• The World the Gulf Has Built | Public Books

    One of the most notable instances of the GCC’s innovative urban policy is the establishment of Abu Dhabi’s Masdar City. Masdar is a planned city, launched in 2006, with a slated cost of $22 billion. It was intended to be a “zero-carbon” district, where cars were prohibited in favor of an automated personal rapid transport network. It also included a graduate research center, the Masdar Institute, established in collaboration with #MIT and focused on renewable energy.

    But Masdar City was short-lived. Soon after the financial crisis of 2008, the master plan was reformulated. Since then, it has been slowly transformed from an “eco-city” to a special economic zone for renewable energy and clean technology companies. (…)

    In Spaceship in the Desert, Gökçe Günel zeroes in on Masdar City. Günel is determined to take Masdar and its inhabitants seriously: she wants to understand how cosmopolitan actors such as “Jack,” who has a PhD in engineering science and is an American faculty member at the Masdar Institute, “set about the task of building a renewable energy and clean technology sector.” People like Jack and institutions like MIT will be central to any resolution of our current state of climate emergency, and it’s necessary to study their process. Jack’s training in the GCC model of green development is especially consequential, because renewable energy and clean technology—the Masdar way—also relied on cheap labor and the speed, capital, and efficiency that authoritarian rule lent to the project. These political dynamics, Günel shows, were not only left unaddressed at Masdar; they were actively buried.

    Avoiding pressing social and political injustices is not something that is specific to the founders of Masdar or the UAE, as Günel is also keen to stress. Western companies like Siemens and General Electric were equally adept at sidestepping difficult social and ethical issues. These companies created fantastical images of the future at Masdar where, as Günel writes, “renewable energy and clean technology companies embodied a messianic promise, seeking to liberate humanity from its guilt-ridden consciousness of the twentieth century.” The global climate crisis is serious, but Günel shows that our attempts to tackle it are less so.

    #climat #golfe #livre

  • Ethiopians Abused on Gulf Migration Route

    Ethiopians undertaking the perilous journey by boat across the Red Sea or Gulf of Aden face exploitation and torture in Yemen by a network of trafficking groups, Human Rights Watch said today. They also encounter abusive prison conditions in Saudi Arabia before being summarily forcibly deported back to Addis Ababa. Authorities in Ethiopia, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia have taken few if any measures to curb the violence migrants face, to put in place asylum procedures, or to check abuses perpetrated by their own security forces.

    A combination of factors, including unemployment and other economic difficulties, drought, and human rights abuses have driven hundreds of thousands of Ethiopians to migrate over the past decade, traveling by boat over the Red Sea and then by land through Yemen to Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia and neighboring Gulf states are favored destinations because of the availability of employment. Most travel irregularly and do not have legal status once they reach Saudi Arabia.

    “Many Ethiopians who hoped for a better life in Saudi Arabia face unspeakable dangers along the journey, including death at sea, torture, and all manners of abuses,” said Felix Horne, senior Africa researcher at Human Rights Watch. “The Ethiopian government, with the support of its international partners, should support people who arrive back in Ethiopia with nothing but the clothes on their back and nowhere to turn for help.”

    Human Rights Watch interviewed 12 Ethiopians in Addis Ababa who had been deported from Saudi Arabia between December 2018 and May 2019. Human Rights Watch also interviewed humanitarian workers and diplomats working on Ethiopia migration-related issues.

    The International Organization for Migration (IOM) estimates as many as 500,000 Ethiopians were in Saudi Arabia when the Saudi government began a deportation campaign in November 2017. The Saudi authorities have arrested, prosecuted, or deported foreigners who violate labor or residency laws or those who crossed the border irregularly. About 260,000 Ethiopians, an average of 10,000 per month, were deported from Saudi Arabia to Ethiopia between May 2017 and March 2019, according to the IOM, and deportations have continued.

    An August 2 Twitter update by Saudi Arabia’s Interior Ministry said that police had arrested 3.6 million people, including 2.8 million for violations of residency rules, 557,000 for labor law violations, and 237,000 for border violations. In addition, authorities detained 61,125 people for crossing the border into Saudi Arabia illegally, 51 percent of them Ethiopians, and referred more than 895,000 people for deportation. Apart from illegal border crossing, these figures are not disaggregated by nationality.

    Eleven of the 12 people interviewed who had been deported had engaged with smuggling and trafficking networks that are regionally linked across Ethiopia, Djibouti, Somalia’s semi-autonomous Puntland state, the self-declared autonomous state of Somaliland, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. Traffickers outside of Ethiopia, particularly in Yemen, often used violence or threats to extort ransom money from migrants’ family members or contacts, those interviewed told Human Rights Watch. The 12th person was working in Saudi Arabia legally but was deported after trying to help his sister when she arrived illegally.

    Those interviewed described life-threatening journeys as long as 24 hours across the Gulf of Aden or the Red Sea to reach Yemen, in most cases in overcrowded boats, with no food or water, and prevented from moving around by armed smugglers.

    “There were 180 people on the boat, but 25 died,” one man said. “The boat was in trouble and the waves were hitting it. It was overloaded and about to sink so the dallalas [an adaptation of the Arabic word for “middleman” or “broker”] picked some out and threw them into the sea, around 25.”

    Interviewees said they were met and captured by traffickers upon arrival in Yemen. Five said the traffickers physically assaulted them to extort payments from family members or contacts in Ethiopia or Somalia. While camps where migrants were held capture were run by Yemenis, Ethiopians often carried out the abuse. In many cases, relatives said they sold assets such as homes or land to obtain the ransom money.

    After paying the traffickers or escaping, the migrants eventually made their way north to the Saudi-Yemen border, crossing in rural, mountainous areas. Interviewees said Saudi border guards fired at them, killing and injuring others crossing at the same time, and that they saw dead bodies along the crossing routes. Human Rights Watch has previously documented Saudi border guards shooting and killing migrants crossing the border.

    “At the border there are many bodies rotting, decomposing,” a 26-year-old man said: “It is like a graveyard.”

    Six interviewees said they were apprehended by Saudi border police, while five successfully crossed the border but were later arrested. They described abusive prison conditions in several facilities in southern Saudi Arabia, including inadequate food, toilet facilities, and medical care; lack of sanitation; overcrowding; and beatings by guards.

    Planes returning people deported from Saudi Arabia typically arrive in Addis Ababa either at the domestic terminal or the cargo terminal of Bole International Airport. Several humanitarian groups conduct an initial screening to identify the most vulnerable cases, with the rest left to their own devices. Aid workers in Ethiopia said that deportees often arrive with no belongings and no money for food, transportation, or shelter. Upon arrival, they are offered little assistance to help them deal with injuries or psychological trauma, or to support transportation to their home communities, in some cases hundreds of kilometers from Addis Ababa.

    Human Rights Watch learned that much of the migration funding from Ethiopia’s development partners is specifically earmarked to manage migration along the routes from the Horn of Africa to Europe and to assist Ethiopians being returned from Europe, with very little left to support returnees from Saudi Arabia.

    “Saudi Arabia has summarily returned hundreds of thousands of Ethiopians to Addis Ababa who have little to show for their journey except debts and trauma,” Horne said. “Saudi Arabia should protect migrants on its territory and under its control from traffickers, ensure there is no collusion between its agents and these criminals, and provide them with the opportunity to legally challenge their detention and deportation.”

