• Un interprète qui travaille pour #Frontex affirme qu’en septembre, des gardes-frontières grecs l’ont pris pour un demandeur d’asile, l’ont agressé et l’ont ensuite forcé à traverser la frontière vers la Turquie avec des dizaines de migrants. Selon les fonctionnaires européens chargés de son dossier, il a fourni à l’agence des preuves à l’appui de ses allégations. Il a déposé plainte contre Frontex. Ylva Johansson, commissaire européenne chargée des migrations, a déclaré qu’après une conversation avec lui, elle avait été « extrêmement préoccupée par son récit »

    E.U. Interpreter Says Greece Expelled Him to Turkey in Migrant Roundup

    The man’s story echoes complaints from human-rights groups that Greek authorities often expel asylum seekers indiscriminately and violently.

    For years, Greek officials have denied complaints from human rights groups that the country’s border agents have brutalized migrants and forcibly pushed them back into Turkey. They have dismissed the allegations as fake news or Turkish propaganda.

    Now a single case may force a reckoning.

    A European Union interpreter says that in September, Greek border guards mistook him for an asylum seeker, assaulted him and then forced him across the border into Turkey alongside dozens of migrants.

    His allegation is particularly problematic for Greek officials because he is a legal European Union resident employed by the E.U. border agency, Frontex. And he has turned over evidence to the agency to support his claims of abuse, according to European officials dealing with his case.

    The European Union, which has mostly looked the other way on abuses of migrants, is now being forced to confront the problem.

    Surfacing in the wake of an acute border crisis with Belarus over migrants, the case has commanded the attention of senior European leaders for weeks. Ylva Johansson, the European commissioner for migration, said she called the interpreter on Friday to discuss his accusations.

    “After direct, in-depth discussion with the person on Nov. 25, I was extremely concerned by his account,” Ms. Johansson said. “In addition to his personal story, his assertion that this was not an isolated case is a serious issue,” she added, saying he told her he had witnessed at least 100 migrants who were pushed over the border and sometimes roughed up

    However, a Greek government ministry statement cast doubt on his account, saying initial inquiries suggested “the facts are not as presented.”

    The interpreter told The New York Times that he had filed a complaint with Frontex, and European officials confirmed this. They said the complaint was being treated as credible because of the man’s position and the documentation he provided, including audio and video recordings.

    The man asked not to be identified out of concern for his safety and his livelihood. Two European officials, speaking on condition of anonymity because they were not authorized to discuss the case with reporters, confirmed his identity.

    He said that he and many of the migrants he was detained with were beaten and stripped, and that the police seized their phones, money and documents. His attempts to tell the police who he was were met with laughter and beatings, he said. He said he was taken to a remote warehouse where he was kept with at least 100 others, including women and children. They were then put on dinghies and pushed across the Evros River into Turkish territory.

    His accusations were similar to those from human-rights groups, along with mounting evidence gathered by migrants and reporters, all claiming that Greek authorities routinely round up and expel migrants without permitting them to complete asylum requests — often in an indiscriminate and violent way. Greek authorities have also been accused of pushing back migrants in flimsy dinghies in the Aegean Sea, sometimes disabling the engines and leaving the migrants to drift back into Turkish waters. Greece has denied the accusations.

    The man’s story came to light at a critical moment in Europe’s reckoning with its practices in dealing with migrants, which have drawn renewed scrutiny after a standoff at the Belarus-Poland border that left 12 migrants dead. In a bid to put pressure on the European Union over a geopolitical standoff, Belarus lured migrants into its territory, left them in a frigid forest and encouraged them to cross into E.U. countries, including Poland. Polish authorities repelled them, sometimes violently.

    That crisis, together with a similar standoff between Greece and Turkey last year with asylum seekers caught in the middle, has laid bare a growing gulf between European laws and norms in treating asylum seekers, and the reality on the ground.

    Public opinion toward immigration soured after the Syrian war brought more than one million refugees to Europe in 2015-16. Still, in much of the European Union, politicians and citizens oppose inhumane and illegal practices such as rounding up migrants and expelling them without due process.

    But governments at Europe’s frontiers, such as Greece, view migration laws and procedures as out of date and out of step with the current climate, contending that they were designed before the mass population displacements seen in recent years.

    Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis of Greece, in remarks this month, rejected accusations of abuses against migrants by the Greek authorities. He called his migration policy “tough, but fair.”

    Ms. Johansson said she had spoken on Monday with the Greek minister for citizen protection, Takis Theodorikakos, and he promised to investigate the interpreter’s claims.

    “The independent National Transparency Authority will conduct an investigation and will be open about its findings as always, but preliminary inquiries in this case appear to suggest the facts are not as presented,” the ministry’s media office said in a statement.

    Sophie in ‘t Veld, a Dutch member of the European Parliament, said the interpreter’s allegations were part of a pattern of growing E.U. brutality toward migrants and asylum seekers.

    “With tens of thousands of victims who drowned in the Mediterranean, thousands languishing in what has been described as concentration camps in Libya, the misery in the camps on the Greek islands for so many years, people drowning in the Channel or freezing to death on the border between Belarus and the E.U., the European Commission cannot claim anymore that these are incidents, accidents, exceptions,” she said.

    “It is not a policy failure,” she added. “It is policy.”

    Greece, one of the main gateways into the European Union for migrants, has long maintained that it is being asked to rescue, process and host too many people arriving from Turkey, a hostile neighbor that often encourages asylum seekers to go to Greece to provoke the government there and to press its demands with the European Union.

    Under Greek and E.U. laws, the Greek authorities are required to assess asylum requests for all who seek protection, to house asylum seekers in humane conditions and, if they are rejected, to repatriate them safely.

    Efforts to more fairly distribute asylum seekers across the European Union have stalled, as many member countries prefer to send funding to Greece and other frontier nations to host asylum seekers, and keep them away from their territories.

    Frontex and the European Asylum Support Office pay and deploy hundreds of employees to ensure that the bloc’s external borders are guarded while human rights laws are upheld.

    The interpreter, who is originally from Afghanistan, has lived for years as a legal resident in Italy. He was employed by Frontex as a member of an E.U.-funded team of experts deployed to help the border guards communicate with asylum seekers.

    He had been working in the border region of Evros alongside Greek and E.U. guards, and was on his way to Thessaloniki, Greece’s second-largest city, for a break when the police pulled him and a number of migrants off a bus, he said.

    After they were beaten, detained and forced into Turkey, the interpreter said, he managed to reach Istanbul, where he received consular assistance from the Italian authorities, and was eventually repatriated to Italy on Sept. 18.

    The Italian foreign ministry did not immediately respond to requests for comment.

    A Frontex spokesman said the agency was investigating the report and could not comment further as long as the investigation continues.

    https://www.nytimes.com/2021/12/01/world/europe/greece-migrants-interpreter-expelled.html

    #plainte #témoignage #asile #migrations #réfugiés #Grèce #frontières #refoulement #push-back #interprète #Evros #Turquie

    ping @isskein @karine4

  • Migration de transit : #Belgique et #France appellent #Frontex à l’aide

    L’agence aux frontières extérieures pourrait fournir une surveillance aérienne pour identifier les embarcations tentant de traverser la #Manche depuis les côtes françaises.

    Et pourquoi ne pas aider le nord ? Dans le cadre des « #consultations_de_Val_Duchesse » – rencontre entre gouvernements français et belge sur les thématiques sécuritaires –, Sammy Mahdi, le secrétaire d’Etat à l’Asile et la Migration, a appuyé la #demande française d’un #renfort de l’agence des frontières extérieures, Frontex, pour surveiller la #côte_d’Opale. En cause : le nombre grandissant de traversées de migrants tentant de rejoindre l’Angleterre par la mer. En à peine deux jours, ce week-end, près de 250 personnes ont ainsi été secourues par les autorités alors qu’elles étaient en difficulté en mer. « Depuis le Brexit, la lutte contre la transmigration n’est pas devenue plus facile », a souligné le secrétaire d’Etat dans un communiqué. « Frontex apporte son aide dans le sud et l’est de l’Europe, mais devrait également le faire dans le nord. »

    Phénomène longtemps marginal, les traversées irrégulières de la Manche par bateau ont commencé à augmenter à partir de fin 2019 et n’ont pas cessé depuis. Un transfert s’expliquant probablement par la sévérité des contrôles des camions, par l’imminence du Brexit – dont le bruit courait qu’il aurait un impact sur la possibilité de franchir la frontière avec des contrôles douaniers systématiques – et peut-être par l’effet dissuasif du drame de l’Essex, lorsque 39 personnes avaient été retrouvées mortes dans un camion frigorifique. Mais aussi… par son taux de réussite. Depuis le début de l’année, la préfecture maritime Manche-mer du Nord a enregistré 1.231 tentatives de traversées impliquant plus de 31.500 personnes (certaines personnes ayant pu être impliquées dans plusieurs traversées). Seules un quart ont été interceptées et ramenées vers les côtes françaises. Et comme le Royaume-Uni a refusé de négocier un volet « réadmission » dans le cadre de l’accord du Brexit (pour remplacer le règlement Dublin), il doit gérer les personnes migrantes une fois débarquées.

    Pour les autorités belges, mais surtout françaises, le défi tient à l’immensité de la zone à surveiller. Alors que les départs avaient jusqu’à récemment lieu depuis les alentours de Calais, le point le plus proche de l’Angleterre, ils se sont dispersés vers le sud à mesure de la hausse des contrôles, allant jusqu’au Touquet, à 70 km de là. Ils sont en revanche toujours rarissimes côté belge. Les petites embarcations restent la norme – Decathlon a annoncé il y a quelques jours suspendre la vente de ses kayaks dans les magasins de Calais et Grande-Synthe, constatant un « détournement de leur usage sportif » –, signe de traversées autonomes. « Mais depuis 2019, avec la montée en puissance de réseaux criminels, voire mafieux, nous voyons des embarcations de plus en plus grandes et de plus en plus chargées, engendrant un effet de saturation ponctuelle. Les embarcations plus robustes, type voiliers ou chalutiers, restent plus anecdotiques », indique la préfecture maritime. Comprendre : les moyens de traversée les plus sûrs sont les plus rares. Or, la Manche est réputée être une autoroute de cargos, très dangereuse pour de petites embarcations la traversant.

    La France a déjà considérablement renforcé les moyens de surveillance et le travail de coordination pour mieux contrôler la côte, soutenue par une enveloppe de 62 millions d’euros promise par le Royaume-Uni. Un cadre opérationnel doit encore être déterminé pour définir l’intervention de Frontex : combien de temps, quels moyens humains, matériels… L’agence indique que la demande concerne du « soutien de surveillance aérienne ».

    « Ce serait la première fois que Frontex s’emploie à stopper les flux sortants au lieu de protéger les frontières extérieures contre les menaces extérieures », souligne le cabinet du secrétaire d’Etat Sammy Mahdi. « Mais si vous regardez les chiffres des départs en 2021, c’est une façon valable de penser. Si ce modèle continue à porter ses fruits avec les arrivées au Royaume-Uni, la transmigration sera difficile à arrêter. »

    https://www.lesoir.be/407906/article/2021-11-22/migration-de-transit-belgique-et-france-appellent-frontex-laide
    #asile #migrations #réfugiés #frontières #aide

    • Frontex deploys Danish surveillance aircraft over northern France

      Frontex has deployed a plane to support French and Belgian authorities trying to spot illegal boat crossing activity, a week after 27 migrants drowned when their dinghy deflated in the Channel, the European Union’s joint frontier force said.

      In a statement, Frontex said the plane, provided by Denmark had landed in Lille, northern France, adding the aircraft was equipped with modern sensors and radar to support land and sea border control.

      The deployment was decided during a meeting on Sunday in Calais between French Interior Minister Gerald Darmanin and some of his European counterparts, an event to which British Interior Minister Priti Patel had been disinvited following a letter from British Prime Minister Boris Johnson letter that angered Paris. (https://www.reuters.com/world/europe/france-says-it-will-not-be-held-hostage-by-british-politics-migration-2021-)

      France and Britain are at loggerheads over post-Brexit trading rules and fishing rights and last week relations soured further after 27 people died trying to cross the Channel.

      “The evolution of the situation in the Channel is a matter of concern. Upon the request from member States, Frontex deployed a plane in France to support them with aerial surveillance in just three days,” Frontex Director Fabrice Leggeri said.

      “We are starting with one plane, but we stand ready to reinforce our support if needed.”

      The aim of the operation on the coastline is to prevent the rising number of sea crossings.

      https://www.reuters.com/world/europe/frontex-deploys-danish-surveillance-aircraft-over-northern-france-2021-12-0

      #Danemark #militarisation_des_frontières

  • Syrian family sue EU border agency over removal from Greece

    Family who were sent to Turkey despite lodging asylum claims take case to European court

    Five years to the day after a family of Syrian refugees were bundled on to a plane and deported to Turkey despite having lodged asylum claims in Greece, they are taking their case to the European court of justice.

    In an unprecedented step, a Dutch firm of human rights lawyers announced on Wednesday that it had filed a lawsuit against Frontex, the EU border agency that operated the flight, and was seeking damages on behalf of the family.

    “Frontex has acknowledged there were human rights violations,” said Lisa-Marie Komp, one of the lawyers at the Prakken d’Oliveira practice representing the family. “It has accepted that the refugees never got the chance to have their asylum request processed.”

    She said it was crucial that the EU-funded agency was held accountable. “If it is to be given such a far-reaching mandate, then there should be effective possibilities to hold it to account. And if that is not possible, what it will amount to is the undermining of the basic principle of rule of law.”

    The action – the first of its kind to be brought before the Luxembourg tribunal – highlights the illegal practice of pushbacks at the EU’s external borders, according to campaigners who have stepped up calls for an end to the alleged abuses.

    Frontex has faced accusations of “actively destroying” the fundamental principles on which the EU was built by participating in the pushbacks.

    The body, which has 660 officers working alongside Greek counterparts at Greece’s sea, land and air borders, has admitted that the Syrian couple and their four children were among 18 passengers onboard the flight from Kos to the southern Turkish city of Adana on 20 October 2016.

    The family, whose members have not been named in the legal action for security reasons, say they were tricked by EU and Greek officials into believing they would be flown to Athens after initiating asylum requests in Greece.

    The refugees were transported to Kos after submitting their claims on the Greek island of Leros, among the five frontline Aegean outposts that were then receiving large numbers of Syrians fleeing civil war in rickety boats from the Turkish coast.

    “I never knew I was [going to be] deported to Turkey,” the then 33-year-old father told reporters after being placed in the Düziçi detention camp in the south of the country. “The policemen said ‘leave your dinner, get your stuff, we will take you to a police station for the night and [then] tomorrow morning to Athens.’”

    Once on the flight the family, including four children aged one to seven, were forced to sit apart next to escort guards, who were subsequently identified by the insignia on their uniforms. It was only when the youngest child began to cry uncontrollably that he was allowed to sit on his mother’s lap.

    “They were in a very vulnerable position,” said Komp. “The treatment of the children on the flight was itself in contravention of the rights of the child enshrined in article 24 of the charter of fundamental rights of the EU.”

    It took three years and eight months before Frontex responded to requests from the Dutch legal team and drafted a report about the internal complaint. “The bottom line is they didn’t take any measures to check whether it was legal to take this family out of Greece,” Komp said.

    The Syrians, from the Kurdish town of Kobani, have since settled in northern Iraq for fear of being returned to their war-torn homeland.

    An estimated 1 million Syrians arrived in Greece en route to other parts of Europe at the height of an influx that began in 2015. Although the Greek asylum service was overwhelmed, the leftwing Syriza party then in power in Athens said Syrian refugees would be given priority on islands that soon became synonymous with squalid and vastly overcrowded camps.

    The incident was the first recorded expulsion of asylum seekers after the EU reached a landmark deal with Turkey in March 2016 in which it was explicitly stated that people arriving in Greece would have access to a fair asylum procedure.

    Yiannis Mouzalas, who was the minister in charge of Greek migration policy at the time, told the Guardian he ordered an inquiry into the case after it became clear that “violations” had occurred.

    “An asylum request was lodged and it was evident the process had been violated and something illegal had happened,” said Mouzalas, conceding he had no idea of the inquiry’s findings because he stepped down before it was wrapped up. “But I do know it was the responsibility of the competent Greek authorities [to remove them], not Frontex which transported them.”

    Frontex has blamed the decision to return the family on “national authorities”, saying its role was to provide “means of transport, trained escorts, translators and medical personnel.”

    An 18-page report released 19 months later, which was subsequently published in the leftwing daily Syntakton, concluded that while the asylum claim had been registered 11 days earlier, it was only logged on the electronic police platform a day after the Syrians was deported.

    Although the right to asylum is enshrined in EU law, there have been mounting reports of dangerous pushbacks. Greece, Croatia and Romania were recently singled out for censure after an eight-month investigation led by the news organisation Lighthouse Reports found they had conducted a “violent campaign” to stop asylum seekers crossing their borders.

    The European Council on Refugees and Exiles, an alliance of 103 NGOs across 39 countries on the continent, has attributed “emerging evidence” of hundreds of illegal pushback operations to security forces in member states, often acting with the tacit support of Brussels.

    https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/oct/20/syrian-family-sue-eu-border-agency-over-removal-from-greece
    #asile #migrations #réfugiés #justice #Frontex #frontières #poursuite #Cour_de_Justice_européenne #CJUE #Grèce #renvois #expulsions #réfugiés_syriens

    ping @isskein

  • Migrants : enquête sur le rôle de l’Europe dans le piège libyen
    https://www.lemonde.fr/international/video/2021/10/31/migrants-enquete-sur-le-role-de-l-europe-dans-le-piege-libyen_6100475_3210.h

    Des données récoltées par « Le Monde » révèlent comment Frontex encourage les rapatriements de migrants vers la Libye plutôt que vers l’Europe. CAPTURE D’ÉCRAN SEAWATCH

    Des données de vol obtenues par « Le Monde » révèlent comment l’agence européenne Frontex encourage les rapatriements de migrants vers la Libye, malgré les exactions qui y sont régulièrement dénoncées par l’ONU.

    300 kilomètres séparent la Libye de l’île de Lampedusa et de l’Europe. Une traversée de la #Méditerranée périlleuse, que des dizaines de milliers de migrants tentent chaque année. Depuis 2017, lorsqu’ils sont repérés en mer, une partie d’entre eux est rapatriée en Libye, où ils peuvent subir tortures, viols et détentions illégales. Des exactions régulièrement dénoncées par les Nations unies.
    L’Union européenne a délégué à la Libye la responsabilité des sauvetages en mer dans une large zone en Méditerranée, et apporte à Tripoli un soutien financier et opérationnel. Selon les images et documents collectés par Le Monde, cela n’empêche pas les garde-côtes libyens d’enfreindre régulièrement des règles élémentaires du droit international, voire de se rendre coupables de violences graves.

    Surtout, l’enquête vidéo du Monde révèle que, malgré son discours officiel, l’agence européenne de gardes-frontières Frontex semble encourager les rapatriements de #migrants en Libye, plutôt que sur les côtes européennes. Les données de vol du drone de #Frontex montrent comment l’activité de l’agence européenne se concentre sur la zone où les migrants, une fois détectés, sont rapatriés en Libye. Entre le 1er juin et le 31 juillet 2021, le drone de Frontex a passé 86 % de son temps de vol opérationnel dans cette zone. Sur la même période, à peine plus de la moitié des situations de détresse localisées par l’ONG Alarm Phone y étaient enregistrées.

  • Revealed: EU migration plans for Morocco, Libya and others

    The European Commission is working on plans to strengthen relations with so-called “#partner_countries”, as part of its pact on migration and asylum.

    Leaked commission documents dated earlier this month outline draft proposals on Afghanistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia - all available for download below.

