• La drammatica foto dell’uomo sulla nave Talia simbolo della tragedia dei migranti

    Il mercantile ancora al largo di Malta dopo aver soccorso, tre giorni fa, 52 persone alla deriva senza cibo né acqua. La Valletta per farli sbarcare vuole garanzie dalla Ue sulla ricollocazione. Sulla Ocean Viking si stanno eseguendo i tamponi.

    La Pietà dei mari si trova sul mercantile Talia. Ha il volto scheletrico e terrorizzato di un migrante subshariano, privato ormai anche della forza per scendere le scalette di un ponte. E ha le braccia forti e compassionevoli di un marinaio in tuta blu e mascherina che lo sorregge. Questa foto è stata scattata poche ore fa sulla Talia, e da sola racconta quello che il governo di Malta si rifiuta di vedere: i 52 migranti recuperati in mare, e che le autorità della Valletta da tre giorni non vogliono far sbarcare, sono allo stremo.

    Il marinaio della foto dovrebbe essere un motorista. Il mercantile, dopo aver ricevuto la segnalazione di un gommone in avaria, ha deviato la propria rotta per recuperare gli uomini e le donne che vi viaggiavano. Come impongono le convenzioni marittime internazionali. Ora li stanno accudendo e nutrendo, pur con tutte le preoccupazioni del rischio Covid, ma non possono resistere ancora per molto.

    #Nave_Talia, i migranti ammassati a bordo vengono accuditi dai marinai del mercantile

    Malta continua a non assegnare loro un porto di sbarco. Solo due migranti sono stati autorizzati a scendere perché ritenuti in concreto pericolo di vita. L’armatore è in difficoltà, perché il Talia era atteso in Libia per consegnare un carico. Il governo di Malta dice che non consentirà l’attracco ai naufraghi fino a quando non avrà garanzie da altri Stati membri dell’Unione sulla loro immediata ricollocazione, come scrive il Times of Malta. Il 3 luglio Alarm Phone, l’ong che segnala i gommoni, aveva diramato il primo allarme. Rilanciato poi dall’italiana Mediterranea Saving Humans e dall’ong tedesca Sea Watch.

    Intanto a bordo della #Ocean_Viking, nave della ong Mediterraneé che si trova al largo di Pozzallo con 180 migranti salvati in diverse operazioni, le autorità italiane stanno effettuando i tamponi per il Covid. La ong Mediterraneé, in merito al trasbordo dei migranti sulla #nave-quarantena #Moby_Zazà previsto domani, sottolinea: «Non abbiamo ricevuto alcuna istruzione. Senza conferme, non possiamo dare soluzioni ai sopravvissuti. L’incertezza prosegue e questo significa che le tensioni permangono».

    https://www.repubblica.it/cronaca/2020/07/05/news/la_foto_shock_dell_uomo_sulla_nave_talia_simbolo_della_tragedia_dei_migra
    #image #photo #asile #migrations #réfugiés #Méditerranée #sauvetage #Libye #faim

    A mettre en lien avec ces autres images, mises sur seenthis en 2018:

    https://seenthis.net/messages/678573

    ping @isskein

  • Is #WebP really better than #JPEG ? - siipo.la
    https://siipo.la/blog/is-webp-really-better-than-jpeg

    Is WebP better than JPEG?

    So, is WebP better than JPEG? It depends if you are using the reference libjpeg library or the improved MozJPEG encoder.

    WebP seems to have about 10% better #compression compared to libjpeg in most cases, except with 1500px #images where the compression is about equal.

    However, when compared to MozJPEG, WebP only performs better with small 500px images. With other image sizes the compression is equal or worse.

    I think MozJPEG is the clear winner here with consistently about 10% better compression than libjpeg.

    Since most of the time WebP is used alongside JPEG fallback, by using WebP you will essentially double your storage costs with little benefit.

  • The true story behind this iconic photo that became a symbol of gender equality in the Zionist movement
    The granddaughter of female pioneer seen in shorts in a quarry in Mandatory Palestine reveals that the ’propaganda’ scene was in fact staged
    Ofer Aderet | Jun. 25, 2020 | 2:19 PM
    https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-the-true-story-behind-photo-that-symbolized-gender-equality-in-the

    Among the handful of surviving photographs depicting female pioneers during the pre-state British Mandate period, one of the best known is a picture of Aviva Alef.

    She was photographed in the summer of 1941 next to an open rail-cart full of rocks at a quarry at Kibbutz Ein Harod. The man who took the image was Zoltan Kluger, one of the greatest photographers in the country at the time, and who documented the Jewish state in the making for various Zionist organizations.

    Over the years, the iconic photo became a symbol of groundbreaking female equality in the Zionist movement. Just this week, however, 79 years after it was taken, Aviva Alef’s granddaughter decided to reveal the true story behind the picture, which is now in the official photography collection of the State of Israel.

    “My grandmother became a symbol of female pioneers against her will,” her granddaughter, Yael Avrahami, told Haaretz.

    Avrahami called the photograph “propaganda.”

    In contemporary Israel, every year when the weather warms up, a controversy resurfaces in the country’s schools over the appropriate length of female students’ shorts. “Someone recalled the picture and retrieved it from the archives,” noted Avrahami, a biblical studies lecturer at the Oranim Academic College of Education in Kiryat Tivon, northern Israel.