    All interviews were conducted in Amharic, Tigrayan, or Afan Oromo with translation into English. The interviewees were from the four regions of SNNPR (Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region), Oromia, Amhara, and Tigray. These regions have historically produced the bulk of Ethiopians migrating abroad. To protect interviewees from possible reprisals, pseudonyms are being used in place of their real names. Human Rights Watch wrote to the Ethiopian and Saudi governments seeking comment on abuses described by Ethiopian migrants along the Gulf migration route, but at the time of writing neither had responded.

    Dangerous Boat Journey

    Most of the 11 people interviewed who entered Saudi Arabia without documents described life-threatening boat journeys across the Red Sea from Djibouti, Somaliland, or Puntland to Yemen. They described severely overcrowded boats, beatings, and inadequate food or water on journeys that ranged from 4 to 24 hours. These problems were compounded by dangerous weather conditions or encounters with Saudi/Emirati-led coalition naval vessels patrolling the Yemeni coast.

    “Berhanu” said that Somali smugglers beat people on his boat crossing from Puntland: “They have a setup they use where they place people in spots by weight to keep the boat balanced. If you moved, they beat you.” He said that his trip was lengthened when smugglers were forced to turn the boat around after spotting a light from a naval vessel along the Yemeni coast and wait several hours for it to pass.

    Since March 26, 2015, Saudi Arabia has led a coalition of countries in a military campaign against the Houthi armed group in Yemen. As part of its campaign the Saudi/Emirati-led coalition has imposed a naval blockade on Houthi-controlled Yemeni ports, purportedly to prevent Houthi rebels from importing weapons by sea, but which has also restricted the flow of food, fuel, and medicine to civilians in the country, and included attacks on civilians at sea. Human Rights Watch previously documented a helicopter attack in March 2017 by coalition forces on a boat carrying Somali migrants and refugees returning from Yemen, killing at least 32 of the 145 Somali migrants and refugees on board and one Yemeni civilian.

    Exploitation and Abuses in Yemen

    Once in war-torn Yemen, Ethiopian migrants said they faced kidnappings, beatings, and other abuses by traffickers trying to extort ransom money from them or their family members back home.

    This is not new. Human Rights Watch, in a 2014 report, documented abuses, including torture, of migrants in detention camps in Yemen run by traffickers attempting to extort payments. In 2018, Human Rights Watch documented how Yemeni guards tortured and raped Ethiopian and other Horn of Africa migrants at a detention center in Aden and worked in collaboration with smugglers to send them back to their countries of origin. Recent interviews by Human Rights Watch indicate that the war in Yemen has not significantly affected the abuses against Ethiopians migrating through Yemen to Saudi Arabia. If anything, the conflict, which escalated in 2015, has made the journey more dangerous for migrants who cross into an area of active fighting.

    Seven of the 11 irregular migrants interviewed said they faced detention and extortion by traffickers in Yemen. This occurred in many cases as soon as they reached shore, as smugglers on boats coordinated with the Yemeni traffickers. Migrants said that Yemeni smuggling and trafficking groups always included Ethiopians, often one from each of Oromo, Tigrayan, and Amhara ethnic groups, who generally were responsible for beating and torturing migrants to extort payments. Migrants were generally held in camps for days or weeks until they could provide ransom money, or escape. Ransom payments were usually made by bank transfers from relatives and contacts back in Ethiopia.

    “Abebe” described his experience:

    When we landed… [the traffickers] took us to a place off the road with a tent. Everyone there was armed with guns and they threw us around like garbage. The traffickers were one Yemeni and three Ethiopians – one Tigrayan, one Amhara, and one Oromo…. They started to beat us after we refused to pay, then we had to call our families…. My sister [in Ethiopia] has a house, and the traffickers called her, and they fired a bullet near me that she could hear. They sold the house and sent the money [40,000 Birr, US $1,396].

    “Tesfalem”, said that he was beaten by Yemenis and Ethiopians at a camp he believes was near the port city of Aden:

    They demanded money, but I said I don’t have any. They told me to make a call, but I said I don’t have relatives. They beat me and hung me on the wall by one hand while standing on a chair, then they kicked the chair away and I was swinging by my arm. They beat me on my head with a stick and it was swollen and bled.

    He escaped after three months, was detained in another camp for three months more, and finally escaped again.

    “Biniam” said the men would take turns beating the captured migrants: “The [Ethiopian] who speaks your language beats you, those doing the beating were all Ethiopians. We didn’t think of fighting back against them because we were so tired, and they would kill you if you tried.”

    Two people said that when they landed, the traffickers offered them the opportunity to pay immediately to travel by car to the Saudi border, thereby avoiding the detention camps. One of them, “Getachew,” said that he paid 1,500 Birr (US $52) for the car and escaped mistreatment.

    Others avoided capture when they landed, but then faced the difficult 500 kilometer journey on foot with few resources while trying to avoid capture.

    Dangers faced by Yemeni migrants traveling north were compounded for those who ran into areas of active fighting between Houthi forces and groups aligned with the Saudi/Emirati-led coalition. Two migrants said that their journey was delayed, one by a week, the other by two months, to avoid conflict areas.

    Migrants had no recourse to local authorities and did not report abuses or seek assistance from them. Forces aligned with the Yemeni government and the Houthis have also detained migrants in poor conditions, refused access to protection and asylum procedures, deported migrants en masse in dangerous conditions, and exposed them to abuse. In April 2018, Human Rights Watch reported that Yemeni government officials had tortured, raped, and executed migrants and asylum seekers from the Horn of Africa in a detention center in the southern port city of Aden. The detention center was later shut down.

    The International Organization for Migration (IOM) announced in May that it had initiated a program of voluntary humanitarian returns for irregular Ethiopian migrants held by Yemeni authorities at detention sites in southern Yemen. IOM said that about 5,000 migrants at three sites were held in “unsustainable conditions,” and that the flights from Aden to Ethiopia had stalled because the Saudi/Emirati-led coalition had failed to provide the flights the necessary clearances. The coalition controls Yemen’s airspace.

    Crossing the Border; Abusive Detention inside Saudi Arabia

    Migrants faced new challenges attempting to cross the Saudi-Yemen border. The people interviewed said that the crossing points used by smugglers are in rural, mountainous areas where the border separates Yemen’s Saada Governorate and Saudi Arabia’s Jizan Province. Two said that smugglers separated Ethiopians by their ethnic group and assigned different groups to cross at different border points.

    Ethiopian migrants interviewed were not all able to identify the locations where they crossed. Most indicated points near the Yemeni mountain villages Souq al-Ragu and ‘Izlat Al Thabit, which they called Ragu and Al Thabit. Saudi-aligned media have regularly characterized Souq al-Ragu as a dangerous town from which drug smugglers and irregular migrants cross into Saudi Arabia.

    Migrants recounted pressures to pay for the crossing by smuggling drugs into Saudi Arabia. “Abdi” said he stayed in Souq al-Ragu for 15 days and finally agreed to carry across a 25 kilogram sack of khat in exchange for 500 Saudi Riyals (US$133). Khat is a mild stimulant grown in the Ethiopian highlands and Yemen; it is popular among Yemenis and Saudis, but illegal in Saudi Arabia.

