Trigger Warnings | Centre for Teaching Excellence
A trigger warning is a statement made prior to sharing potentially disturbing content. That content might include graphic references to topics such as #sexual_abuse, #self-harm, #violence, #eating_disorders, and so on, and can take the form of an #image, #video_clip, #audio_clip, or piece of #text. In an #academic_context, the #instructor delivers these messages in order to allow students to prepare emotionally for the content or to decide to forgo interacting with the content.
Proponents of trigger warnings contend that certain course content can impact the #wellbeing and #academic_performance of students who have experienced corresponding #traumas in their own lives. Such students might not yet be ready to confront a personal #trauma in an academic context. They choose to #avoid it now so that they can deal with it more effectively at a later date – perhaps after they have set up necessary #resources, #supports, or #counselling. Other students might indeed be ready to #confront a personal trauma in an academic context but will benefit from a #forewarning of certain topics so that they can brace themselves prior to (for example) participating in a #classroom discussion about it. Considered from this perspective, trigger warnings give students increased #autonomy over their learning, and are an affirmation that the instructor #cares about their wellbeing.
However, not everyone agrees that trigger warnings are #necessary or #helpful. For example, some fear that trigger warnings unnecessarily #insulate students from the often harsh #realities of the world with which academics need to engage. Others are concerned that trigger warnings establish a precedent of making instructors or universities legally #responsible for protecting students from #emotional_trauma. Still others argue that it is impossible to anticipate all the topics that might be potentially triggering for students.
Trigger warnings do not mean that students can exempt themselves from completing parts of the coursework. Ideally, a student who is genuinely concerned about being #re-traumatized by forthcoming course content would privately inform the instructor of this concern. The instructor would then accommodate the student by proposing #alternative_content or an alternative learning activity, as with an accommodation necessitated by a learning disability or physical disability.
The decision to preface potentially disturbing content with a trigger warning is ultimately up to the instructor. An instructor who does so might want to include in the course syllabus a preliminary statement (also known as a “#content_note”), such as the following:
Our classroom provides an open space for the critical and civil exchange of ideas. Some readings and other content in this course will include topics that some students may find offensive and/or traumatizing. I’ll aim to #forewarn students about potentially disturbing content and I ask all students to help to create an #atmosphere of #mutual_respect and #sensitivity.
Prior to introducing a potentially disturbing topic in class, an instructor might articulate a #verbal_trigger_warning such as the following:
Next class our discussion will probably touch on the sexual assault that is depicted in the second last chapter of The White Hotel. This content is disturbing, so I encourage you to prepare yourself emotionally beforehand. If you believe that you will find the discussion to be traumatizing, you may choose to not participate in the discussion or to leave the classroom. You will still, however, be responsible for material that you miss, so if you leave the room for a significant time, please arrange to get notes from another student or see me individually.
A version of the foregoing trigger warning might also preface written materials:
The following reading includes a discussion of the harsh treatment experienced by First Nations children in residential schools in the 1950s. This content is disturbing, so I encourage everyone to prepare themselves emotionally before proceeding. If you believe that the reading will be traumatizing for you, then you may choose to forgo it. You will still, however, be responsible for material that you miss, so please arrange to get notes from another student or see me individually.
Trigger warnings, of course, are not the only answer to disturbing content. Instructional #strategies such as the following can also help students approach challenging material:
– Give your students as much #advance_notice as possible about potentially disturbing content. A day’s notice might not be enough for a student to prepare emotionally, but two weeks might be.
– Try to “scaffold” a disturbing topic to students. For example, when beginning a history unit on the Holocaust, don’t start with graphic photographs from Auschwitz. Instead, begin by explaining the historical context, then verbally describe the conditions within the concentration camps, and then introduce the photographic record as needed. Whenever possible, allow students to progress through upsetting material at their own pace.
– Allow students to interact with disturbing material outside of class. A student might feel more vulnerable watching a documentary about sexual assault while in a classroom than in the security of his or her #home.
– Provide captions when using video materials: some content is easier to watch while reading captions than while listening to the audio.
– When necessary, provide written descriptions of graphic images as a substitute for the actual visual content.
– When disturbing content is under discussion, check in with your students from time to time: #ask them how they are doing, whether they need a #break, and so on. Let them know that you are aware that the material in question is emotionally challenging.
– Help your students understand the difference between emotional trauma and #intellectual_discomfort: the former is harmful, as is triggering it in the wrong context (such as in a classroom rather than in therapy); the latter is fundamental to a university education – it means our ideas are being challenged as we struggle to resolve cognitive dissonance.
Why Trigger Warnings Don’t Work
Fair warning labels at the beginning of movie and book reviews alert the reader that continuing may reveal critical plot points that spoil the story. The acronym NSFW alerts those reading emails or social media posts that the material is not suitable for work. The Motion Picture Association of America provides film ratings to advise about content so that moviegoers can make informed entertainment choices for themselves and their children.
Enter stage right: Trigger warning.