    The photo became part of an effort to demonstrate how “things had been different here” at one time, how women went around freely in short-shorts. It turned Avrahami’s grandmother into a symbol to be emulated.

    ‘Rebellious girl’

    “Let me tell you the real story about that picture,” Avrahami wrote Monday on Facebook, recounting how her grandmother, born Lotte Perschak, fled Czechoslovakia at age 17 after the outbreak of World War II. She immigrated to Mandatory Palestine with Youth Aliyah, a Zionist organization that at the time rescued young Jews from Europe and brought them to the Holy Land.

    “Here she was arbitrarily given the name Aviva. She settled at Kibbutz Beit Hashita in the Harod Valley and thought she was coming to an agricultural dorm and that she would return home at the end of the war. A very innocent young girl,” Avrahami wrote.

    But she also quickly discovered less pleasant aspects of the pioneering enterprise that had saved her life at a time when her family was sent to the Theresienstadt concentration camp.

    “In Youth Aliyah, you weren’t allowed to speak your native language. Everyone had to speak Hebrew,” the granddaughter recounted. Aviva was caught speaking Czech with her friend one day, and as a punishment was “exiled” to work in the rock quarry next to the adjacent kibbutz, Ein Harod – “as was befitting for a rebellious girl.”

    The punishment was meted out, Avrahami said, by two adults in charge: Tikva Sarig, a kindergarten teacher, children’s author and the wife of Nahum Sarig (who later became the commander of the Negev Brigade of the pre-state Palmach elite strike force); and Aryeh Ben-Gurion, the nephew of Israel’s first prime minister.

    But unlike male pioneers, and contrary to what the famous photograph suggests, “she didn’t drive rail carts with rocks and didn’t blast rocks. She cooked and did laundry for the male pioneers,” her granddaughter disclosed.

    On the day Kluger arrived to take pictures of the pioneers, “girls’ legs suited him for the picture,” as Avrahami put it – meaning that the iconic photo was staged.

    “Men are less sexy and my grandmother’s legs were legendary,” Avrahami said. “My grandfather once said she had the prettiest legs in the valley.”

    At age 20, Aviva gave birth to a son. That son’s daughter is Yael Avrahami.

    “My grandmother was saved from the horrors of the world war by the pioneering that was forced upon her. But it’s hard to look nostalgically upon the shorts in the picture and think that anything was perfect at the time,” the granddaughter wrote, “that the world saw her for what she was and not for her beautiful legs.

    “The shorts are not the be-all and end-all,” Avrahami added.

    Aviva’s parents didn’t survive the Holocaust. Her brother survived Auschwitz and married a Catholic nurse who had taken care of him, but he died relatively young behind the Iron Curtain.

    Aviva married journalist Yitzhak Avrahami at Beit Hashita and had a son. The couple divorced and Aviva made her way to Kibbutz Ayelet Hashahar, where she married Haim Alef and took his surname. “She would work in various jobs at the kibbutz, including being in charge of purchasing at the grocery. She also worked for many years in the sewing workshop,” Avrahami recounted.

    Aviva Alef died 18 years ago. One of the stories she told her granddaughter has bothered Yael Avrahami to this day.

    “She once told me that they needed to guard the watchtowers in the valley. The immigrant girls, who were afraid to do guard duty alone, were forced ‘to kiss’ male pioneers who would come along to stand guard with them at night. ‘Kissing’ is all she told me. I hope it wasn’t more than that,” Avrahami said.

    #propagande #hasbara

  • Farida : la victime n’était pas coupable – L’image sociale
    http://imagesociale.fr/8700

    Les images virales, comment ça marche ? Pour les journalistes comme pour le plupart des usagers du web, ces vidéos qui montrent un événement dramatique ou significatif sont des données qui émergent du terrain, de façon spontanée et naturelle, et constituent des faits objectifs dont l’intérêt est établi par leur diffusion même. Mais les images virales ne sont pas des faits objectifs : ce sont au contraire des récits en formation, des constructions sociales en temps réel, forgées par la conversation sur les réseaux sociaux. La lecture de ces séquences évolue rapidement en fonction de l’état du débat public, dont elles révèlent et orientent simultanément les contours.

  • Imen Mellaz
    @Mellazimen
    https://twitter.com/Mellazimen/status/1272929930611953666

    Cette femme, c’est ma mère. 50 ans, infirmière, elle a bossé pendant 3 mois entre 12 et 14 heures par jour. A eu le covid. Aujourd’hui, elle manifestait pour qu’on revalorise son salaire, qu’on reconnaisse son travail. Elle est asthmatique. Elle avait sa blouse. Elle fait 1m55.

    On ose me dire au téléphone, évidemment, « qu’on ne sait pas ce qu’il s’est passé avant ces vidéos, mais ayez confiance, si elle n’a rien fait on la relâche ». Oui, comme #AdamaTraore par exemple ? Bien sûr, « ayez confiance ». Elle est actuellement en garde à vue.

    Rien ne justifie de TOUTE FACON une telle interpellation. Pas quand on est désarmée, pas en blouse, pas quand on fait 1m55, pas face à autant de robocop. Non, non et non.

