    Interdiction d’entrer même avec des ONG

    Le texte ambitionne aussi d’interdire à tout migrant d’« entrer, de transiter et de faire escale sur le territoire de la région sicilienne avec des embarcations, grandes et petites, y compris celles des ONG ».

    Le président de Sicile explique sa décision par le fait qu’il « n’est pas possible de garantir le séjour sur cette île dans le respect des #mesures_sanitaires de prévention de la #contagion ».

    Dans un commentaire sur les réseaux sociaux, M. Musumeci (élu président de région grâce à une alliance de droite et d’extrême-droite) a estimé que "la Sicile ne peut pas être envahie pendant que l’Europe détourne le regard et que le gouvernement ne procède à aucune expulsion". Une prise de position qui lui a valu le soutien de Matteo Salvini, le chef de La Ligue (extrême droite) et ex-ministre de l’Intérieur qui s’était employé à empêcher les débarquements de migrants dans les ports italiens.

    1200 migrants à Lampedusa

    De nombreuses petites embarcations de migrants, essentiellement des Tunisiens, continuent d’accoster sur l’île de Lampedusa, au sud de la Sicile. Il y avait dimanche environ 1 200 migrants à Lampedusa, après le transfert d’environ 300 personnes depuis vendredi vers des structures d’accueil en Sicile.

    Le navire Sea-Watch 4, appartenant à une ONG allemande, a fait savoir dimanche qu’il avait actuellement à son bord 104 migrants dont 37 mineurs, retrouvés samedi et dimanche en mer au large des côtes libyennes.

    Des dizaines de migrants hébergés dans les centres siciliens se sont avérés positifs au coronavirus ces dernières semaines.

    https://www.letemps.ch/monde/sicile-defie-rome-decidant-fermer-centres-migrants

    #villes-refuge #Sicile #Italie #asile #migrations #réfugiés #covid-19 #centres_pour_réfugiés #centres_d'accueil #contamination #coronavirus #pandémie #fermeture #hotspots

    Une #résistance qui n’est pas celle de l’accueil, mais celle qui se fonde sur la rhétorique de l’invasion...

    ping @thomas_lacroix @isskein @karine4

    • Sicile : la #justice italienne rejette un #arrêté #anti-migrants

      La justice italienne a rejeté jeudi un récent décret du président régional de la Sicile ordonnant la fermeture de tous les centres d’accueil de migrants, ont rapporté les médias italiens. Les mesures annoncées par le gouverneur « semblent dépasser le cadre des compétences conférées aux régions », a estimé le tribunal.

      Dans une décision rendue jeudi 27 août, la justice italienne est allée à l’encontre de la volonté du président régional de la Sicile, #Nello_Musumeci. Saisi par le gouvernement, le tribunal administratif de Sicile a ordonné la suspension d’un arrêté ordonnant la fermeture de tous les centres d’accueil de migrants de Sicile (https://www.infomigrants.net/fr/post/26812/le-president-de-la-region-de-sicile-ordonne-la-fermeture-de-tous-les-c).

      Le 23 août, le gouverneur de Sicile Nello Musumeci, avait publié cet arrêté, effectif sur le territoire de l’île qui s’étend jusqu’à Lampedusa, jugeant que les centres d’accueil de migrants contribuaient à la diffusion du coronavirus.

      L’arrêté exigeait le transfert de tous les migrants présents dans les hotspots et les centres d’accueil en Sicile « vers des installations situées en dehors de l’île », et entendait leur interdire d’entrer, de transiter et de faire escale" dans la région « avec des embarcations, grandes et petites, y compris celles des ONG ».
      Pas d’’’aggravation concrète de la propagation du Covid-19’’

      Dans sa décision, le tribunal administratif a estimé « qu’aucune enquête rigoureuse n’a démontré l’existence d’une aggravation concrète (...) de la propagation du Covid-19 au sein de la population locale du fait du phénomène migratoire ».

      Les mesures annoncées par le gouverneur Musumeci « semblent dépasser le cadre des compétences conférées aux régions » dans la gestion du risque sanitaire lié au Covid-19. Elles ont par ailleurs « un impact décisif sur l’organisation et la gestion du phénomène migratoire sur le territoire italien, qui relève de la compétence exclusive de l’État (...) », toujours selon le tribunal.

      Ce tribunal doit se réunir à nouveau le 17 septembre, à la demande de la région de Sicile qui entend présenter d’autres documents pour plaider sa cause.
      Des dizaines de migrants hébergés dans les centres siciliens se sont avérés positifs au coronavirus ces dernières semaines. De nombreuses petites embarcations de migrants, essentiellement des Tunisiens, continuent d’accoster sur l’île de Lampedusa, au sud de la Sicile.

      https://www.infomigrants.net/fr/post/26931/sicile-la-justice-italienne-rejette-un-arrete-anti-migrants

    • Le président de la région de Sicile ordonne la #fermeture de tous les centres d’accueil

      Invoquant « une invasion » et des risques sanitaires dans le cadre de la pandémie de coronavirus, le président de la région Sicile, en Italie, a ordonné, dimanche, l’évacuation et la fermeture immédiate de tous les hotspots et centres d’accueil pour migrants sur son territoire, y compris ceux sur l’île de Lampedusa. Une mesure « non valide » selon Rome.