A trigger warning, most often found on #social_media and internet sites, alerts the reader that potentially upsetting information may follow. The words trigger warning are often followed by a subtitle such as *Trigger warning: This may be triggering to those who have struggled with _________. Fill in the blank. #Domestic_abuse. #Rape. #Body_image. #Needles. #Pregnancy.
Trigger warnings have become prevalent online since about 2012. Victim advocate Gayle Crabtree reports that they were in use as early as 1996 in chat rooms she moderated. “We used the words ‘trigger warning,’ ‘#tw,’ ‘#TW,’ and ‘trigger’ early on. …This meant the survivor could see the warning and then decide if she or he wanted to scroll down for the message or not.” Eventually, trigger warnings spread to social media sites including #Tumblr, #Twitter, and #Facebook.
The term seems to have originated from the use of the word “trigger” to indicate something that cues a #physiological_response, the way pollen may trigger an allergy attack. A trigger in a firearm is a lever that activates the sequence of firing a gun, so it is not surprising that the word was commandeered by those working in the field of #psychology to indicate objects and sensations that cause neurological firing in the brain, which in turn cause #feelings and #thoughts to occur.
Spoiler alerts allow us to enjoy the movie or book as it unfolds without being influenced by knowledge about what comes next. The NSFW label helps employees comply with workplace policies that prohibit viewing sexually explicit or profane material. Motion picture ratings enable viewers to select movies they are most likely to find entertaining. Trigger warnings, on the other hand, are “designed to prevent people who have an extremely strong and damaging emotional response… to certain subjects from encountering them unaware.”
Discussions about trigger warnings have made headlines in the New Yorker, the Los Angeles Times, the Guardian, the New Republic, and various other online and print publications. Erin Dean writes that a trigger “is not something that offends one, troubles one, or angers one; it is something that causes an extreme involuntary reaction in which the individual re-experiences past trauma.”
For those individuals, it is probably true that coming across material that reminds them of a traumatic event is going to be disturbing. Dean’s definition refers to involuntary fear and stress responses common in individuals with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder characterized by intrusive memories, thoughts, or dreams; intense distress at cues that remind the individual of the event; and reactivity to situations, people, or objects that symbolize the event. PTSD can result from personal victimization, accidents, incarceration, natural disasters, or any unexpected injury or threat of injury or death. Research suggests that it results from a combination of genetic predisposition, fear conditioning, and neural and physiological responses that incorporate the body systems and immunological responses. Current theories suggest that PTSD represents “the failure to recover from the normal effects of trauma.” In other words, anyone would be adversely affected by trauma, but natural mechanisms for healing take place in the majority of individuals. The prevalence of PTSD ranges from 1.9 percent in Europe to 3.5 percent in the United States.
The notion that trigger warnings should be generalized to all social media sites, online journals, and discussion boards is erroneous.
Some discussions have asserted that because between one in four and one in five women have been sexually abused, trigger warnings are necessary to protect vast numbers of victims from being re-traumatized. However, research shows that the majority of trauma-exposed persons do not develop PTSD. This does not mean they aren’t affected by trauma, but that they do not develop clinically significant symptoms, distress, or impairment in daily functioning. The notion that trigger warnings should be generalized to all social media sites, online journals, and discussion boards is erroneous. Now some students are pushing for trigger warnings on college class syllabi and reading lists.
But wait, before people get all riled up, I’d like to say that yes, I have experienced trauma in my life.
I wore a skirt the first time George hit me. I know this because I remember scrunching my skirt around my waist and balancing in heels while I squatted over a hole in the concrete floor to take a piss. We were in Tijuana. The stench of excrement made my stomach queasy with too much tequila. I wanted to retch.
We returned to our hotel room. I slid out of my blouse and skirt. He stripped to nothing and lay on the double bed. He was drinking Rompope from the bottle, a kind of Mexican eggnog: strong, sweet, and marketed for its excellent spunk. It’s a thick yellow rum concoction with eggs, sugar, and almond side notes. George wanted to have sex. We bickered and argued as drunks sometimes do. I said something — I know this because I always said something — and he hit me. He grabbed me by the hair and hit me again. “We’re going dancing,” he said.
“I don’t feel like dancing — “
The world was tilting at an angle I didn’t recognize. The mathematician Matt Tweed writes that atoms are made up of almost completely empty space. To grasp the vast nothingness, he asks the reader to imagine a cat twirling a bumblebee on the end of a half-mile long string. That’s how much emptiness there is between the nucleus and the electron. There was more space than that between George and me. I remember thinking: I am in a foreign country. I don’t speak Spanish. I have no money. We went dancing.
Labeling a topic or theme is useless because of the way our brains work. The labels that we give trauma (assault, sexual abuse, rape) are not the primary source of triggers. Memories are, and not just memories, but very specific, insidious, and personally individualized details lodged in our brain at the time of the trauma encoded as memory. Details can include faces, places, sounds, smells, tastes, voices, body positions, time of day, or any other sensate qualities that were present during a traumatic incident.