    “Badessa” described Souq al-Ragu as “the crime city:”

    You don’t know who is a trafficker, who is a drug person, but everybody has an angle of some sort. Even Yemenis are afraid of the place, it is run by Ethiopians. It is also a burial place; bodies are gathered of people who had been shot along the border and then they’re buried there. There is no police presence.

    Four of the eleven migrants who crossed the border on foot said Saudi border guards shot at them during their crossings, sometimes after ordering them to stop and other times without warning. Some said they encountered dead bodies along the way. Six said they were apprehended by Saudi border guards or drug police at the border, while five were arrested later.

    “Abebe” said that Saudi border guards shot at his group as they crossed from Izlat Al Thabit:

    They fired bullets, and everyone scattered. People fleeing were shot, my friend was shot in the leg…. One person was shot in the chest and killed and [the Saudi border guards] made us carry him to a place where there was a big excavator. They didn’t let us bury him; the excavator dug a hole and they buried him.

    Berhanu described the scene in the border area: “There were many dead people at the border. You could walk on the corpses. No one comes to bury them.”

    Getachew added: “It is like a graveyard. There are no dogs or hyenas there to eat the bodies, just dead bodies everywhere.”

    Two of the five interviewees who crossed the border without being detained said that Saudi and Ethiopian smugglers and traffickers took them to informal detention camps in southern Saudi towns and held them for ransom. “Yonas” said they took him and 14 others to a camp in the Fayfa area of Jizan Province: “They beat me daily until I called my family. They wanted 10,000 Birr ($349). My father sold his farmland and sent the 10,000 Birr, but then they told me this isn’t enough, we need 20,000 ($698). I had nothing left and decided to escape or die.” He escaped.

    Following their capture, the migrants described abusive conditions in Saudi governmental detention centers and prisons, including overcrowding and inadequate food, water, and medical care. Migrants also described beatings by Saudi guards.

    Nine migrants who were captured while crossing the border illegally or living in Saudi Arabia without documentation spent up to five months in detention before authorities deported them back to Ethiopia. The three others were convicted of criminal offenses that included human trafficking and drug smuggling, resulting in longer periods in detention before being deported.

    The migrants identified about 10 prisons and detention centers where they were held for various periods. The most frequently cited were a center near the town of al-Dayer in Jizan Province along the border, Jizan Central Prison in Jizan city, and the Shmeisi Detention Center east of Jeddah, where migrants are processed for deportation.

    Al-Dayer had the worst conditions, they said, citing overcrowding, inadequate sanitation, food and water, and medical care. Yonas said:

    They tied our feet with chains and they beat us while chained, sometimes you can’t get to the food because you are chained. If you get chained by the toilet it will overflow and flow under you. If you are aggressive you get chained by the toilet. If you are good [behave well], they chain you to another person and you can move around.

    Abraham had a similar description:

    The people there beat us. Ethnic groups [from Ethiopia] fought with each other. The toilet was overflowing. It was like a graveyard and not a place to live. Urine was everywhere and people were defecating. The smell was terrible.

    Other migrants described similarly bad conditions in Jizan Central Prison. “Ibrahim” said that he was a legal migrant working in Saudi Arabia, but that he travelled to Jizan to help his sister, whom Saudi authorities had detained after she crossed from Yemen illegally. Once in Jizan, authorities suspected him of human trafficking and arrested him, put him on trial, and sentenced him to two years in prison, a sentenced he partially served in Jizan Central Prison:

    Jizan prison is so very tough…. You can be sleeping with [beside] someone who has tuberculosis, and if you ask an official to move you, they don’t care. They will beat you. You can’t change clothes, you have one set and that is it, sometimes the guards will illegally bring clothes and sell to you at night.

    He also complained of overcrowding: “When you want to sleep you tell people and they all jostle to make some room, then you sleep for a bit but you wake up because everyone is jostling against each other.”

    Most of the migrants said food was inadequate. Yonas described the situation in al-Dayer: “When they gave food 10 people would gather and fight over it. If you don’t have energy you won’t eat. The fight is over rice and bread.”

    Detainees also said medical care was inadequate and that detainees with symptoms of tuberculosis (such as cough, fever, night sweats, or weight loss) were not isolated from other prisoners. Human Rights Watch interviewed three former detainees who were being treated for tuberculosis after being deported, two of whom said they were held with other detainees despite having symptoms of active tuberculosis.

    Detainees described being beaten by Saudi prison guards when they requested medical care. Abdi said:

    I was beaten once with a stick in Jizan that was like a piece of rebar covered in plastic. I was sick in prison and I used to vomit. They said, ‘why do you do that when people are eating?’ and then they beat me harshly and I told him [the guard], ‘Please kill me.’ He eventually stopped.

    Ibrahim said he was also beaten when he requested medical care for tuberculosis:

    [Prison guards] have a rule that you aren’t supposed to knock on the door [and disturb the guards]. When I got sick in the first six months and asked to go to the clinic, they just beat me with electric wires on the bottom of my feet. I kept asking so they kept beating.

    Detainees said that the other primary impetus for beatings by guards was fighting between different ethnic groups of Ethiopians in detention, largely between ethnic Oromos, Amharas, and Tigrayans. Ethnic tensions are increasingly common back in Ethiopia.

    Detainees said that conditions generally improved once they were transferred to Shmeisi Detention Center, near Jeddah, where they stayed only a few days before receiving temporary travel documents from Ethiopian consular authorities and deported to Ethiopia. The migrants charged with and convicted of crimes had no opportunity to consult legal counsel.

    None of the migrants said they were given the opportunity to legally challenge their deportations, and Saudi Arabia has not established an asylum system under which migrants could apply for protection from deportation where there was a risk of persecution if they were sent back. Saudi Arabia is not a party to the 1951 Refugee Convention.

    Deportation and Future Prospects

    Humanitarian workers and diplomats told Human Rights Watch that since the beginning of Saudi Arabia’s deportation campaign, large numbers of Ethiopian deportees have been transported via special flights by Saudia Airlines to Bole International Airport in Addis Ababa and unloaded in a cargo area away from the main international terminal or at the domestic terminal. When Human Rights Watch visited in May, it appeared that the Saudi flights were suspended during the month of Ramadan, during which strict sunrise-to-sunset fasting is observed by Muslims. All interviewees who were deported in May said they had returned on regular Ethiopian Airlines commercial flights and disembarked at the main terminal with other passengers.

    All of those deported said that they returned to Ethiopia with nothing but the clothes they were wearing, and that Saudi authorities had confiscated their mobile phones and in some cases shoes and belts. “After staying in Jeddah … they had us make a line and take off our shoes,” Abraham said. “Anything that could tie like a belt we had to leave, they wouldn’t let us take it. We were barefoot when we went to the airport.”

    Deportees often have critical needs for assistance, including medical care, some for gunshot wounds. One returnee recovering from tuberculosis said that he did not have enough money to buy food and was going hungry. Abdi said that when he left for Saudi Arabia he weighed 64 kilograms but returned weighing only 47 or 48 kilograms.