    ““““““““““““““““““““““““““““““““““““
    Remy Buisine
    @RemyBuisine
    https://twitter.com/RemyBuisine/status/1272935058630983681

    Une femme en blouse blanche, tirée par les cheveux, durant une interpellation, finira évacuée le visage en sang durant la manifestation aux Invalides. Elle réclamera à plusieurs reprises sa Ventoline.

    Images issue de mon direct sur @brutofficiel
    (1H45). #soignants

    #manif16juin #soignants #soignantes

  • Le site #Internet_Archive mis en danger par des poids lourds de l’édition

    Sous la pression d’une #plainte déposée devant un tribunal new-yorkais par quatre poids lourds de l’édition aux États-Unis, le site Internet Archive a décidé d’avancer de 15 jours la fermeture de sa #bibliothèque_d’urgence, créée en réponse à l’#épidémie de #coronavirus.

    Une infraction « massive et délibérée » au #droit_de_reproduction. C’est ce que quatre éditeurs, dont la filiale américaine du groupe #Hachette, reprochent au site Internet Archive, connu notamment pour son archivage du web mondial, la #Wayback_Machine, dans laquelle on peut retrouver des pages web disparues.

    Mais l’Internet Archive, c’est aussi une immense #médiathèque, riche de millions de #livres, #films, #images, jeux vidéo et documents sonores. Côté bibliothèque, son « but ultime » est de « mettre tous les travaux publiés de l’humanité à la disposition de tous dans le monde ». Chacun·e, à condition d’être inscrit·e, peut emprunter jusqu’à dix livres à la fois, pour une durée de quinze jours. Les livres sont prêtés sous la forme de fichiers pdf. Selon Internet Archive, 17 500 livres sont empruntés chaque jour.

    Comme dans une bibliothèque classique, un livre doit être disponible pour pouvoir être emprunté – une règle que le site a « concoctée de toutes pièces », lui reprochent les plaignants. Ce concept du « #prêt_numérique_contrôlé » autorise un prêt à la fois pour un livre numérisé donné. Soutenu par le Conseil des directeurs des bibliothèques d’État des États-Unis, il n’avait encore jamais été mis en cause devant les tribunaux.

    Ce qui a décidé les #maisons_d’édition à risquer un #procès pas gagné d’avance, c’est la #Bibliothèque_nationale_d’urgence mise en place à la fin du mois de mars par Internet Archive, pour répondre à la fermeture des écoles, bibliothèques et universités en raison du coronavirus, et donc à l’impossibilité d’aller y chercher des livres. Installé aux États-Unis, le site avait simplement décidé de « suspendre les listes d’attente […] pendant toute la durée de l’urgence nationale américaine » : c’est-à-dire qu’il n’y avait plus besoin qu’un livre (numérique) revienne pour être emprunté à nouveau. Plusieurs lecteurs pouvaient ainsi en bénéficier en même temps.

    Mercredi 10 juin, son fondateur, #Brewster_Kahle, a publié sur son blog un billet (https://blog.archive.org/2020/06/10/temporary-national-emergency-library-to-close-2-weeks-early-returning-) pour annoncer la fin prochaine du dispositif, avancée au 16 juin, espérant trouver avec les détenteurs de droits « un système qui marche ».

    Son initiative a été soutenue publiquement par des dizaines de bibliothèques et d’universités, ces institutions se revendiquant du principe du « #fair_use », qui autorise des dérogations aux droits de reproduction, particulièrement quand il s’agit d’enseignement, et selon les circonstances. C’est le cas, estime Brewster Kahle, de l’épidémie due au coronavirus.

    Au contraire, cette ouverture des portes numériques est intervenue, selon les éditeurs, au pire moment, celui-là « même où de nombreux auteurs, éditeurs et librairies indépendantes, sans parler des bibliothèques, luttent pour survivre ». Le risque pour Internet Archive est vital, la loi sur le #droit_d’auteur (#Copyright_Act) autorisant des #dommages_et_intérêts pouvant atteindre 150 000 dollars par œuvre en cas de violation délibérée. Si le site propose au prêt 1,3 million de livres, certains sont toutefois dans le #domaine_public.

    « La #gratuité est un concurrent indépassable », estiment les éditeurs dans leur plainte, rappelant l’argument le plus éculé de l’industrie musicale. Internet Archive « ne fait qu’exploiter les investissements que les éditeurs ont faits dans leurs livres », accusent-ils, et « au moyen d’un modèle économique conçu pour profiter librement du travail des autres ». La plainte s’acharne à démontrer que l’Internet Archive serait une entreprise commerciale vivant de la #numérisation des livres, un travail qu’elle effectue contre rémunération pour les bibliothèques. Urgence ou pas, elle demande la destruction de toutes les copies illégales.