    The document on Afghanistan (https://s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/euobs-media/7a84a36c8daf383092286a09308ac34b.docx) offers immediate and short-term plans, including sending a possible Frontex EU-border guard agent to neighbouring Pakistan to deal with the war-torn country.

    “Frontex does not currently implement border-related activities in Afghanistan,” it says, noting negotiations on a working arrangement with the country are not foreseen.

    Talks are also underway to allocate around €1bn for Afghanistan under the new €79.5bn EU purse known as the #Neighbourhood_and_Development_Cooperation_Instrument.

    But it also says that “work to take this forward through the country’s multi-annual indicative programme 2021-2027 are now on hold.”

    Another €79m is also in the pipeline for 2022 to deal with the “regional dimension of Afghan displacement”, notes the document.

    On Bosnia and Herzegovina, the EU is planning to discuss its migration policy and enlargement prospects in November and December, with possible funding measures on top.

    “Bosnia and Herzegovina is called upon to adopt sectoral countrywide strategies whose implementation may receive EU financial support,” it notes.

    On Libya, it says it wants to build a rights-based migration and asylum system.

    The country has already been given some €455m in EU funds. Over half has gone to the protection of migrants and third to “community stabilisation” and border management, it says.

    Now it wants to provide Libya “with a flexible source of funding to respond to changing needs and routes.”

    This includes muscling up the AU-EU-UN Taskforce, set up to rescue stranded migrants and refugees in Libya, before the end of the year.

    It also wants to hold a migration dialogue with Libya after the mid-December presidential elections.

    On Morocco, it wants Rabat to strengthen border controls, search and rescue operations, and dismantle smuggling networks.

    Plans are also underway for “#structured_cooperation” with the Frontex and Moroccan authorities. A working arrangement with the EU’s police agency, Europol, is also envisaged.

    As for money, the commission says a draft budget for 2021-27 is being prepared and is likely to focus on root causes of migration among other things. It also notes Morocco will be able to draw on another fund, set up for other neighbouring countries, to curb migration.

    On Tunisia, it notes some €30m of EU funds has gone to shoring up its coast guard. “A €10m top-up is being finalised,” it notes.

    The objective, it says, is to ensure Tunisian migration strategy and asylum law are finalised and approved.

    “Frontex does not currently implement border-related activities in Tunisia and Tunisian authorities are reluctant to cooperate with it,” it states.

    Internal EU highlights

    They also spell out bilateral initiatives among EU states.

    Among the highlights:

    On Tunisia, Austria, Belgium and Germany want better cooperation when it comes to sending unwanted Tunisians back home.

    “[Austria] is generally not satisfied by the cooperation with Tunisia, due to issues related to identification,” says Austria.

    On Libya, the Czech Republic is providing support to the Libyan Coast Guard but does not go into detail.

    But along with the Visegrad 4 countries (Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, Czech Republic), they are now planning more financial support on Libyan border management.

    Italy says it will deliver two “second-hand” rubber boats to the Libyan Coast Guard and port security, while Malta is mulling options on providing expertise on reception facilities.

    “A technical team has already visited Tripoli to assess the vessels available to the Libyan coastguard,” says Malta.

    In Morocco, Germany is training authorities on document fraud-detection and air security.

    Spain is carrying out “infrastructure reforms” on its north Moroccan enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, including surveillance.

    Madrid is also boosting the exchange of information and police collaboration with Morocco to fight migrant smuggling, it says.

    On Afghanistan, Bulgaria helped train police from Iraq and Afghanistan with an aim to dismantle migrant smuggling.

    Denmark provided finance for return and reintegration programmes. Estonia has suspended all bilateral projects in Afghanistan, given the current crisis.

    Italy carried out a €900,000 project to help Afghan refugees in Iran.

    Slovenia says it currently has two Afghans on scholarships, studying civil engineering.

    It also deployed one police officer to Afghanistan for six months to train and educate local police, it says.

    https://euobserver.com/migration/153360

    #commission_européenne #EU #UE #Maroc #externalisation #Frontex #asile #migrations #réfugiés #Libye #pacte #Tunisie #Bosnie #Bosnie-Herzégovine #frontière #Pakistan
    #Instrument_de_voisinage_de_coopération_au_développement_et_de_coopération_internationale

  • La politique européenne et Frontex violent les droits des êtres humains

    « Le renforcement de l’agence Frontex (Agence européenne de garde-frontières et de garde-côtes) est un des outils phares de la mise en œuvre du nouveau Pacte européen sur la migration et l’asile. Or, Frontex est critiquée pour son inefficacité au regard des objectifs fixés par son mandat et pour sa complicité dans des cas de violations des droits fondamentaux des personnes exilées et du droit international. Au regard de la justice migratoire, il est vital de réorienter l’ensemble de la politique migratoire européenne vers le respect des droits humains, la mobilité et la solidarité. Cela requiert de revoir radicalement l’orientation et le fonctionnement de cette agence pour plus de transparence, de contrôle démocratique et de responsabilisation en cas de non-respect des droits humains. Et d’ici là, de suspendre ses activités identifiées comme contraires à ces principes. »

    Note sur : CNCD 11.11.11 : Frontex : Droits humains en danger

    https://entreleslignesentrelesmots.blog/2021/10/29/la-politique-europeenne-et-frontex-violent-les-droits-d

    #migration #europe #frontex

  • L’industrie de la sécurité tire profit de la crise climatique
    https://reporterre.net/L-industrie-de-la-securite-tire-profit-de-la-crise-climatique

    Le changement climatique est bon pour le #business. Du moins celui de la #sécurité. C’est ce que démontre un rapport publié ce lundi 25 octobre par l’organisation de recherche et de plaidoyer Transnational Institute. Intitulé « un #mur contre le #climat », il démontre que les pays les plus riches dépensent bien plus pour renforcer leurs frontières contre les #migrants que pour aider les pays pauvres, d’où ils viennent, à affronter la crise climatique.

    Il décortique les dépenses, dans ces deux domaines, des sept pays riches historiquement les plus émetteurs de gaz à effet de serre que sont les États-Unis, l’Allemagne, la France, le Japon, l’Australie, le Royaume-Uni et le Canada. Ils sont à eux sept responsables de 48 % des émissions de gaz à effet de serre dans le monde. Le Brésil, la Chine et la Russie, qui font partie des dix plus gros émetteurs aujourd’hui, ne sont pas inclus car, s’étant enrichis beaucoup plus récemment, ils ne sont pas considérés comme des responsables historiques.

    • La France pourrait avoir l’air de bon élève. A priori, elle dépense moins dans les contrôles aux frontières (1 milliard) que dans le financement climatique (1,6 milliard). Idem pour l’Allemagne (3,4 milliards dans la militarisation des frontières contre 4,4 milliards dans le financement climatique). Mais ce serait oublier qu’une grande partie des dépenses sécuritaires est déportée au niveau de l’Union européenne et de l’agence de contrôle des frontières Frontex. Celle-ci a vu son budget exploser, avec une augmentation de 2 763 % entre 2006 et 2021.

      #Frontex

  • #Frontex and #Europol: How refugees are tracked digitally


    Image: Border guards in Croatia „punish“ refugees by destroying their mobile phones. Europol and Frontex, on the other hand, want their forensic evaluation (Jack Sapoch).

    EU agencies advise increased confiscation and extraction of asylum seekers‘ mobile phones and now provide a manual on how to do so. Apps to encrypt or disguise locations are disliked in the report as „countermeasures“ to surveillance.

    Often the mobile phones they carry are the only connection between refugees and their relatives and friends in their country of origin or elsewhere. They contain contacts, personal communication as well as photos and videos as a memory of the home countries. Only within the European Union is it possible to apply for asylum in its member states. Therefore, the phones are also an indispensable aid for navigating to receiving countries and finding out about conditions and support there.

    Asylum seekers‘ mobile phones are also of increasing interest to authorities. As punishment for irregular entry, border guards in Greece and Croatia, and most recently at the EU’s external border with Belarus, destroy them before abandoning their owners at sea or forcibly push them back. Police forces, on the other hand, confiscate the phones in order to gain information about routes used and people helping to flee.

    Phones used to „lock, conceal and disguise“

    Frontex is actually responsible for preventing irregular migration. „migrant smuggling“ is considered cross-border, organised crime, so its prosecution also falls under Europol’s jurisdiction. Five years ago, Europol opened an #Anti-Migrant_Smuggling_Centre (#EMSC) in The Hague. Europol has also set up two analysis projects, „#Phoenix“ and „#Migrant_Smuggling“, where all interested and involved member states can store and access information.

    Both agencies monitor the #internet and social media, looking for any indications of „migrant smuggling“ there. Intelligence also comes from a „#Joint_Operational_Office“ in Vienna, in which Europol and the German Federal Police are also involved. An „#Internet_Referral_Unit“ (#EU_IRU) at Europol reports online presence of unwanted support for the transportation of refugees to the Internet service providers for removal.

    Frontex and Europol have now published a report on the „#Digitalisation of people smuggling“. However, it is less about the tools of „smugglers“ and more about the phones of refugees. In the guide, the two EU agencies give handouts on the most commonly used messengers and how the authorities can access the content stored there.

    No apps for „smuggling of migrants“ discovered

    Over several pages, the report presents various apps and services, including Facebook, Instagram, Signal, Skvpe, Telegram, Viber, WhatsApp. Also included are popular VPN services or apps for encryption. They are described as „countermeasures“ to police surveillance. Frontex and Europol also list tools that can be used to disguise #GPS positions or phone numbers, calling them apps to „lock, conceal and disguise“.

    Also listed are various mapping applications and open geographic data sources, including Maps.me and Google Maps, which can be used to share coordinates, routes and other information. This concerns, for example, immigration possibilities via the Eastern Mediterranean and the so-called Balkan routes. According to the report, these applications are used to a much lesser extent for routes from Russia and Ukraine or via Poland. Its contents were primarily aimed at asylum seekers from the Middle East, North Africa and Southeast Asian countries.

    Frontex repeatedly claimed in recent years that there were apps specifically developed for „migrant smuggling“. The German government also claims to have heard „that so-called apps by smugglers exist, with which offers of boats and information about conditions in various destination countries can be retrieved“. According now to Frontex and Europol, however, such digital tools have not been discovered so far.

    „Special tactics“ to obtain password or pin code

    At the end of the report, the agencies give tips on how to seize and read mobile communication devices. According to the report, they come from „specialists“ and „experts“ from the #Centre_for_Cybercrime and the #Centre_for_Combating_Migrant_Smuggling at Europol. Recommendations from „other sources“ were also taken into account.

    According to the „#checklist_for_facilitating_forensic_extraction“, the devices should be connected to a power bank and kept in a Faraday bag so that they do not connect to the internet. In this way, the authorities want to avoid their owners deleting content remotely. If the police have the PIN, the phone should be put into flight mode.

    The authorities should „ideally“ also confiscate charging cables, memory cards and other SIM cards in the possession of the refugees. All items should be sealed and marked with the personal data of their owners. To facilitate their analysis, a device password or PIN code for forensic analysis should be provided „whenever possible“. According to the agencies, this can be done either by „addressing this matter to the user“ or by using „special tactics“.

    The report leaves open whether this also includes exerting pressure or coercion on the asylum seekers or rather technical measures.

    https://digit.site36.net/2021/10/25/frontex-and-europol-how-refugees-are-tracked-digitally

    #réfugiés #migrations #asile #surveillance #surveillance_numérique #suveillance_digitale #smartphones #téléphones_portables #destruction #frontières #apps #confiscation #données

    ping @isskein @karine4 @etraces

    • EU: Joint Europol-Frontex report on “digitalisation of migrant smuggling”

      Europol and Frontex have produced a joint report on the “digitalisation of migrant smuggling”, intended to provide state officials with in the EU and Western Balkans “with a comprehensive intelligence picture on the use of digital tools and services’ [sic] in migrant smuggling and related document fraud, in order to raise awareness, consolidate existing knowledge and enforce opportunities to take appropriate measures to tackle emerging threats.”

      Contents of the report

      Key points

      Introduction, background and scope

      Migrant smuggling in the digital era

      Advertisement and recruitment

      Communication and instructions

      Guidance via mapping apps

      Money transfer

      Countermeasures

      Supporting criminal services: Document fraud

      Digital leads into migrant smuggling

      Impact of migrant smuggling digitalisation

      Challenges and intelligence gaps

      Annex I: Overview of applications and platforms identified in connection to migrant smuggling

      Annex II: Recommendations for handling seized mobile communication devices

      https://www.statewatch.org/news/2021/october/eu-joint-europol-frontex-report-on-digitalisation-of-migrant-smuggling
      #rapport

  • Contre les migrants, toujours plus de #technologie

    Reporterre s’est rendu au salon #Milipol pour découvrir les innovations technologiques sécuritaires. Elles sont de plus en plus déployées pour repousser les migrants.

    « Viens ici pépère ! » lance un homme élancé en costume-cravate en direction d’un chien-robot en mouvement, faisant mine de lui proposer à manger. Derrière les regards amusés autour du robot développé par l’entreprise étasunienne #Ghost_Robotics, son « maître » le guide avec sa télécommande d’un œil malicieux. Ce chien-robot au look Black Mirror répond au nom de #Q-UGV et sa mission consiste à surveiller des sites ultrasensibles comme les centrales nucléaires.

    Ce surveillant atypique, capable de courir, grimper et nager dans des environnements extrêmes, était l’une des nombreuses innovations présentées sur le salon Milipol de la sécurité intérieure au parc des expositions de Villepinte (Seine-Saint-Denis). Près de 1 000 exposants, dont deux tiers d’entreprises internationales, y ont élu domicile du mardi 19 au vendredi 22 octobre. Plus de 30 000 professionnels de la sécurité publique et privée de 150 pays déambulaient dans les allées. Entre une coupe de champagne et des petits fours, ils s’informaient pour en faire commerce sur les dernières grenades lacrymogènes, les dispositifs de reconnaissance faciale ou les fusils d’assaut.

    L’heure est à la reprise pour le secteur de la #sécurité. « La première des libertés », comme l’a assuré le ministre de l’Intérieur, Gérald Darmanin, lors de sa visite du salon le premier jour. Après avoir subi la crise sanitaire à l’instar d’une large partie de l’économie mondiale, le marché mondial de la #sécurité_intérieure devrait rebondir. Sa prévision de croissance est de 8 % en 2021 et de 6 % en 2022, après une baisse de 3 % en 2020. En France, il n’a pas été épargné non plus et les dépenses étatiques consacrées à la sécurité ont baissé de 8,6 %, pour atteindre 3,6 milliards d’euros. Mais certains domaines, comme celui des #drones_de_surveillance, ont tiré leur épingle du jeu avec une progression de 5,8 %. Alors que l’Union européenne peine toujours à s’accorder sur une politique commune de gestion des #frontières, chaque État membre est tenté de renforcer la #surveillance des siennes grâce à des technologies toujours plus sophistiquées.

    Mille et une façons de traquer les migrants

    Déjà déployés, en passe d’être expérimentés ou pas encore autorisés, les dispositifs de #détection de migrants sont présentés aux quatre coins de l’immense salle d’exposition. Nichés entre deux stands de drones, les représentants de la société française #HGH, spécialisée dans les #systèmes_électro-optiques, sont ainsi très sollicités. La série de #caméras_thermiques #Spynel, qui promet une « #surveillance_panoramique 360 degrés, #jour et #nuit, jusqu’à l’horizon » sur les frontières des pays intéressés, a du succès. À l’occasion du salon, l’entreprise vient de finaliser un contrat d’un million d’euros avec un pays de l’#Otan (Organisation du traité de l’Atlantique Nord) — dont elle tait le nom — pour sécuriser et surveiller sur près de 1 000 kilomètres de côte et empêcher les passages des migrants et des trafiquants de drogues. « C’est impossible d’échapper à la #vigilance de cette caméra, et à l’inverse des drones, on ne peut pas brouiller son signal, car elle n’émet aucune onde », se félicite le responsable marketing. « Si un groupe de personnes ou un zodiac s’approche de nuit d’un littoral dans la zone surveillée, l’#intelligence_artificielle détectera automatiquement le #mouvement et une alerte sera envoyée aux forces de sécurité », poursuit-il.

    De l’autre côté du salon, un groupe de gendarmes écoute attentivement les explications du représentant de l’entreprise néerlandaise #UVI-Scan. Sur la brochure commerciale, une page est consacrée à un #scanner capable de détecter les passagers clandestins sous les camions. Le visuel est explicite : accrochés sous un véhicule, deux migrants sont pris en flagrant délit. « Ce sont de vraies photos ! » assume le consultant technique. « C’est un système intégré à la chaussée qui détecte les #intrus et prend automatiquement une photo à l’approche des postes frontières et des ferrys », explique-t-il. « Nous en avons déployés un peu partout en Europe, notamment à #Dieppe, en France ». Là où de nombreux exilés tentent leur chance pour gagner les côtes anglaises par le ferry ou des embarcations de fortune.

    Entre deux stands de fusils d’assaut et des tenues de camouflages, un drone blanc aux allures d’avion miniature surplombe le stand de #German_Drones. L’entreprise allemande propose un « service personnalisé » à ses clients en fonction des usages ». Pour la détection de passages de migrants à la frontière, Anis Fellahi, le chef de projet international du groupe, recommande « le modèle 150, le plus performant, qui peut voler une heure et demie, couvrir une centaine de kilomètres, et transmet une vidéo de meilleure qualité ». Le dit #Songbird est d’ores et déjà déployé aux frontières allemandes et belges, et cherche à étendre son empreinte.

    Les industriels ne s’arrêtent pas là et proposent aux autorités des outils de #surveillance_aérienne toujours plus développées et intrusifs. L’entreprise française #T-ops intègre des #IMSI-Catcher directement embarqués sur les drones. Ce dispositif de #surveillance_de_masse est capable d’intercepter le trafic des communications téléphoniques, de récupérer et recouper ces informations à distance et de suivre les mouvements des utilisateurs. « Là nous proposons un produit avec une #efficacité au-delà du réel ! » s’exclame le représentant de la société. Cette technologie peut-elle être déployée pour repérer les migrants ? « C’est possible, oui. Mais nous ne fournissons qu’un service, le responsable de son utilisation est l’État », répond-il sobrement.

    Certains produits attendent des évolutions législatives pour être pleinement déployés. C’est le cas du drone de surveillance très longue distance présenté par le groupe belge #John_Cockerill, traditionnel acteur de la défense, lancé depuis peu dans la sécurité intérieure. « Ce type d’appareil peut voir jusqu’à 30 kilomètres et il est en capacité d’identifier très clairement des personnes », explique #Jean-Marc_Tyberg, le président du conseil d’administration du groupe. « À ce stade, nous devons intégrer un logiciel qui floute automatiquement le visage de la personne pour ne pas la reconnaître ». Mais selon lui, « se priver de ces outils de reconnaissance revient à fermer les yeux en conduisant. Il faut que l’on rattrape notre retard législatif pour que ces solutions puissent être pleinement utilisées. » Jean-Marc Tyberg fait référence aux longs débats autour de la controversée #loi_Sécurité_globale. Le Conseil constitutionnel avait fini par censurer le dispositif d’encadrement de l’utilisation des images des drones utilisés les forces de l’ordre, jugée trop dangereux au regard du #droit_à_la_vie_privée. Mais le gouvernement est revenu à la charge à la rentrée avec une disposition remaniée dans le projet de loi relatif à la sécurité intérieure, actuellement débattu au Parlement.