      « La Sicile ne peut pas continuer à subir cette invasion de migrants. » Le président de la région Sicile, Nello Musumeci, a déclaré, samedi 22 août sur sa page Facebook, qu’il faisait évacuer et fermer tous les hotspots et centres d’accueil de son territoire, débordés, dit-il, par l’afflux de migrants. Ces infrastructures sont également, selon lui, propices à la diffusion du coronavirus puisqu’il n’y est actuellement pas possible de garantir le respect des mesures sanitaires et gestes barrières.


      https://twitter.com/Musumeci_Staff/status/1297247841807749127

      « D’ici demain minuit, tous les migrants présents dans les hotspots et dans tous les centres d’accueil de Sicile devront être impérativement transférés vers des installations situées en dehors de l’île », peut-on lire dans l’arrêté publié dimanche.

      En date du 23 août, quelque 1 200 migrants se trouvaient sur la seule île de Lampedusa, au sud de la Sicile, qui voit accoster de nombreuses embarcations de fortune avec à leur bord essentiellement des Tunisiens. Environ 300 autres personnes avaient déjà été transférées 48 heures plus tôt vers des structures d’accueil en Sicile.

      Des sources du ministère italien de l’Intérieur ont immédiatement précisé que cette mesure régionale de fermeture des centre d’accueil et hotspots n’était pas valide, car il s’agissait d’une compétence de l’État, indique l’AFP.

      Mais alors que des dizaines de migrants hébergés dans les centres siciliens se sont avérés positifs au coronavirus ces dernières semaines, Nello Musumeci accuse le gouvernement national et l’Union européenne de « détourner le regard » sur les récents afflux de migrants « largement sous-estimés », a-t-il encore écrit sur Facebook. Le dirigeant appelle Rome à fermer ses ports aux navires humanitaires ayant secouru des migrants comme l’avait décrété l’année dernière l’ex-ministre de l’Intérieur, Matteo Salvini. Ce dernier s’est d’ailleurs fendu de plusieurs tweets pour exprimer toute sa solidarité avec le président sicilien.

      https://twitter.com/matteosalvinimi/status/1297485230933184512

      Le navire Sea Watch 4, de l’ONG allemande éponyme, a fait savoir dimanche qu’il avait actuellement à son bord 104 migrants dont 37 mineurs, secourus samedi et dimanche en mer au large des côtes libyennes. L’équipage pourrait rapidement demander leur débarquement en Italie et à Malte.

      https://www.infomigrants.net/fr/post/26812/le-president-de-la-region-de-sicile-ordonne-la-fermeture-de-tous-les-c

  • Fermeture des frontières | Les personnes en besoin de protection victimes des frontières verrouillées
    https://asile.ch/2020/08/17/fermeture-des-frontieres-les-personnes-en-besoin-de-protection-victimes-des-fr

    La fermeture des frontières est l’une des mesures les plus spectaculaires prises par le Conseil fédéral pendant le pic pandémique du Covid-19. Quelles en ont été les conséquences pour les réfugié-e-s et personnes en besoin de protection ? Avec l’état de nécessité, le Conseil fédéral a décidé de refouler les requérant-e-s d’asile à la frontière suisse […]

  • De la #conditionnalité_négative de l’#aide_au_développement...

    Post de Sara Prestianni sur FB :

    Italie - #Di_Maio, ministre des Affaires Etrangeres et de la Cooperation, applique la conditionnalité négative migration/développement en gelant les fonds pour le développement a la #Tunisie (6,5M€) si elle ne s’engage pas à geler les départs. Mais ces fonds ne servent-ils pas à atténuer la crise, qui est la cause des départs ?‬

    https://www.facebook.com/isabelle.saintsaens/posts/10222038342372629
    #Italie #développement #asile #migrations #réfugiés #conditionnalité_de_l'aide #fermeture_des_frontières #flux_migratoires

    –—

    ajouté à la métaliste du lien entre migrations et développement et plus précisément sur la conditionnalité de l’aide :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/733358#message768701

    ping @_kg_

    • Deputato tunisino: «Prima di minacciare blocco, Di Maio pensi a accordi»

      «Il ministro degli Esteri Di Maio prima di minacciare il blocco dei fondi per la Tunisia dovrebbe pensare ai rapporti storici che ci sono tra l’Italia e la Tunisia e nello stesso tempo dovrebbe prima vedere prima cosa prevedono gli accordi presi in passato tra i due paesi». A parlare, in una intervista esclusiva all’Adnkronos, è Sami Ben Abdelaali, deputato tunisino ma che vive tra Palermo e Tunisi.

      Il deputato tunisino si dice «molto dispiaciuto» per le dichiarazioni rese oggi dal capo della Farnesina che chiede «di sospendere lo stanziamento di 6,5 milioni di euro» per la Tunisia «in attesa di un piano integrato più ampio proposto dalla viceministra del Re» e di «un risvolto nella collaborazione che abbiamo chiesto alle autorità tunisine in materia migratoria». Di Maio ha chiesto al comitato congiunto per la cooperazione allo sviluppo della Farnesina di rimandare la discussione sullo stanziamento di fondi della cooperazione in favore di Tunisi.

