• Deux demandeurs d’asile portent plainte contre Frontex après des renvois illégaux

    Refoulés en mer Egée, ils accusent l’agence européenne de complicité de violations des droits de l’homme. La #Cour_de_justice de l’UE est saisie de l’affaire dont « Libération » a pu consulter des documents.

    #Jeancy_Kimbenga parle d’une voix calme. Son débit est posé. Sous la pluie battante d’Istanbul, ce vendredi 21 mai, le jeune homme s’abrite dans un magasin dont on entend les jingles incessants dans son téléphone. « Il n’y a pas de réseau à l’hôtel », explique-t-il. Le demandeur d’asile congolais de 17 ans est toujours coincé en Turquie, pays où il a été contraint de s’établir après un périple migratoire tourmenté : une escale en Ethiopie, un changement d’avion puis direction la Turquie et les rivages de la mer Egée, l’eldorado pour de nombreux migrants qui rêvent d’Europe.

    Par trois fois, Jeancy, qui a fui son pays après avoir subi la torture de son propre oncle, un colonel de l’armée, a tenté de rallier les côtes grecques dans un canot pneumatique. Aujourd’hui, il vit à Istanbul dans l’attente de réunir la somme nécessaire à une nouvelle traversée. Le 28 novembre 2020, il a même touché au but : son petit bateau a accosté à #Kratigou, à 10 kilomètres au sud de #Mytilène, la principale ville de la petite île grecque de Lesbos. Là, Jeancy et ses camarades se sont cachés toute une nuit avant de sortir au petit matin.

    C’était compter sans les policiers grecs qui l’arrêtent, selon son récit à Libération, avant de l’emmener en mer où il est abandonné à la merci des flots dans un bateau gonflable. Un renvoi illégal, ou « pushback ». Quelques heures plus tard, le gamin et ses compagnons d’infortune sont interceptés par les gardes-côtes turques qui les ramènent en Turquie. Sur son téléphone, Jeancy garde précieusement les preuves de son cheminement en terre hellène : des vidéos, des photos, des localisations GPS qu’il a partagées immédiatement sur Whatsapp avec amis et membres d’ONGs : « Je me suis dit qu’il pourrait se passer quelque chose. Je n’avais pas confiance. »

    Première plainte de ce genre

    Ces éléments sont la base d’une plainte que le jeune homme a déposée le vendredi 21 mai 2021, devant la cour de justice de l’Union Européenne (CJUE) contre Frontex, aux côtés d’une demandeuse d’asile burundaise, elle aussi victime de deux pushbacks. C’est la première du genre. « Je veux porter cette voix pour que cela puisse cesser. C’est vraiment très grave ce qu’il se passe ». Ils exigent le retrait de Frontex de la région.

    Les deux exilés ont été épaulés pour l’occasion par Omer Shatz et Iftach Cohen, deux avocats spécialisés en droit international, qui avaient déjà intenté une action préliminaire contre la super agence de garde-frontières et de garde-côtes au nom de #Front-lex, structure créée spécialement pour ce contentieux. « C’est la première fois que Frontex est face au tribunal pour des violations des droits de l’homme, assure Omer Shatz : nous allons faire respecter le droit au frontière extérieure de l’union Européenne ».

    Dans un réquisitoire long d’une soixantaine de pages que Libération a pu consulter, l’équipe d’avocats (complétée par Loica Lambert et Mieke Van den Broeck pour l’ONG Progress Law Network, et soutenu par l’ONG Greek Helsinki Monitor) s’attarde sur les récits des violations des droits de l’homme ainsi que sur le manque de mécanismes de contrôle de l’agence européenne de garde-côtes. Aux frontières extérieures de l’UE, Frontex, censé être le garant du respect des traités, ne remplit pas son rôle. Selon Omer Shatz, c’est sous sa responsabilité que des violences, à l’instar des « pushbacks » subis par Jeancy, se déroulent : « Non seulement la Grèce n’aurait pas pu mettre en place cette politique sans Frontex. Mais qui plus est, légalement parlant, tout cela fait partie d’une opération conjointe entre l’agence et le gouvernement grec. »

    Contestation en interne

    Selon sa régulation interne (et son article 46), Frontex a pourtant l’obligation de faire cesser, séance tenante, toute action qui irait à l’encontre du respect des droits de l’homme. Dès lors, la demande des avocats est simple : Frontex doit retirer ses moyens (avions, bateaux, hélicoptères ou drones) qui patrouillent dans la zone. A la Cour de trancher. Du côté de la direction de l’agence, le leitmotiv est toujours le même. Le directeur français, Fabrice Leggeri, affirme tantôt que les agissements des Grecs ne sont pas établis. Tantôt qu’ils ne constituent pas une violation claire des droits de l’homme. Et ce en dépit des nombreuses preuves amassées tant par les médias que par des ONGs.

    De surcroît, les positions du directeur sont depuis peu contestées en interne. Des documents internes à Frontex, que Libération, ses partenaires du média d’investigation Lighthouse Reports et du Spiegel ont pu consulter, en attestent. Les preuves de ces renvois sont « solides » est-il écrit dans un rapport de Frontex, daté de janvier 2021 et rédigé par le bureau des droits fondamentaux, un organe interne de contrôle. « Cette note est une compilation de sources disponibles en ligne. Elle a été écrite avant même deux enquêtes internes, qui n’ont trouvé aucune preuve de violations des droits de l’homme lors d’activités de Frontex », oppose le porte-parole de l’agence, joint par Libération.