    Si la France n’est pas le terrain de jeu technologique idéal des industriels, d’autres États comme la #Grèce accueillent de nombreuses expérimentations plus poussées. Le pays frontalier de la Turquie est un passage obligé dans le parcours des migrants. Et il reçoit le soutien de l’agence de gardes-côtes européens #Frontex, accusée par des ONG et des médias d’opérer des refoulements illégaux à l’extérieur de l’UE. Si le gestionnaire des frontières européennes n’a pas de stand dédié ici, ses fournisseurs sont disséminés sur le salon. La société française #Cnim_Air_Space est l’un d’eux. « Notre modèle de #ballon_captif #Eagle_Owl gonflé à l’Hélium peut voler jusqu’à 600 mètres de haut, et possède une autonomie de 7 jours », expose fièrement le représentant de l’entreprise. Il est actuellement utilisé par les autorités grecques et l’agence Frontex. Un modèle plus petit a également été expérimenté autour de #Calais par la gendarmerie. Avec sa caméra embarquée, il renvoie en continu les #images vers une station positionnée au sol. « En cas d’alerte, si un zodiac débarque, les autorités grecques sont en capacité de les repérer à des kilomètres avant d’intervenir », précise-t-il. « Il mesure 22 mètres de long, donc le fait de le voir peut aussi avoir un effet dissuasif… ».

    La Grèce accueille également l’expérimentation du projet #Roborder, contraction de #robot et de border (frontière en anglais), lancé en 2017, qui prévoit un #système_de_surveillance des frontières par un essaim de #drones_autonomes, capables par l’intelligence artificielle de déterminer les franchissements. Le projet #iborder_control ambitionne quant à lui de développer un #algorithme capable de détecter les #mensonges des migrants lors de leur passage à l’aéroport.

    Mais sur le terrain, les associations d’aide aux personnes exilées observent que le renforcement de la surveillance des frontières ne décourage pas les candidats à l’asile, mais rend simplement leur parcours plus dangereux. Alors que la surveillance se renforce d’année en année, l’Organisation internationale des migrations a comptabilisé 1 146 décès de migrants sur les routes maritimes vers l’Europe au premier semestre 2021, contre 513 en 2020 et 674 en 2019 à la même période. Mais au salon Milipol, le rêve d’une Europe forteresse a de belles années devant lui.

    https://reporterre.net/Contre-les-migrants-toujours-plus-de-technologie

    ping @isskein @karine4

  • Mes premières grenouilles dans le ventre vous saluent. Que vous vous renseigniez et solidarisiez avec les tag #FaimAuxFrontieres et #AbolishFrontex leur fera beaucoup de bien...
    https://www.flickr.com/photos/valkphotos/51622119134

    Flickr

    ValK. a posté une photo :

    Grève de la faim à Calais pour l’arrêt de la maltraitance des personnes exilées
    Infos : « faim aux frontiere » sur facebook, instagram et twitter
    Pétition : https://www.change.org/p/emmanuelmacron-gr%C3%A8ve-de-la-faim-%C3%A0-calais-arr%C3%AAt-de-la-maltrait
    .
    Retrouver les multiples enquêtes et articles qui renseignent sur les violences, tortures et marchés financiers juteux autour de #Frontex, l’agence européenne de « protection des frontières », dirigée par un diplomate français, Fabrice Leggeri :
    Sur @bastamag https://basta.media/spip.php?page=recherche&recherche=frontex et sur le réseau #Seenthis : https://seenthis.net/recherche?recherche=frontex
    .
    ¤ autres photos : vu.fr/valkphotos
    .
    (i) infos : twitter.com/valkphotos
    ¿ audios : frama.link/karacole
    ☆ oripeaux : frama.link/kolavalk
    ◇ rdv locaux : 44.demosphere.net
    ♤ me soutenir : liberapay.com/ValK

  • Il #Politecnico_di_Torino a fianco di #Frontex. Sul rispetto dei diritti umani, intanto, cade il silenzio

    Un consorzio italiano si è aggiudicato un bando per la produzione di mappe e cartografie volte a “supportare le attività” dell’Agenzia che sorveglia le frontiere esterne dell’Ue. Iniziative in alcuni casi contestate per il mancato rispetto dei diritti di migranti e richiedenti asilo. Dal #PoliTo fanno sapere di non conoscere l’utilizzo finale dei servizi prodotti

    Il Politecnico di Torino è al fianco di Frontex nel controllo delle frontiere esterne dell’Unione europea. L’Università, in collaborazione con l’associazione-Srl #Ithaca, centro di ricerca “dedicato al supporto di attività umanitarie in risposta a disastri naturali”, si è aggiudicata nel luglio 2021 un bando da quattro milioni di euro per la produzione di mappe e infografiche necessarie “per supportare le attività” dell’Agenzia europea della guardia di frontiera e costiera. Attività che spesso si traducono -come denunciato da numerose inchieste giornalistiche- nella violazione sistematica del diritto d’asilo lungo i confini marittimi e terrestri europei. Nonostante questo, fonti del Politecnico fanno sapere di “non essere a conoscenza dell’utilizzo dei dati e dei servizi prodotti” e che non sono autorizzate a rilasciare interviste sull’oggetto del contratto.

    È possibile analizzare in parte il contenuto dell’attività richiesta grazie al bando pubblicato nell’ottobre 2020 da Frontex (https://ted.europa.eu/udl?uri=TED:NOTICE:401800-2020:TEXT:EN:HTML). La produzione di servizi cartografici aggiornati è necessaria per sistematizzare i diversi tipi di informazioni utili a svolgere l’attività dell’Agenzia: “L’analisi dei rischi, la valutazione delle criticità e il monitoraggio della situazione alle frontiere esterne dell’Unione europea e nell’area pre-frontaliera che è costantemente tenuta sotto controllo e analizzata” si legge nei documenti di gara.

    L’appalto riguarda la produzione di diverse tipologie di cartografia. Circa 20 mappe di “riferimento” in formato A0 in cui vengono segnalati i confini amministrativi, i nomi dei luoghi e le principali caratteristiche fisiche come strade, ferrovie, linee costiere, fiumi e laghi a cui vengono aggiunte “caratteristiche topografiche, geologiche, di utilità e climatiche”. Mappe “tematiche” che mostrano una “variabilità spaziale di un tema o di un fenomeno, per esempio la migrazione, criminalità, nazionalità, operazioni, ricerca e soccorso, ecc” oltre che le informazioni geologiche e morfologiche del territorio. Infine, la produzione di infografiche che integrano dati e grafici con la mappa. L’obiettivo è quello di ottenere mappe ad alta risoluzione che possano essere utilizzate per “le analisi, la visualizzazione e la presentazione oltre che la proiezione a muro basata sui requisiti richiesti dell’utente e mirata a un pubblico specifico a sostegno di Frontex e dei suoi parti interessanti”. La durata del contratto è di due anni, con la possibilità di prorogarlo per un massimo di due volte, ognuna delle quali per un periodo di 12 mesi.

    Nei documenti di gara non è specificata la zona oggetto della produzione di mappe. Dopo la richiesta di chiarimenti da parte dei partecipanti, l’Agenzia ha indicato come “previsioni a grandi linee” che l’area di interesse potrebbe estendersi lungo il confine tra Polonia e Russia, nello specifico a Kaliningrad Oblast una cittadina russa che affaccia sul Baltico, per un totale di 2mila chilometri quadrati con la possibilità di mappe specifiche su punti di attraversamento del confine per una superficie di 0,25 chilometri quadrati. Non è dato sapere, però, se quella sia la zona reale oggetto della cartografia o meno. Si conoscono invece gli “intervalli” delle scale di grandezza delle mappe che vanno da un centimetro sulla carta a 50 metri in caso di strade cittadine, a uno su 250 chilometri con riferimento a una mappa di un intero Stato.

    Altreconomia ha richiesto a Frontex di visionare “tutti i documenti disponibili” presentati dal Politecnico di Torino e Ithaca srl per partecipare al bando. L’Agenzia ha risposto che “la loro divulgazione potrebbe minare la protezione degli interessi commerciali delle persone giuridiche compresa la proprietà intellettuale”. L’accesso alle informazioni è stato negato “perché nessun interesse pubblico preponderante che è oggettivo e generale e non indistinguibile da interessi individuali è accertabile nel caso di specie”. Per gli stessi motivi nemmeno un accesso parziale è possibile.

    Ithaca Srl ha risposto che “da contratto non è possibile rilasciare alcuna intervista” perché tutti i dettagli disponibili sono stati inseriti nel comunicato stampa “approvato dall’Agenzia”. Nel darne notizia sul sito di PoliFlash, il portale delle notizie di PoliTo, il direttore di Ithaca Piero Boccardo aveva dichiarato che “la fornitura di prodotti cartografici a Frontex è una nuova sfida che ci rende orgogliosi di una serie di collaborazioni con le maggiori organizzazioni internazionali”; un’opportunità, secondo il professore, “per contribuire operativamente a supportare le attività di monitoraggio del territorio”. Ithaca Srl è una società interamente controllata dall’associazione senza scopo di lucro Ithaca che si occupa di “osservazione della terra a sostegno delle emergenze umanitarie”. Alla richiesta di chiarimenti sull’utilizzo finale dei prodotti forniti dal consorzio italiano, la risposta è stata che “non si è a conoscenza dell’utilizzo dei dati” e che per conoscere tale utilizzo era necessario rivolgersi direttamente a Frontex. Andrea Bocco, direttore del Dipartimento interateneo di Scienze, progetto e politiche del territorio del Politecnico (Dist), che ha curato l’organizzazione tecnica del servizio e valuterà la qualità dei prodotti sottolinea come “il progetto si inquadra perfettamente nell’obiettivo strategico del Dipartimento, di sviluppare un laboratorio capace di elaborare e gestire dati spaziali anche di grande complessità”.

    Molto chiara è la strategia dell’Agenzia che sorveglia le frontiere esterne europee. Nel braccio di ferro nel confine orientale, dove la Bielorussia “spinge” le persone in transito verso Polonia e Lituania, nonostante la morte di tre persone per ipotermia proprio sul confine polacco, Frontex ha elogiato la gestione della situazione da parte del governo di Varsavia, città in cui l’Agenzia ha la sua sede centrale.

    Sono numerose anche le denunce del coinvolgimento di agenti di Frontex nelle violazioni dei diritti di migranti e richiedenti asilo nel Mediterraneo centrale, nell’Egeo e nei Paesi balcanici. Non sono casi singoli. L’obiettivo di Frontex resta quello di allontanare le persone richiedenti asilo prima che arrivino sul territorio europeo. Come denunciato in un documento pubblicato nell’agosto di quest’anno da ventidue organizzazioni che chiedono il definanziamento dell’Agenzia, anno dopo anno, l’investimento economico si è concentrato in larga parte sulle risorse di terra e non su quelle marittime.

    Il Politecnico, nel comunicato, scrive che “le responsabilità di Frontex sono state ampliate nel 2016 alla lotta alla criminalità transfrontaliera e ai servizi di ricerca e di salvataggio nel contesto della sorveglianza delle frontiere marittime”. Ma è così solo sulla carta. Dal 2016 al 2018 i Paesi europei hanno coperto il 100% del fabbisogno aereo di Frontex, con percentuali molto più basse rispetto alle navi richieste: il 48% nel 2016, il 73% nel 2017 e il 71% nel 2018. Nel 2019, complice l’aumento del potere d’acquisto dell’Agenzia le percentuali sono rimaste più basse ma continuano sulla stessa lunghezza d’onda: i singoli Stati hanno contribuito per l’11% sulle navi e il 37% sugli arei. Nonostante queste percentuali, dal 2015 Frontex ha investito 100 milioni di euro nel leasing e nell’acquisizione di mezzi aerei da impiegate nelle sue operazioni (charter, aerostati, droni di sorveglianza).

    Lo scorso 14 ottobre 2021 l’Agenzia ha dato notizia dell’utilizzo per la prima volta di un aerostato con l’obiettivo di “individuare attraversamenti illegali dei confini, supportare le operazioni di search and rescue e contrastare i crimini transfrontalieri”.

    Dal 2015 al 2021, però, non c’è stato nessun investimento per l’acquisizione o il leasing per beni marittimi. Una volta individuate le persone in difficoltà in mare, l’Agenzia non ha come obiettivo il salvataggio bensì il respingimento delle stesse verso i Paesi di partenza. Un’inchiesta pubblicata in aprile dal Der Spiegel lo ha dimostrato: dal quartier generale di Varsavia, in diverse operazioni di salvataggio, venivano contattate le milizie libiche. Il monitoraggio del territorio (e del mare) non ha come scopo solamente il “contrasto” alle reti di contrabbando ma anche l’individuazione delle persone, migranti e richiedenti asilo, che tentano di raggiungere l’Ue e vengono sistematicamente respinte utilizzando qualsiasi mezzo disponibile. Cartografia inclusa.

    https://altreconomia.it/il-politecnico-di-torino-a-fianco-di-frontex-sul-rispetto-dei-diritti-u

    #université #recherche #complexe_militaro-industriel #frontières #migrations #contrôles_frontaliers #Turin #consortium #cartographie #géographie
    #Pologne #Russie #Kaliningrad_Oblast #Piero_Boccardo #Andrea_Bocco

    • Politecnico e Ithaca insieme per la produzione di cartografia per l’Agenzia Europea Frontex

      Frontex, l’Agenzia europea della guardia di frontiera e costiera – dal 2004 impegnata nel controllo della migrazione e la gestione delle frontiere e le cui responsabilità sono state ampliate nel 2016 alla lotta alla criminalità transfrontaliera e ai servizi di ricerca e di salvataggio nel contesto della sorveglianza delle frontiere marittime – ha affidato a un consorzio composto da Associazione Ithaca, DIST - Dipartimento Interateneo di Scienze, Progetto e Politiche del Territorio del Politecnico e Ithaca Srl un importante contratto per la produzione di cartografia.

      L’incarico prevede la produzione di cartografia digitale, mappe di infografica e map book utili all’attività dell’Agenzia. Il contratto ha una durata di 24 mesi, rinnovabile sino a un massimo di altri 24 mesi, con un budget totale di 4 milioni di euro.

      Il professor Piero Boccardo, Presidente di Ithaca Srl, che curerà la produzione cartografica, riferisce che “la fornitura di prodotti cartografici all’Agenzia europea Frontex è una nuova sfida che ci rende orgogliosi di una serie di collaborazioni con le maggiori organizzazioni internazionali. Una nuova opportunità per contribuire operativamente a supportare le attività di monitoraggio del territorio, come già peraltro testimoniato dai nove anni di attività 7/24/365 che Ithaca ha profuso nell’ambito del servizio Copernicus Emergency Management”. Il professor Stefano Corgnati, Vice Rettore alla Ricerca e Presidente dell’Associazione Ithaca, mandataria del consorzio, ricorda che “la collaborazione con Frontex rappresenta il primo esempio di come l’ecosistema del Politecnico di Torino, rappresentato dai suoi Dipartimenti e dal sistema delle società partecipate, possa essere funzionale alla piena integrazione tra le attività di ricerca e quelle di trasferimento tecnologico”.

      Il professor Andrea Bocco, Direttore del DIST, che ha curato l’organizzazione tecnica del servizio e che valuterà la qualità dei prodotti, ricorda che “questo progetto si inquadra perfettamente nell’obiettivo strategico del Dipartimento, di sviluppare un laboratorio capace di elaborare e gestire dati spaziali anche di grande complessità. Tale obiettivo è un elemento essenziale del progetto di Eccellenza del DIST, finanziato dal Ministero dell’Università e della Ricerca, che rafforza il carattere interdisciplinare della ricerca e la capacità di realizzare prodotti e servizi ad elevato contenuto di innovazione.”

      https://poliflash.polito.it/in_ateneo/politecnico_e_ithaca_insieme_per_la_produzione_di_cartografia_per_l

    • “Non a fianco di Frontex”. Chi si dissocia dall’accordo del Politecnico di Torino

      “Non si può lavorare con chi come Frontex respinge, fomenta xenofobia, uccide”, denuncia il professor Michele Lancione. Una presa di posizione pubblica che rompe il silenzio interno al Politecnico di Torino dopo l’accordo con l’agenzia Frontex per la produzione di mappe e cartografie. C’è un altro modo di pensare e vivere l’accademia

      “Le azioni erano mostruose, ma chi le fece era pressoché normale, né demoniaco né mostruoso”.
      Hannah Arendt

      Sono un accademico del Dipartimento Interateneo di Scienze, Progetto e Politiche del Territorio (DIST) del Politecnico e dell’Università di Torino. Scrivo questo testo per dissociarmi pubblicamente dall’accordo siglato tra il mio Dipartimento, il Politecnico di Torino, Ithaca Srl e Frontex, l’Agenzia europea della guardia di frontiera e costiera.

      Come evidenzia l’articolo pubblicato da Altreconomia, l’accordo, che prevede la produzione di cartografia presso i laboratori del mio dipartimento su commissione di Frontex, è stato annunciato il giorno 14 luglio 2021, con comunicato stampa. Nel comunicato, si afferma che DIST e Ithaca saranno coinvolti nella “produzione di cartografia digitale, mappe di infografica e map book utili all’attività dell’Agenzia”. A livello intellettuale e umano, non mi sento rappresentato dalla posizione dell’istituzione per cui lavoro, che ha scelto di definire l’accordo con Frontex come un progetto che “si inquadra perfettamente nell’obiettivo strategico del Dipartimento”. La questione non è solo personale, ma politica.

      L’Agenzia europea della guardia di frontiera e costiera è stata accusata a più riprese -da Ong, attivisti e agenzie internazionali- di essere direttamente coinvolta nei violenti respingimenti di migranti alle frontiere europee. Il più noto è il caso greco, ora discusso presso la Corte europea di giustizia, dove non solo si ha la certezza dell’illegalità dei respingimenti forzati operati dell’Agenzia, ma anche del ruolo della stessa nel distruggere documenti che evidenziano l’uso illegale della forza per respingere i rifugiati verso la Turchia. Questo episodio è solo l’apice di una strategia operata dell’Unione europea, attraverso Frontex, per la gestione dei confini comunitari attraverso principi espulsivi, razzializzanti e letali per coloro che si spostano per cercare protezione nel continente.

      Come accademico critico e cittadino impegnato in primo piano, attraverso il privilegio della mia posizione, nel comprendere e nel combattere le violente politiche di creazione ed espulsione “dell’altro” che governano l’approccio europeo nella gestione della “questione migrante”, ho fatto tutto quello che era in mio potere per sottolineare la gravità di questo accordo tra un’università pubblica -il mio dipartimento- e Frontex. Con alcuni colleghi mi sono mobilitato, sin dal 14 luglio (giorno in cui sono venuto a conoscenza dell’accordo) per questionare quanto deciso. Abbiamo preso voce nel Consiglio di Dipartimento, in cui l’accordo è stato presentato, ponendo la gravità della decisone presa. Abbiamo poi lavorato per comprendere se fosse possibile annullare l’appalto. Abbiamo anche chiesto che tale attività non venisse svolta in nome di tutto il dipartimento, ma che i singoli coinvolti se ne prendessero il peso e la responsabilità. Su tutti i fronti, le risposte sono state negative: se non offerte di dialogo, discussione, bilanciamenti. Ma questo non basta.

      Il problema qui non è solo nel tipo di dato che Ithaca e il mio Dipartimento forniranno a Frontex. I ricercatori coinvolti nel progetto dicono che si tratti di dati open source, innocui. Posto che nessun dato è mai innocuo, la questione sta nel prestare il proprio nome -individuale e istituzionale- alla legittimazione dell’operato di una agenzia come Frontex. Perché quello si fa, quando si collabora: si aiuta l’apparato violento e espulsivo dell’Unione europea a legittimarsi, a rivestirsi di oggettività scientifica, a ridurre tutto a una questione tecnica che riproduce il suo male riducendolo a un passaggio di carte tra mani. In Europa la storia dovrebbe averci insegnato qualcosa in tal senso, ma chiaramente non abbiamo imparato nulla.