      «La collaborazione e la cooperazione tra due paesi è come il matrimonio - dice ancora Sami Ben Abdelaali -nella buona e nella cattiva sorte. Quando ci sono disagi in un paese bisogna intervenire con il dialogo e non minacciando di bloccare i fondi. Non è questa la condizione ottimale per i nostri rapporti». «Io sono davvero dispiaciuto per le parole espresse dal ministro Di Maio che non traducono i rapporti storici di cooperazione tra l’Italia e la Tunisia- dice ancora il politico sposato con una donna italiana- L’Italia ovviamente prima di pretendere che la Tunisia mantenga suoi impegni e i suoi accordi dovrebbe anche mantenere gli impegni presi nel 2011 nell’accordo tra governo italiano e governo tunisino. Perché dal 2017 l’Italia ha bloccato gli aiuti previsti nell’accordo, per l’acquisto di strumenti e tecnologici e per controllare le coste tunisine». «Addirittura ci sono oltre 30 milioni che dovrebbe pagare l’Italia nella tranche 2020-2022 e solo dal 2017 risultano 3 milioni di euro non pagati».

      Perché, come ricorda il deputato tunisino, «per controllare le coste tunisine ci vogliono uomini e mezzi e l’Italia non ha mantenuto i suoi impegni dal 2017. In più le condizioni climatiche ottimali hanno incoraggiato le persone a tornare in Italia, oppure persone rimpatriate o cittadini che hanno perso il lavoro. C’è un disagio sociale che ha fatto sì che la gente cerchi altre soluzioni».

      Il deputato tunisino poi parla della nuova rotta tunisina verso l’Italia. Nei giorni scorsi il Procuratore di Agrigento Luigi Patronaggio in una intervista all’Adnkronos aveva lanciato l’allarme sui flussi tunisini e aveva parlato di un «serio problema di ordine pubblico». «Il problema - dice Sami Ben Abdelaali -è che oggi c’è un governo ad interim e l’ambasciatore italiano a Tunisi sta facendo grandi sforzi per dialogare con le autorità competenti per affrontare questo flusso migratorio. Voglio anche ricordare che nei giorni scorsi la ministra dell’Interno Lamorgese è volata a Tunisi». «C’è un disagio sociale notevole, dovuto al coronavirus e alla disoccupazione che aumenta giornalmente - spiega ancora il politico - Per noi l’Italia è il nostro primo partner commerciale e non vogliamo perdere i rapporti con questo paese».

      Ma qual è la soluzione? «Rafforzare i controlli, ma prima di arrivare in Italia - dice - oggi controllare dalla Tunisia è complicato, bisogna controllare al confine delle acque internazionali. Bisogna aumentare la sicurezza e superare questa fase finché non nasca il nuovo governo con cui poi avviare delle interlocuzioni. E bisogna anche intervenire con aiuti concreti sui giovani, ad esempio, per bloccare l’immigrazione verso l’Italia, anche attraverso l’aiuto l’Unione europea».

      Sulla convocazione di Di Maio dell’ambasciatore tunisino per accelerare i rimpatri, il deputato dice: «Per il numero dei rimpatri l’accordo già c’è, bisogna intervenire con il governo. Appena intorno al 20 agosto si farà il nuovo governo si può provare a trovare delle soluzioni. Ma nel frattempo bisogna avviare i canali diplomatici». Per ci tiene a sottolineare: «I numeri dei flussi migratori di oggi non sono eccezionali, ricordo che in passato erano molto più alti».

      https://www.adnkronos.com/fatti/esteri/2020/07/31/deputato-tunisino-prima-minacciare-blocco-maio-pensi-accordi_TVw9cXKeB197

    • Migranti e Tunisia, le Ong danno lezioni a Di Maio e Conte. Ma le capiranno?

      Già nel 2016 le Ong di “Link 2007" dicendo: «“Agli Stati conviene prevenire piuttosto che rincorrere gli eventi e spendere molto di più per cercare di tamponare i conflitti e gli esodi»

      “Agli Stati conviene prevenire, spendendo quanto necessario, piuttosto che rincorrere gli eventi e spendere molto di più intervenendo per cercare di tamponare i conflitti, con le distruzioni, le indicibili sofferenze, i massacri, gli esodi di persone e le insicurezze e destabilizzazioni che essi provocano ovunque. L’Ue, gli Stati membri e le Istituzioni finanziarie e di sviluppo internazionali sono invitate a muoversi, finché si è ancora in tempo, per contenere le periodiche ribellioni in Tunisia, a pochi chilometri dall’Italia, e prevenire una possibile destabilizzazione del paese, sostenendone decisamente l’esemplare ma fragile democrazia, l’unica realizzata con le ‘primavere arabe. La Tunisia, il paese mediterraneo più vicino all’Italia, è oggi in bilico tra il rafforzamento del processo democratico e la destabilizzazione con prevedibili e devastanti conseguenze su migrazioni e terrorismo. Investire sulla Tunisia e i paesi limitrofi, anche sostenendo gli sforzi della società civile, è investire sul nostro futuro di stabilità e di pace. Un tracollo della Tunisia metterebbe infatti a rischio la stessa sicurezza e stabilità in Italia e in Europa, e non sarà a costo zero”.

      Sembrano considerazioni dell’oggi. Ma non è così. Perché questo argomentato grido d’allarme lanciato dalle Ong di “Link 2007” data 16 febbraio 2016. Sono trascorsi quattro anni e mezzo d’allora, si sono succeduti primi ministri, cambiate maggioranze, ma nessuno ha raccolto questi preziosi suggerimenti.