If I see a particular shade of yellow or smell a sickly sweet rum drink, I’m reminded of my head being yanked by someone who held a handful of my hair in his fist. A forest green Plymouth Duster (the car we drove) will too. The word assault does not. The words domestic violence don’t either. The specificity of details seared in my mind invokes memory.
Last year a driver slammed into the back of my car on the freeway. The word tailgate is not a trigger. Nor is the word accident. The flash of another car suddenly encroaching in my rearview mirror is. In my mid-20s, I drove my younger sister (sobbing, wrapped in a bed sheet) to the hospital where two male officers explained they were going to pluck her pubic hair for a rape kit. When I see tweezers in a hospital, I flash back to that awful moment. For my sister, other things may be triggers: the moonlight shining on the edge of a knife. The shadow of a person back lit in a doorway. An Hispanic man’s accent. If we were going to insist on trigger warnings that work, they would need to look something like this:
Trigger warning: Rompope.
Trigger warning: a woman wrapped in a bed sheet.
Trigger warning: the blade of a knife.
The variability of human #perception and traumatic recall makes it impossible to provide the necessary specificity for trigger warnings to be effective. The nature of specificity is, in part, one reason that treatment for traumatic memories involves safely re-engaging with the images that populate the survivor’s memory of the event. According to Dr. Mark Beuger, an addiction psychiatrist at Deerfield Behavioral Health of Warren (PA), the goal of PTSD treatment is “to allow for processing of the traumatic experience without becoming so emotional that processing is impossible.” By creating a coherent narrative of the past event through telling and retelling the story to a clinician, survivors confront their fears and gain mastery over their thoughts and feelings.
If a survivor has had adequate clinical support, they could engage online with thoughts or ideas that previously had been avoided.
According to the National Center for Health, “#Avoidance is a maladaptive #control_strategy… resulting in maintenance of perceived current threat. In line with this, trauma-focused treatments stress the role of avoidance in the maintenance of PTSD. Prolonged exposure to safe but anxiety-provoking trauma-related stimuli is considered a treatment of choice for PTSD.” Avoidance involves distancing oneself from cues, reminders, or situations that remind one of the event that can result in increased #social_withdrawal. Trigger warnings increase social withdrawal, which contributes to feelings of #isolation. If a survivor who suffers from PTSD has had adequate clinical support, they could engage online with thoughts or ideas that previously had been avoided. The individual is in charge of each word he or she reads. At any time, one may close a book or click a screen shut on the computer. What is safer than that? Conversely, trigger warnings perpetuate avoidance. Because the intrusive memories and thoughts are internal, trigger warnings suggest, “Wait! Don’t go here. I need to protect you from yourself.”
The argument that trigger warnings help to protect those who have suffered trauma is false. Most people who have experienced trauma do not require preemptive protection. Some may argue that it would be kind to avoid causing others distress with upsetting language and images. But is it? Doesn’t it sometimes take facing the horrific images encountered in trauma to effect change in ourselves and in the world?
A few weeks ago, I came across a video about Boko Haram’s treatment of a kidnapped schoolgirl. The girl was blindfolded. A man was digging a hole in dry soil. It quickly became evident, as he ushered the girl into the hole, that this would not end well. I felt anxious as several men began shoveling soil in around her while she spoke to them in a language I could not understand. I considered clicking away as my unease and horror grew. But I also felt compelled to know what happened to this girl. In the 11-minute video, she is buried up to her neck.
All the while, she speaks to her captors, who eventually move out of the frame of the scene. Rocks begin pelting the girl’s head. One after the other strikes her as I stared, horrified, until finally, her head lay motionless at an angle that could only imply death. That video (now confirmed to be a stoning in Somalia rather than by Boko Haram) forever changed my level of concern about young girls kidnapped in other countries.
We are changed by what we #witness. Had the video contained a trigger warning about gruesome death, I would not have watched it. Weeks later, I would have been spared the rush of feelings I felt when a friend posted a photo of her daughter playfully buried by her brothers in the sand. I would have been spared knowing such horrors occur. But would the world be a better place for my not knowing? Knowledge helps us prioritize our responsibilities in the world. Don’t we want engaged, knowledgeable citizens striving for a better world?
Recently, the idea of trigger warnings has leapt the gulch between social media and academic settings. #Universities are dabbling with #policies that encourage professors to provide trigger warnings for their classes because of #complaints filed by students. Isn’t the syllabus warning enough? Can’t individual students be responsible for researching the class content and reading #materials before they enroll? One of the benefits of broad exposure to literature and art in education is Theory of Mind, the idea that human beings have the capacity to recognize and understand that other people have thoughts and desires that are different from one’s own. Do we want #higher_education to comprise solely literature and ideas that feel safe to everyone? Could we even agree on what that would be?
Art occurs at the intersection of experience and danger. It can be risky, subversive, and offensive. Literature encompasses ideas both repugnant and redemptive. News about very difficult subjects is worth sharing. As writers, don’t we want our readers to have the space to respond authentically to the story? As human beings, don’t we want others to understand that we can empathize without sharing the same points of view?