      Il dipartimento ha scelto di continuare l’accordo, invitando il sottoscritto e alcun* collegh* che hanno espresso riserve a contribuire al suo sviluppo evidenziando gli aspetti problematici dell’attività di Frontex. Ha inoltre deciso di non rappresentare pubblicamente il nostro dissenso, preferendo la linea del silenzio, che è anche quella del Politecnico.

      Io credo però non sia possibile lavorare con chi come Frontex respinge, fomenta xenofobia, uccide. Con questo testo mi dissocio dall’accordo e rinnovo allo stesso momento il mio impegno verso i miei student*, collegh* e partner che troveranno sempre, nel mio dipartimento e al Politecnico di Torino, strumenti e spazi per la critica, quella vera, che richiede un posizionamento chiaro: non a fianco di Frontex.

      #Michele_Lancione, professore ordinario di Geografia politico-economica (michele.lancione@polito.it)

      https://altreconomia.it/non-a-fianco-di-frontex-chi-si-dissocia-dallaccordo-del-politecnico-di-

    • Mai con Frontex !

      Appello alle Università e ai centri di ricerca italiani ed europei a non legittimare l’apparato violento, repressivo, espulsivo e razzializzante dell’Unione europea.

      MAI CON FRONTEX!

      Frontex, l’Agenzia europea della guardia di frontiera e costiera e il consorzio italiano composto da Associazione Ithaca, DIST (Dipartimento Interateneo di Scienze, Progetto e Politiche del Territorio) del Politecnico di Torino e Ithaca Srl (società controllata dall’omonima associazione) hanno siglato, nel luglio 2021, “un importante contratto per la produzione di cartografia” a supporto delle attività di sorveglianza delle frontiere europee. Il contratto ha una durata di 24 mesi, rinnovabile sino a un massimo di altri 24, con un budget totale di 4 milioni di euro.

      Fa parte del consorzio, l’associazione no-profit ITHACA, con sede a Torino, nata come centro di ricerca applicata con l’obiettivo di cooperare con il World Food Programme (WFP) – braccio di aiuto alimentare delle Nazioni Unite – per la distribuzione di prodotti e servizi legati alla tecnologia dell’informazione, “per migliorare la capacità della comunità umanitaria internazionale nel preallarme, nella valutazione dell’impatto precoce e in altre aree correlate alla gestione del rischio”.

      L’associazione e l’omonima s.r.l. passano dal supporto alle attività umanitarie al sostegno delle operazioni di controllo dei confini europei coinvolte in violazioni dei diritti dei migranti. Mentre va in porto questo accordo, una parte della società civile europea si leva contro Frontex. Da un lato chi chiede la fine del suo ruolo di gendarme d’Europa, affinché svolga una missione realmente volta alla protezione delle vite umane, dall’altro chi propone una campagna per lo smantellamento dell’Agenzia e “del complesso militare-industriale delle frontiere e per la costruzione di una società nella quale le persone possano spostarsi e vivere liberamente”.

      La notizia della collaborazione di una università pubblica per la “produzione di cartografia digitale, mappe di infografica e map book utili all’attività dell’Agenzia”, è apparsa a luglio sul portale PoliFlash ed è stata oggetto di un’inchiesta di Altraeconomia, pubblicata il 20 ottobre. Secondo quanto riportato dal direttore del Dist, “il progetto si inquadra perfettamente nell’obiettivo strategico del Dipartimento” dell’università torinese. In risposta alle richieste da parte della testata giornalistica per avere chiarimenti su quali saranno i servizi offerti, fonti del Politecnico hanno fatto sapere di non essere a conoscenza di quale sarà l’utilizzo finale dei beni prodotti e di non essere autorizzati a rilasciare interviste sull’oggetto del contratto.

      A rompere il silenzio giunge, invece, una decisa presa di posizione di Michele Lancione, docente ordinario del DIST, che, attraverso un testo pubblicato il 24 ottobre, dà voce a un gruppo di colleghi che intende dissociarsi pubblicamente dall’accordo siglato tra il Dipartimento, il Politecnico di Torino, Ithaca Srl e Frontex.

      Una presa di posizione “non solo personale, ma politica”, afferma Lancione, ritenendo impossibile “lavorare con chi come Frontex respinge, fomenta xenofobia, uccide”. Il docente esprime il suo dissenso in quanto “accademico critico e cittadino impegnato in primo piano nel comprendere e nel combattere le violente politiche di creazione ed espulsione “dell’altro” che governano l’approccio europeo nella gestione della “questione migrante”.

      Riteniamo che questa sia una chiara e doverosa presa di posizione a garanzia della salvaguardia di un reale spazio per gli studi critici all’interno delle università e dei centri di ricerca italiani.

      Non possiamo non ricordare che Frontex è stata, e continua ad essere, oggetto di diverse inchieste giornalistiche e di accuse da parte di associazioni, ong, attivisti, per avere consentito o partecipato ad attività di respingimento illegittime e violente nelle zone di frontiera marittime e terrestri dell’UE.

      Una di queste accuse è arrivata fino alla Corte di Giustizia europea che dovrà discutere in merito a un ricorso riguardante gravissime violazioni dei diritti umani a danno di migranti vittime di respingimenti collettivi nel mar Egeo, mentre cercavano protezione nell’Ue, avvenute con la partecipazione di Frontex.

      Sono altrettanto note le accuse rivolte all’Agenzia europea in merito ai violenti respingimenti operati nella rotta balcanica e nel Mediterraneo centrale, i cui assetti aerei sono utilizzati per la sorveglianza utile all’intercettazione e al respingimento dei migranti partiti dalle coste nordafricane attuati dalla cosiddetta guardia costiera libica che, sistematicamente, li deporta nei centri di tortura e di detenzione dai quali fuggono.

      Nel corso del 2021, la stessa Agenzia è stata al centro di indagini da parte di diverse istituzioni europee.

      La commissione per le libertà civili, la giustizia e gli affari interni (LIBE) del Parlamento europeo ha creato un Gruppo di lavoro e di indagine sull’operato dell’Agenzia (il Frontex scrutinity working group), per via della scarsa trasparenza delle sue attività amministrative, e “per le attività di contrasto dell’immigrazione irregolare svolta alle frontiere esterne dell’Unione Europea che non rispetta i diritti umani delle persone intercettate”.

      Anche l’Ufficio europeo anti-frode (Olaf) ha aperto un’indagine per fare luce sui suoi bilanci poco trasparenti. Alla fine del 2020 erano state rese note le spese “folli” per eventi di lusso e autocelebrativi, che tra il 2015 e il 2019 hanno ammontato a 2,1 milioni di euro. “Il budget per gli eventi di gala di una sola annata è molto più di quanto stanziato dall’agenzia per l’Ufficio dei diritti fondamentali per tutto il 2020”.

      Nel marzo 2021, la commissione di controllo del bilancio del Parlamento europeo ha votato per il rinvio dell’approvazione del bilancio finanziario di Frontex per l’anno 2019. Si è trattato di un gesto simbolico in risposta alla serie di accusa che hanno messo in discussione le attività dell’Agenzia.

      Nel giugno di quest’anno, la Corte dei conti europea ha pubblicato una relazione, secondo cui Frontex non ha attuato pienamente il mandato che ha ricevuto nel 2016 e la giudica non ancora pronta ad attuare efficacemente il nuovo ruolo operativo affidatole con il nuovo regolamento del 2019.

      Nonostante l’operato di Frontex sia costellato di contestazioni amministrative, contabili e per gravissime violazioni dei diritti umani, le sue risorse e il suo ruolo strategico continuano ad aumentare.

      Dal 2005 al 2021, il budget di Frontex è passato da 6,3 a 543 milioni di euro, ma è previsto un sostanziale aumento nel periodo 2021-2027 quando, secondo il nuovo regolamento entrato in vigore alla fine del 2019, oltre all’aumento dei poteri della “super agenzia”, anche la capacità di forza permanente sarà incrementata fino a raggiungere le 10mila unità da dispiegare dentro il territorio dell’Unione o all’esterno.

      Desta particolare preoccupazione il coinvolgimento di Frontex in operazioni di intelligence e in programmi e progetti per l’utilizzo di strumenti altamente tecnologici per la sorveglianza delle frontiere, per i quali sarà responsabile di garantire la sicurezza dei dati trasmessi e condivisi anche con i paesi terzi per favorire rimpatri e respingimenti.

      Alla luce di quanto descritto, ci chiediamo quali valutazioni politiche ed etiche, oltre a quelle di ordine finanziario, abbiano portato una Università pubblica a decidere di collaborare con un’agenzia europea il cui operato ha posto una serie di dubbi di legittimità.

      Quanti altri accordi di questo tipo sono stati siglati da università e centri di ricerca in collaborazione con questo violento sistema europeo di controllo, repressione ed espulsione “dell’altro”?

      Invitiamo le Università e i centri di ricerca italiani ed europei a non legittimare l’apparato violento, repressivo, espulsivo e razzializzante dell’Unione europea, le cui politiche sono incentrate sull’ossessivo controllo delle frontiere a qualsiasi costo, attraverso l’utilizzo di tecnologie sempre più avanzate, sulla costruzione di muri sempre più alti, tutto a dispetto del rispetto dei diritti delle persone in movimento e della dignità umana.

      Chiediamo a tutte le voci critiche di avere il coraggio di emergere.

      Qui trovi il testo dell’appello in inglese

      Aderiscono:
      ADIF – Associazione Diritti e Frontiere
      Campagna LasciateCIEntrare
      Rete antirazzista catanese
      Progetto Melting Pot Europa
      Legalteam Italia
      Campagna Abolish Frontex
      Carovane migranti
      Michele Lancione docente politecnico di Torino
      Melitea
      Gruppo di ricerca SLANG – Slanting Gaze on Social Control, Labour, Racism and Migrations, Università di Padova (https://www.slang-unipd.it) (Claudia Mantovan, Annalisa Frisina, Francesca Vianello, Francesca Alice Vianello, Devi Sacchetto)
      Linea d’Ombra ODV
      Gennaro Avallone (docente Università di Salerno)
      Redazione di Ultima Voce
      Rete femminista No muri No recinti
      Valentina Pazé (docente Università di Torino)
      Cornelia Isabelle Toelgyes
      Mari D’Agostino, P.O. dell’Università di Palermo
      Redazione di Comune-info.net
      Redazione di Benvenuti Ovunque
      associazione Small Axe odv
      Collettivo artistico e politico Eutopia-Democrazia Rivoluzionaria
      Pietro Saitta, docente Università di Messina
      Pietro Deandrea, professore associato, Università di Torino
      Centro Studi Sereno Regis di Torino
      Caterina Peroni, IRPPS-CNR, Roma
      Enrico Gargiulo, Università di Bologna
      Gruppo di Mediterranea Torino
      Francesca Governa, Politecnico di Torino
      Gruppo ON BORDERS ( https://onborders.altervista.org)
      Angela Dogliotti, Centro Studi Sereno Regis, Torino
      Antonello Petrillo, Università degli Studi S.O. Benincasa, Napoli
      Iain Chambers, Università di Napoli, Orientale
      Carmelo Buscema, Università della Calabria
      Fridays for Future Cagliari
      Statewatch
      Stefania Ferraro, Università degli Studi S.O. Benincasa, Napoli
      Viola Castellano, ricercatrice e professoressa a contratto dell’Università di Bologna
      Giuseppe Mosconi, Università di Padova
      Mariafrancesca D’Agostino, Università della Calabria
      Francesco Biagi, Facoltà di architettura dell’Università di Lisbona
      Maurizio Memoli, Ordinario di Geografia politica ed economica, Università di Cagliari
      Antonio Ciniero, università del Salento
      Gianfranco Ragona, Università di Torino
      Onofrio Romano, Associate Professor of Sociology, Department of Political Sciences, University of Bari “A. Moro”
      Giulia Giraudo, dottoranda dell’università di Torino ( dottorato in mutamento sociale e politico).
      Valeria Cappellato, università di Torino
      Paola Gandolfi, Università di Bergamo
      Silvia Aru, ricercatrice Politecnico di Torino
      Ugo Rossi, professore universitario, Gran Sasso Science Institute
      Daniela Leonardi, ricercatrice post-doc, Università di Parma
      Augusto Borsi – Prato
      Giuliana Commisso, Università della Calabria – Rende (CS) IT
      Laura Ferrero, Docente a contratto, Università di Torino
      Bruno Montesano, studente del Phd in Mutamento sociale e politico (UniTo/UniFi)
      Paola Sacchi, Università di Torino
      Silvia Cirillo, dottoranda in Global Studies presso Università degli Studi di Urbino Carlo Bo
      Maria Rosaria Marella, Università di Perugia
      Daniela Morpurgo, Post-doc fellow, Polytechnic of Turin, DIST – Interuniversity Department of Regional and Urban Studies, Part of “Inhabiting Radical Housing” ERC research team
      Silvia Di Meo, dottoranda Università di Genova
      Paola Minoia, University of Helsinki e Università di Torino
      Chiara Maritato, Università di Torino
      Lorenzo Delfino, Sapienza, Roma
      Francesca Della Santa, Università di Bologna
      Marika Giati, Università di Bologna
      Camilla De Ambroggi, Università di Bologna
      Clemente Parisi, Università di Bologna
      Jacopo Bonasera, Università di Bologna
      Annalisa Cananzi, Università di Bologna
      Margherita Cisani, Università di Padova, Assegnista di Ricerca, Dipartimento di Scienze Storiche, Geografiche e dell’Antichità (DiSSGeA)
      Sara Caramaschi, Postdoctoral Researcher in Urban Studies, Gran Sasso Science Institute
      Leonardo Ravaioli, Università di Roma Tre
      Dana Portaleone, Università di Bologna
      Magda Bolzoni, Università di Torino
      Giacomo Pettenati, Università di Torino
      Luca Cobbe – Università La Sapienza Roma
      International Support – Human Rights (https://supportuganda.wordpress.com)
      Claudia Ortu, Università degli studi di Cagliari
      Giulia Marroccoli, Università di Torino.
      Associazione Accoglienza ControVento
      Giada Coleandro dottoranda Università di Bologna
      Alida Sangrigoli, dottoranda Politecnico di Torino
      Lorenzo Mauloni, dottorando Politecnico di Torino
      Riccardo Putti, docente di Antropologia Visiva, DIPOC – Università degli Studi di Siena
      Gaja Maestri, Aston University (Birmingham), Regno Unito
      Matilde Ciolli, Università di Milano
      Matteo Rossi, Università di Torino
      Emanuele Frixa, Università di Bologna

      Per adesioni scrivere a: info@lasciatecientrare.it

      https://www.lasciatecientrare.it/non-a-fianco-di-frontex

      #appel #résistance

    • Torino: Fuori Frontex dal Politecnico!

      Ieri si è tenuto, nell’aula 1, un incontro sul contratto tra il Dipartimento del DIST del Politecnico di Torino e Frontex, la controversa e indagata agenzia europea per il controllo delle frontiere

      Sono intervenuti:
      – Prof. Michele Lancione (PoliTo): introduzione Frontex/Ithaca e Politecnico
      – Luca Rondi (Giornalista di Altreconomia): inchiesta Frontex e Politecnico
      – Raffaele Cucuzza (Senatore Accademico PoliTo) e Bruno Codispoti (Rappresentante degli Studenti in CDA PoliTo): questione Frontex all’interno del Senato Accademico e del CDA
      – Prof. Fulvio Vassallo (Associazione Diritti e Frontiere): agenzia Frontex, funzioni, rapporti tra stati e criticità
      – Yasmine Accardo (lasciateCIEntrare): rapporto tra Frontex e Industrie
      – Avv. Gianluca Vitale (lasciateCIEntrare): Frontex/CPR/protezione legale dei richiedenti asilo
      – Avv. Giovanni Papotti: testimonianze migranti

      Il Tender (bando di gara internazionale) che vede coinvolti Frontex e il Politecnico di Torino, riguarderebbe la fornitura di dati cartografici da parte dell’Ateneo all’Agenzia Europea.

      Nel bando non sarebbe specificato l’uso e la natura delle mappe cartografiche che il Politecnico dovrebbe fornire. La natura di Frontex, il cambiamento, avvenuto in pochi anni da organo di salvataggio a vera e propria polizia di frontiera a guardia dei confini esterni dell’Europa, è il motivo della decisa opposizione. Il Prof. Michele Lancione, ordinario di Geografia Politico-Economica, è stato il primo a sollevare la questione all’interno dell’Ateneo.

      Sono state ampiamente chiarite tutte le motivazioni per le quali non viene ritenuta opportuna la collaborazione da parte del Politecnico di Torino, realtà d’eccellenza in Italia, con Frontex.

      E’ stato descritto come le infografiche dell’Agenzia attengano ad una divulgazione sostanzialmente ideologica dell’immigrazione, volta a delegittimare i flussi amplificandoli ad arte, flussi che, e stato evidenziato, sono determinati da persone in gran parte aventi diritto di asilo. Questa disinformazione è funzionale a comunicare l’immigrazione come un invasione, identificando l’immigrato come un pericolo.

      E’ stato sottolineato che Frontex esercita il monitoraggio delle frontiere tramite una notevole attività aerea (palloni aerostatici, droni, aeroplani con pilota), attività svolta anche all’esterno delle frontiere grazie ad accordi bilaterali con Stati confinanti con l’UE.

      E’ stato denunciato che i criteri di respingimento utilizzati dall’Agenzia sono contrari ai Diritti Umani: qualsiasi persona può lasciare il proprio Stato di origine ed ha diritto di chiedere asilo: ove il respingimento avvenga prima della richiesta c’è una violazione dell’Ordinamento Internazionale che garantisce il diritto alla richiesta di protezione internazionale, violazione di cui Frontex è stata accusata da molti intervenuti.

      E’ stato evidenziato, le indagini che coinvolgono Frontex ne sono la prova, che i respingimenti avvengono anche in modo violento e non rispondente alla normativa internazionale. E’ quindi rilevante il sospetto che una cartografia, in particolare ad alta risoluzione, possa essere utilizzata dai droni per un più efficace controllo dei passaggi migratori di frontiera e di come ciò possa ulteriormente favorire i respingimenti illegali.

      E’ stato ricordato che, proprio a causa dell’attività di monitoraggio aereo dell’Agenzia, circa il 50% delle persone migranti in viaggio nel Mediterraneo è stata consegnata alla Guardia Costiera libica, di cui ricordiamo che il comandante è Abd al-Rahman al-Milad, noto anche come al-Bija, condannato dall’ONU per violazione dei diritti umani. A fronte della condanna sono stati trasmessi gli atti all’Interpol.

      Sono state quindi respinte e consegnate ai libici persone indipendentemente dalla loro nazionalità, si parla anche di persone, famiglie, di origine tunisina che sono ora detenute nei lager libici.

      Sono state ricordate le molte violenze, a tutti gli effetti violazioni dell’Ordinanento Internazionale, che vengono quotidianamente commesse alle frontiere interne ed esterne dell’UE ai danni delle persone migranti.

      Dagli interventi degli esponenti del Senato Accademico e del CDA del Politecnico, è emerso chiaramente il vespaio che la questione ha destato, il Senato avrebbe in ipotesi un “congelamento” del contratto fino a risoluzione delle indagini pendenti su Frontex, ipotesi bollata di ipocrisia in alcuni interventi che hanno dichiarato necessaria una cancellazione dell’accordo.

      E stato anche denunciato che in Senato Accademico non c’è unanimità. Questo secondo alcuni interventi dipenderebbe da Direttori di Dipartimento che intravvederebbero un pericoloso precedente etico che potrebbe influire sulle loro attività presenti e future.