    Aid workers and diplomats familiar with migration issues in Ethiopia said that very little international assistance is earmarked for helping deportees from Saudi Arabia for medical care and shelter or money to return and reintegrate in their home villages.

    Over 8 million people are in need of food assistance in Ethiopia, a country of over 100 million. It hosts over 920,000 refugees from neighboring countries and violence along ethnic lines produced over 2.4 internally displaced people in 2018, many of whom have now been returned.

    The IOM registers migrants upon arrival in Ethiopia and to facilitate their return from Saudi Arabia. Several hours after their arrival and once registered, they leave the airport and must fend for themselves. Some said they had never been to Addis before.

    In 2013 and 2014, Saudi Arabia conducted an expulsion campaign similar to the one that began in November 2017. The earlier campaign expelled about 163,000 Ethiopians, according to the IOM. A 2015 Human Rights Watch report found that migrants experienced serious abuses during detention and deportation, including attacks by security forces and private citizens in Saudi Arabia, and inadequate and abusive detention conditions. Human Rights Watch has also previously documented mistreatment of Ethiopian migrants by traffickers and government detention centers in Yemen.

    Aid workers and diplomats said that inadequate funding to assist returning migrants is as a result of several factors, including a focus of many of the European funders on stemming migration to and facilitating returns from Europe, along with competing priorities and the low visibility of the issue compared with migration to Europe.

    During previous mass returns from Saudi Arabia, there was more funding for reintegration and more international media attention in part because there was such a large influx in a short time, aid workers said.

    #migrations #asile #violence #réfugiés #réfugiés_éthiopiens #Ethiopie #pays_du_Golfe #route_du_Golfe #mer_Rouge #Golfe_d'Aden #Yémen #Arabie_Saoudite #frontières #violent_borders #torture #trafic_d'êtres_humains #exploitation #routes_migratoires

    signalé par @isskein

  • L’Irak contre une participation d’Israël à une « mission de sécurité » dans le Golfe
    Par Le Figaro avec AFP Publié le 12/08/2019

    (...) Lundi, Mohammed Ali al-Hakim a souligné sur Twitter que l’Irak « refusait toute participation de forces de l’entité sioniste dans une quelconque force militaire pour sécuriser la navigation dans le Golfe ». « Les Etats du Golfe peuvent ensemble assurer la sécurité de la navigation dans le Golfe », a-t-il estimé, ajoutant que « l’Irak œuvrait à faire baisser les tensions dans notre région par la voie de négociations sereines ». Il a jugé que « la présence de forces occidentales dans la région ferait monter la tension ». (...)

    • Zarif: US arms sales make Gulf into ’tinderbox ready to blow up’

      Iran’s foreign minister warns against arms race after Saudi Arabia and UAE spent more than $100bn on weaponry.
      12 août 2019

      Iran’s Minister of Foreign Affairs Mohammad Javad Zarif has warned against an arms race in the Middle East, saying recent US weapons sales have turned the Gulf region into a “tinderbox ready to blow up”.

      In an exclusive interview with Al Jazeera on Monday, Zarif said more warships in the Gulf would only lead to more insecurity.

      “The US [sold] $50bn worth of weapons to the region last year. Some of the countries in the region with less than a third of our population spend $87bn on military procurement,” Zarif told Al Jazeera in Qatar’s capital, Doha.

      “Let’s make a comparison; Iran spent last year $16bn on all its military with almost one million people in the army. The UAE with a total population of one million spent $22bn, Saudi Arabia spent $87bn,” he continued.

      “If you are talking about threats coming from the region, the threats are coming from the US and its allies who are pouring weapons in the region, making it a tinderbox ready to blow up.”


  • Les migrations contribuent-elles à améliorer la condition des femmes au pays d’origine ?

    Ce 9e numéro de #De_facto mobilise des chercheurs en #économie_du_développement pour apprécier les conséquences des migrations sur la #condition_des_femmes dans les #pays_d’origine. Sandrine Mesplé-Somps et Idrissa Diabaté montrent que les émigrées qui rentrent au Mali depuis la Côte d’Ivoire contribuent à faire reculer l’#excision (http://icmigrations.fr/2019/07/01/defacto-9-001). À l’opposé, Simone Bertoli constate que les Égyptiens ayant séjourné dans les #pays_du_Golfe en reviennent avec une vision plus conservatrice du #rôle_des_femmes (http://icmigrations.fr/2019/07/01/defacto-9-003). Jason Gagnon compare migrations féminines et migrations masculines à l’échelle des grandes régions du monde et montre que les femmes migrent aussi dans l’espoir de s’émanciper (http://icmigrations.fr/2019/07/01/defacto-9-004). Au #Sénégal, où nous emmène Sylvie Lambert, les #migrations_matrimoniales des femmes peuvent leur permettre d’améliorer leur #bien-être et de gagner en #autonomie (http://icmigrations.fr/2019/07/01/defacto-9-002).

    #femmes #migrations #asile #réfugiés #développement #Golfe #émancipation #Egypte #Mali

  • #Golfe_du_Mexique : 17 000 litres de pétrole s’échappent chaque jour d’une plate-forme depuis quinze ans

    Un rapport de l’Agence américaine d’observation océanique et atmosphérique (NOAA), publié lundi 24 juin, vient toutefois de faire voler en éclats le récit de #Taylor_Energy. Selon l’agence fédérale, la plate-forme laisse échapper jusqu’à 17 000 litres de #pétrole quotidiennement et ce depuis quinze ans –, soit plus de 1 000 fois l’estimation donnée par la compagnie de forage.

    #pollueur #menteur

  • Crise dans le #Golfe : les enjeux géostratégiques du #détroit_d’Ormuz

    Le détroit d’#Ormuz, qui permet aux navires de quitter le Golfe, est un petit bras de mer large de 50 km environ, 40 km dans sa partie la plus étroite. Ses eaux étant peu profondes (pas plus de 60 m de profondeur), les navires en provenance de l’océan Indien doivent emprunter un premier chenal de navigation entre les îles omanaises de Quoin et Ras Dobbah, en face de la péninsule du Musandam, avant de s’engager dans un chenal parsemé de trois îles : la Grande Tomb, la Petite Tomb et Abou Moussa. Ces dernières sont contrôlées par l’Iran depuis 1971, et revendiquées depuis par les Émirats arabes unis.

    C’est par ces chenaux de navigation, qui mesurent près de 3 km de largeur chacun, qu’ont transité plus de 18 millions de barils de #pétrole (brut et condensat) par jour pendant le premier semestre de 2018, soit plus de 35 % du pétrole transitant par voie maritime dans le monde, selon l’Agence d’information sur l’énergie du gouvernement américain (AIE). Un chiffre auquel il faut ajouter, selon un rapport du Service de recherches du Congrès américain, 4 millions de barils de produits pétroliers par jour, et plus de 300 millions de mètres cubes de #gaz naturel liquéfié (GNL) par jour.

    En moyenne, plus d’une trentaine de pétroliers et méthaniers quittent le Golfe par le détroit chaque jour, majoritairement en direction des pays asiatiques, notamment la Chine, le Japon, l’Inde et la Corée du Sud. Les pays de l’Union européenne et les #États-Unis figurent également parmi les clients des #pétromonarchies du Golfe. Selon les experts, une fermeture du détroit équivaudrait à retirer une dizaine de millions de barils de pétrole par jour du marché international. Par ailleurs, le détroit est également une porte d’entrée commerciale vitale pour les pays de la région, très dépendants des importations, ce qui en fait un des principaux corridors du #commerce international.