    La politique de l’agence est de plus en plus remise en question par ses propres employés. Le 30 octobre 2020, un bateau grec, avec une trentaine de migrants à son bord, vogue vers les eaux territoriales turques, sous les yeux de policiers suédois, en mission pour Frontex. « Ce qui m’a surpris, c’est que les garde-côtes grecs n’ont pas escorté le bateau vers le port, mais dans la direction opposée », explique l’une d’entre elles, interrogée dans le cadre d’une enquête interne le 8 décembre 2020, dans un procès-verbal consulté par Libération. « Avez-vous considéré cette manœuvre comme étant un pushback ? », relance l’enquêteur. La réponse est sans appel : « Oui, c’était un pushback. »

    https://www.liberation.fr/international/info-libe-deux-demandeurs-dasile-portent-plainte-contre-frontex-apres-des-pushbacks-20210525_X5OL2DRRZFCDNKRAFRL4EHJXF4/?redirected=1

    #CJUE #justice #asile #migrations #réfugiés #frontières #push-backs #refoulements #Mer_Egée #Egée #Grèce

    –—

    Sur les push-backs en Mer Egée :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/882952

    Plus sur Front-Lex et ses actions légales :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/902069

    ping @isskein @karine4

  • #Front-Lex. Traduire l’#UE en #justice

    La #politique_migratoire de l’UE vise à endiguer à tout prix les flux migratoires en provenance d’Afrique. Avec une baisse de 90% des arrivées sur le sol de l’UE, on considère que cette politique est un succès.

    C’est aussi un #génocide. Les coûts en vies humaines et en termes de droits de l’homme sont sans précédent : 20 000 mort-es en Méditerranée et 50 000 survivant-es parqué-es dans les camps de concentration au cours des 5 dernières années. Et ce n’est pas fini.

    La politique migratoire de l’UE constitue une violation flagrante de tous les cadres juridiques internationaux et européens régissant les migrations et les frontières : #droit_des_réfugiés, #droits_de_l’homme, #droit_maritime et #droit_pénal.

    Pour la première fois depuis la Seconde Guerre mondiale, les institutions, les gouvernements et les responsables européens commettent d’innombrables #crimes_contre_l’humanité.

    Ces crimes atroces visent la population la plus vulnérable au monde : les civils qui ont besoin d’une #protection_internationale.

    Front-Lex rétablit la #loi_aux_frontières de l’Europe en demandant des comptes à l’UE, ses États membres et leurs fonctionnaires.

    https://www.front-lex.eu/fran%C3%A7ais
    https://www.front-lex.eu

    #frontex #frontières #asile #migrations #réfugiés #responsabilité

    ping @isskein @karine4 @_kg_

    • The Legal Centre Lesvos and Front-Lex call upon FRONTEX to immediately suspend or terminate its activities in the Aegean Sea region / Legal Center Lesvos et Front-Lex demandent à FRONTEX de suspendre ou de mettre fin immédiatement à ses activités dans la mer Égée.

      This morning, Legal Centre Lesvos and Front-Lex sent a formal request to suspend or terminate Frontex operations in the Aegean Sea to Fabrice Leggeri, the Executive Director of the European Border and Coast Guard Agency (Frontex), pursuant to Article 265 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.

      The request is based on an accumulation of evidence showing Frontex and its Executive Director have failed to act, in infringement of European Treaties, in relation to fundamental rights and international protection obligations in the Aegean Sea region, including:

      • Failure to decide against launching Frontex’s Rapid Border Intervention Aegean in March 2020. Frontex decided to launch a “rapid border intervention” providing further material assistance to the existing Frontex operation in the Aegean sea region, in response to Greece’s request on 1 March 2020. This Frontex activity was approved a day later, on 2 March, despite the fact that the Greek state had by that time already implemented a set of violent anti-migrant measures, including:

      Unilateral suspension of the right to asylum in flagrant violation of EU asylum law and international law on 1st March;
      Systematically pressing criminal charges against asylum seekers for unlawful entry in violation of Article 31 of the 1951 Refugee Convention;
      Summarily and arbitrarily detaining migrants across the Aegean islands in ports, buses, ships, beaches, where they were denied access to asylum procedures, adequate shelter, sanitation facilities, and medical attention in violation of fundamental rights;
      Increased violence at sea, with at least one instance in which the Greek authorities fired at a rubber dingy.

      As such, it was clear there were “serious reasons at the beginning of the activity to suspend or terminate it because it could lead to violations of fundamental rights or international protection obligations of a serious nature”, per Article 46 (5) of EU Regulation 2019/1896 on the European Border and Coast Guard Regulations.

      • Failure to suspend or terminate ongoing Frontex operations in the Aegean (Joint Operation Poseidon) despite well-documented, systematic, collective expulsions. There is insurmountable evidence of Greek authorities systematically conducting collective expulsions, which from March 2020 until the present have been perpetrated pursuant to a consistent modus operandi. This practice has been repeatedly documented and denounced by numerous media outlets, migrant solidarity collectives and human rights organisations, including the Legal Centre Lesvos. As set out in our most recent report at section 3, the constituent elements of the operational pattern of pushbacks on the part of the Greek authorities in the Aegean violate numerous fundamental rights and international protection obligations, and amount to crimes against humanity. The involvement of Frontex vessels in persistent pushbacks in the Aegean sea has been documented by independent investigations. Pursuant to Article 46(4) of EU Regulation 2019/1896, Leggeri in his capacity as Executive Director of Frontex, after consultation with the Frontex Fundamental Rights Officer, is required to suspend or terminate the activity of Frontex in a context where violations of fundamental rights or international protection obligations related to the Frontex activities are of a serious nature and are likely to persist.

      • Failure to give a transparent, truthful and accurate account of the circumstances and number of pushback incidents recorded in the Aegean sea in which Frontex has been implicated, notably during hearings before the European Parliament.

      • Ongoing and inherent failure of Frontex’s internal reporting and monitoring mechanisms in relation to fundamental rights violations. The internal investigation launched following the Frontex extraordinary Management Board meeting on 10 November 2020 and the creation of a specific Working Group to review evidence of Frontex’s involvement in fundamental rights violations, highlights the longstanding and ongoing deficiencies of the European agency. It demonstrates its inability to operate with transparency, efficient and effective reporting and monitoring mechanisms for fundamental rights violations. In addition to this internal investigation, there are two ongoing investigations into Frontex by the European Anti-Fraud Office (OLAF) and the European Ombudsman.

      In light of the above failures and the evidence of its direct and indirect involvement in pushbacks, Frontex is complicit in documented state violence against migrants in the Aegean sea region in particular and in Greece more broadly.

      As a European Agency systematically failing to act in accordance with European law, with its governing regulations and internal monitoring mechanisms, Frontex must immediately suspend or terminate its operations in the Aegean sea region.