      “La via che le Ong di ‘Link 2007’ propongono è quella della costituzione, in tempi rapidi, di uno specifico Fondo internazionale formato da contributi della Commissione europea, degli Stati membri, di tutti i paesi interessati, delle Istituzioni finanziarie e di sviluppo europee e internazionali, comprese quelle arabe e islamiche, prendendo in considerazione la Tunisia insieme ai due paesi confinanti, Libia e Algeria. Un fondo fiduciario per la realizzazione di un ‘piano Marshall’, di cui l’Italia, data la vicinanza, potrebbe farsi promotrice. Per la sola Tunisia serviranno, secondo le stime di Link 2007 basate sul bilancio dello Stato, almeno 20 miliardi di euro all’anno per i prossimi cinque anni, finalizzati agli investimenti prioritari, con lo scopo di restringere la forbice delle disuguaglianze che pesano in particolare sulle regioni interne e le periferie urbane degradate, di ridurre drasticamente la disoccupazione e di attrarre nuovi capitali e investitori esterni. Senza interventi rapidi e significativi la Tunisia potrebbe vivere una nuova rivoluzione popolare: molto probabilmente distruttiva, questa volta, che metterebbe a rischio tutta l’area euro-mediterranea, a partire dalla vicina Italia”.

      Questa proposta è caduto nel vuoto, e oggi c’è un ministro degli Esteri che fa la voce grossa e decide di “punire” la Tunisia per un presunto lassismo nel contrastare il flusso di migranti verso le coste siciliane, bloccando i finanziamenti destinati alla cooperazione allo sviluppo destinati al Paese nordafricano.

      La situazione è rimasta esplosiva

      Ma torniamo a quel documento, assolutamente “profetico”. Per il presidente del Forum tunisino per i diritti economici e sociali, Abderrahman Hedhili, le proteste erano prevedibili: “Abbiamo segnalato che la situazione sociale sarebbe esplosa; l’esclusione sociale e le disparità regionali sono pesanti ma il governo non è riuscito a definire strategie e programmi per le regioni interne”. Il 15% della popolazione è disoccupata. La percentuale sale al 25% in regioni periferiche come quella di Kasserine e a tassi ben superiori per i giovani. Spesso il lavoro è legato ad intermediazioni corruttive. La situazione è ulteriormente peggiorata a causa degli attacchi terroristici del 2015 contro obiettivi turistici quali il museo del Bardo a Tunisi e il resort di Susa (Sousse): l’industria turistica con i suoi 400 mila lavoratori è stata pesantemente colpita. Le regioni costiere sono le più sviluppate: investimenti pubblici e privati si sono susseguiti nel tempo, anche per favorire il turismo, e in esse è localizzato l’80% delle industrie tunisine. Buono è quindi, in esse, il tasso di occupazione e di reddito medio. Nei governatorati centro meridionali lontani dalla costa, invece, la gente si sente abbandonata per la mancanza di investimenti produttivi e di servizi, dai trasporti ai servizi essenziali come l’acqua, la salute, l’istruzione.

      La realtà e le crescenti difficoltà

      “La realtà - proseguiva il report di Link 2007 - è che lo Stato non ha i fondi necessari per potere impegnarsi in un piano di sviluppo per creare lavoro e servizi essenziali. La mancanza di investitori, l’instabilità politica, il terrorismo stanno bloccando il paese costretto a contare, più che mai, sull’aiuto esterno. Come si dirà più avanti,servirebbe un ‘piano Marshall’ da 20 miliardi di euro per alcuni anni: quei fondi cioè che mancano al bilancio dello Stato per lanciare gli investimenti necessari. Un piano coordinato e finalizzato in particolare alle aree più depresse, all’occupazione e alla lotta alla corruzione. L’Europa, per la vicinanza e i legami storici, deve riuscire ad intervenire presto, molto di più rispetto al passato. Impegni limitati a qualche centinaia di milioni, spesso ripartiti su più anni, non corrispondono alla gravità della situazione e dei bisogni. La democrazia tunisina è reale, radicata, la sola ad essere sopravvissuta alle ‘primavere arabe’. Se sparisse o se cadesse sotto l’influenza di paesi spinti da valori lontani da quelli su cui è basata la nostra convivenza o di movimenti terroristici, la responsabilità non sarà solo del governo tunisino. L’esperienza della Tunisia è importante anche perché rappresenta la sintesi tra i valori occidentali e i valori islamici. Non si possono conservare i valori delle rivoluzioni e la democrazia solo con riconoscimenti internazionali, incontri, convegni, parole di amicizia e vicinanza. “La libertà c’è ma manca il pane” si sente ripetere in tutto il paese. Le ‘rivolte del pane’ rischiano di ripetersi ciclicamente, con conseguenze facilmente prevedibili. Occorre investire sulla Tunisia, con una cooperazione duratura, con una visione e una strategia di lungo periodo, con fondi strutturali e ampi investimenti nelle regioni più arretrate, favorendo l’occupazione e l’equità sociale e tra le regioni. Un paese che è riuscito a gestire con successo e in modo democratico la rivoluzione del 2011 doveva essere aiutato subito con ingenti risorse e continuare ad essere sostenuto senza interruzione. Nell’interesse del consolidamento del processo democratico tunisino ma anche nel nostro stesso interesse, italiano ed europeo. Una grave crisi in Tunisia potrebbe avere conseguenze deleterie anche per noi. L’impegno per la Tunisia è un impegno per noi stessi e la nostra stabilità. Investire sulla Tunisia e i paesi limitrofi è investire sul nostro futuro di stabilità e di pace. Non farlo significa danneggiare noi stessi. Limitare gli aiuti o ritardarli potrebbe avere un costo di gran lunga superiore in un futuro ravvicinato, non solo finanziariamente ma anche in conflitti, vite umane, distruzioni, consolidamento e diffusione del terrorismo, come la recente storia insegna. Un tracollo della Tunisia avrebbe anche conseguenze nefaste per la stessa sicurezza e stabilità europea. È dunque nel nostro interesse, italiano ed europeo, intervenire con investimenti adeguati e risoluti di cooperazione con la Tunisia. E occorre farlo subito”.