Trigger warnings fail to warn us of the very things that might cause us to remember our trauma. They insulate. They cause isolation. A trigger warning says, “Be careful. This might be too much for you.” It says, “I don’t trust you can handle it.” As a reader, that’s not a message I want to encounter. As a writer, that is not the message I want to convey.
Essay on why a professor is adding a trigger warning to his #syllabus
Trigger warnings in the classroom have been the subject of tremendous #debate in recent weeks, but it’s striking how little the discussion has contemplated what actual trigger warnings in actual classrooms might plausibly look like.
The debate began with demands for trigger warnings by student governments with no power to compel them and suggestions by #administrators (made and retracted) that #faculty consider them. From there the ball was picked up mostly by observers outside higher ed who presented various #arguments for and against, and by professors who repudiated the whole idea.
What we haven’t heard much of so far are the voices of professors who are sympathetic to the idea of such warnings talking about what they might look like and how they might operate.
As it turns out, I’m one of those professors, and I think that discussion is long overdue. I teach history at Hostos Community College of the City University of New York, and starting this summer I’m going to be including a trigger warning in my syllabus.
I’d like to say a few things about why.
An Alternative Point of View
To start off, I think it’s important to be clear about what trigger warnings are, and what purpose they’re intended to serve. Such warnings are often framed — and not just by critics — as a “you may not want to read this” notice, one that’s directed specifically at survivors of trauma. But their actual #purpose is considerably broader.
Part of the confusion arises from the word “trigger” itself. Originating in the psychological literature, the #term can be misleading in a #non-clinical context, and indeed many people who favor such warnings prefer to call them “#content_warnings” for that reason. It’s not just trauma survivors who may be distracted or derailed by shocking or troubling material, after all. It’s any of us, and a significant part of the distraction comes not from the material itself but from the context in which it’s presented.
In the original cut of the 1933 version of the film “King Kong,” there was a scene (depicting an attack by a giant spider) that was so graphic that the director removed it before release. He took it out, it’s said, not because of concerns about excessive violence, but because the intensity of the scene ruined the movie — once you saw the sailors get eaten by the spider, the rest of the film passed by you in a haze.
A similar concern provides a big part of the impetus for content warnings. These warnings prepare the reader for what’s coming, so their #attention isn’t hijacked when it arrives. Even a pleasant surprise can be #distracting, and if the surprise is unpleasant the distraction will be that much more severe.
I write quite a bit online, and I hardly ever use content warnings myself. I respect the impulse to provide them, but in my experience a well-written title and lead paragraph can usually do the job more effectively and less obtrusively.
A classroom environment is different, though, for a few reasons. First, it’s a shared space — for the 75 minutes of the class session and the 15 weeks of the semester, we’re pretty much all #stuck with one another, and that fact imposes #interpersonal_obligations on us that don’t exist between writer and reader. Second, it’s an interactive space — it’s a #conversation, not a monologue, and I have a #responsibility to encourage that conversation as best I can. Finally, it’s an unpredictable space — a lot of my students have never previously encountered some of the material we cover in my classes, or haven’t encountered it in the way it’s taught at the college level, and don’t have any clear sense of what to expect.
For all these reasons, I’ve concluded that it would be sound #pedagogy for me to give my students notice about some of the #challenging_material we’ll be covering in class — material relating to racial and sexual oppression, for instance, and to ethnic and religious conflict — as well as some information about their rights and responsibilities in responding to it. Starting with the summer semester, as a result, I’ll be discussing these issues during the first class meeting and including a notice about them in the syllabus.
My current draft of that notice reads as follows:
Course Content Note
At times this semester we will be discussing historical events that may be disturbing, even traumatizing, to some students. If you ever feel the need to step outside during one of these discussions, either for a short time or for the rest of the class session, you may always do so without academic penalty. (You will, however, be responsible for any material you miss. If you do leave the room for a significant time, please make arrangements to get notes from another student or see me individually.)
If you ever wish to discuss your personal reactions to this material, either with the class or with me afterwards, I welcome such discussion as an appropriate part of our coursework.
That’s it. That’s my content warning. That’s all it is.
I should say as well that nothing in these two paragraphs represents a change in my teaching practice. I have always assumed that if a student steps out of the classroom they’ve got a good reason, and I don’t keep tabs on them when they do. If a student is made uncomfortable by something that happens in class, I’m always glad when they come talk to me about it — I’ve found we usually both learn something from such exchanges. And of course students are still responsible for mastering all the course material, just as they’ve always been.
So why the note, if everything in it reflects the rules of my classroom as they’ve always existed? Because, again, it’s my job as a professor to facilitate class discussion.
A few years ago one of my students came to talk to me after class, distraught. She was a student teacher in a New York City junior high school, working with a social studies teacher. The teacher was white, and almost all of his students were, like my student, black. That week, she said, one of the classes had arrived at the point in the semester given over to the discussion of slavery, and at the start of the class the teacher had gotten up, buried his nose in his notes, and started into the lecture without any introduction. The students were visibly upset by what they were hearing, but the teacher just kept going until the end of the period, at which point he finished the lecture, put down his papers, and sent them on to math class.