      These failures are inherent to the functioning of Frontex, its direction and management. Frontex operates with impunity in contexts of flagrant fundamental rights and international protection obligations violations, across Europe’s borders. In the absence of independent and efficient transparency and accountability mechanisms, justice for survivors of collective expulsions in the Aegean must include defunding, demilitarising and dismantling Europe’s violent Border and Coast Guard Agency.
      *******************************************************

      Hier, Legal Centre Lesbos et Front-Lex ont adressé une demande officielle de suspension ou de fin des opérations de Frontex en mer Égée à Fabrice Leggeri, le directeur exécutif de l’Agence européenne de garde-frontières et de garde-côtes (Frontex), conformément à l’article 265 du Traité sur le fonctionnement de l’Union européenne.

      La demande est fondée sur une accumulation de preuves démontrant que Frontex et son directeur exécutif n’ont pas agi, en violation des traités européens, concernant les droits fondamentaux et les obligations de protection internationale dans la région de la mer Égée, et notamment:

      • Le défaut de renoncer au lancement de l’intervention rapide aux frontières de Frontex dans la mer Égée en mars 2020. Frontex a décidé de lancer une « intervention rapide aux frontières » fournissant une assistance matérielle supplémentaire à l’opération Frontex déjà existante dans la région de la mer Égée, en réponse à la demande de la Grèce le 1er mars 2020. Cette activité de Frontex a été approuvée un jour plus tard, soit le 2 mars, malgré le fait que l’État grec mettait déjà en œuvre un ensemble de violentes mesures anti-migrants, comptant notamment:

      La suspension unilatérale du droit de demander l’asile le 1er mars, en violation flagrante du droit d’asile de l’Union Européenne et du droit international;
      L’initiation systématique de poursuites pénales à l’encontre de tout demandeur d’asile pour entrée illégale dans le pays en violation de l’article 31 de la Convention de 1951 relative au statut des réfugiés;
      La détention sommaire et arbitraire de migrants sur les îles de la mer Égée, dans des ports, des bus, des bateaux, sur des plages, où ils se sont vu refuser l’accès aux procédures d’asile, à un abri convenable, à des installations sanitaires et à des soins médicaux en violation de tous droits fondamentaux;
      L’augmentation de la violence à la frontière maritime, incluant au moins un cas dans lequel les autorités grecques ont tiré sur un canot pneumatique de migrants.

      Ainsi, il était clair qu’il “exist[ait] déjà, dès le commencement de l’activité, des raisons sérieuses de la suspendre ou d’y mettre un terme parce que cette activité pourrait conduire à des violations graves des droits fondamentaux ou des obligations en matière de protection internationale”, conformément à l’article 46 §5 du Règlement (UE) 2019/1896 relatif au corps européen de garde-frontières et de garde-côtes.

      • Le défaut de suspendre ou mettre fin aux opérations de Frontex en cours dans la mer Égée (“opération Poséidon”) malgré des expulsions collectives systématiques et bien documentées. Il existe des preuves indéniables que les autorités grecques ont systématiquement procédé à des expulsions collectives, qui, de mars 2020 à aujourd’hui, ont été perpétrées selon un mode opératoire cohérent. Cette pratique a été à plusieurs reprises documentée et dénoncée par de nombreux médias, collectifs en solidarité avec les migrants et organisations de défense des droits de l’Homme, y compris le Legal Centre Lesbos. Comme indiqué dans notre rapport le plus récent, les éléments constitutifs du mode opératoire des “pushbacks” par les autorités grecques dans la mer Égée constituent une violation de nombreux droits fondamentaux et obligations de protection internationale et constituent des crimes contre l’humanité. L’implication des navires de Frontex dans les “pushbacks” persistants en mer Égée a été documentée par des enquêtes indépendantes. En vertu de l’article 46 § 4 du Règlement de l’UE 2019/1896, Fabrice Leggeri, en sa qualité de directeur exécutif de Frontex est tenu, après consultation avec l’officier aux droits fondamentaux de Frontex, de suspendre ou de mettre fin à l’activité de Frontex dans un contexte où les violations des droits ou obligations de protection internationale liés aux activités de Frontex sont de nature sérieuse et susceptibles de perdurer.

      • Le défaut de compte-rendu transparent, véridique et précis sur les circonstances et le nombre d’incidents de pushbacks enregistrés en mer Égée dans lesquels Frontex a été impliqué, notamment lors d’auditions devant le Parlement européen.

      • Le défaut continu et intrinsèque de mécanismes internes de signalement et de contrôle de Frontex, propres à empêcher les violations des droits fondamentaux. L’enquête interne lancée à la suite de la réunion extraordinaire du conseil d’administration de Frontex le 10 novembre 2020, et la création d’un groupe de travail dédié à l’examen des preuves de l’implication de Frontex dans des violations des droits fondamentaux, met à nouveau en évidence les carences de longue date et persistantes de l’agence européenne. Cela démontre son incapacité à fonctionner avec des mécanismes de signalement et de contrôle transparents et efficaces des violations des droits fondamentaux. Outre cette enquête interne, Frontex fait l’objet de deux enquêtes en cours devant l’Office européen de lutte antifraude (OLAF) et le Médiateur européen.

      Au regard des carences mentionnées ci-dessus et des preuves de son implication directe et indirecte dans les pushbacks, Frontex est complice des violences étatiques documentées contre les migrants dans la région de la mer Égée et plus largement en Grèce.

      En tant qu’agence européenne agissant en violation systématique du droit européen, de ses propres règlements et de ses mécanismes de contrôle interne, Frontex doit immédiatement suspendre ou mettre fin à ses opérations dans la région de la mer Égée.

      Ces défauts sont inhérents au fonctionnement de Frontex, à sa direction et à sa gestion. Frontex opère en toute impunité dans des contextes de violations flagrantes des droits fondamentaux et des obligations de protection internationale, à travers les frontières de l’Europe. En l’absence de mécanismes de responsabilité et de transparence indépendants et efficaces, la justice pour les survivants d’expulsions collectives dans la mer Égée doit inclure l’arrêt du financement, la démilitarisation et le démantèlement de la violente agence européenne de garde-frontières et de garde-côtes.

      https://legalcentrelesvos.org/2021/02/15/the-legal-centre-lesvos-and-front-lex-call-upon-frontex-to-immediately-suspend-or-terminate-its-activities-in-the-aegean-sea-region/#create-a-page-jumpa

    • Une plainte contre Frontex pourrait faire son chemin jusqu’aux tribunaux européens

      Trois avocats et deux ONG ont introduit ce lundi un recours, que s’est procuré « Libération », pour demander le départ de l’agence de Grèce et la suspension de ces activités en mer Egée. Pour eux, Frontex est complice de « crime contre l’humanité ».