    Si ses eaux sont partagées entre la République islamique d’Iran et le sultanat d’Oman, le détroit d’Ormuz est un couloir international, et en principe tous les navires, quel que soit leur pavillon, bénéficient du droit de passage en transit, conformément à la Convention des #Nations_unies sur le droit de la mer, adoptée en 1982, et au droit international coutumier de la mer. Le Golfe est l’une des régions les plus militarisées au monde, qui concentre une grande partie des importations mondiales d’armement. De leur côté, les États-Unis disposent dans la région d’une forte présence militaire, à travers plusieurs bases hautement stratégiques. Ainsi la Ve Flotte américaine est stationnée à Bahreïn, tandis que le Qatar accueille la plus grande base aérienne américaine au #Moyen-Orient. La France, quant à elle, compte une base militaire à Abu Dhabi, dans les Émirats arabes unis. Ces derniers jours, le #Pentagone a dépêché dans la région un porte-avions, un navire de #guerre, des bombardiers B-52 et une batterie de missiles Patriot, évoquant des menaces de l’Iran ou de ses alliés contre des ressortissants ou des intérêts américains au Moyen-Orient.

  • أربع جِهات من المُحتمل أن تكون خلف الهُجوم على ناقِلات النّفط في الفُجيرة الإماراتيّة.. من هِي؟ ولماذا لم يَصدُر حتّى الآن أيّ رد فِعل أمريكيّ؟ ومن الكاسِب ومن الخاسِر من وراء هذا الهُجوم حتّى الآن؟ | رأي اليوم

    Abdel-Bari Atwan, qui continue à penser « que les possibilités d’une guerre sont plus fortes ques celle de la paix »... Pour lui, 4 acteurs possibles des « sabotages » au port de Fujeirah. 1) Les Houthis du Yémen mais pourquoi auraient-ils annoncé qu’ils quittaient le port de Hodeida au même moment ? 2) Des hommes-grenouilles iraniens, justement en manoeuvres pas bien loin, mais pourquoi donner ce prétexte aux USA ? 3) un groupe terroriste genre al-Qaïda 4) une tierce partie qui cherche à faire porter le chapeau à l’Iran, et làà on pense à Israël...

    أوّلًا: أن تكون حركة “أنصار الله” الحوثيّة التي تخوض حربًا شرسةً ضد التدخّل العسكريّ السعوديّ والإماراتيّ في اليمن، هي التي نفّذت هذا الهُجوم، خاصّةً أنّها هدّدت أكثر من مرّةٍ بقصف مُدن إماراتيّة بصواريخ باليستيّة مِثل أبو ظبي ودبي، وهاجمت سُفنًا إماراتيّةً وسعوديّةً في باب المندب قصفًا أو بزوارق انتحاريّة سريعة، وهُناك من يُجادل بأنّها لو كانت خلف الهُجوم لما سحبت قوّاتها من ميناء الحديدة.
    ثانيًا: أن تكون وحدة من الضّفادع البشريّة الإيرانيّة تابعة للحرس الثوري هي التي نفّذت هذا الهُجوم خاصّةً أنّها تعرف المِنطقة جيّدًا، وأجرَت وحدات من الحرس مُناورات في مِنطقة كيش المُواجِهة لمضيق هرمز قبل بضعة أيّام، واتّخذتها قاعدةً لها، ولكن هذا الاحتمال شِبه مُستبعد لأنّ إيران لا يُمكن أن تُقدم على هذه الخُطوة لأنّها ستُوفّر الذّريعة للرئيس دونالد ترامب ومُستشاره للأمن القومي جون بولتون لشن عُدوان عليها.
    ثالثًا: أن تكون “مجموعة إرهابيّة” هي التي نفّذت هذا الهُجوم على غِرار الهُجوم على الفرقاطة العسكريّة الأمريكيّة في ميناء عدن، فتنظيم “القاعدة” الذي يعيش “صحوة” حاليًّا ربّما يكون من بين المُنفّذين، خاصّةً أنّه يتواجد حاليًّا بكثافةٍ في مناطق حضرموت وإبين اليمنيتين غير البعيدتين.
    رابِعًا: أن يكون المُنفّذ طرف ثالث يُريد إشعال فتيل الحرب في مِنطقة الخليج، وإلصاق التّهمة بإيران لتحريض الحُشود الأمريكيّة المُتزايدة بحريًّا وجويًّا على ردٍّ انتقاميّ، ومن غير المُستبعد أن يكون هذا الطّرف داخليّ أو خارجيّ، وتُشير أصابع الاتّهام إلى الموساد الإسرائيلي الذي ينشط في المِنطقة، وربّما يُفيد التّذكير بالخليّة الإسرائيليّة التي اغتالت القائد الحمساوي محمود المبحوح في دبي عام 2010، أيّ أنّ الموساد يعرف المِنطقة جيّدًا، وله تواجد قويّ فيها.

    #iran #golfe #ramadan_torride

    • Ben, vu « l’ampleur » des dégâts obtenus, et ce, pour QUATRE attaques distinctes, on peut légitimement se poser des questions sur le professionnalisme des opérateurs ou sur la réelle volonté de nuire des ill wishings persons !

      Quant aux «  explosions entendues dans le port  », il fallait avoir une excellente oreille, puisque le Al Marzoqah était à environ 10 km en mer et que l’explosion de l’éventuelle missile a tout juste éraflé la peinture de la coque.

      On peut aussi se dire que les relais prévus pour faire monter la mayonnaise médiatique (" Sauvage attaque de quatre pétroliers à l’ancre dans le détroit d’Ormuz ") n’ont pas enclenché. Ou encore que l’affaire est venue un poil trop tôt, par rapport à la planification de la «  riposte  » montée en réponse à cette «  ignoble attaque  ».

  • Libya Is on the Brink of Civil War and a U.S. Citizen Is Responsible. Here’s What to Know

    Who are Haftar’s international backers?

    Officially, they are few and far between. Every major state condoned the U.N.-backed Government of National Accord (GNA), and Prime Minister Fayez al-Serraj. But in reality, some “were also having parallel conversations with different actors and that enabled those actors to disregard the legal process and go with the military process,” says Elham Saudi, co-founder of London-based NGO Lawyers for Justice in Libya (LFJL).

    Those states include Egypt and the United Arab Emirates, which want to curb the influence of the Muslim Brotherhood in Libya; Russia, which has treated wounded soldiers and reportedly printed money on behalf of Haftar; and France, which views him as key to stabilizing Libya and slowing the flow of migrants into Europe. Italy, which also wants to prevent migration through Libya, has fallen out with France over its tacit support of Haftar. “Nominally, of course, they’re on the same side, that of the U.N.-backed government,” says Joost Hiltermann, director of the Middle East and North Africa program at the International Crisis Group. “But in reality Italy and France are on opposite sides of this.”