      Ma così non è stato.

      Quattro anni e mezzo dopo, Nino Sergi, presidente emerito di Intersos e policy advisor di Liink 2007), rivolge questo post al titolare della Farnesina: “Caro ministro Luigi Di Maio, non ci siamo proprio. Mi è difficile anche in questa occasione, chiamarla ministro, e per di più degli affari esteri e della cooperazione internazionale, dato che con le sue parole intende piuttosto presentarsi come capo-popolo, di quella parte di popolo che lei pensa di riuscire a conquistare. ‘Ci sono delle regole in Italia che vanno rispettate. Anche l’Europa deve rispondere concretamente,. Non c’è tempo da perdere’.

      Sul ‘non c’è tempo da perdere’ le ricordo che nei molti anni di sue responsabilità nel parlamento e nel governo, sul tema delle politiche migratorie lei ha perso tutto il tempo che ha avuto a disposizione. Sull’Europa che deve rispondere concretamente, le ho già scritto un post il 31 luglio: spero che qualcuno del suo staff glielo faccia vedere. Mi soffermo sul ‘ci sono delle regole che in Italia vanno rispettate’. Da chi, signor ministro? Stando al suo diktat, dal governo tunisino? Lei sembra esprimere una concezione delle relazioni internazionali dell’Italia ferma al periodo coloniale, in cui era chiaro chi decideva e chi obbediva. Le relazioni internazionali sono una cosa seria e delicatissima, soprattutto per un paese come il nostro, inserito in un Mediterraneo problematico e carico di tensioni. Occorre ‘fermare i fondi per la cooperazione se non c’è collaborazione con l’Italia, afferma con fermezza. Eh no. Le intese e gli impegni vanno onorati, pur nel dialogo politico per migliorarli. A meno di pensare arrogantemente di potere fare a meno di relazioni divenute preziose e indispensabili per il bene dell’Italia – Cooperazione e collaborazione – rimarca ancora Sergi – non significano più, da tempo, imposizione. Lo dicono le leggi italiane e le normative internazionali dal dopo-guerra in poi. Lo dice lei (lo ricorda’) ogni volta che presiede il Comitato congiunto, il Consiglio nazionale, il Comitato interministeriale per la cooperazione allo sviluppo; e ogni volta che incontra i suoi colleghi ministri dell’area mediterranea. Non imiti altri personaggi politici. Continui a fare il ministro degli esteri: stava imparando e stava dimostrando capacità. Non si distrugga per un po’ di effimero consenso. Sulla Tunisia, la sua situazione sociale e politica, la sua fragilità, le consiglio un breve studio della rete di Ong Link 2007: ‘Aiutare Tunisia per aiutare l’Europa’. E’ del 2016 ma rimane attuale. Se lo vorrà, siamo pronti a discuterne approfonditamente “.

      “Quella che sembrava un’uscita infelice del Ministro degli Esteri, si è invece rivelata essere la linea dell’intero governo, viste le dichiarazioni del Premier Conte e il silenzio degli esponenti PD. Tocca prendere atto che il Governo stia continuando ad appiattarsi su posizioni utili più al prossimo sondaggio che a rafforzare una visione strategica nel mediterraneo e nel Nord Africa – dice a Globalist Paolo Pezzati, Humanitarian Policy Advisor di Oxfam Italia-. La decisione di applicare una #condizionalità_negativa_migrazione-sviluppo con il blocco dei fondi per la cooperazione allo sviluppo qualora la Tunisia non si impegnasse nel blocco delle partenze - potrebbe rivelarsi un autogol di quelli che si ricordano nel tempo. In prima ragione perché la cooperazione ha come obiettivo , qualora negoziata con i partner e la società civile, quello di attaccare proprio le cause alla radice della migrazione che viene chiamata “economica”; e poi perché in un momento di difficoltà – si è dimesso il primo ministro, la crisi economica e sociale è acuta come non mai – e in un contesto geopolitico molto fluido nell’area dove Turchia ed Egitto stanno provando ad allargare la loro egemonia, di solito i partner si sostengono, non si puniscono. La soluzione – prosegue Pezzati - ancora una volta è data dalla combinazione dell’avvio di un nuovo dialogo con Tunisi per un piano strategico condiviso – con un impegno finanziario abbondantemente superiore ai 6,5 milioni - volto a sostenere il paese nord africano e dall’approvare finalmente una legge che superi la Bossi Fini, per istituire nuovi canali di ingresso regolari grazie alla quale finalmente l’Italia si organizzi nel decidere come gestire i flussi migratori invece che preoccuparsi solo come interromperli. Gli ingressi irregolari, gli arrivi con i barconi si contrastano aumentando i canali di ingresso regolari, non alzando muri in terra e in mare. Alla Camera giace la proposta di legge della Campagna ‘Ero Straniero’ che ha proprio questo obiettivo, i partiti della maggioranza cosa stanno aspettando?”.