    Avec les livres prêtés par l’Internet Archive, on est pourtant loin du mp3 recopié ou downloadé en clic. Brewster Kahle rappelle dans une lettre adressée le 10 avril à Thom Tillis, un sénateur républicain président de la Commission sur la #propriété_intellectuelle, réservé sur la légalité du procédé, que son organisation, sans but lucratif, est régulièrement reconnue comme bibliothèque par la Californie. Cela fait bientôt dix ans, dit-il, que les livres sont prêtés selon la règle « #un_lecteur_à_la_fois ». De plus, se défend le fondateur de la bibliothèque, « nos livres numériques sont protégés par les mêmes protections techniques que celles utilisées par les éditeurs pour garantir que les lecteurs n’ont accès à un livre que pendant les deux semaines de son prêt, et que des copies supplémentaires ne peuvent être faites ».

    Toujours à destination de l’élu républicain, il explique : « Vos électeurs ont payé pour des millions de livres auxquels ils n’ont pas accès actuellement » – 15 millions de livres bloqués derrière les portes fermées de 323 bibliothèques, rien qu’en Caroline du Nord, l’État du sénateur, a compté Brewster Kahle.

    Aux éditeurs, il fait remarquer que la bibliothèque d’urgence ne comporte aucun livre publié il y a moins de cinq ans ; 90 % des livres empruntés ont plus de dix ans, et deux tiers datent du XXe siècle. Quant aux auteurs qui ne voudraient pas que leurs livres soient ainsi prêtés, il leur suffit de le demander par mail, poursuit Kahle. Certains ont au contraire, affirme-t-il, demandé à figurer dans la bibliothèque numérique.

    Dès le 31 mars, la Guilde des auteurs avait mobilisé ses membres contre la bibliothèque d’urgence, parlant de « piratage pur et simple », et proposé un modèle de réclamation. Ce groupement d’auteurs avait déjà fait connaître son désaccord avec le prêt de livres numérisés selon le principe « un livre papier, une copie numérique » en janvier 2019. Le #Syndicat_national_des_auteurs (#National_Writers_Unions) a de son côté préféré entamer des discussions amiables avec Internet Archive et les défenseurs du prêt numérique contrôlé.

    L’Internet Archive est en effet, aux États-Unis, loin d’être la seule bibliothèque à pratiquer de la sorte. La pratique du prêt numérisé contrôlé est théorisée, défendue et pratiquée par de nombreux juristes et des bibliothèques universitaires ou locales, comme celles des villes de Los Angeles, San Francisco et Boston. Un livre imprimé peut être prêté : c’est le principe des bibliothèques. Il doit en être de même pour sa déclinaison à l’identique au format numérique, un exemplaire numérique prêté à une personne à la fois.

    En attendant la décision du tribunal new-yorkais, des internautes se posent à travers le monde la question d’archiver l’Internet Archive et ses téraoctets de documents.

    https://www.mediapart.fr/journal/culture-idees/110620/le-site-internet-archive-mis-en-danger-par-des-poids-lourds-de-l-edition
    #open_access #confinement #édition_scientifique #recherche #justice

  • Lose Yourself in a Mesmerizing, Meticulous Map of the Met - Atlas Obscura

    https://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/mesmerizing-map-met-museum

    n March, the Metropolitan Museum of Art joined thousands of museums that have closed their galleries to prevent the spread of COVID-19. It might be months before its doors reopen, but anyone with an internet connection can explore 5,000 years of art from the museum’s holdings. You can revel in the intricacies of incense burners from around the world; lose yourself in a garden; even go bird-watching.

    A standout among these many resources is a charming, illustrated map of the museum that was created before the Met had a Digital Media Department. Hand-drawn by artist John Kerschbaum, who received the commission in 2004, the Family Map charts out every gallery of the museum on a single, 18-by-24-inch page. Kerschbaum lives in New York City and based the Met map on a similarly saturated 1976 poster of Manhattan by artist Tony Graham.

    #cartographie #image #leaflet ?

  • Graffiti - Varsovie, Ciepta Ulitsa, mai 2019
    https://visionscarto.net/graffiti-varsovie-ciepta-ulitsa

    Titre : Graffiti - Varsovie, Ciepta Ulitsa, mai 2019 Lieu : Pologne Mots-clés : #graffiti #art_de_rue #street_art #migrations #asile #résistance #réfugiés #images #photographie Matériel : Photographies Auteur : Philippe Rekacewicz Date : Mai 2019 Ça pouvait arriver. Ça devait arriver. C’est arrivé avant. Après. Ici. Là-bas. À quelqu’un qui n’est pas toi. » Wislawa Szymborska, De la mort sans exagérer, 1996 Alors, remue-toi, balance-toi, cours, file ! Si t’oublies ça, si tu t’arrêtes, il va (...) #Inspirations

  • Image Techniques On The Web
    https://ishadeed.com/article/image-techniques

    Manipulations avancées pour la gestion des images dans les pages web :
    – balises <img> et <picture>,
    – attributs HTML height, width, alt et srcset
    – propriétés CSS object-fit et object-position (dément !),
    – embed de balise <img> dans une balise <svg> pour pouvoir jouer avec la propriété CSS preserveAspectRatio, lui associer un <title> et une <desc>
    – intégration d’images SVG et utilisation de balises mask
    – exemples d’utilisation d’un div avec border pour emballer une image et la faire ressortir si ton sur ton

    #image #web_dev #css #svg #img #picture

  • D’OÙ VIENT ET OÙ VA LE #PHOTOJOURNALISME ?