      Le ciel s’assombrit encore un peu plus pour la direction de Frontex. Après les accusations sur son management brutal, sur ses frais de bouche, l’ouverture d’une enquête de l’Office européen de lutte antifraude (OLAF), c’est désormais devant les tribunaux qu’elle devra peut-être répondre de ses agissements dans les prochains mois. D’après des informations de Libération et du journal allemand Der Spiegel, deux avocats spécialistes de droit international, Omer Shatz et Iftach Cohen, fondateur de l’ONG Front-LEX, et une association grecque, le Legal Centre Lesvos, par l’entremise de son avocate Anastasia Ntailiani, ont mis en demeure ce lundi la super agence de garde-côtes et de garde frontières européens. Leur but ? Obtenir le retrait immédiat des effectifs de Frontex de la mer Egée, un peu à la manière de ce qui s’est déroulé en Hongrie, où l’agence a été contrainte de plier bagage après la condamnation de l’Etat hongrois pour violation des droits de l’homme.

      Dans ce bras de mer, ONG et journalistes dénoncent en effet, depuis des mois, les agissements des garde-côtes hellènes qui, pour empêcher les migrants de rallier la Grèce, les abandonnent en mer, dans de petits canots de sauvetage, le tout sous l’œil de la super agence. « Frontex est complice. Cette pratique systématique d’expulsions collectives équivaut à un crime contre l’humanité », n’hésite pas à affirmer Omer Shatz. La procédure pourrait aboutir au dépôt d’une plainte devant la Cour de justice de l’Union européenne (CJUE) mi-avril.

      Dans leur mémoire, un réquisitoire de 34 pages très critique à l’égard des activités de l’agence, que Libération a pu consulter, l’argument des avocats est le suivant. Primo, Frontex a l’obligation de respecter et de faire respecter les droits de l’homme partout où elle intervient. Cette obligation est d’ailleurs prévue par l’article 46 de sa régulation, le règlement qui encadre ses activités, dont la dernière version a été publiée le 13 novembre 2019. Ce cadre s’applique évidemment en mer Egée où Frontex codirige depuis 2015, aux côtés des garde-côtes grecs, l’opération Poséidon, une mission dont le but est « de gérer l’afflux massif de migrants en Méditerranée orientale ». Une présence renforcée en mars 2020 par la création d’une « brigade d’intervention rapide » que Frontex coordonne. Secundo, estime le plaidoyer, en ne suivant pas cette obligation, et en se rendant complice des violations des droits de l’homme « répétées au cours des dix dernières années », l’agence se serait rendue coupable d’un défaut de fonctionnement, un délit prévu par l’article 265 du traité sur le fonctionnement de l’Union européenne (TFUE). N’importe quel tiers est ainsi en droit d’introduire un « recours en carence », indique le texte de loi, pour souligner ce défaut et demander sa résolution.

      A réception du mémoire des avocats, Frontex a ainsi deux mois pour réagir, stipule le TFUE. Faute de quoi, la plainte pourrait faire son chemin jusqu’à la Cour de justice de l’Union Européenne (CJUE). Ce sera alors à elle de décider de son sort et de celui de ses dirigeants.

      Ils n’en oublient pas Fabrice Leggeri

      Omer Shatz n’est pas à son coup d’essai. On retrouve l’avocat israélien derrière une plainte déposée en juin 2019 devant la Cour pénale internationale (CPI). Cette dernière accusait les Etats européens de s’être rendus coupables de meurtres, tortures, traitements inhumains et déplacements forcés, commis à l’encontre de migrants tentant de fuir la Libye. Dans cette procédure, encore en cours, l’homme était accompagné d’un autre avocat médiatique, le français Juan Branco. Avec son ONG, Front-LEX, fondée il y a un peu plus d’un an, il dit se faire un devoir de s’attaquer aux politiques migratoires européennes : « Nous voulons demander des comptes aux responsables et fournir des recours aux innombrables victimes des politiques migratoires de l’UE. »

      La plainte contre Frontex est l’aboutissement de plusieurs mois de travail. Les avocats ont planché pour trouver le moyen de poursuivre l’institution dans son ensemble et pas uniquement ses dirigeants. « C’est très compliqué d’engager la responsabilité de Frontex, poursuit l’avocat, l’agence se cache souvent soit derrière l’état qu’elle aide, dans ce cas précis la Grèce. » Mais les avocats n’en oublient pas pour autant de pointer du doigt Fabrice Leggeri, le directeur exécutif de Frontex, déjà sur la sellette. « L’échec à suspendre cette opération avec les Grecs porte son nom », indique Omer Shatz. La procédure pourrait aboutir à sa destitution, dit l’avocat. Rendez-vous dans deux mois. Contacté par Libération, Frontex n’a pour le moment pas donné suite à nos sollicitations.

      https://www.liberation.fr/international/europe/une-plainte-contre-frontex-pourrait-faire-son-chemin-jusquaux-tribunaux-e

    • For the First Time in the History of the Agency, Legal Action Against FRONTEX Has Been Submitted to the Court of Justice of the EU for Human Rights Violations.

      FRONTEX failed to terminate its operations in GREECE despite serious, systematic, and widespread violations of fundamental rights under EU Law.

      An unprecedented legal action against FRONTEX was submitted to the EU Court of Justice today by Adv. Omer Shatz and Adv. Iftach Cohen from front-LEX, Adv. Loica Lambert and Adv. Mieke Van den Broeck from Progress Lawyers Network, empowered by Mr. Panayote Dimitras and Ms. Leonie Scheffenbichler from Greek Helsinki Monitor, and Gabriel Green from front-LEX. The case was filed on behalf of two asylum seekers – an unaccompanied minor and a woman – who, while seeking asylum on EU soil (Lesbos), were violently rounded up, assaulted, robbed, abducted, detained, forcibly transferred back to sea, collectively expelled, and ultimately abandoned on rafts with no means of navigation, food or water. The Applicants were also victims of other ‘push-back’ operations during their attempts to seek protection in the EU.