      Ma discutere non sembra essere oggi nelle intenzioni di chi governa l’Italia. Oggi, per costoro, è tempo di esibire i muscoli (verbali) e di provare a fare la voce grossa con i più debole, il “ruggito del coniglio”. E così, ecco a voi il presidente del Consiglio che ieri, da Cerignola, veste i panni del commander in chief e proclama: «Non possiamo tollerare che si entri in Italia in modo irregolare, tanto più non possiamo tollerare che in questo momento in cui la comunità nazionale intera ha fatto tantissimi sacrifici questi risultati siano vanificati da migranti che tentano di sfuggire alla sorveglianza sanitaria». E ancora: «Non ce lo possiamo permettere, quindi dobbiamo essere duri, inflessibili – dice Conte -. Stiamo collaborando con le autorità tunisine, è quella la strada. Io stesso l’altro giorno ho scritto al presidente tunisino Kais Saied una lettera e sono contento che abbia fatto visita ai porti per rafforzare la sorveglianza costiera. Noi dobbiamo contrastare i traffici e l’incremento degli utili da parte dei gruppi criminali che alimentano questi traffici illeciti. Dobbiamo continuare in questa direzione, dobbiamo intensificare i rimpatri. Abbiamo fatto una riunione con i ministri competenti, Di Maio, Lamorgese, Guerini e De Micheli, stiamo lavorando per evitare che questi traffici continuino. Non si entra in Italia in questo modo e non possiamo permettere che la nostra comunità sia esposta a pericoli».

      Il nemico è stato inquadrato: è il migrante portatore di virus. Ai tempi del Conte I, l’equazione era migrante=criminale, invasore, parassita e, se islamico, terrorista. Col Conte II l’equazione è adattata all’emergenza virale. E questa vergogna la spacciano per “discontinuità”.

      https://www.globalist.it/world/2020/08/04/migranti-e-tunisia-le-ong-danno-lezioni-a-di-maio-e-conte-ma-le-capiranno-

  • #Italie : #démantèlement du #camp de migrants de #Vintimille, les associations appellent à l’aide

    Sur décision préfectorale, le camp de migrants de Vintimille, géré par la Croix Rouge, a été démantelé lundi. Actif depuis 2016, il venait encore en aide à des dizaines de personnes.

    Le camp de transit pour migrants Roya à Vintimille, en Italie, n’est déjà plus qu’un souvenir. Sur ordre de la #préfecture d’Imperia, ce camp implanté en 2016, au plus fort de la crise migratoire, près de la frontière avec la France et géré par la Croix-Rouge italienne a cessé ses activités le 31 juillet. La trentaine de migrants restants dans les lieux ont été transférés vers d’autres centres d’accueil de la région. Quelques jours plus tard, lundi 3 août, les bâtiments en préfabriqués qui pouvaient accueillir environ 300 personnes ont commencé à être démantelés.

    « Nous avons tout tenté pour éviter ça », commente Jacopo Colomba, consultant juridique pour les ONG Caritas et We World, parlant au nom des membres des différentes associations d’aide aux migrants présentes sur place. « Nous avons essayé de discuter avec le maire de Vintimille et avec la préfecture pour leur faire comprendre que le camp devait rester ouvert. Mais cela n’a servi à rien », dit-il, démoralisé.

    Auparavant, l’enceinte du camp était ouverte aux migrants présents dans les environs de Vintimille, étape bien connue de celles et ceux souhaitant rejoindre le nord de l’Europe en venant du sud de l’Italie ou de la route des Balkans. La structure accueillait aussi les personnes qui voulaient entreprendre une demande d’asile en Italie.

    Peu enclines à s’exprimer sur le sujet, les autorités italiennes concernées ont mis en avant la crise du #coronavirus pour justifier cette fermeture, rapportent différentes associations. Depuis le 18 avril dernier, déjà, les lieux étaient fermés aux nouveaux arrivants en raison du contexte sanitaire.

    « On est revenus à la situation de 2016 »

    « Je comprends que la crise sanitaire ait représenté un défi et je sais aussi que cette structure n’était pas bien encadrée au point de vue juridique, mais des solutions auraient pu être mises en place. Cette #fermeture est irrationnelle », regrette Jacopo Colomba, estimant que la préfecture s’est servie de l’#urgence_sanitaire comme d’un #prétexte pour fermer un camp peu populaire en Ligurie à l’approche d’élections régionales en septembre.

    D’autant plus irrationnelle, selon Maurizio Marmo, le président de Caritas Vintimille, que le « campo » rendait service à la municipalité en sortant les sans papiers de la rue. « Avoir des personnes qui dorment dans les rues, ce n’est pas génial… Ce camp était fondamental pour gérer une situation qui ne s’est pas arrêtée », tonne-t-il.

    À Vintimille, il n’est pas rare de voir des migrants trouver refuge dans des bâtiments abandonnés, au bord du fleuve qui traverse la ville ou sur les plages, pour passer la nuit. Selon les associations, entre 100 et 200 personnes sont dans ce cas chaque jour. « Au mois de juillet, les arrivées de migrants ont été les plus nombreuses de ces deux dernières années », assure de son côté Jacopo Colomba. « On est revenus à la situation de 2016. »

    « Les années passent et la situation perdure »

    À ceci près que le mouvement de solidarité, porté par une vague d’activistes en 2016, semble depuis s’être estompé. Dans la région, les associations présentes sur le terrain déplorent une faible mobilisation et, pour certaines, une baisse des dons. « Les années passent et la situation perdure, donc les gens se fatiguent », analyse Jacopo Colomba. « On est un peu désespérés. »

    Face à la fermeture du camp, une poignée d’ONG et de collectifs locaux - Kesha Niya, Caritas, We World, Diaconia Valdese et Progetto 20K - ont uni leurs forces pour trouver des solutions.