    ... no state has threatened sanctions or acted to affirm the legitimacy of the internationally-backed government in Tripoli. As such, Haftar has interpreted their warnings as an amber, rather than a red light, according to International Crisis Group. For LFJL’s Saudi, the current crisis is the “natural culmination” of the international community’s inconsistency and failure to affirm the rule of law in Libya. “The international agenda has been pure carrot and no stick,” she says. “What is the incentive now to play by the rules?”


  • Les #Emirats_arabes_unis, apôtres d’une #tolérance à géométrie très variable - Le Temps

    Dans le domaine politique, les dirigeants émiratis font par exemple preuve d’une #intolérance absolue pour le #pluralisme. Tous les #dissidents du pays croupissent en prison, qu’il s’agisse d’islamistes membres du parti Islah, la déclinaison émiratie du mouvement des Frères musulmans, ou de libéraux partisans de l’instauration d’une monarchie constitutionnelle. La dernière voix libre du pays, celle du défenseur des droits de l’homme Ahmed Mansour, a été bâillonnée en mai 2018 au moyen d’une condamnation à 10 ans de prison.

    Les procès de la plupart de ces opposants, pour « subversion », « atteinte à l’unité nationale » ou encore « propagation de fausses nouvelles », ont été qualifiés de #parodie de #justice par Amnesty International et Human Rights Watch. Dans les #prisons émiraties, la #torture et les mauvais traitements sont fréquents, affirment ces ONG, qui dénoncent aussi de nombreux cas de disparitions forcées.

    Ces pratiques ultra­-répressives, qui se sont intensifiées à partir des Printemps arabes de 2011 – perçus par les #dynasties du #Golfe comme une menace –, s’étendent parfois aux étrangers. En novembre, un jeune thésard britannique, Matthew Hedges, qui menait des recherches sur la politique sécuritaire des EAU, avait été condamné à la prison à vie pour espionnage, avant d’être gracié, quelques jours plus tard, sous la pression de Londres.

    Dans son obsession de contrôler les activités de ses adversaires réels ou supposés, la monarchie a développé un empire de la #cybersurveillance et du piratage informatique, mis en évidence par l’agence Reuters. Un récent article, basé sur les témoignages d’ex-­analystes des services de renseignement américains, débauchés à prix d’or par Abu Dhabi, raconte comment l’émirat a espionné les communications de dissidents, comme Ahmed Mansour, de rivaux régionaux, comme le souverain du Qatar Tamim al­-Thani, et même de journalistes américains.

    L’« islam #modéré » à la mode émiratie est prié de coller à cette ligne politique. Dans ses prêches et ses tweets, le cheikh Wassim Youssef, l’un des prédicateurs les plus en vue du pays, relaie certes le credo anti-­extrémiste des autorités, en critiquant les outrances des salafistes, accusés de dénaturer la foi musulmane. Mais cet imam de la grande mosquée d’Abu Dhabi s’attaque aussi aux libéraux, à l’émir du Qatar et à la Turquie, les deux ennemis intimes des EAU avec l’Iran.

    Le cheikh Youssef n’est d’ailleurs pas exempt de dérapage : en 2015, il avait fustigé la décision de construire un temple pour les « infidèles » hindous, propos qui lui avaient valu une brève mise à pied. L’islam prôné par les autorités n’est donc pas tant éclairé que légitimiste, et l’obéissance prime sur la tolérance.

  • Joel C. Rosenberg sur Twitter : "From Israeli reporter BarakRavid: I’ve been working on “Gulf Secrets” about the secret #alliance between #Israel & the Gulf states. Interviewed 20+ Israelis, Americans and Arabs involved in this #secret relationship. Series of reports starts tomorrow on @newsisrael13 8pm newscast." / Twitter

    #golfe #dirigeants_arabes #indigents_arabes

  • Dubai stocks limp to end of worst year since financial crisis | UAE News | Al Jazeera

    Dubai’s stock market ended 2018 on Monday with a 25-percent annual loss, the worst year since the global financial crisis a decade ago, as the real estate and tourism sectors struggled.

    The plunge in the Dubai Financial Market Index was the biggest among Gulf and Arab bourses amid signs of a slowdown in the emirate’s highly diversified economy.

    Une année plombée dans le #Golfe et aux #Emirats en particulier.

  • Matthew Hedges: jailed British academic pardoned by UAE | World news | The Guardian


    Faudra juste qu’il change de sujet de thèse.

    #Matthew_Hedges, the 31-year-old British academic jailed for life on espionage charges last week by the United Arab Emirates, has been granted a presidential pardon by the country’s rulers.

    His release once formalities are completed follows intense lobbying by the British foreign secretary, Jeremy Hunt, amid an international outcry that left the UAE scrambling to produce evidence to justify claims that Hedges was a spy.

    #émirats_arabs_unis #droits_humais #golfe

  • Amazing discovery of 7,500-year-old temple city in Kuwait could change the way we think about human civilisation forever

    Sophisticated human civilisation may have started further back in time than previously thought after a 7,500-year-old temple city was uncovered

    Découverte: le plus ancien temple du #Golfe aurait plus de 7.000 ans - Sputnik France

    L’universitaire pense que l’érection de ce temple a été inspirée par des lieux de culte de Mésopotamie et par la culture connue sous le nom d’#Obeïd (4500-4000 avant JC). On pense que cette communauté s’est développée en Mésopotamie, mais a eu une portée mondiale, rayonnant dans les régions voisines. Ses traces matérielles sous forme de céramique et autres objets caractéristiques ont été relevées de la Turquie au golfe Persique.

  • British academic accused of spying jailed for life in UAE | World news | The Guardian


    Les terrains de thèse les plus risqués au monde : les Etats du Golfe.

    A British academic who has been accused of spying for the UK government in the United Arab Emirates after travelling to Dubai to conduct research has been sentenced to life in jail.

    Matthew Hedges, 31, has been in a UAE prison for more than six months. The Durham University student who went to the country to research his PhD thesis, was handed the sentence at an Abu Dhabi court in a hearing that lasted less than five minutes, and with no lawyer present.

    Hedges was detained in May at Dubai airport as he was leaving the country following a research trip, and was held in solitary confinement for five months.

    The UAE attorney general, Hamad al-Shamsi, said Hedges was accused of “spying for a foreign country, jeopardising the military, political and economic security of the state”.

    Hedges has denied the charges, and maintains that he was in the country to research the impact of the Arab spring on the UAE’s foreign policy.

  • 14-Year Oil Spill Shows No Signs of Slowing

    A massive oil spill off the coast of #Louisiana has been growing steadily for 14 years, as the company is suing the government to end its responsibility to the cleanup of the site.

    Since Hurricane Ivan bowled over an oil rig belonging to #Taylor_Energy in 2004, the site has been spewing between 300 to 700 barrels of oil a day into the Gulf of Mexico.

    It could continue leaking oil into the ocean through this century, and the spill is on track to become one of the worst in U.S. history.

    #pollution #pétrole #Golfe_du_Mexique #marée_noire #USA #Etats-Unis

  • Netanyahou à Oman. Opération normalisation d’Israël dans le Golfe | Courrier international

    Le sultan d’Oman, Qabous ben Saïd, sert la main du Premier ministre israélien, Benyamin Netanyahou, en visite surprise dans le sultanat, le 26 octobre 2018. Photo : Omani Royal Palace / AFP

    La présence du Premier ministre israélien Benyamin Netanyahou à Mascate a pris de court de nombreux observateurs. Pourtant, les pas vers une normalisation des relations se multiplient dans tous les pays du Golfe.