    (libre) https://www.invidio.us/watch?v=VfHJOo21KwA
    (YT) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VfHJOo21KwA

    Passionnant par ses rappels et exemples, en particulier sur les notions de photojournalisme & photoreporter ≢ photo-documentaire & photographe auteur⋅e
    Frustrant sur son manque de poil-à-gratter sur les responsabilités économiques (Louis Witter intervient souvent sur le sujet sur Twitter, dénonçant l’hypocrisie des rédactions

    Photojournalism is drôle because une rédac peut te dire sans pression « faites le reportage, venez nous le montrer ensuite et on verra si on prend ». Le jour où je voudrais construire ma maison je j’essayerai de dire aux gars « allez y, bâtissez moi ça et pis j’vois ensuite » 🙃
    https://twitter.com/LouisWitter/status/1263757032932421632

    sujet #photo de Photosynthese / #HistoireDeLaPhoto
    son site : http://www.photo-synthèse.com/a-propos-de-photo-synthese

    • ah ah ah j’adore ! et aussi sur l’aberration du manque d’éducation à l’image et de culture visuelle, sémiologie, sémantique, histoire, représentation, choix des couleurs, des formes, longues études pour dessiner/photographier ? du basique inconnu … on en parlait hier avec @jacotte, avec ce que cela implique de mépris et de déconsidération. Graphiste ? un travail rapidement attribué aux femmes « aaah, une femme, tu vas nous faire l’interface plus joli, ah ben non je code pas pour valoriser ce que vous avez terminé sans vous préoccuper de ce poste, et manque de bol, je suis pas graphiste justement pour ces raisons » Quand tu es graphiste avec 30 ans de métier, qu’on vient te chercher pour ça et que l’oncle de Paul trouve que tu devrais ferrer à droite la typo de ton logo. Et surtout l’hypocrite sacro sainte indépendance de tout ce qui est artiste, photographe, fabricante d’images, qui ressemble surtout à une façon d’exploiter tes talents sans avoir à te rémunérer : aah ces artistes qui ont faim, c’est si beau, faudrait pas vous prendre pour Van Gogh pour autant, si on peut rien vous dire … Un stage de 4h de photoshop et le secrétariat se chargera de refondre la maquette en intégrant les désidératas des 12 membres du CA.

    • Merci pour le témoignage-rage, @touti !
      Pour ma part je dois régulièrement répondre que non, je ne suis pas journaliste ni même photojournaliste, puisqu’il semble que ce soit la seule case disponible dans l’imaginaire collectif quand tu fais de la photo dite « sociale » ou « engagée », et ce qui est encore plus drôle (nop) c’est le dédain général (mais non-dit, plutôt par l’oubli) quand j’explique que je suis illustratrice (documentaliste, j’essaye même plus, c’est trop abstrait)
      Et alors auteurE, avec un E, mandiEu !!!
      Le hic c’est que le mouvement qui a fini par naître en défense des photojournalistes a fait l’impasse sur cet aspect (déjà ça a été compliqué pour elleux de faire admettre le truc avec ou sans carte, j’étais là pendant la bataille, je peux en témoigner) du coup, ce truc c’est un peu comme si c’était la part négociable et accessoire dans la tête des flics / patrons, etc.
      Pour l’artisme, j’avoue, je mets ça de côté, c’est un machin trop compliqué à manier pour moi, même si des fois je l’utilise pour signifier que je veux bien passer rapidement à un autre sujet quand à la complexité mon métier (un peu comme quand on dit « c’est compliqué » pour le relationnel...) déjà que j’ai du mal à me situer dans le champs <libre>-<bénévole>-<exploitée>-<payée> !
      Bref, j’ai trouvé quelques rappels suffisamment simples pour faire tourner la vidéo en espérant qu’elle touchera les « photojournalistes » new-born de ces dernières années qui font un peu n’imp et se croient parfois exempts, par l’auto-proclamation, de toute notion réflexive ou éthique, les pires étant ceux qui font du live facebook, etc etc etc groumph !

    • @val_k quand il faut remplir la case « tu bosses dans quoi » je réponds que je suis réalisatrice, d’un c’est au féminin, de deux je réalise des choses même en ne produisant rien voire en dormant (comme tout le monde mais chuut), de trois ça pose sa femme pour ceux qui veulent une case.
      Et tu réalises quoi ?
      – La vacuité du monde, chaque jour.
      Tant que je supportais encore de pointer à l’anpe, c’est le titre qu’ils avaient inscrits et au moins ça fait rire :)

      Quant aux nouveaux dieux facebook, tu as envie de passer du temps à les éduquer ? perso je préfère tes photos !