    « Nous avons créé un réseau pour fournir des hébergements d’urgence, pour quelques jours seulement, aux familles qui tentent de passer la frontière », explique encore Jacopo Colomba. Les migrants concernés sont hébergés dans l’#église San Nicola, où des locaux ont été mis à disposition par le prêtre. Une famille d’Irakiens avec deux bébés y a été logée dans la nuit de dimanche à lundi, avant de parvenir à rejoindre la France. « Nous allons chercher d’autres personnes à héberger dans la ville. »

    https://www.infomigrants.net/fr/post/26423/italie-demantelement-du-camp-de-migrants-de-vintimille-les-association
    #destruction #campement #migrations #asile #réfugiés #frontière_sud-alpine #logement #hébergement #SDF #sans-abri #covid-19 #frontières

  • Flights between Turkey and Iraq suspended over rising coronavirus cases - Middle East Eye

    Flights between Turkey and Iraq are to be suspended over a rise in coronavirus cases, Iraq’s aviation authority announced on Sunday.

    Iraq had reopened Baghdad and airports in the south of the country last week for international travel after months of closure.

    Iraqi authorities lifted other restrictions last month, allowing malls and shops to reopen and delaying the start of overnight curfews to 9:30 pm (18:30 GMT).

    Restaurants and coffee shops remain closed to customers but are allowed to fulfil takeaway or delivery orders.

    #Covid-19#Turquie#Iraq#FermetureFrontière#Aeroport#Politique_internationale#migrant#migration

    https://www.middleeasteye.net/news/flights-between-turkey-and-iraq-suspended-over-rising-coronavirus-cas

  • Greece’s refugees face healthcare crisis as Lesbos Covid-19 centre closes

    Patients on island camps face long wait for specialist help and mental health services, while in Athens others are left destitute
    https://i.guim.co.uk/img/media/3d2772106771ac41a4424c0fc1c52f61d01c40b2/0_363_5472_3283/master/5472.jpg?width=620&quality=85&auto=format&fit=max&s=df484692f169d84d0d8e17

    In a fresh blow to refugees and migrants experiencing dire conditions in Greece, frontline medical charity Médecins San Frontières (MSF) on Thursday announced it has been forced to closed its Covid-19 isolation centre on Lesbos after authorities imposed fines and potential charges.

    From the island of Lesbos to the Greek capital of Athens, asylum seekers and recognised refugees, some with serious medical conditions, are unable to access healthcare or see a doctor as treatments are disrupted by new regulations.

    Asmaan* from Afghanistan is 10. For eight months she has lived in a makeshift tent with her family on the outskirts of the olive grove surrounding the Moria camp on Lesbos. She is one of more than 17,000 asylum seekers and refugees who have been living under lockdown here since 23 March.

    Asmaan is a familiar face at the paediatric clinic run by MSF just outside the main gate. “She was vomiting, shivering through the nights and became apathetic,” said her mother Sharif*. “We really became alarmed when she was bleeding going to the toilet.” Diagnosed with an acute inflammation of her kidney, Asmaan was transferred to the island’s hospital. Sharif said staff wanted to send her daughter to the mainland for treatment. But the family cannot leave Lesbos until their asylum procedure is completed.

    “Only highly severe cases can be transferred to the mainland,” Babis Anitsakis, director of infectious diseases at the hospital in Mytilene, told the Guardian. “This is also the case for the local population.” Such cases often involve a wait of two to three months in the camp before a transfer can be arranged, he said.

    “We are confronted with patients from Moria daily who have sicknesses like tuberculosis or HIV. We are simply not equipped for these treatments. On top of it, we face tremendous translation difficulties. At night the medical staff work with a phone translation app to communicate with the patients, which can be disastrous in an emergency situation.”

    https://i.guim.co.uk/img/media/1875a0bb75e484383197257df58241d8922139b0/58_42_1885_1074/master/1885.jpg?width=620&quality=85&auto=format&fit=max&s=c80ba861e2d27d0dfcc973

    For Giovanna Scaccabarozzi, a doctor with MSF on Lesbos, Asmaan’s case is typical of a system where refugees and asylum seekers find it increasingly difficult to access proper healthcare, often despite being in desperate need.

    “Even survivors of torture and sexual violence are now left to themselves with no one to talk to and with no possibility to escape the highly re-traumatising space of Moria,” she said. The camp’s lockdown has meant fewer people have been able to attend MSF’s mental health clinic in Mytilene.

    “From five to 10 appointments a day, we are now down to two to three a week in the torture clinic in town,” Scaccabarozzi said. Even when people reach the clinic, “it feels like treating someone with a burn while the person is still standing in the fire”.

    The closure of the Covid-19 isolation unit on Thursday is down to the island’s authorities enforcing planning regulations, MSF said. “We are deeply disappointed that local authorities could not quash these fines and potential charges in the light of the global pandemic, despite some efforts from relevant stakeholders,” said Stephan Oberreit, MSF’s head of mission in Greece. “The public health system on Lesbos would simply be unable to handle the devastation caused by an outbreak in Moria – which is why we stepped in. Today we had to unwillingly close a crucial component of the Covid-19 response for Moria.”