My student was appalled. She liked these kids, and she could see that they were hurting. They were angry, they were confused, and they had been given nothing to do with their #emotions. She asked me for advice, and I had very little to offer, but I left our meeting thinking that it would have been better for the teacher to have skipped that material entirely than to have taught it the way he did.
History is often ugly. History is often troubling. History is often heartbreaking. As a professor, I have an #obligation to my students to raise those difficult subjects, but I also have an obligation to raise them in a way that provokes a productive reckoning with the material.
And that reckoning can only take place if my students know that I understand that this material is not merely academic, that they are coming to it as whole people with a wide range of experiences, and that the journey we’re going on #together may at times be #painful.
It’s not coddling them to acknowledge that. In fact, it’s just the opposite.
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#Google #Ring #Amazon #Signal #Home #Alexa #CCTV #drone #InternetOfThings #sonnette #activisme #journalisme #police #racisme #données #vidéo-surveillance #violence #BlackLivesMatter #discrimination #écoutes #extrême-droite (...)
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Revealed: shocking death toll of asylum seekers in Home Office accommodation
FoI response shows 29 people died – five times as many as lost their lives in perilous Channel crossings.
Twenty-nine asylum seekers have died in #Home_Office accommodation so far this year – five times as many as those who have lost their lives on perilous Channel small boat crossings over the same period.
The Guardian obtained the figure in a freedom of information response from the Home Office, which does not publish deaths data. The identities of the majority of those who died have not been made public and the circumstances of their deaths are unclear.
Many asylum seekers are in the 20-40 age group and are fit and healthy when they embark on what are often physically and emotionally gruelling journeys to the UK.
One of the most recent deaths was that of Mohamed Camera, 27, from Ivory Coast. He was found dead in his room in Home Office accommodation in a north London hotel on 9 November.
Camera had been complaining of back pain shortly before he died and had travelled through Libya en route to the UK. He had recently arrived from Calais on a small boat.
One of his friends who travelled from Calais with him told the Guardian: “He was a nice, sociable person. He was smiling when we reached the UK because he believed that now he was going to have another life.”
A Home Office spokesperson confirmed the death and officials said they were “saddened” by it.
Another man, 41-year-old Abdullah Ahmed Abdullah Alhabib, who fled war-torn Yemen, was found dead in a Manchester hotel room on 6 August.
Alhabib travelled on a small boat with 15 other people from Yemen, Syria and Iran. After they were picked up by Border Force, Home Office officials detained a group at Yarl’s Wood immigration removal centre in Bedfordshire for three days before moving them to the hotel in Manchester.
One of the asylum seekers who was in the boat with Alhabib told the Guardian at the time: “All of us on these journeys, we have lost our country, lost our family, lost our future. When we got into the boat in Calais we felt the sea was the only place left for us to go.”
An inquest jury found on 30 November that the death of Oscar Okwurime, a Nigerian man, as a result of a subarachnoid haemorrhage was considered “unnatural” and that neglect contributed to his death.
The Scottish Refugee Council has called for all 29 deaths to be fully and independently investigated. In September, a group of Glasgow MPs also called for a fatal accident inquiry into three deaths that occurred in the city.
The people who died were Mercy Baguma, from Uganda, who was found dead with her toddler by her side, Adnan Olbeh, from Syria, and Badreddin Abadlla Adam, who was shot dead by police, after he stabbed six people including a police officer.
Meanwhile, those who lost their lives in the Channel included Abdulfatah Hamdallah, a young Sudanese refugee, as well as a family of five – Rasul Iran Nezhad, Shiva Mohammad Panahi and their children Anita, nine, Armin, six, and 15-month-old Artin, who drowned trying to cross to the UK in October 2020.
Clare Moseley, the founder of the Care4Calais charity, said: “It’s shameful that more refugees die here in the UK, in Home Office accommodation, than do so in Calais or trying to cross the Channel. Refugees are the world’s most resilient people. Many have crossed the Sahara desert and made it through the hell of Libya, facing unimaginable hardship to get this far. But the way we treat them in this country is cruel.
“Our government doesn’t give them the basics of life like adequate food and clothing. It locks them up in military barracks and keeps them isolated and depressed in hotels. It keeps them under constant threat of deportation, instead of processing their asylum applications promptly.”
Graham O’Neill, the policy manager for the Scottish Refugee Council, said: “After the recent tragedies in Glasgow we are not shocked many have died in the UK asylum support system.”
He added that there was no Home Office public policy on deaths or support for funeral costs or repatriation of the body, nor any discernible learning process to prevent sudden or unexplained deaths. “The Home Office must rectify this and home affairs select committee and the chief inspector ensure they do,” he said.
A Home Office spokesperson said: “We are always saddened to hear of the death of any individual in asylum accommodation. This can be for a number of reasons, including natural causes or as the result of a terminal illness.
“The health and wellbeing of asylum seekers has and always will be our priority. We will continue to work closely with a range of organisations to provide support to those that need it and where necessary we will always cooperate fully in any investigation into the cause of an individual death.”