      Despite undisputed and overwhelming evidence for serious and persisting violations of fundamental rights, FRONTEX and its Executive Director, Fabrice Leggeri, have failed to terminate the Agency’s activities in the Aegean Sea, in flagrant infringement of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights, the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU and Frontex Regulation. Frontex and Greece’s policy aims to stem ‘migration’ at all costs. This systematic and widespread attack against asylum seekers breaches the right to asylum, the prohibitions on refoulement and collective expulsions, and amount to crimes against humanity of, inter alia, deportation. This is the first time that FRONTEX is being taken to Court over human rights violations in its 17 years of operation. We will hold the EU to account. We will reinstate the Rule of Law over EU borders.

      Omer Shatz and Iftach Cohen from Front-LEX: “We watched videos showing the worst crimes that humanity has imagined and outlawed. We watched the Director of Frontex, Leggeri, telling the EU Parliament and Commission that what we see in these videos is actually not happening. But 10,000 victims attest: these crimes are being committed, on a daily basis, on EU territory, by an EU agency. The EU Court is responsible for protecting EU fundamental rights law. To date, the Court has never reviewed the conduct of Frontex nor provided remedy for its countless victims. We trust the Court to hear the victims, to see what everyone sees, to hold EU border agency to account, and to restore the Rule of Law over EU lands and seas.

      Omer Shatz, Adv., front-LEX (English, French): +33650784880, omer.shatz@front-lex.eu

      Iftach Cohen, Adv., front-LEX (English, Italian): iftach.cohen@front-lex.eu

      Adv. Loica Lambert and Adv. Mieke Van den Broeck from Progress Lawyers Network: “In the EU and at its borders, migrants and people who help them are being unjustly criminalized. At the same time and on the same borders, Frontex has been committing gross violations of international and European law for years, while avoiding prosecution. It is time Frontex is held accountable for the crimes it is committing against people who are seeking protection, and who are forced to risk their lives at sea due to the lack of safe and legal channels for migration.

      Mieke Vandenbroeck Adv., Progress Lawyers Network (Flemish, French and English) mieke.vandenbroeck@progresslaw.net, +32498395724

      Panayote Dimitras and Leonie Scheffenbichler from GHM: “The two applicants have landed successfully on Lesbos more than once, even met a local academic, have pictures of well-known roads of the island. Yet, Greek forces brutally expelled them from the island with Frontex supervision, as Greece claims. They will not get justice in Greece, where there is no rule of law. They deserve justice in Europe, if it wants to claim that it abides by the rule of law.”
      Mr. Panayote Dimitras, Greek Helsinki Monitor (Greek, French, English): panayotedimitras@gmail.com +30-2103472259;

      Ms. Leonie Scheffenbichler (French, German, English): leonie.scheffenbichler@sciencespo.fr

      Communiqué de presse reçu via la mailing-list Migreurop, le 26.05.2021

  • Syrian NGO seeks a first before the ICC: Individual criminal liability for Greece’s abuses against refugees

    The #Syria_Justice_and_Accountability_Center (#SJAC) has called on the International Criminal Court (ICC) Prosecutor to investigate Greek authorities and European Border and Coast Guard Agency (#Frontex) agents for abuses against asylum-seekers that could amount to crimes against humanity.

    On January 28, the Syrian non-governmental organization based in Washington DC submitted a file documenting five years of violations against refugees at the Greek-Turkish border and reception and identification centers in Greece.

    Since this submission, Nessma Bashi, Legal Fellow at SJAC, said they have received “hundreds of notifications from victims, mainly Syrian saying: ‘We have witnesses, we have videos, we are willing to testify.’”

    Over one million people have journeyed from Turkey to Greece to seek asylum in Europe in the past five years. Greece currently hosts 120,000 asylum-seekers and migrants; 14% of asylum applicants in 2019 were Syrian.

    If the ICC’s Office of the Prosecutor decides to launch an investigation, “this will be the first major international criminal case pertaining to a European country,” Bashi said. It will be the first time the “individual criminal responsibility” of Greek and European officials “for crimes against humanity committed against asylum-seekers, refugees and migrants in a European country” is addressed, explained Alexandra Lily Kather, a legal consultant in the field of international justice.

    Previously, an ICC submission tried to seek accountability of EU member states for their complicity with human rights violations against migrants in Libya, but the case did not go forward.

    What crimes against humanity?

    SJAC’s submission has gathered documentation of abuses that could amount to five crimes against humanity under Article 7 of the Rome Statute, the founding treaty of the ICC:

    Deportation and forcible transfer of a population:

    Greek and Frontex agents have breached international law by expelling asylum seekers by land and sea without allowing them to apply for asylum.
    The Hellenic Coast Guard sped past refugee boats and towed them from Greek to Turkish waters, putting people at risk and violating international refugee law and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).
    Deportation has been done via coercive measures like physical and psychological violence.

    Persecution:

    Refugees have been deprived of their fundamental rights in attempts to push them out of Greece. For instance, they have been subjected to inhuman treatment, arbitrary arrests and have been denied their right to a standard of living adequate for their health.

    Inhumane acts of the deprivation of humanitarian aid:

    Greece has criminalized humanitarian workers accusing them of human-smuggling charges. For instance, in September 2020, 33 NGOs workers were charged with facilitating the clandestine arrival of migrants to Greek territory.
    At reception and identification centers, inhuman conditions such as inadequate food, unsanitary conditions, or limited medical support or access to NGOs have been documented.
    Frontex and the Hellenic Coast Guard have ignored calls of refugee boats in life-threatening situations.

    Sexual violence:

    At reception and identification centers, some police officers have allegedly purchased minors sold into prostitution.
    At the border, organizations have documented inappropriate touching at searches, where some individuals were forced to strip naked.

    Torture:

    The accounts of physical mistreatment could amount to torture by conduct, and the deplorable living conditions in centers of carceral nature could amount to torture by treatment.

    Who might be liable?