  • Des lieux pour apprendre et des espaces à vivre : l’#école et ses périphéries. Les dehors et les ailleurs

    Quelle approche géographique des #territoires_scolaires ? [Texte intégral]
    Exemple à partir de la cartographie des établissements du 2nd degré à #La_Réunion
    What geographical approach to school territories ? An example from the map of secondary schools on the island of Reunion
    Sylvain Genevois

    #Roms et #Voyageurs : quand les enjeux spatiaux s’invitent à l’école [Texte intégral]
    Roma and Travelers : when space challenges come to school
    Aurore Lecomte

    Les différences nationales de désignation et représentation des déplacements occasionnels des classes dans les pays d’Europe [Texte intégral]
    National differences in the designation and representation of the occasional displacing of classes in European countries
    Xavier Michel

    Images d’espaces / espaces en #images [Texte intégral]
    Étudiants, enseignants débutants, formateurs et espaces d’apprentissage
    Images of spaces / spaces in images. Students, newly qualified teachers, lecturers and learning spaces
    Jean-François Thémines et Anne-Laure Le Guern

    Les effets d’un espace d’apprentissage délocalisé : analyse d’un espace scénique [Texte intégral]
    The effects of a relocated learning space : analysis of a scenic space
    Claire de Saint Martin

    Étranges #stages à l’étranger. Quand le #Covid-19 reconfigure les #apprentissages « #Hors_les_murs » [Texte intégral]
    Strange internships abroad. When the Covid-19 reconfigures “Outside the walls” learning
    Dominique Chevalier

    Etudier et se rencontrer au sein d’une société divisée, perspectives de territoires d’apprentissage chypriotes [Texte intégral]
    Studying and meeting in a divided society : prospects for Cypriot learning territories
    Marie Pouillès-Garonzi
    #Chypre

    Ouvrir l’École sur son espace proche : enjeux de la #territorialisation de l’enseignement de la géographie dans le secondaire en #Nouvelle-Calédonie [Texte intégral]
    Opening up the School to its immediate surroundings : territorialisation challenges of geography teaching in secondary schools in New Caledonia
    Amandine Touitou, Isabelle Lefort et Séverine Ferrière

    Les trajets domicile-école des élèves de primaire peuvent-ils constituer un point de départ pour construire des apprentissages spatiaux ? [Texte intégral]
    Can the home to school journeys of primary school children constitute a starting point for building spatial learning ?
    Elsa Filâtre

    https://journals.openedition.org/geocarrefour/15007
    #revue #géographie

  • Install the ImageMagick PHP extension in Windows | mlocati - Michele Locati
    https://mlocati.github.io/articles/php-windows-imagick.html

    Le Howto pour installer ImageMagik sur un serveur apache sous Windows
    (attention ! les commandes php -i |find ... données pour la détection des paramètres de PHP sont destinées à un terminal Windows Cmd.exe : elles ne fonctionnent pas dans un terminal de type Git bash)

    Voir aussi :
    – le repo pour l’extension PHP ImageMagik : https://pecl.php.net/package/imagickMagick pour Windows (dll)
    – le dépot de php.net pour les extensions PHP : https://windows.php.net/downloads/pecl/deps
    – Step by step guide on how to install ImageMagick in Windows : https://tektriks.com/a-step-by-step-guide-on-how-to-install-imagemagick-in-windows (pas tout à fait assez précis/explicite...)

    #laragon #ImageMagick #php #extension #windows

  • Monitoring being pitched to fight Covid-19 was tested on refugees

    The pandemic has given a boost to controversial data-driven initiatives to track population movements

    In Italy, social media monitoring companies have been scouring Instagram to see who’s breaking the nationwide lockdown. In Israel, the government has made plans to “sift through geolocation data” collected by the Shin Bet intelligence agency and text people who have been in contact with an infected person. And in the UK, the government has asked mobile operators to share phone users’ aggregate location data to “help to predict broadly how the virus might move”.

    These efforts are just the most visible tip of a rapidly evolving industry combining the exploitation of data from the internet and mobile phones and the increasing number of sensors embedded on Earth and in space. Data scientists are intrigued by the new possibilities for behavioural prediction that such data offers. But they are also coming to terms with the complexity of actually using these data sets, and the ethical and practical problems that lurk within them.

    In the wake of the refugee crisis of 2015, tech companies and research consortiums pushed to develop projects using new data sources to predict movements of migrants into Europe. These ranged from broad efforts to extract intelligence from public social media profiles by hand, to more complex automated manipulation of big data sets through image recognition and machine learning. Two recent efforts have just been shut down, however, and others are yet to produce operational results.

    While IT companies and some areas of the humanitarian sector have applauded new possibilities, critics cite human rights concerns, or point to limitations in what such technological solutions can actually achieve.

    In September last year Frontex, the European border security agency, published a tender for “social media analysis services concerning irregular migration trends and forecasts”. The agency was offering the winning bidder up to €400,000 for “improved risk analysis regarding future irregular migratory movements” and support of Frontex’s anti-immigration operations.

    Frontex “wants to embrace” opportunities arising from the rapid growth of social media platforms, a contracting document outlined. The border agency believes that social media interactions drastically change the way people plan their routes, and thus examining would-be migrants’ online behaviour could help it get ahead of the curve, since these interactions typically occur “well before persons reach the external borders of the EU”.

    Frontex asked bidders to develop lists of key words that could be mined from platforms like Twitter, Facebook, Instagram and YouTube. The winning company would produce a monthly report containing “predictive intelligence ... of irregular flows”.

    Early this year, however, Frontex cancelled the opportunity. It followed swiftly on from another shutdown; Frontex’s sister agency, the European Asylum Support Office (EASO), had fallen foul of the European data protection watchdog, the EDPS, for searching social media content from would-be migrants.