The revelation comes as a high court judge ruled on Monday that the Home Office was in breach of its duties to protect the human rights of asylum seekers against homelessness.
Judge Robin Knowles also found the Home Office was responsible for wholesale failure to monitor and implement a £4bn contract awarded to several private companies over a 10-year period leading to unlawful delays in provision of accommodation.
Freedom of information responses from the Home Office obtained by the Scottish Refugee Council found that, between January and March 2020, 83% of Home Office properties to accommodate asylum seekers had defects and 40% of the defects were so serious that they made the properties uninhabitable.
The defects were identified by the Home Office’s own inspectors.
#décès #morts #UK #logement #hébergement #Angleterre #asile #migrations #réfugiés #2020 #statistiques #chiffres
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Des nouilles ! Des nouilles ! Des nouilles !
J’espère vraiment que Anne Sylvestre a su combien elle nous a fait du bien tous les midis pendant la guerre...
ValK. a posté une photo :
[Les petites photos]
#hommage #tribute #homenaje
#mort #death #muerte
#nouilles #noddles #tallarines #nourriture
#photo : ValK.
☆ autres photos : ►https://frama.link/valk
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🖤 Merci d’avoir vécu.
Merci pour la tendresse
Et tant pis pour vos fesses
Qui ont fait ce qu’elles ont pu... 🎶
ValK. posted a photo :
[Les Petites Photos] :: : Pour Anne Sylvestre
#hommage #tribute #homenaje #mort #death #muerte #escargot #snail #caracol #rouille #rust #óxido #orange #naranja #automne #autumn #fall #otoño #syncrétisme #syncretism #sincretismo #arttherapie #arttherapy #arteterapia #soeurcellerie #femmesartistes #womensartist #mujeresartistas
☆ autres photos : ►https://frama.link/valk
☆ infos / audios : ►https://frama.link/karacole
☆ oripeaux : ►https://frama.link/kolavalk
☆ me soutenir : ►https://liberapay.com/ValK
Anne Sylvestre nous a quitté ! Nous sommes le 1er décembre 2020 et en ce jour de deuil nous sommes des centaines de milliers de sorcières à nous envoler avec elle vers d’autres cieux retrouver toutes celles qui y sont déjà et qui nous ont ouvert les voies de la résistance au système patriarcal responsable de millions de féminicides !
Tricoteuse de mots ; c’est avec la poésie et la musique que Anne Sylvestre a sensibilisé nos conscience et attisé nos désirs de libertés.
Dans l’ombre des grands médias pendant des décennies, elle a refusé d’adapter son discours et ses poèmes révoltés et poétiques pour cédé aux appels des sirènes du show bisness. Aucune compromission n’était possible et c’est sans humilité qu’elle a revendiqué son statut d’autrice, de chanteuse, de poétesse féministe, même si le mot ne lui convenait pas toujours refusant obstinément d’être « encartée » sous quelques formes d’idéologies que ce soit « ce ne sont pas des idées que je cherche, ce sont des histoires, les histoires des gens... ». Voilà ce qui composaient la substance de c’est textes, de ses chansons de ses colères parfois.
Des histoires singulières pour parler de la Grande Histoire, telles étaient les histoires que Anne racontait.
En hommage à Anne Sylvestre, nous vous rediffusons un entretien réalisé aux villages des Magnans à Pierrerue dans les Alpes de hautes-Provence où elle est venue donner des ateliers d’écritures à des chansonnier.ères apprenti.es qui auront eu l’immense chance de partager ces moment intenses et riches d’exigences et de tendresse, de rires et de grognements.
Cette émission est donc réalisée sur la base de cette entretien et des quelques émissions faites en direct de ces semaines de stage.
La simultanéité, l’ampleur et la radicalité des soulèvements populaires de l’automne 2019 au #Chili, en Équateur et au #Liban surprennent. Elles obligent à réévaluer d’autres mouvements, débutés plus tôt et toujours en cours – en #Haïti, au #Soudan, en #Algérie, à Hongkong… –, et à porter un regard plus attentif sur la conflictualité sociale dans le monde. Au-delà des affinités relevées, la coïncidence dans le temps et la diffusion dans l’espace marquent-elles un nouveau « printemps des peuples » ? Si les (...) #Alternatives_Sud
/ #Alternatives_Sud, #Homepage_-_Publications_à_la_une, Homepage - Menu « Découvrez », #Publications_en_vente_-_> ;_Shop, #Mouvements_sociaux, Relations entre mouvements sociaux & gouvernements, #Inde, #Indonésie, Liban, #Irak, #Iran, Algérie, Soudan, Haïti, Chili, Amérique latine & (...)