    #IsraelOman #catastrophe_arabe

    • Le ministre israélien des sports aux Émirats arabes unis se joindra à l’équipe d’Abu Dhabi pour un tournoi de judo
      26 octobre 2018

      Le ministre israélien de la Culture et des Sports Miri Regev s’est rendu aux Emirats Arabes Unis (EAU) pour accompagner l’équipe de judo israélienne au Grand Chelem d’Abu Dhabi 2018 alors que les pays arabes de la région réchauffent considérablement leurs relations avec le régime de Tel Aviv après des rapports de contacts secrets.

      Mme Regev est arrivée à Abu Dhabi vendredi matin, et elle doit participer à la cérémonie d’ouverture de l’événement international qui se tiendra demain à Zayed Sports City, la capitale émiratie, a rapporté une agence de presse palestinienne de langue arabe, Ma’an.


      Palestine Alqadi
      ‏ @ALQadiPAL - 07:43 - 28 oct. 2018

      ويستمر مسلسل التطبيع بعد قطر وعمان

      وزيرة الثقافة والرياضة الصهيونية ميري ريجيف في لحظة امتنان مع رئيس الجودو الإماراتي،

      الوزيرة عملت كمتحدثة باسم جيش الاحتلال، تكره العرب ، لإحظوا ، اين يركز نظره خجلا

      ليش يا عرب ليش تطعنو القدس بظهرها ؟

    • La visite d’une ministre israélienne aux Émirats interroge sur les relations d’Israël avec le Golfe
      Nadda Osman - 30 octobre 2018

      En moins d’une semaine, trois hauts responsables israéliens, dont le Premier ministre israélien Benyamin Netanyahou, se sont rendus en visite officielle dans le Golfe

      La visite officielle de la ministre israélienne Miri Regev aux Émirats arabes unis ce week-end a suscité des réactions mitigées sur les réseaux sociaux. Les internautes se demandaient si cela marquait le début du réchauffement des relations entre Israël et les EAU.

      Regev, la ministre israélienne de la Culture et des Sports, a assisté dimanche au grand tournoi de judo à Abou Dabi, où l’un des athlètes israéliens a remporté l’or. Cet événement a particulièrement attiré l’attention car c’était la première fois que l’hymne national israélien, Hatikvah, était joué aux Émirats.

      Regev a ensuite tweeté : « Nous avons fait l’histoire. Le peuple d’Israël vit ! »

      Bien que les Israéliens aient déjà assisté à des événements sportifs dans le Golfe auparavant, leur participation était souvent subordonnée à l’absence de symboles nationaux.

      L’année dernière, la Fédération internationale de judo a toutefois menacé d’annuler le grand chelem d’Abou Dabi si les athlètes israéliens ne bénéficiaient pas des mêmes droits que les autres concurrents.
      La visite de la ministre est survenue quelques jours seulement après le voyage surprise du Premier ministre israélien Benyamin Netanyahou à Oman pour rencontrer le sultan Qaboos, marquant la première visite d’un dirigeant israélien dans ce pays du Golfe depuis 1996.
      La rencontre de Mascate portait plus sur le désir d’Oman de jouer un rôle dans la région que sur la conclusion d’un accord de paix entre Israéliens et Palestiniens, a déclaré à MEE une source diplomatique occidentale.

      « Oman tente de jouer un rôle régional entre les divers parties et axes de la région et considère Israël comme un acteur important concernant diverses questions régionales », a déclaré le diplomate.

      Ce mardi, un troisième haut responsable israélien s’est rendu dans un pays du Golfe. Le ministre israélien des Communications, Ayoub Kara, participe en ce moment à la Conférence de plénipotentiaires de l’Union internationale des télécommunications à Dubaï, où il a appelé à la « paix et la stabilité » dans la région.


  • Depuis 14 ans, une fuite de pétrole pollue le golfe du Mexique - Edition du soir Ouest France - 23/10/2018

    Dans le #golfe_du_Mexique, c’est une #pollution silencieuse, qui dure depuis des années… Cette fuite de #pétrole, due à un glissement de terrain sous-marin provoqué par un #ouragan en 2004, n’a jamais été colmatée.

  • À petit feu. Les sacrifiés du #golfe_de_Fos

    La #Camargue, ses paysages de carte postale, ses flamands roses et, à quelques pas de là, ses usines classées #Seveso : #sidérurgie, #pétrochimie, #raffineries… À la jonction de ces deux univers, le golfe de Fos, devenu le carrefour de #maladies_rares. Ici, les risques de #cancers sont multipliés par deux.

    Le Quatre heures est parti à la rencontre de ceux qui, coincés entre #omerta et #déni, ont décidé de lutter pour leur survie.

    #résistance #lutte #France #pollution

    Derrière le #paysage... pour mon cours de #géographie_culturelle

    ping @albertocampiphoto @marty @mathieup

  • بمشاركة قطر.. انطلاق اجتماع رؤساء أركان مجلس التعاون الخليجي بالكويت لبحث سبل تعزيز التعاون العسكري والدفاع المشترك | رأي اليوم

    Le Qatar avec ses meilleurs ennemis jurés du Conseil de coopération du Golfe pour une réunion des chefs d’Etat-Major au Koweït. La présence qatarie dans une réunion régionale est une première depuis juillet 2017.


  • Les exportations israéliennes vers les pays du Golfe auraient atteint les 1 milliard $ – Site de la chaîne AlManar-Liban

    Le site en ligne d’informations israélien i24 s’est targué que les exportations israéliennes en direction de pays du Golfe auraient atteint les un milliard de dollars. Et ce en dépit de l’absence d’un accord de paix et de relations bilatérales officielles entre eux. Le média israélien a rapporté cette information à partir de l’Institut Tony Blair pour le changement international.

    Selon ses chiffres datant depuis 2016, la valeur des produits israéliens exportés vers les pays membres du Conseil de coopération des pays du Golfe dépasse celle vers les pays alliés, et des économies plus importantes à l’instar de la Russie et Japon.
    Cette instance compte dans ses rangs le Bahreïn, le Koweït, Oman, le Qatar, l’Arabie saoudite et les Emirats arabes unis.

    #israël #golfe

  • Sissi détient la clé du programme envisagé par Trump dans le #Sinaï pour tuer l’État palestinien | Middle East Eye

    Les plans d’#Israël et de Washington pour Gaza font fortement écho au modèle de « pacification économique » qui formait le cadre du processus de paix d’Oslo à la fin des années 1990.

    Pour Israël, #Oslo représentait cyniquement une occasion de détruire l’économie essentiellement rurale de la #Cisjordanie, dont les #Palestiniens dépendent depuis des siècles. Israël convoite depuis longtemps le territoire, tant pour son potentiel économique que pour ses connotations religieuses.

    Des centaines de communautés palestiniennes en Cisjordanie dépendent de ces terres pour l’agriculture, ce qui les lie à des lieux historiques en raison de besoins économiques et de leur tradition. Néanmoins, pour déloger les villageois – les forcer à rallier une poignée de villes palestiniennes et dégager la terre pour les colons juifs –, un modèle économique alternatif devait être mis au point.