    The EASO had been using the data to flag “shifts in asylum and migration routes, smuggling offers and the discourse among social media community users on key issues – flights, human trafficking and asylum systems/processes”. The search covered a broad range of languages, including Arabic, Pashto, Dari, Urdu, Tigrinya, Amharic, Edo, Pidgin English, Russian, Kurmanji Kurdish, Hausa and French.

    Although the EASO’s mission, as its name suggests, is centred around support for the asylum system, its reports were widely circulated, including to organisations that attempt to limit illegal immigration – Europol, Interpol, member states and Frontex itself.

    In shutting down the EASO’s social media monitoring project, the watchdog cited numerous concerns about process, the impact on fundamental rights and the lack of a legal basis for the work.

    “This processing operation concerns a vast number of social media users,” the EDPS pointed out. Because EASO’s reports are read by border security forces, there was a significant risk that data shared by asylum seekers to help others travel safely to Europe could instead be unfairly used against them without their knowledge.

    Social media monitoring “poses high risks to individuals’ rights and freedoms,” the regulator concluded in an assessment it delivered last November. “It involves the use of personal data in a way that goes beyond their initial purpose, their initial context of publication and in ways that individuals could not reasonably anticipate. This may have a chilling effect on people’s ability and willingness to express themselves and form relationships freely.”

    EASO told the Bureau that the ban had “negative consequences” on “the ability of EU member states to adapt the preparedness, and increase the effectiveness, of their asylum systems” and also noted a “potential harmful impact on the safety of migrants and asylum seekers”.

    Frontex said that its social media analysis tender was cancelled after new European border regulations came into force, but added that it was considering modifying the tender in response to these rules.
    Coronavirus

    Drug shortages put worst-hit Covid-19 patients at risk
    European doctors running low on drugs needed to treat Covid-19 patients
    Big Tobacco criticised for ’coronavirus publicity stunt’ after donating ventilators

    The two shutdowns represented a stumbling block for efforts to track population movements via new technologies and sources of data. But the public health crisis precipitated by the Covid-19 virus has brought such efforts abruptly to wider attention. In doing so it has cast a spotlight on a complex knot of issues. What information is personal, and legally protected? How does that protection work? What do concepts like anonymisation, privacy and consent mean in an age of big data?
    The shape of things to come

    International humanitarian organisations have long been interested in whether they can use nontraditional data sources to help plan disaster responses. As they often operate in inaccessible regions with little available or accurate official data about population sizes and movements, they can benefit from using new big data sources to estimate how many people are moving where. In particular, as well as using social media, recent efforts have sought to combine insights from mobile phones – a vital possession for a refugee or disaster survivor – with images generated by “Earth observation” satellites.

    “Mobiles, satellites and social media are the holy trinity of movement prediction,” said Linnet Taylor, professor at the Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology and Society in the Netherlands, who has been studying the privacy implications of such new data sources. “It’s the shape of things to come.”

    As the devastating impact of the Syrian civil war worsened in 2015, Europe saw itself in crisis. Refugee movements dominated the headlines and while some countries, notably Germany, opened up to more arrivals than usual, others shut down. European agencies and tech companies started to team up with a new offering: a migration hotspot predictor.

    Controversially, they were importing a concept drawn from distant catastrophe zones into decision-making on what should happen within the borders of the EU.

    “Here’s the heart of the matter,” said Nathaniel Raymond, a lecturer at the Yale Jackson Institute for Global Affairs who focuses on the security implications of information communication technologies for vulnerable populations. “In ungoverned frontier cases [European data protection law] doesn’t apply. Use of these technologies might be ethically safer there, and in any case it’s the only thing that is available. When you enter governed space, data volume and ease of manipulation go up. Putting this technology to work in the EU is a total inversion.”
    “Mobiles, satellites and social media are the holy trinity of movement prediction”

    Justin Ginnetti, head of data and analysis at the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre in Switzerland, made a similar point. His organisation monitors movements to help humanitarian groups provide food, shelter and aid to those forced from their homes, but he casts a skeptical eye on governments using the same technology in the context of migration.

    “Many governments – within the EU and elsewhere – are very interested in these technologies, for reasons that are not the same as ours,” he told the Bureau. He called such technologies “a nuclear fly swatter,” adding: “The key question is: What problem are you really trying to solve with it? For many governments, it’s not preparing to ‘better respond to inflow of people’ – it’s raising red flags, to identify those en route and prevent them from arriving.”
    Eye in the sky

    A key player in marketing this concept was the European Space Agency (ESA) – an organisation based in Paris, with a major spaceport in French Guiana. The ESA’s pitch was to combine its space assets with other people’s data. “Could you be leveraging space technology and data for the benefit of life on Earth?” a recent presentation from the organisation on “disruptive smart technologies” asked. “We’ll work together to make your idea commercially viable.”

    By 2016, technologists at the ESA had spotted an opportunity. “Europe is being confronted with the most significant influxes of migrants and refugees in its history,” a presentation for their Advanced Research in Telecommunications Systems Programme stated. “One burning issue is the lack of timely information on migration trends, flows and rates. Big data applications have been recognised as a potentially powerful tool.” It decided to assess how it could harness such data.