    If an investigation is launched, the Prosecutor will have to define who can be liable for the abuses perpetrated. But how can individual criminal responsibility be established when the alleged violations stem from a broader national and European policy of sealing EU borders?

    Lower-level officials may argue that they are just following orders. However, Bashi pointed out that this “means that there is a chain of command and the higher-ups can be implicated,” adding that these actions are “part of a widespread and systematic attacks.”

    Although “Greece has made certain judicial, administrative and policy decisions that led to the situation in camps and the border violence, it should not be the only state held accountable,” Kather argued, “because the entire of the European continent and all the states are contributing to this decision making.” Nonetheless, Kather saw this as an opportunity to end the impunity gap on a “system of endless human rights violations against asylum-seekers, refugees and migrants.”

    Why to the ICC?

    The International Criminal Court, the world’s first permanent international criminal court, was created in 2002 by the Rome Statute.

    The court hears cases referred by the United Nations Security Council (UNSC), a State Party or - as with this case - by organizations. Bashi hopes the ICC’s Prosecutor will answer during 2021. The ICC has territorial jurisdiction on this case because Greece is a State Party and the alleged crimes occurred in Greek territory.

    The ICC can prosecute individuals for crimes against humanity if national courts are unable or unwilling to investigate a crime. SJAC argues that neither Greek nor European courts are able to carry out a serious investigation since the alleged crimes are part of a national policy backed by the European Union.

    In addition, previous rulings against Greece’s unlawful migration practices by the European Court of Human Rights, the UN Special Rapporteur on the human rights of migrants, and the UNHCR, as well as complaints before the European Commission have been ignored. As such, SJAC considers the ICC as the court of last resort.

    “The fact that this happened on European soil, the continent that claims to be a bastion of human rights, is really unjust,” Bashi said. Kather labeled it “a bold strategy” to go after a European country. Still, it is “a necessary development to uphold the credibility of the ICC, that from a Eurocentric perspective, it is often argued that crimes are always happening elsewhere, but never on the European territory,” she said. It is noteworthy that nine of the ten ICC cases relate to African countries.

    Where can this lead?

    If this case goes ahead, it will “send a very clear sign” to European countries that fail to protect the refugee population from violations that there is “no impunity” and “similar actions could follow,” Kather explained. “Greece is just the first one, but we are hoping that Italy and Spain will learn that these crimes are indeed crimes,” Bashi added.

    Traditionally, violations against asylum-seekers have been framed under international human rights law, but Kather points out that there is a shift towards “the realm of international criminal law” due to the “ever mounting violence at the border.”

    Last week, members of the European Parliament launched a probe against Frontex for allegations of harassment and unlawful operations to stop people from reaching European borders. Last month, the UN Human Rights Committee found that Italy had failed to protect the right to life for not assisting a vessel in distress in 2013. This decision responds to a complaint by three Syrians and a Palestinian who lost a combined 13 relatives in the sinking that cost 200 lives total.

    All these developments “send a broader sign that violence, at the sea or land border, is being monitored and legal actions are being filed,” Kather said.

    The ball is in the ICC’s court.

    https://syriadirect.org/news/syrian-ngo-seeks-a-first-before-the-icc-individual-criminal-liability-f
    #Grèce #réfugiés #justice #ICC #Cour_pénale_internationale #CPI #crimes_contre_l'humanité #droits_humains #asile #migrations

    ping @isskein @karine4

  • Learn to code in 5 months, get hired, and thrive as a web developer
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    Nowadays we can’t imagine our lives without websites and apps — they changed everything. And as web development continues to grow exponentially, there remains an immense demand for web developers that is projected to grow over a 10-year period.With a wide range of possible ways to become a web developer, most learners are not sure how to begin.In this article, you will find a step-by-step plan on how to become a web developer in 5 months. This article answers three main questions:Part 1: WHY learn to code?Part 2: WHAT you will learn? (the 5-month plan)Part 3: WHEN to start looking for a job?Part 1: WHY learn to code?You can improve your yearly incomeAccording to Paysa, a salary comparison website, “A Web Developer earns an average of $91,587, ranging from $77,544 to $103,370, with top earners (...)

    #front-end-development #learn-to-code-online #javascript #learning-to-code #web-development

  • Avoiding Race Conditions when Fetching Data with React Hooks
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    Man jumping over clockAbout a month ago, I posted an example of fetching data using React Hooks to Twitter. While it was well-intended, Dan Abromov (of the React core team) let me know that my implementation contained a race condition. Consequently, I promised to write a blog post correcting my implementation. This is that post!Note: If this article helps you, please help spread the word by lending a clap (or 50)! ??SetupIn our example app, we are going to fake-load people’s profile data when their names are clicked. To help visualize the race condition, we’ll create a fakeFetchfunction that implements a random delay between 0 and 5 seconds.const fakeFetch = person => return new Promise(res => setTimeout(() => res($person's data), Math.random() * 5000); );;Initial (...)

    #react-hook #reactjs #front-end-development #asynchronous #javascript

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    FrontamentalsLet’s start by understanding what actually happens to our CSS code when we load up a web page in a browser.When a browser starts to load the initial #html file, it takes the loaded HTML code and parses it, which means that it will decode the code line by line. By this process, the browser builds the so-called DOM (Document Object Modal) which describes the entire web document in a tree with parent, children and sibling elements.HTML ParsingAs the browser parses the HTML, it also finds the stylesheets included in the HTML head and just like HTML, CSS is also parsed.But the parsing of CSS bit more complex.There are two main steps that are performed during the CSS parsing phase :1. Conflicting CSS declarations are resolved (also known a cascading)2. Process final CSS values (for (...)

    #front-end-development #web-development

  • Hacking Custom Checkboxes And Radios
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    Cosmetic improvements to checkboxes and radios using CSSRadios (or radio buttons) and checkboxes are very important input elements commonly found in so many forms on the web.Checkboxes are used where multiple values from a list of predefined values may apply — for example, marking multiple files for deletion from a list of files.Radio buttons on the other hand are used where only one value is applicable — for example, selecting gender from a list.In this tutorial, we’ll examine using a step-by-step approach, how to improve the aesthetics and appearance of radios and checkboxes using #css while still preserving the accessibility of the input elements.In order to fully appreciate this tutorial, a basic understanding of CSS — selectors and style rules is required. However, you don’t really have to be (...)