      E’ stato sottolineato che le norme universitarie esistono e che in presenza di aspetti eticamente sensibili l’accordo sarebbe dovuto essere stato preventivamente sottoposto agli organi competenti dell’Ateneo.

      Bruno Codispoti ha argomentato a sostegno di questa tesi: data la natura del committente, il contratto doveva essere preventivamente sottoposto al CDA, che ha prerogative decisionali sulla natura delle fonti di finanziamento dell’Ateneo.

      E’ stata redatta una lettera aperta indirizzata al Rettore e agli organi di governance dell’Ateneo con una puntuale disamina di tutte le criticità relative a Frontex, motivi per i quali il Politecnico dovrebbe recedere dall’accordo.

      Il tutto è rimandato al 14 dicembre prossimo, data di riunione straordinaria del Senato Accademico.

      L’etica attinente alla ricerca è un argomento estremamente rilevante, dagli interventi appare chiaro che il Politecnico di Torino su questa questione, gravemente imbarazzante, si stia giocando la faccia.

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F-kx5hW8FEU&feature=emb_logo

      https://www.pressenza.com/it/2021/12/torino-fuori-frontex-dal-politecnico

  • L’#Allemagne propose à la #Pologne des #patrouilles_conjointes

    L’Allemagne a proposé à la Pologne un renforcement des patrouilles conjointes à la frontière entre les deux pays. Cela pour faire face au nombre croissant de migrants qui y arrivent après être passés par le Bélarus.

    La présence des forces frontalières devrait être « sensiblement » accrue, a estimé le ministre allemand de l’Intérieur #Horst_Seehofer dans une lettre à son homologue polonais #Mariusz_Kaminski vue mardi par l’AFP.

    M. Seehofer s’est dit « préoccupé » par la hausse de l’afflux de migrants notamment en provenance « du Proche et du Moyen-Orient » passant par le #Bélarus et arrivant en Pologne puis en Allemagne.

    Le ministre allemand a proposé « d’accroître la proportion des forces de la police fédérale allemande » qui participent aux patrouilles conjointes, laissant aux forces polonaises le soin de gérer les migrants qui traversent la frontière directement en provenance du Bélarus.
    Frontex

    M. Seehofer a également proposé de faire appel à l’agence européenne de protection des frontières Frontex pour bénéficier de son aide.

    Selon des chiffres du ministère allemand de l’Intérieur rendus publics lundi, quelque 4500 personnes ont traversé depuis août la frontière entre la Pologne et l’Allemagne sans document les y autorisant.

    La Pologne a de son côté déployé 6000 soldats le long de la frontière avec le Bélarus pour tenter de stopper l’afflux de migrants, a déclaré mardi le ministre de la Défense Mariusz Blaszczak.
    Représailles de Minsk

    L’UE accuse le président du Bélarus Alexandre Loukachenko de faire venir des migrants du Moyen-Orient et d’Afrique à Minsk puis de leur faire passer les frontières de la Lituanie, de la Lettonie et de la Pologne en représailles des sanctions économiques et individuelles adoptées par l’UE.

    L’arrivée massive de migrants traversant illégalement la frontière orientale de l’UE avec le Bélarus a pris de court des pays qui ne sont pas habitués à gérer un afflux massif de clandestins.

    La Pologne a été accusée par les ONG humanitaires de pratiquer des refoulements de migrants à la frontière avec le Bélarus. M. Seehofer abordera ce sujet mercredi à une réunion du gouvernement.

    https://www.bluewin.ch/fr/infos/international/l-allemagne-propose-la-pologne-des-patrouilles-conjointes-930954.html

    #patrouilles_mixtes #asile #migrations #réfugiés #Balkans #frontières #contrôles_frontaliers #Biélorussie

    –-

    ajouté à la métaliste sur les patrouilles mixtes :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/910352

    –-
    voir aussi la métaliste sur la situation à la frontière entre la #Pologne et la #Biélorussie (2021) :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/935860

    • à propos des refoulements à la frontière Polonaise, voir le message passé sur la newsletter d’octobre de Tous migrants :
      https://tousmigrants.weebly.com/octobre-20211.html

      Le même jour, nous recevons un appel de détresse sur Facebook d’un exilé coincé à la frontière entre la Biélorussie et la Pologne. Depuis plusieurs semaines, des personnes sont prises en étau dans la zone frontalière entre les deux pays, privés d’assistance et sans aucune issue[1]. L’Union européenne et la Pologne accusent Minsk d’orchestrer l’arrivée des personnes migrantes en réaction aux sanctions économiques infligées au pays au mois de juin. Cette instrumentalisation des flux migratoires menace la vie d’au moins 180 personnes, dont 26 enfants (selon l’ONG Watch the Med) et certaines sont déjà mortes. Comment l’Union européenne peut-elle tolérer que des humains meurent à sa frontière, sans agir ? Comment est-ce possible qu’un homme désespéré qui se trouve de l’autre côté de l’Europe à des milliers de kilomètres de nous, nous interpelle directement ?

      « Bonjour ! Nous vous écrivons via ce canal car nous sommes en situations de détresses. Nous sommes plus de 4000 migrant présentement coincés dans la frontière de la Pologne sans issu. Nous sommes sans secours, abandonnés à notre propre sort, en pleine forêt, sans nourriture, et sans aide d’aucune forme. Nous comptons déjà des morts dans nos rangs. Sans aucune aide nous allons tous périr. De grâce portez notre message de désespoir plus haut afin que l’union européenne soit au courant de ce qui se passe ici. Les journalistes n’ont pas accès, ni les médias et ONG. Les militaires polonais récupèrent nos téléphones et nous rejettent à la zone neutre sans secours et en pleine nuit sous le froid. Svp aidez-nous nous périssons à petit feu. »

      #Pologne #Frontex #Biélorussie

  • Immigration : La police hongroise a exécuté 40 000 « #pushbacks » depuis le début de l’année

    Aux frontières de l’espace Schengen, la police hongroise empêche l’accès à son territoire aux migrants et les expulse manu militari lorsqu’ils parviennent à y pénétrer, en contravention des règles internationales, juge la Cour européenne de Justice.

    Sur les 37 premières semaines de l’année, la police hongroise a empêché 32 872 entrées sur le territoire hongrois ; de plus, elle a expulsé immédiatement après leur arrestation 40 781 personnes qui avaient réussi à pénétrer sur le territoire illégalement ; 1 566 personnes ont été arrêtées et traduites en justice.

    Autrement dit, la Hongrie empêche les migrants d’accéder au territoire hongrois et de déposer une demande d’asile, ce qui contrevient aux règles internationales. Lorsque ceux-ci parviennent tout de même à entrer sur le sol hongrois, ils sont renvoyés immédiatement de l’autre côté de la frontière.

    L’écrasante majorité de ces statistiques concernent la frontière entre la Hongrie et la #Serbie, séparées par une #clôture grillagée surmontée de #fils_barbelés. L’activité de la #police a augmenté de façon significative à partir du mois d’août, ce qui pourrait signifier que le flux migratoire observé sur la « route des Balkans » a pris de l’ampleur.

    Le 17 décembre 2020, la Cour européenne de justice (CJUE) a jugé que la politique d’asile pratiqué par la Hongrie « a manqué à son obligation d’assurer un accès effectif à la procédure d’octroi de la protection internationale », rappelle le site Info Migrants.

    Après avoir fermé les yeux pendant plusieurs années sur les pratiques illégales de la police hongroise, #Frontex, mise en cause par l’ONG Comité Helsinki, a annoncé au mois de janvier qu’elle suspendait ses opérations de #surveillance_des_frontières de l’Union européenne en Hongrie.

    « Depuis 2016, les preuves de violations graves et systémiques des droits fondamentaux aux frontières extérieures de l’espace Schengen ont été présentées, soulevant également la responsabilité de l’Agence Frontex », a affirmé le Comité Helsinki.

    https://courrierdeuropecentrale.fr/immigration-la-police-hongroise-a-realise-40-000-pushbacks-d

    #refoulement #Hongrie #route_des_Balkans #Balkans #droits_fondamentaux #droits_humains #frontières_extérieures #statistiques #chiffres #2021#asile #migrations #réfugiés #frontières

  • Greece says Turkey continues to block returns of illegal migrants

    Greece made on Wednesday a new request to the EU Commission and FRONTEX for the immediate return to Turkey of 1,908 rejected asylum seekers living on the Aegean islands. Athens says Turkey has been blocking the returns of people not eligible for asylum for the past 17 months.

    The 2016 EU-Turkey Statement on migration provides that people who entered Greece from Turkey after 20 March, 2016 and are not entitled to international protection will return to Turkey.

    But according to Greek migration minister Notis Mitarakis, this is not the case.

    “The process of returns has stopped since 15 March, 2020, when Turkey referred to the difficulties caused by the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. For about 17 months, Turkey has insisted on refusing to implement its commitments without any argument,” the minister wrote in a letter to Commission Vice-President Margaritis Schinas and FRONTEX.

    Mitarakis also referred to the Commission’s proposed new migration pact, which has reached a deadlock due to divisions among EU member states over whether the relocation of recognised refugees will be mandatory or not.

    The Greek minister said it was crucial for Europe to establish a common mechanism, as well as the necessary legal arsenal for returns.

    “And to fortify, in this way, the first host countries against uncontrolled migration flows, but also the action of smuggling networks,” he added.

    Greece recently proposed to declare Turkey a safe third state for migrants from countries such as Somalia, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Syria and Bangladesh. Were the proposal to be adopted, migrants from these countries entering Greece via Turkey would not be able to apply for asylum status.

    Austrian Interior Minister Karl Nehammer has backed the Greek proposal adding that the Danish model to move asylum seekers to third countries as their application is processed would be a viable option.

    https://www.euractiv.com/section/politics/short_news/greece-says-turkey-continues-to-block-returns-of-illegal-migrants

    #Grèce #Turquie #réfugiés #asile #migrations #réfugiés #renvois #accord_UE-Turquie #réadmission #expulsions #requête #Frontex #Mer_Egée

    ping @isskein @karine4

  • Deux décisions qui donnent pouvoir à #Frontex pour négocier des #accords_de_travail avec le #Niger (parmi d’autres pays hors UE) et avec #Eucap_Sahel au Niger (ainsi qu’en Libye) :

    1. Management Board Decision 36/2021 authorising the Executive Director to negotiate working arrangements with selected third countries (2021) :
    https://frontex.europa.eu/assets/Key_Documents/MB_Decision/2021/MB_Decision_36_2021_authorising_the_ED_to_negotiate_working_arrangeme

    2. Management Board Decision 37/2021 authorising the Executive Director to negotiate working arrangements with selected EU entities (2021) :
    https://frontex.europa.eu/assets/Key_Documents/MB_Decision/2021/MB_Decision_37_2021_authorising_the_ED_to_negotiate_working_arrangeme

    #externalisation #asile #migrations #réfugiés #frontières

    –-

    ajouté à la métaliste sur l’externalisation des frontières :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/731749
    et plus précisément ici :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/731749#message765325

    ping @isskein @karine4 @rhoumour @_kg_

  • France asks Frontex to guard Europe’s northern coastline too

    French Interior Minister Gerald #Darmanin said he has asked the European Union border agency Frontex not to neglect Europe’s northern coastline in the fight against illegal immigration.

    “I myself have contacted Frontex, which is predominantly taking care of southern Europe, and asked them to deal with northern Europe, too, particularly the coastline of Nord-Pas-de-Calais,” he told reporters on Saturday during a visit to the port of Calais in northern France, a point from which many migrants try to cross the Channel to reach Britain.

    “Sixty percent of migrants who come here, come via Belgium. So, our spectrum must be very wide. We need European air surveillance,” Darmanin said.

    Since the end of 2018, an increasing number of migrants have tried to cross the Channel to Britain, defying warnings from the authorities of the dangers of such a journey, given the high density of traffic, the strong sea currents and the cold temperatures.

    Darmanin welcomed a deal reached last week by France and Britain, under which London has pledged just under 63 million euros in 2021-2022 to help France stem the flow of illegal migrants crossing the Channel.

    France has promised to beef up security forces along the coast.

    “We already have more than 5,000 police officers and gendarmes in Pas-de-Calais, a large number of whom are involved in the fight again immigration. We will increase these numbers,” Darmanin said.

    On Sunday, eighty migrants, including 20 children, were rescued as they tried to reach England in two separate boats, French authorities said.

    https://twitter.com/premarmanche/status/1419295052535324674

    Rescue services were first contacted “by a boat of migrants reporting difficulties”, then by a merchant ship which informed them “of another boat of migrants adrift to the north of Calais”, the Channel maritime prefecture said in a statement.

    A patrol boat was then sent to the scene which rescued 80 people from the two boats.

    In total, “80 shipwrecked people (42 men, 18 women, including one pregnant woman, and 20 children) were brought to the port of Calais. They are all safe and sound”.

    French gendarmes also discovered 52 migrants early Sunday morning on a beach in Dannes, also in the north of the country. They had returned to land after an “engine failure” of their boat, the prefecture of Pas-de-Calais told the news agency AFP.

    Last year, more than 9,500 crossings or attempted crossings were recorded, four times as many as in 2019, according to the French authorities.

    Out of these, six people died and three were reported missing last year, compared with four deaths in 2019.

    https://www.rfi.fr/en/france/20210726-france-asks-frontex-to-guard-europe-s-northern-coastline-too

    #France #Calais #Frontex #frontières #asile #migrations #réfugiés #militarisation_des_frontières #contrôles_frontaliers #UK #Angleterre

  • Data et nouvelles technologies, la face cachée du contrôle des mobilités

    Dans un rapport de juillet 2020, l’#Agence_européenne_pour_la_gestion_opérationnelle_des_systèmes_d’information_à_grande_échelle (#EU-Lisa) présente l’#intelligence_artificielle (#IA) comme l’une des « #technologies prioritaires » à développer. Le rapport souligne les avantages de l’IA en matière migratoire et aux frontières, grâce, entre autres, à la technologie de #reconnaissance_faciale.

    L’intelligence artificielle est de plus en plus privilégiée par les acteurs publics, les institutions de l’UE et les acteurs privés, mais aussi par le #HCR et l’#OIM. Les agences de l’UE, comme #Frontex ou EU-Lisa, ont été particulièrement actives dans l’expérimentation des nouvelles technologies, brouillant parfois la distinction entre essais et mise en oeuvre. En plus des outils traditionnels de #surveillance, une panoplie de technologies est désormais déployée aux frontières de l’Europe et au-delà, qu’il s’agisse de l’ajout de nouvelles #bases_de_données, de technologies financières innovantes, ou plus simplement de la récupération par les #GAFAM des données laissées volontairement ou pas par les migrant·e·s et réfugié∙e∙s durant le parcours migratoire.

    La pandémie #Covid-19 est arrivée à point nommé pour dynamiser les orientations déjà prises, en permettant de tester ou de généraliser des technologies utilisées pour le contrôle des mobilités sans que l’ensemble des droits des exilé·e·s ne soit pris en considération. L’OIM, par exemple, a mis à disposition des Etats sa #Matrice_de_suivi_des_déplacements (#DTM) durant cette période afin de contrôler les « flux migratoires ». De nouvelles technologies au service de vieilles obsessions…

    http://migreurop.org/article3021.html

    Pour télécharger la note :
    migreurop.org/IMG/pdf/note_12_fr.pdf

    #migrations #réfugiés #asile #frontières #mobilité #mobilités #données #technologie #nouvelles_technologies #coronavirus #covid #IOM
    #migreurop

    ping @etraces

    voir aussi :
    Migreurop | Data : la face cachée du contrôle des mobilités
    https://seenthis.net/messages/900232

    • European funds for African IDs: migration regulation tool or privacy risk?

      The first person you meet after you land at Blaise Diagne Airport in Dakar is a border guard with a digital scanner.

      The official will scan your travel document and photograph and take a digital print of your index fingers.

      It’s the most visible sign of the new state-of-the-art digital biometrics system that is being deployed in the airport with the help of EU funding.

      The aim is to combat the increasingly sophisticated fake passports sold by traffickers to refugees.

      But it also helps Senegal’s government learn more about its own citizens.

      And it’s not just here: countries across West Africa are adopting travel documentation that has long been familiar to Europeans.

      Passports, ID cards and visas are all becoming biometric, and a national enrolment scheme is underway.

      In Europe too, there are proposals to create a biometric database of over 400 million foreign nationals, including fingerprints and photographs of their faces.

      The new systems are part of efforts to battle illegal migration from West Africa to the EU.

      ‘Fool-proof’ EU passport online

      Many are still plying the dangerous route across the Sahara and the Mediterranean to reach Europe, but a growing number are turning to the criminal gangs selling forged passports to avoid the treacherous journey over desert and sea.

      There’s a burgeoning market in travel documents advertised as ‘fake but real”.

      Prices vary according to the paperwork: an EU Schengen transit visa costs €5,000, while a longer-stay visa can be twice as high.

      Some forgers have even mastered the ability to incorporate holograms and hack the biometric chips.

      “Morphing” is an image processing technique that merges two people’s photographs into a single new face that appears to contain entirely new biometric data.

      Frontex, the EU’s border guard agency, says 7,000 people were caught trying to enter the Schengen area in 2019 carrying such documents — but it admits the true figure could be much higher.

      Sending migrants back

      Last year, the largest number of travellers with fake documents arrived via Turkish and Moroccan international airports.

      Many were caught in Italy, having arrived via Casablanca from sub-Saharan countries like Ghana, Mali, Nigeria and Senegal.

      A Frontex team responsible for deporting migrants without the correct paperwork was deployed this year at Rome’s Fiumicino Airport.

      It’s the first sign of a new European Commission regulation expanding the agency’s role, which includes access to biometric data held by member states, according to Jane Kilpatrick, a researcher at the civil liberties think-tank Statewatch.

      “The agency’s growing role in the collection of data, it links overtly to the agency’s role in deporting individuals from the EU,” she said.

      Over 490,000 return decisions were issued by member states last year, but only a third were actually sent back to a country outside the EU.

      There are multiple reasons why: some countries, for example, refuse to accept responsibility for people whose identity documents were lost, destroyed or stolen.

      Legally binding readmission agreements are now in place between the EU and 18 other countries to make that process easier.
      There are no records

      But a bigger problem is the fact that many African countries know very little about their own citizens.

      The World Bank estimates the continent is home to roughly half of the estimated one billion people on the planet who are unable to prove their identities.

      An absence of digitisation means that dusty registers are piling up in storage rooms.

      The same goes for many borders: unlike the scene at Dakar’s airport, many are still without internet access, servers, scanners and cameras.

      That, the Commission says, is why EU aid funds are being used to develop biometric identity systems in West African countries.

      The EU Trust Fund for Africa has allotted €60 million to support governments in Senegal and Côte d’Ivoire in modernising their registry systems and creating a national biometric identity database.

      Much of the funding comes through Civipol, a consulting firm attached to France’s interior ministry and part-owned by Milipol, one of the most important arms trade fairs in the world.

      It describes the objective of the programme in Côte d’Ivoire as identifying “people genuinely of Ivorian nationality and organising their return more easily”.
      Data security concerns

      European sources told Euronews that the EU-funded projects in West Africa were not designed to identify potential migrants or deport existing ones.

      A Commission spokesperson insisted no European entity — neither Frontex, nor member states, nor their partners — had access to the databases set up by West African countries.

      But the systems they are funding are intimately connected to anti-migration initiatives.

      One is the Migrant Information and Data Analysis System (MIDAS), a migration database that can send automatic queries to Interpol watchlists to detect travel documents and people possibly linked to organised crime, including human trafficking.