#Homepage_-_Menu_« Découvrez » #Relations_entre_mouvements_sociaux_&_gouvernements #Amérique_latine_&_Caraïbes
25 novembre 2020 : haro sur les violences à l’encontre des femmes
La violence faite aux femmes n’est pas un problème individuel ou accidentel, elle ne relève pas d’un coup de sang ou d’une dispute qui dégénère. Elle s’inscrit dans un continuum de violence, qui se déploie sans interruption, à toutes les étapes de la vie, dans tous les espaces et sous de multiples formes, au point de finir par apparaître « normale ». L’année 2020 nous situe dans une période marquée paradoxalement par de fortes mobilisations sociales et un confinement massif. La présence notable des femmes en (...) #Le_regard_du_CETRI
Haïti : le pouvoir entre massacres et impunité
La tribune de Frédéric Thomas, chercheur au CETRI, publiée dans #Libération le 24 novembre 2020. Une campagne internationale a été lancée pour rompre le silence sur le massacre de La Saline perpétré il y a deux ans. Elle appelle à un changement de politique de l’Europe face à la dérive autoritaire du régime en place. Les 13 et 14 novembre 2018, était commis le massacre de La Saline. Deux ans plus tard, les Haïtiens réclament toujours justice, alors que la dérive autoritaire du pouvoir s’accélère. Une (...) #Le_regard_du_CETRI
La fantaisie des Dieux. #Rwanda 1994
Une BD reportage sur le génocide des tutsis au Rwanda.
Il n’y avait plus de mots. Juste ce silence. Épais, lourd. C’était un génocide, celui des Tutsis du Rwanda, le troisième du XXe siècle.
Il faisait beau, il faisait chaud. Nous avions pénétré le monde du grand secret.
Sur les collines de Bisesero, des instituteurs tuaient leurs élèves, des policiers menaient la battue. C’était la « grande moisson ».
François Mitterrand niait « le crime des crimes ». Comment raconter ?
#génocide #crime_contre_l'humanité #France #François_Mitterrand #Mitterrand #silence #Opération_Turquoise #opération_humanitaire #extermination #Home_Saint-Jean #folie #organisation #déni #folie_raisonnée #Bisesero #Kibuye #Nyagurati #violence #guerre #guerre_civile #histoire
Amérique centrale : la crise de trop
Les nouvelles de l’Amérique centrale sont mauvaises. Tandis que deux énièmes ouragans dévastateurs, boostés par le réchauffement des océans, viennent de frapper l’isthme coup sur coup, la pandémie de coronavirus exacerbe, c’est peu dire, les profondes crises qui le déchirent. Crises économique, politique, sociale, environnementale… et, par voie de conséquence, crise migratoire : nombreux sont les Centro-Américain.es qui rêvent en effet d’échapper à leur condition, caractérisée par des niveaux de précarité (...) #Le_regard_du_CETRI
Dermalog : le maillon allemand de la #Corruption en Haïti ?
Depuis plus de deux ans, #Haïti est secoué par un mouvement social inédit qui lutte à la fois contre la vie chère et la corruption ; corruption dont l’ampleur a été révélée par le scandale Petrocaribe. Les quelques 1,459 milliard d’euros destinés à des projets de développement dans cet accord énergétique passé avec le Venezuela ont très largement été détourné par la classe dirigeante. Le président, Jovenel Moïse, mis en cause dans cette affaire, contesté par une majorité de la population, s’accroche au pouvoir et (...) #Le_regard_du_CETRI
Joe Biden : un impérialisme à visage humain ?
La carte blanche de Frédéric Thomas, chercheur au CETRI, dans #Le_Soir du 14/11/2020. Les espoirs mis en Joe Biden, pour amorcer un changement de cap international sont largement déplacés. L’attention médiatique, focalisée sur des questions de personnes, passe à côté des tendances structurelles de la politique étrangère nord-américaine. Joe Biden sera donc le quarante-sixième président des #États-Unis. Ce résultat, toujours contesté par Donald Trump, est censé apporter quelque soulagement : un retour à la (...) #Le_regard_du_CETRI
La victoire de Luis Arce et du MAS en #Bolivie
Le triomphe de Luis Arce lors du premier tour de la présidentielle a surpris jusqu’aux membres du MAS et confirme l’échec de la stratégie du « vote utile » de ses adversaires. Même unie, l’opposition ne se serait pas imposée. Durant l’année de gouvernement de Jeannine Áñez, le MAS a réussi à comprendre la nouvelle configuration politique, à réviser ses erreurs et même à générer de nouveaux leaders. L’exercice du pouvoir sera néanmoins difficile, du fait du contexte régional « post-progressiste » et de la (...) #Le_Sud_en_mouvement
Amérique latine : « L’accaparement des territoires indigènes s’est accéléré »
Un entretien avec Bernard Duterme (CETRI), paru dans #Libération le 13 octobre (par Alexandra Pichard). On recense plus d’une centaine de conflits opposant des communautés autochtones à des investisseurs en Amérique latine, explique le sociologue Bernard Duterme. Le sociologue Bernard Duterme est directeur du Centre tricontinental (Cetri), un groupe d’études indépendant sur les rapports Nord-Sud, et membre du Groupe international de travail pour les peuples autochtones (Gitpa). Il est l’auteur de (...) #Le_regard_du_CETRI
The House is Ours: How Moms 4 Housing Challenged the Private-Property (...) - Metropolitics
The House is Ours: How Moms 4 Housing Challenged the Private-Property Paradigm
Lauren Everett - 6 October 2020
In the midst of a global housing affordability crisis that has been heightened by the Covid‑19 pandemic, it is time to reconsider how the right to profit from property ownership is privileged in policy, funding, and ideology in the United States. Oakland-based Moms 4 Housing’s bold direct action presented a concrete challenge to the status quo.