    #software-development #web-development #front-end-development #hackernoon-top-story

  • Vue.js: Good, Bad, and Choice
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    For most people building a new front end application nowadays, the choice of framework/library seems to come down to either Angular or React for the most part. Often times, people don’t give enough love to Vue.js. So, I want to share some light on Vue.js and my personal experience working with Vue.js for a production application. Together, we’ll try to answer the question: Is Vue.js the right framework for you?Note: I’m not trying to say Vue.js is better than React, Angular, or even any other front end frameworks. This is just my personal experience using Vue.js in my project.For those of you new to Vue.js or never even heard of Vue.js, Vue.js is a #javascript front end framework that was initially released in 2014 and was developed by Evan You. From that time on, Vue.js has been (...)

    #web-development #front-end-development #frontend #vuejs

  • Planning to Switch Site From Html to Gatsby?
    https://hackernoon.com/creating-a-portfolio-with-gatsby-and-reactjs-beware-caa290aa5c00?source=

    Here’s what I learned when I built my #portfolio with Gatsby and ReactJSThe days of WordPress days are all gone now. Even after being a backend developer for 3 years, playing around with PHP still haunts me. I think this is true for most of the Python developers out there. Also, who would want a heavy site for a single page portfolio right?Why I Hate Wordpress?Well, Duh… It’s PHPI moved my blogs to medium, hence all I wanted was a lightweight single page site.Now that the blogs are moved to medium, I no longer have to host my site anywhere, meaning I don’t have to pay a server.At a point, the amount of time I spent with figuring out a plugin, and a template was so much that I decided I would be well off writing things on my own.Why Gatsby?Gatsby is a #react-based, GraphQL powered static site (...)

    #gatsbyjs #front-end-development #javascript

  • 12 #javascript Concepts That Will Level Up Your Development Skills
    https://hackernoon.com/12-javascript-concepts-that-will-level-up-your-development-skills-b37d16

    12 Concepts That Will Level Up Your JavaScript SkillsJavaScript is a complex language. If you’re a JavaScript developer at any level, it’s important to understand its foundational concepts. This article tackles 12 concepts that are critical for any JS developer to understand, but in no way represents the full breadth of what a JS developer should know.Note: If you enjoy this article, please give it a clap ? to help spread the word!I will be continuously updating this list in a Github repository called JS Tips & Tidbits. Please star ⭐ and share if you want to follow along!1. Value vs. Reference Variable AssignmentUnderstanding how JavaScript assigns to variables is foundational to writing bug-free JavaScript. If you don’t understand this, you could easily write code that unintentionally (...)

    #software-development #front-end-development #programming #nodejs

  • How environment file works in #angular in detail
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    In this article, we will see how environment.ts file works. We will create our custom config files and inject them into our application based on the mode (development or production ). It would be somewhat the same as our environment files.So let’s start with the basic template.Now let’s start by adding a config file in our project which exports an object and let’s name that as ConfigurationObject. to keep things simple I have attached only two properties to it. One property is the URL, and the other is the mode.export const ConfigurationObject :any= url:’http://localhost:9001', isProduction:falseLet’s create one type also which has the same definition as our Configuration object. So now our code will look something like:// this is our type export interface Configuration url:string, (...)

    #development #configuration-management #front-end-development #javascript

  • Top 5 Free #jquery Courses for Web Developers — Best of Lot
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    Top 5 Free jQuery Courses for Web Developers — Best of LotThe Complete jQuery Course: From Beginner To Advanced!Hello guys, if you are thinking to learn jQuery and looking for some awesome free resources e.g. books, tutorials, and online courses then you have come to the right place.In this article, I am going to share some of the best free jQuery courses from Udemy and Pluarlsight which you can take to learn this awesome #javascript library.In the past, I have also shared some free books and tutorials on jQuery, which complements these courses. You can also take a look at then while learning different parts of jQuery.Before I share these free courses, let me brief you about what jQuery is and why you should learn it? Well, jQuery is a JavaScript library but unlike any other library it is (...)

    #web-development #programming #front-end-development

  • Whether You Love or Hate Facebook, #graphql is Awesome
    https://hackernoon.com/whether-you-love-or-hate-facebook-graphql-is-awesome-bbf67f33fe10?source

    Let’s time travel a bit. Imagine you’re a developer back in the mid-2000s. You’re working on building a web application, and you are solving for the desktop Internet browser because it’s the only platform available. It’s easier to keep your server and client codebase integrated and let the framework abstract away the client-server communication.Fast forward a few years — browsers have now matured to support HTML5 and JavaScript, permitting richer client-side capabilities. At this point in time, the front-end developer emerged. Although developers began to diverge in their roles and responsibilities to keep up with evolving technological advancements, monolithic frameworks such as PHP, Ruby-on-Rails, and ASP.NET continued to dominate the developer ecosphere thanks to their simplicity, (...)

    #api #mobile-app-development #front-end-development #low-code

  • The #react Developer Tools You Should Know in 2019
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    Useful tools to optimize your React workflow in 2019React takes the lead into 2019While the frontEnd world knew some turbulence in the past decade, React’s composable and extendable approach has proved itself viable and sustaining during the past couple of years. As it seems, 2019 will only mark another year of growth for React and it’s ecosystem, which has been growing rapidly.This might be a good time to take a look at some of the best features, tools and libraries to introduce into your React workflow this year, to make the best of it. All of these are open source, so feel free to go ahead and give them a try.Hopefully, these great tools can help speed your workflow and open the door to new capabilities when working in React in 2019. Feel free to comment, add your own suggestions and (...)

    #javascript #front-end-development #react-tools #react-developer-tools

  • An Introduction to #pug
    https://hackernoon.com/an-introduction-to-pug-1dbe7cfcacd8?source=rss----3a8144eabfe3---4

    Pug (formerly known as Jade) is a preprocessor which simplifies the task of writing #html. It also adds a ton of functionality, such as #javascript objects, conditionals, loops, mixins and templates. The syntax is arguably a lot cleaner to read and it can be a real time-saver when working with a lot of HTML (especially frameworks such as Bootstrap, Foundation, etc).Lets take a peek at some Pug syntax & compare it to regular HTML..// index.pugdoctype html html(lang=’en’) head title Pug demo body h1 Welcome to Pug Life div.container p I’m a p that needs to be contained!Note the use of indentation to nest our HTML as we require. And the lack of closing tags!And here’s the standard HTML output:// index.html<!DOCTYPE html> <html lang="en"> (...)