    Athens has become a beacon of hope for those living in the island’s overcrowded camps, but a recent policy change has seen people who arrive in Athens with refugee status left virtually destitute, many with ongoing healthcare issues.

    The changes, which mean cash assistance and accommodation support end a month after refugee status is granted, affect around 11,000 refugees in Greece. MSF told the Guardian it is concerned that a number of patients face eviction and many refugees in Athens are sleeping on the streets as a result.

    Hadla, a 59-year-old from Aleppo who had had multiple heart attacks, died within days of leaving the apartment she shared with her daughter Dalal in Athens. She had been asked to leave repeatedly. “I told them that my mother is terribly ill and showed them the medical files but they told us that they cannot do anything about it and that the decision had come from the ministry,” said Dalal.

    Fearing eviction, Dalal took her mother to Schisto refugee camp on the outskirts of Athens, where her brother was staying. Two days later Hadla had another cardiac arrest and died. Dalal is still in the apartment with the rest of her family but continues to face eviction. “We have nothing and nowhere to go,” she said.

    Kelly Moraiti, a nurse at the MSF daycare centre in Athens, said evictions put patients’ health at risk, particularly those living with diseases such as diabetes. “Someone who is facing a lifelong disease should have uninterrupted permanent access to treatment. They need to have access to a proper diet and a space to store medications, which should not be exposed to the sun; to be homeless with these conditions is extremely dangerous.”

    MSF urgently called on the Greek government and the EU to help house refugees sleeping rough in Athens and to halt evictions of vulnerable people.

    Some of the refugees on the streets of Athens are heavily pregnant women and new mothers as well as survivors of torture and sexual violence. Many have significant health conditions often complicated from their time in camps such as Moria.

    The Greek migration ministry did not respond to requests for comment.

    * Names changed or shortened for privacy reasons

    https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2020/jul/31/greece-refugee-healthcare-crisis-island-camps-lesbos-moria-coronavirus

    #Lesbos #migrations #covid #coronavirus #centre_covid #asile #réfugiés #Grèce #fermeture #Moria #camps_de_réfugiés #santé_mentale #confinement

    ping @thomas_lacroix

  • Turkey suspends Iran and Afghanistan flights due to virus concerns- Al monitor

    Turkey suspended flights to and from Iran and Afghanistan yesterday due to coronavirus-related concerns.

    The Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure said the decision constituted “preventative measures,” the state-run Anadolu Agency reported.

    Turkey stopped nearly all international passenger flights in and out of the country in March amid the COVID-19 pandemic. In June, Turkey, which has a major international transit hub in Istanbul, announced the resumption of international flights.

    #Covid-19#Turquie#Iran#Afghanistan#FermetureFrontière#Aeroport#Politique_internationale#migrant#migration

    https://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2020/07/turkey-suspends-flights-afghanistan-iran-covid-19.html

  • Where Will Everyone Go ?

    ProPublica and The New York Times Magazine, with support from the Pulitzer Center, have for the first time modeled how climate refugees might move across international borders. This is what we found.

    #climate #climate_refugee #migration #international_migration #map

    ping @cdb_77

    https://features.propublica.org/climate-migration/model-how-climate-refugees-move-across-continents

  • Coronavirus : la Turquie suspend à nouveau ses vols avec l’Iran - Middle East Eye

    La Turquie a annoncé dimanche avoir à nouveau suspendu ses vols avec l’Iran et l’Afghanistan, deux pays durement touchés par la pandémie de nouveau coronavirus.

    « En raison de la pandémie de COVID-19, notre pays a suspendu par précaution ses vols avec l’Iran et l’Afghanistan », a déclaré dans un communiqué le ministère turc des Transports, sans préciser la durée de cette mesure.

    La compagnie turque Turkish Airlines avait officiellement annoncé la reprise des vols vers Téhéran la semaine dernière, après une interruption d’environ cinq mois en raison de la pandémie.

    Voisin de la Turquie, l’Iran a été durement touché par l’épidémie. La décision d’Ankara de suspendre les liaisons aériennes entre les deux pays intervient d’ailleurs au lendemain de déclarations alarmistes du président iranien Hassan Rohani.

    Alors que le nombre de cas officiellement enregistrés en Iran s’élève à quelque 270 000, M. Rohani a indiqué samedi que 25 millions d’habitants sur environ 81 millions pourraient en réalité avoir été infectés, et estimé que 35 millions d’Iraniens supplémentaires risquaient de contracter le virus.

    #Covid-19#Turquie#Iran#FermetureFrontière#Aeroport#Politique_internationale#migrant#migration

    https://www.middleeasteye.net/fr/live/coronavirus-suivez-lactualite-dans-la-region-mena

  • Bishop Warduni: Baghdad Christian refugee centre closed because of COVID-19 -Asianews

    Residents are evacuated from the facility dedicated to the Virgin Mary because of possible coronavirus infections. The site has been sanitised. Iraq has reported more than 21,000 cases with 650 deaths. For the Auxiliary Bishop of Baghdad, things are getting worse because of the “invisible enemy” who “knows no mercy” and affects “all ages”

    #Covid-19#Irak#Seconde_vague#FermetureCamp#Pandémie#Santé#migrant#migration

    http://www.asianews.it/news-en/Bishop-Warduni:-Baghdad-Christian-refugee-camp-closed-because-of-COVID-19-5