housing / affordable housing / community land trusts / property ownership / property / homeownership / private property / real estate / speculation / California / United States / Oakland
On November 18, 2019, in west Oakland, California, Dominique Walker and Sameerah Karim started moving their families into the vacant three-bedroom home at 2928 Magnolia Street (Holder and Mock 2020). They pressure-washed the exterior, patched the roof, installed a water heater, and added a refrigerator and stove. It was a new beginning for both women—single Black mothers who had experienced homelessness due to the cost of housing in Oakland, despite working full-time. The only problem was, they were neither leaseholders nor owners: The house was owned by Wedgewood Properties, described by its own CEO, Greg Geiser, as the largest “fix-and-flip” company in the United States (Dreier 2016). Historically Black neighborhoods are being gradually eroded in Oakland, with a roughly 50% decline in Black Oaklanders between the 1980s and today. One would have to earn $43.46 an hour, or $86,920 annually, to afford a two-bedroom home in the ZIP code where the Magnolia house is located, while Black women in the area earn an average of $49,369. The city also had more than 4,000 unhoused residents in late 2019, representing a 47% increase since 2017 (Holder and Mock 2020).
Accaparement de terres numérique en Amérique du Sud
Un rapport publié par l’ONG de défense des luttes paysannes GRAIN décrit comment les technologies numériques sont aujourd’hui utilisées en Amérique du Sud pour renforcer les processus de concentration des terres agricoles dans les mains d’une poignée d’acteurs privés au détriment des petits paysans et des communautés indigènes. L’Amérique latine est tristement célèbre pour ses niveaux records d’inégalités socio-économiques, y compris et d’abord en matière d’accès à la terre. Un pour cent des propriétaires (...) #Le_regard_du_CETRI
La tribune de Frédéric Thomas (CETRI) dans #Le_Monde du 29 septembre. Alors qu’en #Haïti un mouvement social de grande ampleur réclame le départ du chef de l’Etat, Jovenel Moïse, impliqué dans le scandale Petrocaribe, l’Union européenne continue de soutenir le pouvoir en place, regrette, dans une tribune au « Monde », le politiste Frédéric Thomas. A l’été 2018, les Haïtiens et Haïtiennes se sont soulevés contre la vie chère et le scandale Petrocaribe. Cet accord énergétique régional conclu avec le Venezuela, (...) #Le_regard_du_CETRI
La crise écologique vue du Sud
En 1 minute chrono, les grandes lignes du nouveau livre collectif du CETRI, par Bernard Duterme qui l’a coordonné. Lire l’éditorial de ce livre : ►https://www.cetri.be/Les-cinq-dilemmes-de-la-crise Sommaire complet : ▻https://www.cetri.be/L-urgence-ecologique-vue-du-Sud * Commande, version papier ou numérique. #Le_regard_du_CETRI
Plus d’un millier de syndicalistes et d’activistes assassinés en #Colombie depuis l’accord de #Paix
Il y a quatre ans, le 26 septembre 2016, était signé un accord de paix entre les autorités colombiennes et les Forces armées révolutionnaires de Colombie (FARC), censé mettre fin à cinquante-deux ans de conflit armé. Mais la paix, les Colombiens et Colombiennes l’attendent toujours. Une analyse du chercheur Frédéric Thomas (CETRI), parue dans Bastamag. Contrairement à ses deux grands voisins, le Venezuela et le Brésil, la Colombie n’occupe guère de place dans nos médias. À croire que, longtemps coincé (...) #Le_regard_du_CETRI
#Colombie : en attendant la #Paix ?
Il y a quatre ans, le 26 septembre 2016 était signé un accord de paix entre les autorités colombiennes et les Forces armées révolutionnaires de Colombie (FARC), devant mettre fin à cinquante-deux ans de conflit armé. Mais la paix ressemble, pour les Colombiens et Colombiennes, à Godot dans la fameuse pièce de Samuel Becket ; celle que l’on attend et dont on ne cesse de parler, et qui n’arrive jamais. Contrairement à ses deux grands voisins, le Venezuela et le Brésil, la Colombie n’occupe guère de place (...) #Le_regard_du_CETRI
La crise du Covid a mis à nu les faiblesses de politiques sanitaires excessivement dépendantes des importations. Si la « souveraineté sanitaire » est le nouveau mot d’ordre en Europe, le principe progresse aussi parmi les nations en développement, premières victimes du « nationalisme vaccinal » que génère la course au vaccin. Les conditions du développement d’une production nationale de produits médicaux font l’objet d’une réflexion renouvelée. La crise sanitaire a spectaculairement mis à jour la (...) #Le_regard_du_CETRI