      Connections like these, and the role of French arms giants like Thales in the growing biometric market, has led data protection experts to become worried about possible abuses of privacy.
      World’s newest biometric market

      As Africa becomes the coveted market for biometric identification providers, the watchdog Privacy International has warned it risks becoming a mere testing ground for technologies later deployed elsewhere.

      So far 24 countries on the continent out of 53 have adopted laws and regulations to protect personal data.

      A letter by Privacy International, seen by Euronews, says EU must “ensure they are protecting rights before proceeding with allocating resources and technologies which, in absence of proper oversight, will likely result in fundamental rights abuses.”

      It has published internal documents tracking the development of Senegal’s system that suggest no privacy or data protection impact assessments have been carried out.

      Civipol, the French partner, denies this: it told Euronews that the Senegalese Personal Data Commission took part in the programme and Senegalese law was respected at every stage.

      Yet members of Senegal’s independent Commission of Personal Data (CDP), which is responsible for ensuring personal data is processed correctly, admit implementation and enforcement remained a challenge — even though they are proud of their country’s pioneering role in data governance in Africa.

      For the Senegalese cyber activist Cheick Fall, the charge is more serious: “Senegal has sinned by entrusting the processing of these data to foreign companies.”

      https://www.euronews.com/2021/07/30/european-funds-for-african-ids-migration-regulation-tool-or-privacy-risk

      #biométrie #aéroport #Afrique #étrangers #base_de_données_biométrique #empreintes_digitales #passeports #visas #hologramme #Morphing #image #photographie #Frontex #EU_Trust_Fund_for_Africa #Trust_Fund #Civipol #Milipol #armes #commerce_d'armes #Côte_d’Ivoire #Afrique_de_l'Ouest #Migrant_Information_and_Data_Analysis_System (#MIDAS) #Interpol #Thales #Sénégal #Senegalese_Personal_Data_Commission #Commission_of_Personal_Data (#CDP)

  • La #Guardia_Civil de #Alicante ordena a sus agentes que no compartan información con #Frontex

    Un documento interno insta a no acceder “en ningún caso” a cualquier solicitud de la Agencia Europea de Fronteras

    La Guardia Civil de Alicante se niega a facilitar información de cualquier tipo al equipo que la Agencia Europea de Fronteras (Frontex) tiene desplegado en la provincia en el marco de sus operaciones conjuntas contra la inmigración irregular. Así lo ha hecho constar a todas las unidades de la comandancia de Alicante el teniente coronel #Francisco_Poyato_Sevillano en un oficio al que ha tenido acceso EL PAÍS. Fuentes del instituto armado confirman la veracidad de esta instrucción, pero la achacan a que unos agentes al servicio de la agencia intentaron recabar información directa sin pasar por los canales oficiales y eludiendo el procedimiento establecido de acceso a datos.

    En la circular, el alto mando de la comandancia alicantina se dirige a todas las compañías y unidades a su cargo. “Esta jefatura”, indica, “ha tenido conocimiento de que en la provincia de Alicante existe un equipo desplegado de Frontex compuesto por personal de Policía Nacional”. “Cabe la posibilidad”, continúa Poyato, “de que este equipo pueda dirigirse directamente a alguna de las unidades de esta comandancia solicitando algún tipo de información sobre inmigración irregular, o cualquier otro tipo”. Ante esa eventualidad, prosigue el teniente coronel, “no se accederá en ningún caso a dicha solicitud, debiendo contestarle que no se dispone de autorización para dar ninguna clase de información”. La instrucción señala que cada petición de información será comunicada a la jefatura, la unidad de Operaciones a cuyo frente está Poyato. La circular está firmada y validada el pasado 2 de julio.

    Los rifirrafes entre el personal que trabaja para Frontex y la Guardia Civil no son raros. Suceden a nivel operativo, como en este caso, pero también en los despachos. El pulso constante es un reflejo de las relaciones entre el instituto armado y la Policía Nacional, de donde salen los agentes españoles que sirven a la agencia. Pero es también una muestra de la desconfianza ante un organismo que tiene presupuestados 5.600 millones de euros para los próximos siete años y que busca cada vez más poder.

    Fuentes oficiales de la Guardia Civil aseguran que el “detonante” que motivó esta orden fue “una llamada” en la que agentes de la #Policía_Nacional al servicio de Frontex “pidieron datos que no se pueden facilitar por no estar autorizados”. El equipo de Frontex en Alicante, destino de la ruta migratoria desde #Argelia, es parte de la #Operación_Índalo, una de las tres operaciones de la agencia en España que controla la inmigración irregular a través del Estrecho y el mar Alborán. En esta misión, en teoría, la agencia trabaja conjuntamente con la Guardia Civil y la Policía Nacional. En el marco de esta operación, explican las mismas fuentes, “hay una base de datos en la que los integrantes de ambos cuerpos graban toda la información” recabada, y la llamada de los agentes policiales que trabajan para la agencia se saltó este procedimiento. Después, añaden, tuvo lugar una reunión “en la que se les explicó que el acceso a información se tiene que gestionar a través del centro de control” de Madrid.

    Para la Asociación Unificada de Guardias Civiles (AUGC), se trata de una muestra más del “recelo” y la “falta de colaboración y cooperación” entre las Fuerzas y Cuerpos de Seguridad del Estado. A juicio de AUGC, es “perentoria” la “necesidad de reformar el modelo policial” con el fin de “sincronizar y homogeneizar la cooperación”.

    A principios de este año, Frontex amagó con retirarse de España tras una tensa negociación sobre los términos en los que se renovarían las tres operaciones en las que trabajan cerca de 200 oficiales a sueldo de la agencia. Frontex reclamaba a España mayor control sobre la inteligencia, las investigaciones y el acceso a los datos de carácter personal en las fronteras españolas, algo que los negociadores españoles no ven con buenos ojos. Las fuerzas de seguridad españolas, especialmente la Guardia Civil, no quieren ceder espacios de su competencia y existen recelos acerca de la operatividad, la capacidad y eficiencia de los oficiales la agencia. La pugna se saldó con la aceptación por parte de España de la propuesta de Frontex, pero las tensiones se mantienen.

    La agencia, además, afronta la peor crisis reputacional desde que se creó en 2004. A las críticas que lleva años recibiendo por su opacidad, se ha sumado en los últimos meses las investigaciones por su supuesta colaboración en devoluciones ilegales de inmigrantes en el mar Egeo. También la amonestación del Tribunal de Cuentas de la UE y del Parlamento Europeo por su ineficacia, por las dudas que genera su función operativa y por la falta de transparencia que envuelve a sus cuentas.

    https://elpais.com/espana/2021-07-15/la-guardia-civil-de-alicante-ordena-a-sus-agentes-que-no-compartan-informaci
    #résistance #Espagne #asile #migrations #réfugiés #frontières #gardes-frontière #Méditerranée #Méditerranée_occidentale #données #échange_de_données

    –—

    #Operation_Minerva (#Indalo) :

    The area stretching between Spain and Morocco, known as the Western Mediterranean route, has long been used by migrants. For many years, it has also been the main route used by criminal networks to smuggle narcotics into the EU.

    Frontex supports the national authorities with border control and surveillance, identification and registration and its ships and airplanes contribute to search and rescue operations. The agency has been assisting the Spanish authorities not only at sea, but in various sea ports and at international airports.

    The Western Mediterranean region has also long been a major conduit for drug smugglers seeking to bring hashish, cannabis and cocaine by sea to the lucrative European markets. Frontex vessels and aircraft assist the Spanish authorities to disrupt the drug smuggling operations.

    Frontex currently deploys in Spain more than 180 officers from several European countries who assist with border checks, help register migrants and collect information on criminal smuggling networks, which is shared with national authorities and Europol in support of criminal investigations. They also provide support in identifying vulnerable migrants, such as victims of trafficking, including those in need of international protection. Finally, Frontex also helps Spanish authorities to seize drugs, weapons and cigarettes.

    Officers deployed by Frontex in Spain take part in various joint operations, including three focused on Spain’s sea borders: Hera, Indalo and Minerva.

    https://frontex.europa.eu/we-support/main-operations/operations-minerva-indalo-spain-

  • #Frontex #Zeppelin in trial flights from #Alexandroupoli airport. The militarisation of the #Evros border continues.

    https://twitter.com/lk2015r/status/1415069475238551561

    #Evros #asile #migrations #réfugiés #frontières #Grèce #militarisation #militarisation_des_frontières

    –—

    Κάτι τρέχει στον Έβρο

    Τα βλέμματα τράβηξε το λευκό αερόστατο τύπου Zeppelin, όσοι το αντίκρυσαν στον ουρανό της Αλεξανδρούπολης σήμερα το πρωί.

    Από το πρωί πραγματοποιεί το συγκεκριμένο Ζέπελιν δοκιμαστικές πτήσεις στο αεροδρόμιο « Δημόκριτος » και σύντομα θα μπει στη « μάχη » της φύλαξης των συνόρων.

    Tα βλέμματα όσων το αντίκρυσαν στον ουρανό της #Αλεξανδρούπολης τράβηξε το αερόστατο τύπου Zέπελιν το οποίο στέλνει η...

    https://www.e-evros.gr/gr/eidhseis/3/aerostato-zeppelin-ston-oyrano-ths-ale3androypolhs-poia-h-xrhsimothta-toy/post44126

  • #Border_Profiteers. Corporations profiting from borders, detentions and deportations - Berlin edition

    This brochure has gathered a list of corporations that profit from deportations, from managing detention centers, from building fences, selling ships, drones or planes patrolling the Mediterranean, subcontracted security guards, providing data collection, border surveillance software, id control mechanisms, racist policy consultation, prison construction and any other form of oppression that limits peoples freedom of movement and right to stay.

    The external borders of Europe are not in Berlin, but the border regime is all around us. This regime consists of more than just the state. In capitalism, many forms of border oppression are subcontracted to corporations. Borders are very profitable. Therefore this market is dominated by huge multinational corporations. And since keywords of the European borders are militarisation and surveillance, the list of corporate border profiteers is full of the usual suspects that also profit from war, prisons and privacy infringement.

    The goal of this booklet is to promote action in Berlin and Brandenburg. Hence the focus is very much on companies that have an office in Berlin or action possibilities based on local struggles.

    List of Border Profiteers

    1. DEPORTATION COLLABORATORS
    #Lufthansa#Eurowings
    #Privilege_Style
    #Corendon_Airlines
    #Turyol / #Jalem_Tur
    #Enter_Air

    2. BORDER MILITARISATION
    #Airbus#Hensholdt
    #Otokar#Koç_Holding
    #Thales

    3. DETENTION INDUSTRY
    #European_Homecare
    #Pulsm#Morten_Group
    #Markgraf
    #Baukontor_Lange

    4. SURVEILLANCE SOFTWARE
    #Sopra_Steria
    #Cevision

    5. PRIVATE GUARDS
    #City_Schutz
    #Securitas
    #L&S_Sicherheit
    #Secura_Protect

    6. BORDER CONSULTANCY
    #McKinsey

    Quelques captures d’écran :

    https://noborderassembly.blackblogs.org/2021/04/14/new-brochure-border-profiteers

    Pour télécharger la brochure :
    https://noborderassembly.blackblogs.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/1214/2021/04/Border-Profiteers-berlin.pdf

    #profit #business #complexe_militaro-industriel #frontières #asile #migrations #réfugiés #renvois #Allemagne #compagnies_aériennes #sécurité #détention_administrative #rétention #consultants #militarisation_des_frontières #renvois #expulsions #charter #Frontex

    #no_border_assembly #rapport

  • Authorities in Lithuania are considering building a wall with Belarus

    Authorities in Lithuania are now considering building a wall with Belarus. Ingrida Simonyte, the Lithuanian prime minister, has accused the Belarusian government of orchestrating what her country views as a migrant crisis.

    https://twitter.com/VCapici/status/1409246090768101377

    #Lituanie #murs #frontières #Biélorussie #migrations #réfugiés #asile #barrières #barrières_frontalières

    –—

    voir :
    A la frontière entre la #Lituanie et le #Bélarus, Loukachenko se fait maître passeur
    https://seenthis.net/messages/919781

    • Lithuania Reports 116 More Border Arrests Of Migrants Crossing From Belarus

      Lithuanian authorities reported 116 more arrests of migrants crossing the border from Belarus, a surge in crossings that Lithuania says Minsk is purposely organizing in retaliation for European Union sanctions.

      The Lithuanian State Border Security Service said on July 3 that border guards also fired tear gas and warning shots as one group of migrants were being detained.

      The latest figures bring the number of migrants detained over the past two days to 179, the service said; in all 938 people have been arrested crossing from Belarus this year, 12 times as many in all of last year.

      Lithuanian Foreign Minister Gabrielius Landsbergis said late on July 2 that the government had declared a state of emergency, and he accused Lukashenka seeking “to weaponize migration to weaken our resolve for sanctions.”

      Vilnius contends that the migrants, most of whom are Iraqi, are moved to the border with Lithuania, where Belarusian border guards turn a blind eye as they cross into the European Union member state.

      Lithuania has been one of the loudest critics of Belarus’s strongman leader Alyaksandr Lukashenka since last August’s dispute presidential election. The 66-year-old Lukashenka claimed victory, setting off months of unprecedented protests.

      The opposition says that election was rigged, and the West has refused to recognize the results of the vote.

      The Baltic state has offered refuge to Svyatlana Tsikhanouskaya, who supporters say was the real winner of the election.

      Vilnius has also become a center for Belarusians in exile, and the two countries have expelled a number of diplomats as ties have worsened in recent weeks.

      The EU’s border guard service, Frontex, has sent teams to Lithuania to help deal with the influx of migrants.

      https://www.rferl.org/a/lithuania-migrants-arrests-belarus/31339043.html

    • La Lituanie se dit débordée face à l’afflux de migrants venus de Biélorussie

      La Lituanie s’est déclarée, vendredi, en #état_d'urgence, face à la hausse des arrivées de migrants depuis la Biélorussie voisine. Plus de 150 personnes ont traversé la frontière ces dernières 24 heures. L’agence de garde-frontières européenne, #Frontex, a dépêché une équipe pour venir en aide au pays balte.

      Une équipe de six gardes-frontières de l’agence européenne Frontex a commencé à travailler vendredi 2 juillet en Lituanie pour aider le pays balte à faire face à l’arrivée de migrants. Depuis plusieurs semaines, des dizaines de personnes en provenance de la Biélorussie voisine, passent la frontière ouest du pays pour entrer en Lituanie.

      Le nombre de gardes-frontières de Frontex devant être déployés à la frontière biélorusse devrait passer à 30 dans le courant du mois.

      Les garde-frontières lituaniens ont indiqué avoir arrêté quelque 150 migrants ces dernières 24 heures - près du double du nombre d’arrestations sur l’ensemble de 2020. Face à cet afflux, le gouvernement a déclaré l’état d’urgence vendredi.

      Cela porte le nombre total de traversées illégales de frontières par des migrants cette année à plus de 800, la plupart venant du Moyen-Orient. Sur l’ensemble de 2020, 81 traversées illégales de la frontière avaient été enregistrées – et 37 en 2019.

      La plupart des migrants sont originaires d’Irak, mais il y en a aussi de plus en plus de Syrie, de Gambie, de Guinée et d’Inde, selon le site EUobserver (https://euobserver.com/world/152305).

      « La situation commence à se détériorer »

      « La situation est tendue et a tendance à se détériorer », a déclaré le ministre lituanien des Affaires étrangères Gabrielius Landsbergis à l’AFP.

      Il y a deux semaines, l’armée lituanienne a mis en place un #camp_d’urgence de plusieurs tentes à #Pabradé, à une quarantaine de kilomètres de la capitale Vilnius, pour pouvoir gérer l’afflux. « Le but du ministère est clair : les migrants économiques qui traversent la frontière de l’UE illégalement doivent être renvoyés à l’endroit d’où ils viennent », a-t-il ajouté.

      « Un tiers sont des hommes, un autre tiers sont des femmes, on accueille aussi des enfants, quelques mineurs non accompagnés et des personnes avec des problèmes de santé. Nous sommes inquiets quant à nos capacités d’accueil pour assurer l’hébergement à ces personnes qui demandent l’asile », a expliqué à RFI Egle Samuchovaite (https://www.rfi.fr/fr/europe/20210618-la-lituanie-accuse-la-bi%C3%A9lorussie-de-laisser-passer-des-migrants-s), directrice des programmes de la Croix-Rouge lituanienne, au mois de juin.

      Le gouvernement lituanien, qui s’oppose au président biélorusse Alexandre Loukachenko, a indiqué qu’il soupçonnait les autorités du pays de laisser les migrants passer la frontière.

      Ces tensions entre Minsk et Vilnius interviennent alors que les relations entre l’Union européenne et la Biélorussie sont elles-mêmes très compliquées. En cause : le détournement au mois de mai d’un vol commercial de Ryanair ordonné par le président Loukachenko pour arrêter un dissident politique.

      https://www.infomigrants.net/fr/post/33405/la-lituanie-se-dit-debordee-face-a-l-afflux-de-migrants-venus-de-bielo

    • L’agence des frontières de l’UE augmente ” considérablement ” l’aide à la Lituanie

      L’agence des frontières de l’Union européenne s’engage à renforcer “de manière significative” son soutien à la Lituanie dans les prochains jours “en raison de la pression migratoire croissante à la frontière lituanienne avec la Biélorussie” que la nation balte tente de contenir .

      La décision de Frontex, l’agence chargée de coordonner le contrôle des frontières entre les États membres de l’UE et les pays tiers, a été annoncée samedi dernier à la suite d’un appel vidéo entre le directeur exécutif de Frontex Fabrice Leggeri et le président lituanien Gitanas Nauseda.

      “La frontière lituanienne est notre frontière extérieure commune et Frontex est prête à aider si nécessaire”, a déclaré Leggeri dans un communiqué. “Nous sommes prêts à renforcer notre niveau de soutien et à déployer plus d’officiers et d’équipements du corps permanent européen” en Lituanie, membre de l’UE et de l’OTAN de 2,8 millions.

      L’opération de Frontex, qui a commencé au début du mois avec le déploiement d’une douzaine d’officiers et de voitures de patrouille, va doubler la semaine prochaine, a indiqué l’agence.

      Le bureau de Nauseda a déclaré séparément que Frontex avait promis que des renforts devraient arriver en Lituanie avant le 15 juillet et que des patrouilles frontalières armées et d’autres traducteurs sont arrivés au cours du week-end.

      En outre, un hélicoptère de patrouille sera envoyé en Lituanie depuis la Pologne voisine et des discussions sont en cours pour envoyer un autre hélicoptère depuis l’Allemagne, a indiqué le bureau de Nauseda.

      Dans un tweet, Nauseda a remercié Frontex pour son soutien “Gérer les flux de migrants illégaux à travers la frontière orientale” avec la Biélorussie, autre ancienne république soviétique qui ne fait pas partie de l’UE.

      La Lituanie, qui a donné refuge à des membres de l’opposition biélorusse, accuse son voisin d’organiser des passages frontaliers principalement par des personnes originaires d’Irak, du Moyen-Orient et d’Afrique.

      En juin, le nombre de passages illégaux des frontières entre la Biélorussie et la Lituanie a sextuplé, augmentant la pression sur les autorités nationales de contrôle des frontières, a déclaré Frontex. Le phénomène s’est accéléré en juillet et plus de 1 500 personnes sont entrées en Lituanie depuis la Biélorussie au cours des deux derniers mois, 20 fois plus qu’en 2020.

      Plus tôt cette semaine, le président autoritaire biélorusse Alexandre Loukachenko a déclaré que son pays ne fermerait pas ses frontières “et ne deviendrait pas un camp pour les personnes fuyant l’Afghanistan, l’Iran, l’Irak, la Syrie, la Libye et la Tunisie”.