    Dans le cadre du processus d’Oslo, Israël a commencé à établir une série de zones industrielles – financées par des donateurs internationaux – sur la zone tampon (« seam zone ») entre Israël et la Cisjordanie.

    Des sociétés israéliennes et internationales devaient y ouvrir des usines et employer une main-d’œuvre palestinienne bon marché avec des protections minimales. Les Palestiniens, une population d’agriculteurs fortement attachés à leurs terres, allaient devenir une main-d’œuvre intermittente concentrée dans les villes.

    Pour Israël, cela avait comme avantage supplémentaire de faire des Palestiniens le « précariat » ultime. S’ils venaient à commencer à exiger un État ou même à protester pour des droits, Israël pouvait simplement leur bloquer l’accès aux zones industrielles et laisser la faim pacifier la population.

    Il y a tout lieu de croire que l’objectif de l’initiative couvée par Israël et Trump est de reloger progressivement les Palestiniens dans le Sinaï en investissant dans des projets d’infrastructure.

    Avec des intérêts en matière de sécurité solidement alignés entre les deux pays, Israël peut alors compter sur l’#Égypte pour pacifier les Palestiniens de Gaza en son nom. Sous un tel programme, Le Caire aura de nombreux moyens de donner des leçons à sa nouvelle main-d’œuvre.

    L’Égypte pourra suspendre temporairement les projets d’infrastructure et licencier les travailleurs jusqu’à un retour au calme. Elle pourra fermer le seul poste frontalier de Rafah entre Gaza et le Sinaï, ou encore fermer les centrales électriques et les usines de dessalement et priver ainsi Gaza d’électricité et d’eau potable.

    De cette manière, Gaza pourra rester sous l’emprise d’Israël sans qu’Israël n’ait à partager une quelconque responsabilité. L’Égypte deviendra le geôlier visible de Gaza, tout comme Abbas et son Autorité palestinienne sont devenus les geôliers d’une grande partie de la Cisjordanie.

    Voilà le modèle qu’Israël envisage pour Gaza. Nous pourrions découvrir bientôt s’il est partagé également par l’Égypte et les États du #Golfe.

  • #Naufrage dans le #golfe_d’Aden : 46 migrants noyés, 16 disparus

    Leur navire a chaviré près du #Yémen après avoir traversé le Golfe d’Aden. Le personnel de l’Organisation internationale des migrations a pu venir en aide aux rescapés.

    Un nouveau drame sur une route migratoire maritime met en lumière les risques pris chaque jour par les exilés quittant leur pays. L’agence de l’ONU pour les migrations a affirmé mercredi 6 juin qu’au moins 46 migrants, dont 37 hommes et 9 femmes, vraisemblablement des Ethiopiens, étaient morts noyés lorsque leur navire a chaviré à l’approche du Yémen après avoir traversé le golfe d’Aden. Seize autres sont encore portés disparus.

    Le personnel de l’Organisation internationale des migrations (OIM) a pu venir en aide aux rescapés, arrivés sur une plage du Yémen, a fait savoir l’OIM dans un communiqué. Ces derniers ont reçu une assistance médicale, de la nourriture et un soutien psychosocial de l’OIM, tandis que le Comité international de la Croix-Rouge et le Croissant-Rouge du Yémen ont assuré l’inhumation des défunts.

    « Entassés »
    Le navire a chaviré en raison des hautes vagues alors qu’il approchait de sa destination à l’aube, mercredi. Au moins 100 migrants – 83 hommes et 17 femmes – avaient été « entassés » sur ce bateau d’un contrebandier, ayant quitté le port de Bossaso (nord), en Somalie, le 5 juin, a détaillé l’OIM. L’agence précise que, d’après ses informations, ces migrants étaient tous des Ethiopiens.

    « Les survivants ont dit que les passagers qui n’avaient pas de gilets de sauvetage dans le bateau du contrebandier ont commencé à paniquer à l’arrivée des hautes vagues », a expliqué l’OIM. « Au fur et à mesure que le bateau prenait l’eau, ils ont été projetés tête baissée dans la mer agitée », a ajouté l’agence de l’ONU.

    Un porte-parole de l’OIM à Genève, Leonard Doyle, a déclaré qu’il était « criminel » d’entasser des migrants dans un bateau, sans gilets de sauvetage. « La tragédie migratoire honteuse du golfe d’Aden est une tragédie qui est cachée à la vue de tous », a déclaré Mohammed Abdiker, directeur du département des opérations et des situations d’urgence de l’OIM, cité dans le communiqué.

    Cent mille migrants
    Quelque 7 000 migrants entrent au Yémen chaque mois et environ 100 000 migrants, principalement de la Corne de l’Afrique, ont fui en 2017 leurs pays pour arriver au Yémen malgré la guerre et la crise humanitaire qui ravagent ce pays, selon l’OIM.

    Fuyant la violence et la pauvreté dans la Corne de l’Afrique, notamment en Erythrée, en Somalie et en Ethiopie, ces migrants espèrent atteindre les pays arabes du Golfe, plus prospères, et sont à la merci des contrebandiers, a expliqué l’organisation.

    Une fois au Yémen, où quelque 10 000 personnes ont été tuées en trois ans de guerre entre les forces progouvernementales et les rebelles houthistes, les plus chanceux trouvent un travail clandestin, selon l’OIM. Les moins fortunés sont exposés aux mauvais traitements, aux abus sexuels et à la violence.

    Le drame a eu lieu après la mort, dans la nuit de samedi à dimanche, de dizaines de migrants – en majorité des Tunisiens – au large de Kerkennah, à l’est de la Tunisie. Leur embarcation a chaviré alors qu’ils cherchaient à traverser la Méditerranée pour rejoindre l’Europe.

    #mourir_aux_Frontières #asile #migrations #réfugiés #morts #décès #réfugiés_éthiopiens

  • Golfe d’Oman : Les chercheurs découvrent une « zone morte » plus grande que l’Écosse dans l’océan

    Un « #désastre » pire que ce que prévoyaient les modèles climatiques. Des chercheurs ont découvert dans le #Golfe_d’Oman une « #zone_morte » plus grande que l’Ecosse.

    Le faible niveau d’oxygène y empêcherait le développement de la vie marine. « Jusqu’à maintenant, personne ne savait à quel point la situation était mauvaise parce que la piraterie et les conflits dans la zone empêchaient de recueillir des données », explique Bastien Queste, coauteur d’une étude sur le sujet publiée ce vendredi dans la revue Geophysical Research Letters.

    Un désastre écologique sous-estimé par les prédictions

    « Nos recherches montrent que la situation est pire que ce qu’on craignait, et que la zone morte est grande et continue à s’étendre, poursuit le chercheur dans un communiqué. L’#océan suffoque ».


    #pollution #climat

  • How a Remote Iranian Port Could Heighten China-India Tensions - Bloomberg

    The shift makes sense for #Iran, which wants to ensure #Chabahar is an economic success. But it could be a strategic loss for #India, which opposes #China’s expansion in the Indian Ocean and is already worried that Gwadar could one day be used as a military base — along with other China-backed ports from #Myanmar to #Bangladesh to #Sri_Lanka.