    #front-end-development #technology

  • DIY #redux with RxJS : Part 3
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    Photo by Steve Halama on UnsplashSo far, in the previous two posts, I covered the topics “How to Create a Redux Library with RxJS” and “How to Write Redux Middlewares”. Before starting the 3rd and the last part of the series, I would recommend you to check the first 2 parts below:DIY Redux with RxJS => RxDxDIY Redux with RxJS: Part 2In this part, I will create a HOC (Higher Order Component) to connect RxDx with #react.Component. I assume that you already know about React.Component, so that I won’t be explaining it again. But I need to explain HOCs which is the heart of what I will demonstrate below.What the heck are these Higher-Order Components?Basically, HOC is a class decorator. But what is a class decorator? Sometimes while we are coding we start feeling that all classes we create have (...)

    #front-end-development #javascript #frontend

  • Essential Software Developer Skills, Technologies & Languages for 2019
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    Source: UnsplashIt seems like every other month someone’s out there touting the new best thing in software development or must-have software developer skills. Flutter.io, MongoDB Atlas, Apache Mesos… What are all these techs? And are they really necessary to learn in 2019?The answer is… it depends. But while experience with these techs like these may be crucial in a handful of roles, there are some other more essential skills you should learn first.Today’s article covers the biggies for technical languages, front-end and back-end (plus full-stack), app dev, machine learning, methodologies, and more. It’s packed with all the best technologies to brush up on to get ahead in 2019.To get a better perspective, we also chatted to three experts about what essential skills a software developer needs (...)

    #front-end-development #programming #software-development #back-end-development #machine-learning

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    #programming #web-development #javascript #front-end-development

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    Data visualization is the practice of converting data from raw figures into a graphical representation such as graphs, maps, charts, and complex dashboards. Let’s see what makes it important (meaning), how it has developed (history), and exactly how it can work in real life (examples). Join us on Data Visualization 101, an introduction to dataviz and its power.Significance of Data VisualizationTo understand how meaningful data visualization is, here’s a simple fact: Human brains have a much harder time understanding complex data when it is encoded in numbers and text compared to graphics. Dataviz techniques take advantage of that quality, helping to present massive amounts of information in the most efficient, visual form.In fact, visually displayed data is easier to grasp and analyze, (...)

    #big-data #whats-data-visualization #data-visualization #data-science #front-end-development

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    How to understand your client, why it’s important to write everything down and what are the advantages of perfectionist managersCSSSR doesn’t have an office and will never have one, while our team consists of dozens of people, who are sometimes located halfway across the world from each other. Nevertheless, all of them are officially employed and work full-time.For more than 6 years we’ve been developing front-end: methodically writing HTML/CSS, courageously implementing complicated JavaScript code, meticulously testing — all completely remotely.Through years of experience we’ve defined 5 main precepts of remote management.1. What is not written down — does not existFor us Internet is the main and only space for communication with a client. Therefore the rule of “putting verbal agreements in (...)

    #web-development #front-end-development #remote-working #project-management #teamwork

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    Photo by Natalia Y on UnsplashOne of the features that we at Propeller miss in Draft.js out-of-the-box is the possibility to clear the stylings of selected text, leaving plain text inside the editor. We believe this behaviour is commonly used and our user may expect this feature to be on it’s place. As always in order to add this feature you would need to spend significant amount of time digging into Draft.js documentation in order to find required information.This post describes what steps you should take in order to add this behaviour into your project.All editing in Draft.js may be divided into 3 groups:Inline stylesCustom entities(for example images, links etc.)Block typesIn order to clean the text up we need to take care of all of these groups.Inline StylesThis one is pretty simple. (...)

    #javascript #draftjs #react #front-end-development #web-development

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    How inheritance in Typescript actually works behind the curtain?Typescript and #javascript are both awesome languages. To a lot of developers Typescript feels more familiar because it offers concepts we normally encounter in traditional #programming languages. Inheritance is one of them.Due to backwards compatibility we generally transpile our code to Javascript. ES5 itself doesn’t contain classes nor an extend keyword.So how does this work then? Typescript uses syntactic sugar to “mimic” the class and inheritance behaviour. It creates kind of an illusion of those concepts. Let’s see what I mean by that.In this blogpost we will dive deep. On our way we will encounter a lot of concepts. It is important to wrap your head around those concepts. Take your time and make some breaks if necessary. You (...)

    #programming-languages #front-end-development

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    Around two years ago, I was starting the final year of my degree in Digital Design and had to come up with an idea for my dissertation/major project. At the time, I had a year’s experience as a front-end developer, and one of my biggest passions and hobbies was coding.I spent a lot of my time on sites like CodePen, creating pens and occasionally using them as blog material on my personal site. The only blocker I had to creating more content was my inability to come up with ideas for things to build.Scattered around the internet are coding challenges, often just posted on Twitter by big name developers — discovering these challenges gave me the idea to create a platform where front-end developers could go to get inspiration for things to build, as well as share their code creations with a (...)

    #web-development #frontend #front-end-development #frontend-development #web

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    #web-development #front-end-developer #full-stack-developer #software-developmen #back-end-developer

  • #javascript Framework Comparison with Examples (React, Vue & Hyperapp)
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    In my previous article, I tried to explain why I think Hyperapp is a viable alternative to #react or Vue and the reasons I found it easier to get started with it. Lots of people criticized that piece, as it was opinionated and didn’t give the other frameworks a proper chance to shine. So, in this article, I’m going to try to compare these three frameworks as objectively as possible, by providing some minimal examples to showcase their capabilities.The infamous counter exampleA counter is probably one of the most used examples in reactive programming and is dead simple to understand:You need to have a variable to keep track of the counter’s count.You need two methods to increment and decrement the count variable.You need a way to render said count variable and present it to the user.You (...)

    #vuejs #web-development #front-end-development