      Les tensions entre l’UE et la Biélorussie se sont encore intensifiées après que la Biélorussie a détourné un avion de ligne le 23 mai pour arrêter un journaliste de l’opposition.

      Loukachenko a déclaré que son pays cesserait de coopérer avec le bloc des 27 pays pour endiguer la migration en représailles aux lourdes sanctions économiques que l’UE a imposées à la Biélorussie pour le détournement d’avions de passagers.

      Vendredi, la Lituanie a commencé à construire une double clôture en fil de fer barbelé à la frontière avec la Biélorussie. Il parcourra 550 kilomètres (342 miles), couvrant la majeure partie de la frontière de près de 680 kilomètres (423 miles) et coûtera 41 millions d’euros (48 millions de dollars), selon les autorités lituaniennes.

      En outre, la Lituanie a mis en place des camps de tentes pour accueillir le nombre croissant de migrants.

      https://www.cablechronicles.com/lagence-des-frontieres-de-lue-augmente-considerablement-laide-a-la-

    • EU deploys border force in Lithuania as Belarus opens pathway for migrants

      Officials cite effort by Minsk to ‘weaponize’ irregular migration flows.

      The EU’s border protection agency on Monday said it was mobilizing a rapid intervention force to Lithuania, where the government has accused neighboring Belarus of allowing hundreds of migrants to cross illegally into the country.

      The allegations that Belarus is “weaponizing” migrants in retaliation for EU sanctions and support for political opponents of the country’s long-time leader, Alexander Lukashenko, were discussed Monday in the European Parliament and in the EU Foreign Affairs Council.

      “It seems like the Belarusian authorities now facilitate irregular migration possibly in retaliation to EU restrictive measures and as a response to the Lithuanian support for the civil society in Belarus,” the EU’s commissioner for home affairs, Ylva Johansson, testified during a joint hearing of the Parliament’s home affairs and foreign affairs committees.

      Johansson said that the method of arrivals was still under investigation, but that it appeared several flights per day were landing in Minsk, the Belarusian capital, carrying migrants from Istanbul and Baghdad. Officials said at least 60 EU border guards were expected to arrive in Lithuania in the coming days.

      While many of the migrants that have crossed into Lithuania seem to be of Iraqi or Syrian origin, there have also been migrants from African countries, including the Democratic Republic of Congo and Cameroon.

      Arriving for Monday’s Foreign Affairs Council meeting in Brussels, Lithuanian Foreign Minister Gabrielius Landsbergis said his country was struggling to return migrants to their home countries. He added that the Baltic nation is now confronting challenges more commonly seen in frontline EU countries like Greece and Spain that face a constant influx of migrants across the Mediterranean, and have faced similar pressure of arrivals from Turkey and Morocco.

      “The European Union should have a common strategy how to deal with these sort of political or hybrid threats,” Landsbergis said. “We need a strategy of readmission because a country — be it Lithuania, be it Greece or Spain — alone faces a rather challenging path when trying to return the people who illegally entered the country. Secondly, we need to be very strict with the regimes who are using these sorts of weapons.”

      Landsbergis called for additional sanctions against Belarus and said other countries using such tactics should face similar punishment.

      To help manage the crisis, the Lithuanian parliament will convene in a special session on Tuesday to adopt amendments to national asylum laws with an aim of reducing the time needed to evaluate applications for protected status.

      Asked if the situation in Lithuania was adding new urgency to the EU’s years-long struggle to develop a new migration pact, the bloc’s high representative for foreign affairs, Josep Borrell, said it was up to the border protection agency, Frontex, to help manage the situation.

      “That’s why we created Frontex, to help member states to face migration crises,” Borrell said at a news conference following the meeting.
      ‘High pressure’ situation

      Fabrice Leggeri, the executive director of Frontex, said his agency had anticipated Belarus seeking to use flows of irregular migrants as a political weapon, and has been monitoring the country’s borders since last fall. Testifying in the parliamentary hearing, Leggeri said there had been more than 1,600 irregular border crossings to Lithuania from Belarus since January 1 of this year, but roughly half of those, some 800, occurred in the first week of July.

      “This was clearly the sign that something was happening with more intensity,” Leggeri testified, adding: “We see that there is a high pressure that could even worsen in the next days.”

      Leggeri told Parliament that while the initial arrivals had mostly come from Iraq, Syria and Iran, this month there was a shift toward African nationals, including migrants from Congo, Gambia, Guinea, Mali and Senegal. He said Lukashenko’s government was encouraging the influx by inviting citizens to travel to Belarus without visas under the guise of obtaining coronavirus vaccines.

      “Belarus announced that 73 countries are encouraged to enter Belarus without a visa and to stay up to five days to get COVID vaccine shots,” he said.

      Lukashenko has simultaneously denied using migrants for political pressure while also warning that Belarus has no intention of halting the flows. He has effectively mocked the EU, saying last week: “We will not hold anyone back. We are not their final destination after all. They are headed to enlightened, warm, cozy Europe.”

      According to statistics from the Lithuanian Border Guard Service, a total of 1,714 irregular migrants crossed the Lithuanian border in 2021, compared to just 74 in 2020. Of these, 1,676 arrived from Belarus. According to the statistics, roughly 1,000 irregular migrants were detained between July 1 and July 11, including 377 from Iraq; 194 from the Democratic Republic of Congo; 118 from Cameroon; 67 from Guinea; 23 from Afghanistan; 22 from Togo; and 20 from Nigeria.

      The bizarre situation of Middle Eastern and African migrants arriving in the Baltics was part of a busy Foreign Affairs Council meeting that included a discussion over lunch with the new Israeli foreign affairs minister, Yair Lapid.

      Ministers also discussed the deteriorating situation in Afghanistan, which Borrell conceded was a direct consequence of the withdrawal of Western troops that was ordered by U.S. President Joe Biden. Borrell said a new international task force may be needed to try to stabilize the country and, especially, to protect the rights of women and girls, but he gave no indication of how such a task force would operate without military support.

      Ministers also discussed the continuing risk of famine in the Tigray region of Ethiopia. Borrell said the EU was trying to mobilize assistance but that it was impossible for the EU alone to address a shortage of food for an estimated 850,000 people.

      https://www.politico.eu/article/eu-deploys-border-force-in-lithuania-as-belarus-opens-pathway-for-migrants-

    • Lithuania introduces pushbacks against migrants crossing from Belarus

      As Lithuania struggles to stem the flow of migrants trying to enter the country from neighboring Belarus, border guards have said that they have begun to push back migrants trying to enter the country using irregular methods of crossing.

      Rustamas Liubajevas, the head of Lithuania’s border guard service, announced on Tuesday that “anyone who tries to enter Lithuanian territory illegally will be refused entry and directed to the nearest operational international border control point.” He added that some 180 migrants had already been sent back to Belarus on Tuesday.

      “Deterrent actions may be taken against those who do not comply,” Liubajevas said further. He did not to disclose the exact measures taken, but said the guards did not use violence to push back the migrants.

      The Baltic News Agency confirmed the reports.


      https://twitter.com/BNSLithuania/status/1422295961074814980

      Criticism against move

      The decision to introduce push backs has been taken by Lithuanian Interior Minister Agne Bilotaite, effectively allowing authorities to use force to send migrants to official border crossing points or to diplomatic missions, where they can apply for asylum legally.

      Lithuanian NGOs meanwhile have responded to the pushback of migrants, saying that it violates international human rights: “This restricts the fundamental human right to seek asylum in a safe state,” Akvile Krisciunaite, a researcher at the Diversity Development Group, told the AFP news agency.

      “Belarus is not a safe country, and human rights are known to be grossly violated there.”

      So far this year, Lithuanian border officials have detained more than 4,000 migrants — mostly Iraqi nationals. That number compares to 81 intercepted migrants for all of 2020.

      ’Cold War’ between Belarus and Lithuania

      Tensions between the two countries are on an all-time high since much of the Belarusian opposition have sought refuge in Lithuania from violent oppression following the disputed presidential reelection of authoritarian leader Alexander Lukashenko in August 2020. His main challenger and the likely winner of the vote, Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya, has been living in exile in Lithuania ever since.

      Many Western governments, including Lithuania, have denounced the alleged re-election saying results were rigged. The EU then imposed a series of sanctions. Lithuanian officials now said they suspect that the influx of migrants is being staged by the Belarusian government under Lukashenko’s leadership.

      https://www.infomigrants.net/en/post/34091/lithuania-introduces-pushbacks-against-migrants-crossing-from-belarus

    • Lithuanian parliament votes to allow mass detention of asylum seekers

      Lithuania’s parliament on Tuesday (13 July) approved the mass detention of migrants and curbed their right of appeal, a move meant to deter high numbers crossing the border with Belarus but which stirred an outcry among humanitarian groups.

      Eighty-four lawmakers supported the bill, with one objection and 5 abstentions, brushing aside protests from Red Cross and other non-governmental organizations saying it violates Lithuania’s international obligations and migrant rights.

      Lithuanian and EU officials have accused Belarus of using illegal migrants as a political weapon to exert pressure on the European Union because of the bloc’s sanctions on Minsk. More than 1,700 people have entered Lithuania from its non-EU neighbour this year, including 1,100 in July alone.

      Prime Minister Ingrida Simonyte said the detention policy would prevent migrants from illegally travelling onwards to the more affluent west of the EU – the favoured destination of the vast majority of migrants reaching EU territory in recent years.

      The legislation is intended “to send a message to Iraqis and others that this is not a convenient route, conditions will not be good here”, Interior Minister Agne Bilotaite said in introducing the bill.

      She said such migrants are “not real asylum seekers” but rather Belarusian President Alexander Lukashenko’s “tool to use against Lithuania”, after he vowed retaliation for EU sanctions imposed over his violent suppression of street protests.

      The new law bans any release of migrants from detention for six months after their arrival, curbs the right of appeal for rejected asylum-seekers and stipulates that migrants can be deported while their appeals are considered.

      “The law is a potential human rights violation, and it does not correspond to EU directives,” Lithuanian Red Cross programme director Egle Samuchovaite told Reuters.

      “It enshrines the current bad situation in Lithuania’s detention centres in law and leaves vulnerable people in an even more vulnerable situation.”

      Lithuania also began building a 550-km razor wire barrier on its frontier with Belarus on Friday.

      The small Baltic republic of 2.8 million people, on the poorer eastern end of the EU, is used to receiving less than 100 illegal migrants per year and has struggled to cope with the recent influx.

      Fewer rights for migrants

      Several migrants at a temporary detention centre in a disused school in rural Lithuania told Reuters on Monday they had been given no information about their rights or future, nine days after arriving from Belarus.

      They said they had not been given a chance to apply for asylum nor to speak with the help of a translator.

      The new law removes most rights accorded to migrants such as the right to a translator or to obtain information about their status and the asylum process.

      Lithuanian authorities are now obliged only to provide upkeep in detention, medical care and legal aid, but Simonyte said the government will try to do more.

      “The government intends to provide all support that is needed for those people,” she told reporters. “But if there is a very sudden influx in a short time frame, we might be able to ensure only what is absolutely needed. For that we should have a legal framework.”

      Dainius Zalimas, a lawyer who until June was the chairman of Lithuania’s Constitutional Court, said mass detention and restricted appeal process likely violate both Lithuania’s constitution and the European Convention of Human Rights.

      “The proposals, which are unconstitutional, are based on premise that all foreigners who crossed the border are second-class human beings, not entitled to constitutional rights,” he told Reuters before the vote.

      https://www.euractiv.com/section/justice-home-affairs/news/lithuanian-parliament-votes-to-allow-mass-detention-of-asylum-seekers

      #détention #détention_massive

    • EU presses Iraq to halt migrant flights to Belarus

      A number of new flights have been announced between Iraq and Belarus.

      The EU is ramping up pressure on Iraq to stop its airlines from flying to Belarus, which helps Minsk send asylum seekers into the EU in retaliation against sanctions imposed by the bloc.

      On Thursday, there were signs that the pressure was beginning to work. An Iraqi Airways flight from Basra to Minsk was canceled. However, an aircraft belonging to another carrier, Fly Baghdad, did land in the Belarusian capital Thursday, although a flight scheduled for Friday was canceled. Iraqi Airways recently expanded its schedule of flights to Belarus, while Fly Baghdad first started trips to Minsk in May.

      “We welcome the reports on the decision about the cancellation of these flights,” a European Commission spokesperson said Thursday, although they did not confirm reports that Iraqi Airways will cancel flights until August 15.

      The EU has accused Belarusian strongman Alexander Lukashenko of trying to “weaponize” the Iraqi migrants who arrive in Minsk. They are taken to the border with Lithuania and then cross into the EU; so far, 4,000 asylum seekers have entered, almost 2,800 of them from Iraq. Lithuanian Foreign Minister Gabrielius Landsbergis estimates that up to 10,000 migrants could come into his country by the end of the summer. Last year, Lithuania received only about 80 migrants.

      This migration crisis is very different from previous ones where people crossed into the EU by sea. The main access to Belarus is by air, and despite EU efforts to throttle traffic, Minsk is working hard to expand the number of flights reaching the country.

      The immediate pressure is on Iraq, but there is also an increase in flights to Minsk from Turkey, also reportedly carrying asylum seekers.

      The EU is ramping up pressure on Iraq to fall into line.

      Charles Michel, president of the European Council, got involved, speaking to Iraqi Prime Minister Mustafa al Kadhimi, while EU foreign policy chief Josep Borrell spoke with Iraqi Foreign Minister Fuad Hussein.

      Talks with the Iraqis are “done in a very constructive spirit [with] the Iraqi side conveying the willingness to cooperate and jointly address the situation," said the Commission spokesperson.

      Germany, the Czech Republic, Austria and others joined Lithuania in putting pressure on Baghdad, diplomats said. An Iraqi delegation was in Lithuania last week and visited the camps where Iraqis are staying.

      Some EU diplomats say that the diplomatic effort is hampered by a lack of strong leverage over Baghdad. The Iraqis “are well aware that we cannot abandon them, we need them for our security and we cannot risk having another Afghanistan next door,” said an EU diplomat.

      The bloc did threaten last month to restrict visas for Iraqis to improve cooperation in taking back people rejected for asylum. The Commission said that “Iraqi authorities cooperate only on voluntary returns and in very exceptional cases (Iraqi nationals convicted for a criminal offence) on forced returns” and that “Iraq’s cooperation with the EU on readmission matters is not sufficient and that action is needed.”
      More flights

      While flights from Iraq are the most pressing issue, there is also worry about the increase in routes from Turkey.

      In recent weeks, Belavia — which is currently banned from European airspace after Minsk illegally diverted a Ryanair plane in May to kidnap an opposition blogger — has beefed up its schedule from Turkey. Two routes between Minsk and Istanbul that had been serviced three times a week are now flying daily. Regular flights from Izmir have been reinstated, as have several regular flights from Antalya — although those are also popular holiday destinations for Belarusians.

      There is also an effort to crack down on EU-based leasing companies supplying aircraft to Belavia.

      Brussels “must make sure that no European company can provide assets that facilitate the trafficking route,” Landsbergis told POLITICO’s Brussels Playbook on Wednesday.

      According to an EU official, several of the jets operated by Belavia come from Ireland. A company based in Denmark, Nordic Aviation Capital, has also provided aircraft to Belavia in the past. A spokesperson for the firm said it would not comment, but the company announced last September that it had delivered the last plane of a five-jet agreement to the carrier.

      Danish Foreign Minister Jeppe Kofod told POLITICO his government does not yet “have sufficient information to verify such claims” but said the case is being reviewed by Danish authorities.

      “But let me be clear: If Danish companies are involved in Lukashenko’s deliberate, malicious and cynical efforts to use migrants as a political weapon to try and put pressure on Lithuania and the EU, then that would of course be totally unacceptable and should be stopped immediately,” he said. “If European companies aid and abet the Lukashenko regime in this way, then I firmly believe we need to revisit our current sanctions in the EU.”

      SMBC Aviation Capital, a Dublin-based company that has previously leased aircraft to Belavia, said in an email on Wednesday that it had not been contacted by Irish or European authorities. The Irish government did not respond to a request for comment.

      https://www.politico.eu/article/belarus-migrant-flights-eu-sanctions-iraq-turkey

      #Irak #vol #vols

    • La Lituanie commence la construction d’une clôture à la frontière avec le Bélarus

      La Lituanie a entrepris la construction d’une clôture le long de sa frontière avec le Bélarus, accusé par Vilnius et Varsovie d’acheminer des migrants vers l’UE.

      C’est un mur de plus qui va être érigé en Europe, de plusieurs centaines de kilomètres de long.

      Tetas, une entreprise de construction qui fait partie du groupe énergétique public lituanien Epso-G a commencé à acheminer le matériel nécessaire à la construction d’une clôture de 111 kilomètres de long, a rapporté le radiodiffuseur public LRT.

      L’entreprise a aussi marqué les sections des points de contrôle frontaliers de Druskininkai, Barauskas et Adutiskis dans le sud-est de la Lituanie.

      Dans l’urgence, des barbelés accordéon vont être posés dans les sections clés ce mois d’octobre, puis la pose d’une clôture de 4 mètres de hauteur sera effectuée à partir de novembre/décembre, avec pour objectif de l’achever d’ici le mois d’avril 2022.
      500 km au total

      Mais ce tronçon de 111 kilomètres ne représente qu’une première étape. L’entreprise Epso-G prévoit de lancer un second appel d’offres dès cette semaine, pour la construction d’une section de 400 kilomètres qui doit être terminée d’ici septembre 2022.

      Le gouvernement lituanien, qui accuse Alexandre Loukachenko de mener une « guerre hybride » contre la Lituanie, a alloué 152 millions d’euros pour la construction d’une barrière de 508 kilomètres.

      La Lituanie a accueilli sur son sol des opposants au régime de Loukachenko et son parlement a reconnu Svetlana Tsikhanovskaïa comme la présidente légitime du Bélarus.

      A Varsovie aussi on s’inquiète des mouvements du voisin de l’est. La Biélorussie augmente la pression de l’émigration illégale vers les frontières de l’UE en acheminant « des dizaines de milliers d’immigrants dans son pays afin de les livrer à la frontière avec la Pologne », a assuré le premier ministre Mateusz Morawiecki.

      Tout le monde en Lituanie ne voit pas ce nouveau mur d’un bon œil.

      Dans une interview au « Courrier d’Europe centrale », l’eurodéputé et ancien ministre de la Défense lituanien Juozas Olekas estime que « Loukachenko est un leader illégitime qui […] utilise les migrants comme un mécanisme de pression sur l’Union européenne ».

      Pour autant, Juozas Olekas déclare : « Je ne suis pas favorable à l’érection de murs sur l’ensemble de la frontière et je pense qu’un travail diplomatique intensif, y compris avec les pays d’origine des migrants, ou de meilleures patrouilles, qui fonctionnent déjà, seraient des mesures plus efficaces. Je pense qu’il est inutile de paniquer, car ça ne sert jamais à rien, et que nous devrions nous concentrer sur des solutions à long terme ».

      https://courrierdeuropecentrale.fr/la-lituanie-commence-la-construction-dune-cloture-a-la-front

  • List of Refugee Deaths, #2021

    –-> 44.764 documented refugee deaths

    In the ‘‘UNITED List of Refugee Deaths’’ (download pdf), UNITED has been collecting reliable data on refugee deaths related to Fortress Europe since 1993. In the period 1993-2021 at least 44.764 documented refugee deaths can be attributed to the ‘Fatal Policies of Fortress Europe’. Most probably thousands more are never found.

    http://unitedagainstrefugeedeaths.eu/about-the-campaign/about-the-united-list-of-deaths

    Pour télécharger la liste:
    unitedagainstrefugeedeaths.eu/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/ListofDeathsActual.pdf

    #décès #liste #asile #migrations #réfugiés #UNITED #statistiques #chiffres #morts

    ping @isskein @reka

    • EU ‘has blood on its hands’, say activists calling for border agency’s abolition

      Coalition of rights groups demanding Frontex be defunded claim EU policies have ‘killed over 40,555 people since 1993’.

      Activists, captains of rescue ships and about 80 human rights organisations across the world have launched an international campaign calling for the European border agency to be defunded and dismantled.

      In an open letter sent last week to the European Commission, the Council of the EU and the European parliament, the campaign coalition highlighted the “illegal and inhumane practices” of the EU border agency, Frontex, which is accused of having promoted and enforced violent policies against migrants.

      “Over 740 people have died so far this year trying to cross the Mediterranean, looking for a place of safety,” reads the letter. “The EU’s border regime forced them to take dangerous migration routes, often on unseaworthy vessels; it enlisted neighbouring countries to stop them on their way; met them with violence and pushbacks; or refused to rescue them – abandoning them to drown at sea.”

      “These are lives lost because of the European Union’s obsession with reinforcing borders instead of protecting people,” said the campaign coalition, which includes Sea-Watch, Mediterranea Saving Humans, Iuventa10, Baobab Experience and Alarm Phone. “At what cost? The policies of Fortress Europe have killed over 40,555 people since 1993. Left to die in the Mediterranean, the Atlantic and the desert, shot at borders, died by suicide at detention centres, tortured and killed after being deported –– The EU has blood on its hands.”

      The launch of the campaign to Abolish Frontex coincides with plans to expand the agency. Frontex has secured a €5.6bn (£4.8bn) budget until 2027, with plans to increase its armed border patrols. Its budget has grown by more than 7,500% since 2005, and the new resources will help buy equipment such as ships, helicopters and drones.

      The coalition has released a list of demands, including the abolition of the agency and the end of migrant detention by EU forces, and plan EU-wide protests, accusing Frontex of being “both avid promoter and key enforcer of Europe’s violent policies against people on the move”.

      It comes after the EU’s anti-fraud office, Olaf, launched an investigation into Frontex in January over allegations of harassment, misconduct and unlawful operations aimed at stopping asylum seekers from reaching EU shores.

      Europe has built more than 1,000km of border walls and fences.

      Carola Rackete, a German ship captain who is one of the campaign organisers, said: ‘“If we truly believe all humans are equal then we have to dismantle the systems which keep inequality in place. Frontex, as part of the border-industrial complex, has no place in our vision of a European society striving for justice and committed to repairing damages inflicted on the global south in a mindset of white supremacy.”

      Stéphanie Demblon, of Agir pour la Paix, said: “We are not asking for a better European migration policy: we are demanding the abolition of Frontex and the demilitarisation of the borders. And we are taking action to achieve this.”

      Frontex did not respond to the Guardian’s request for comment.

      https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2021/jun/18/eu-has-blood-on-its-hands-say-activists-calling-for-frontex-border-agen

      #Frontex

  • Abolissez Frontex, mettez fin au régime frontalier de l’Union Européenne (+ texte de Claire Rodier )

    À l’attention des gouvernements des États membres de l’UE, de la Commission européenne, du Conseil européen, du Conseil de l’UE, du Parlement européen et de l’Agence européenne de garde-frontières et de garde-côtes (Frontex).

    Depuis le début de l’année, plus de 740 personnes sont mortes en tentant de traverser la Méditerranée à la recherche d’un lieu sûr. Par son régime frontalier, l’UE les a contraintes à emprunter des routes migratoires dangereuses, souvent sur des embarcations en piteux état ; elle a fait appel aux pays voisins pour les arrêter en chemin ; elle les a accueillies avec violence et les a repoussées ; ou elle a refusé de les secourir, les laissant se noyer en mer.

    https://entreleslignesentrelesmots.blog/2021/06/12/abolissez-frontex-mettez-fin-au-regime-frontalier-de-lu

    #migration #europe #frontex

  • Rapport spécial 08/2021 : Soutien de Frontex à la gestion des frontières extérieures : pas assez efficace jusqu´ici

    Dans le cadre de l’#audit objet du présent rapport, nous avons cherché à déterminer si Frontex avait exercé de manière efficace quatre de ses six activités principales afin de contribuer à la mise en oeuvre d’une #gestion_européenne_intégrée_des_frontières, aidant ainsi les États membres à prévenir et détecter l’immigration illégale et la criminalité transfrontalière et à réagir en conséquence. Nous avons également examiné dans quelle mesure Frontex était préparée à remplir le nouveau mandat élargi qui lui a été conféré en 2019.

    Nous sommes parvenus à la conclusion que le soutien apporté par Frontex aux États membres de l’UE/pays associés à l’espace Schengen dans la lutte contre l’immigration illégale et la criminalité transfrontalière n’était pas suffisamment efficace. Nous avons observé que Frontex ne s’était pas pleinement acquittée du mandat qui lui a été confié en 2016, et nous avons mis en évidence plusieurs risques liés à son mandat de 2019.

    Rapport spécial de la Cour des comptes européenne présenté en vertu de l’article 287, paragraphe 4, deuxième alinéa, du TFUE.

    Pour télécharger le rapport :
    https://www.eca.europa.eu/Lists/ECADocuments/SR21_08/SR_Frontex_FR.pdf

    Et le communiqué de presse :
    https://www.eca.europa.eu/Lists/ECADocuments/INSR21_08/INSR_Frontex_FR.pdf

    https://www.eca.europa.eu/fr/Pages/DocItem.aspx?did=58564

    #rapport #cour_des_comptes #cour_des_comptes_européenne #Frontex #frontières #migrations #asile #réfugiés #efficacité

    ping @isskein @karine4 @_kg_

    • L’action de Frontex mise en cause par la Cour des comptes européenne

      La Cour des comptes européenne dénonce son manque d’efficacité dans la lutte contre la criminalité transfrontalière et l’immigration illégale. L’agence admet que des « améliorations » sont nécessaires.

      L’agence Frontex, déjà visée par des accusations de refoulements illégaux de migrants, voit son action mise en cause lundi par la Cour des comptes européenne, qui dénonce son manque d’efficacité dans la lutte contre la criminalité transfrontalière et l’immigration illégale. « Notre opinion, basée sur des faits, est que Frontex ne s’acquitte pas de cette tâche de manière efficace actuellement. C’est d’autant plus inquiétant à un moment où elle se voit confier des responsabilités accrues », a déclaré le responsable d’un rapport publié lundi, Leo Brincat.

      L’agence européenne, créée en 2004, a vu son mandat élargi en 2016, pour aider les Etats membres à lutter contre l’immigration illégale et la criminalité transfrontalière. Ce mandat a encore été renforcé en 2019, en prévoyant la mise en place d’un contingent permanent de 10 000 membres d’ici 2027 - alors que ses effectifs n’étaient que de 750 en 2019 - et un budget moyen d’environ 900 millions d’euros par an pour la période 2021-2027. Les auditeurs pointent notamment « des lacunes et des incohérences » dans les systèmes d’échange d’informations entre Frontex et les Etats membres.

      La nécessité d’un « cadre adéquat »

      Ils ont « noté que, bien qu’un cadre fonctionnel pour l’échange d’informations ait été mis en place pour soutenir la lutte contre l’immigration illégale, il ne fonctionnait pas suffisamment bien pour fournir un tableau exact, complet et actualisé de la situation aux frontières extérieures de l’UE ». Et qu’un « cadre adéquat pour l’échange d’informations aux fins de la lutte contre la criminalité transfrontalière n’a pas encore été institué ».

      « Cela affecte la capacité de Frontex et des États membres à surveiller les frontières extérieures et, le cas échéant, à réagir rapidement aux menaces détectées », estiment-ils. « Nous pensons que Frontex a connu trop de changements trop vite », a commenté Léo Brincat, rappelant que la décision de renforcer son mandat avait été prise par les Etats membres.

      L’audit, décidé par la Cour en 2019, ne porte toutefois pas sur les accusations de refoulements de migrants en mer Egée dont fait l’objet Frontex depuis la publication d’une enquête dans plusieurs médias en octobre 2020. Accusée d’être impliquée avec les garde-côtes grecs dans ces agissements illégaux, Frontex est visée par plusieurs enquêtes, notamment de l’Office européen de lutte antifraude, l’Olaf.

      Frontex, dirigée par le Français Fabrice Leggeri, a indiqué dans un communiqué être « consciente que des améliorations sont nécessaires et travaille dur pour rendre l’agence plus forte et encore plus efficace ». « Bon nombre des problèmes soulevés sont liés à des facteurs externes qui échappent au contrôle de l’agence », a affirmé un porte-parole de l’agence, ajoutant que la mise en oeuvre des recommandations du rapport « requiert un effort combiné de Frontex, de la Commission européenne et des autorités nationales ».

      https://www.letemps.ch/monde/laction-frontex-mise-cause-cour-comptes-europeenne

    • Union européenne et immigration : Frontex jugée inefficace pour contrôler les frontières, les ONG dénoncent l’invisibilisation des migrants à Paris

      La Cour des comptes européenne épingle Frontex, dont le budget a été multiplié par 47 en 15 ans, pour son inefficacité contre le crime transfrontalier & l’immigration illégale. L’UE parle migrations à Luxembourg. La France est critiquée pour ses choix politiques qui poussent des migrants à se cacher.

      Des ONG accusaient déjà Frontex de refouler illégalement des migrants hors d’Europe. L’agence de garde-frontières et de garde-côtes est désormais critiquée pour son manque global d’efficacité et c’est la Cour des comptes européenne qui monte au créneau : Selon elle, Frontex n’arrive pas à lutter contre la criminalité transfrontalière et l’immigration illégale, alors que son budget a été multiplié par 47 en quinze ans. A sa création, ce corps de garde-frontières censé aider à sécuriser les frontières extérieures, était dotée de 19 millions d’euros par an, 900 millions d’euros aujourd’hui. Frontex est devenue la plus grosse agence de l’Union européenne, avec de lourdes responsabilités et un budget de 11 milliards d’euros pour la période 2021-2027. Mais l’argent du contribuable européen n’est pas forcément utilisé à bon escient, selon un audit de la Cour des comptes de l’Union européenne. Rapport sévère contre Frontex, analysé par Marie-Pierre Vérot.

      Les frontières extérieures de l’Union, il en sera aussi question lors d’une réunion à Luxembourg. L’occasion pour les ONG et la Défenseure des droits d’alerter sur des choix politiques pour rendre les migrants invisibles. A force de démanteler leurs campements de fortune et faute d’hébergement durable, certains vont se cacher dans des buissons, sous les ponts du périphérique parisien. La question migratoire et les règles aux frontières extérieures des Vingt-Sept seront au cœur d’une réunion des ministres européens de l’Intérieur et de la Justice, aujourd’hui, à Luxembourg. En France, la pandémie, les confinements successifs et les décisions politiques de ces derniers mois ont aggravé la situation des migrants, alerte la Défenseure des droits Claire Hédon. En Ile-de-France, les campements de fortune sont systématiquement évacués, comme fin novembre, à Saint-Denis, où 3 000 personnes dormaient sous des tentes ou à même le sol. La Défenseure des droits, les demandeurs d’asile et les associations sur le terrain dénoncent une invisibilisation de ces exilés. Reportage, à Paris de Théo Sire. Contactée, la préfecture d’Ile-de-France n’a pas répondu à nos sollicitations.

      https://www.franceculture.fr/emissions/journal-de-7-h/journal-de-7h-du-mardi-08-juin-2021

    • La Cour des comptes de l’UE critique quant au rôle, à l’efficacité et à la gestion de Frontex

      L’organisme européen estime que l’Agence de garde-frontières et de garde-côtes ne soutient « pas toujours » les Etats membres dans leur gestion des frontières extérieures.

      Instrument essentiel dans le projet de « pacte global » pour la migration déposé par la Commission européenne en 2020 ainsi que pour ses récents plans de réforme de l’espace Schengen, l’agence Frontex est-elle, actuellement, capable d’exercer ses missions de contrôle des frontières extérieures de l’Union et de lutte contre la migration illégale et la criminalité ? La réponse est négative et, cette fois, elle ne vient pas d’ONG ou de médias mais de l’une des institutions les plus importantes de l’Union, à savoir la Cour des comptes européenne.

      Basée à Luxembourg, cette instance est chargée de contrôler les organisations qui gèrent des fonds de l’UE et publie des recommandations afin d’améliorer leur fonctionnement. Le rapport, publié lundi 7 juin, qu’elle consacre à l’activité de l’Agence de garde-frontières et de garde-côtes ne passera pas inaperçu.

      La Cour estime, en effet, que Frontex ne soutient « pas toujours » les Etats membres dans leur gestion des frontières extérieures, ce qui s’avère « particulièrement préoccupant », étant donné que cette agence établie à Varsovie va voir ses moyens, son budget, et ses tâches enfler considérablement au cours des prochaines années.

      Quant à la lutte contre le crime transfrontalier, autre mission-clé de Frontex, elle occupe une place trop limitée dans ses activités, relève le rapport. On manque, à cet égard, de données sur ses performances et le coût de ses agents. Les décideurs ne sont, dès lors, pas informés correctement. La Cour des comptes relève qu’aucune analyse d’impact n’a précédé la décision de faire de l’agence le premier corps armé de l’Union. Le dernier examen externe de son fonctionnement remonte d’ailleurs à 2015.
      Une action « pas assez efficace »

      C’est ensuite en 2016 et 2019 que ses compétences ont été progressivement élargies et qu’elle est passée d’un rôle de soutien et de coordination aux pays membres à un rôle vraiment opérationnel. Pour cela, l’organisation dirigée par le Français Fabrice Leggeri disposera, d’ici à 2027, d’un contingent de 10 000 agents et d’un budget annuel de quelque 900 millions d’euros.

      Or, aujourd’hui déjà, son action n’est « pas assez efficace », relèvent les auditeurs de la Cour : Frontex ne s’est pas pleinement acquittée de son mandat de 2016 et celui de 2019 présente « plusieurs risques ». Notamment parce que l’agence n’a pas adapté son organisation et accumule trop de lacunes dans l’utilisation des ressources humaines, l’analyse des risques ou la communication entre ses différentes unités.

      Autre critique : l’augmentation exponentielle des ressources décidée « a été approuvée alors que les besoins et l’impact sur les Etats membres n’avaient pas été quantifiés » et qu’en fait l’efficacité de Frontex n’a pas été mesurée depuis l’arrivée massive de migrants en 2015-2016. L’impression que la Commission et le Conseil ont assez largement improvisé l’extension du rôle de l’agence, au plus fort de la crise migratoire déclenchée voici plus de cinq ans, est confirmée par d’autres observations du rapport.

      Tentant de parer au plus pressé pour éviter une nouvelle crise et rassurer l’opinion quant à leur capacité de gérer la question migratoire, les décideurs ont, par exemple, prévu un cadre pour l’échange d’informations, mais, en réalité, il n’offre pas une vision précise de la situation aux frontières extérieures. La réelle surveillance de celles-ci et une réaction rapide à d’éventuelles menaces sont donc improbables. Jusqu’ici, seule la Grèce, en première ligne, a d’ailleurs activé (à quatre reprises) le mécanisme d’intervention rapide de Frontex -d’autres Etats, comme l’Italie, se gardent d’en appeler à cet embryon de force paneuropéenne.
      Statistiques non harmonisées

      L’efficacité du cadre d’échanges fixé est, en outre, entravée par des contraintes juridiques liées à l’exploitation des données. Certaines capitales ne livrent pas des informations suffisamment exhaustives ou qualitatives. Et si d’autres le sont, leur format fait que, pour des raisons techniques, elles restent inaccessibles à d’autres pays. Globalement, les statistiques sur des situations problématiques ne sont, elles, ni harmonisées ni comparables. Quant aux équipements mis en commun pour le contrôle des passages aux frontières, ils ne sont pas toujours interopérables.

      En concluant la cinquantaine de pages de son rapport, la Cour des comptes formule des recommandations qui alimenteront notamment les débats du Parlement européen, où de nombreux élus de gauche et du centre sont d’ores et déjà très remontés contre l’agence. Les eurodéputés ont refusé récemment de donner leur quitus au budget 2019 de l’agence et ils enquêtent toujours sur le rôle présumé de Frontex -qui rejette les accusations- dans des refoulements illégaux de migrants (ou « pushbacks ») dans différents pays de l’Union, à commencer par la Grèce.

      Le rapport n’évoque pas, il faut le noter, cette question du respect des droits fondamentaux. Elle « sortait du cadre de cet audit », indique le Cour, mais sera sans doute étudiée plus tard, dans le cadre d’une analyse sur la politique de l’Union en matière de retour des migrants et de lutte contre les trafics. En 2019, les opérations de retour représentaient 28 % des coûts opérationnels de Frontex.

      Dans l’immédiat, les auditeurs de Luxembourg prônent l’amélioration du cadre européen pour l’échange d’informations et le renforcement du rôle opérationnel de Frontex, avec la définition d’une méthodologie, des exercices en commun et une analyse du coût et de la pertinence des opérations menées. Ou encore une réforme en profondeur de l’organisation interne. « Il n’est pas certain que le contingent permanent [de 10 000 hommes] puisse fonctionner comme prévu », conclut le rapport, dans un sous-entendu lourd de sens. Dans l’immédiat, Frontex se dit cependant « consciente de [ses]lacunes » et prête à appliquer ces « conseils ».

      https://www.lemonde.fr/international/article/2021/06/07/la-cour-des-comptes-de-l-ue-critique-quant-au-role-a-l-efficacite-et-a-la-ge

  • Asyl im Dialog - der #Podcast der #Refugee_Law_Clinics Deutschland

    Episonden

    Flucht und Behinderung

    70 Jahre Genfer Flüchtlingskonvention

    Rechtswidrige Hausordnungen für Geflüchtete

    Wieso Menschen aus Eritrea fiehen

    Somalia - Frauen* auf der Flucht

    Alarmphone statt Küstenwache

    Warum Afghanistan nicht sicher ist

    Brutalität und Menschenrechte auf der Balkanroute

    Solidarität kindgerecht: Eine Wiese für alle

    Wenn der Klimanwandel zum Fluchtgrund wird

    Migrationssteuerung durch die EU in Westafrika

    Abschottung reloaded - die Zukunft der Hotspots durch den Nwe
    Pact der EU

    FRONTEX - Grenzschutz außer Kontrolle

    Flucht und Trauma

    Das Asylrecht aus Sicht eines Verwaltungsrichters

    Wenn JUMEN e.V. Familiennachzug durch strategische
    Prozessführung erkämpft

    Wieso das AsybLG ein Gestz für Menschen zweiter Klasse ist

    Wie hängen Flucht und Menschenhandel zusammen? Wie die EU ihre
    Verpflichtung zur Seenotrettung umgeht

    Die Härtefallkommission als Gandeninstanz

    Haft ohne Straftat - aus der Praxis einer Abschiebehaft

    Entrechtung von Geduldeten -die neue Duldung light

    Die griechischen Hospots

    Das Kirchenasyl als ultima ratio

    Zuständigkeiten im Asylverfahren

    Gestzgebung im Asylrecht seit 2015 - rechtsiwedrig und populistisch?

    Was machen Refugee Law Clinics?

    #podcast #audio #RLC #Germany #migration #refugees #EU #Frontex #migration_law #Duldung #trauma #gender #women* #handicap #children #family #asylum #Balkans #church_asylum #Greece #hotspot #Alarmphone #human_rights #Eritrea #Afghanistan

    ping @cdb_77

    https://www.podcast.de/podcast/778497/asyl-im-dialog-der-podcast-der-refugee-law-clinics-deutschland