    The ESA reached out to various European agencies, including EASO and Frontex, to offer a stake in what it called “big data applications to boost preparedness and response to migration”. The space agency would fund initial feasibility stages, but wanted any operational work to be jointly funded.

    One such feasibility study was carried out by GMV, a privately owned tech group covering banking, defence, health, telecommunications and satellites. GMV announced in a press release in August 2017 that the study would “assess the added value of big data solutions in the migration sector, namely the reduction of safety risks for migrants, the enhancement of border controls, as well as prevention and response to security issues related with unexpected migration movements”. It would do this by integrating “multiple space assets” with other sources including mobile phones and social media.

    When contacted by the Bureau, a spokeswoman from GMV said that, contrary to the press release, “nothing in the feasibility study related to the enhancement of border controls”.

    In the same year, the technology multinational CGI teamed up with the Dutch Statistics Office to explore similar questions. They started by looking at data around asylum flows from Syria and at how satellite images and social media could indicate changes in migration patterns in Niger, a key route into Europe. Following this experiment, they approached EASO in October 2017. CGI’s presentation of the work noted that at the time EASO was looking for a social media analysis tool that could monitor Facebook groups, predict arrivals of migrants at EU borders, and determine the number of “hotspots” and migrant shelters. CGI pitched a combined project, co-funded by the ESA, to start in 2019 and expand to serve more organisations in 2020.
    The proposal was to identify “hotspot activities”, using phone data to group individuals “according to where they spend the night”

    The idea was called Migration Radar 2.0. The ESA wrote that “analysing social media data allows for better understanding of the behaviour and sentiments of crowds at a particular geographic location and a specific moment in time, which can be indicators of possible migration movements in the immediate future”. Combined with continuous monitoring from space, the result would be an “early warning system” that offered potential future movements and routes, “as well as information about the composition of people in terms of origin, age, gender”.

    Internal notes released by EASO to the Bureau show the sheer range of companies trying to get a slice of the action. The agency had considered offers of services not only from the ESA, GMV, the Dutch Statistics Office and CGI, but also from BIP, a consulting firm, the aerospace group Thales Alenia, the geoinformation specialist EGEOS and Vodafone.

    Some of the pitches were better received than others. An EASO analyst who took notes on the various proposals remarked that “most oversell a bit”. They went on: “Some claimed they could trace GSM [ie mobile networks] but then clarified they could do it for Venezuelans only, and maybe one or two countries in Africa.” Financial implications were not always clearly provided. On the other hand, the official noted, the ESA and its consortium would pay 80% of costs and “we can get collaboration on something we plan to do anyway”.

    The features on offer included automatic alerts, a social media timeline, sentiment analysis, “animated bubbles with asylum applications from countries of origin over time”, the detection and monitoring of smuggling sites, hotspot maps, change detection and border monitoring.

    The document notes a group of services available from Vodafone, for example, in the context of a proposed project to monitor asylum centres in Italy. The proposal was to identify “hotspot activities”, using phone data to group individuals either by nationality or “according to where they spend the night”, and also to test if their movements into the country from abroad could be back-tracked. A tentative estimate for the cost of a pilot project, spread over four municipalities, came to €250,000 – of which an unspecified amount was for “regulatory (privacy) issues”.

    Stumbling blocks

    Elsewhere, efforts to harness social media data for similar purposes were proving problematic. A September 2017 UN study tried to establish whether analysing social media posts, specifically on Twitter, “could provide insights into ... altered routes, or the conversations PoC [“persons of concern”] are having with service providers, including smugglers”. The hypothesis was that this could “better inform the orientation of resource allocations, and advocacy efforts” - but the study was unable to conclude either way, after failing to identify enough relevant data on Twitter.

    The ESA pressed ahead, with four feasibility studies concluding in 2018 and 2019. The Migration Radar project produced a dashboard that showcased the use of satellite imagery for automatically detecting changes in temporary settlement, as well as tools to analyse sentiment on social media. The prototype received positive reviews, its backers wrote, encouraging them to keep developing the product.

    CGI was effusive about the predictive power of its technology, which could automatically detect “groups of people, traces of trucks at unexpected places, tent camps, waste heaps and boats” while offering insight into “the sentiments of migrants at certain moments” and “information that is shared about routes and motives for taking certain routes”. Armed with this data, the company argued that it could create a service which could predict the possible outcomes of migration movements before they happened.

    The ESA’s other “big data applications” study had identified a demand among EU agencies and other potential customers for predictive analyses to ensure “preparedness” and alert systems for migration events. A package of services was proposed, using data drawn from social media and satellites.

    Both projects were slated to evolve into a second, operational phase. But this seems to have never become reality. CGI told the Bureau that “since the completion of the [Migration Radar] project, we have not carried out any extra activities in this domain”.

    The ESA told the Bureau that its studies had “confirmed the usefulness” of combining space technology and big data for monitoring migration movements. The agency added that its corporate partners were working on follow-on projects despite “internal delays”.

    EASO itself told the Bureau that it “took a decision not to get involved” in the various proposals it had received.

    Specialists found a “striking absence” of agreed upon core principles when using the new technologies

    But even as these efforts slowed, others have been pursuing similar goals. The European Commission’s Knowledge Centre on Migration and Demography has proposed a “Big Data for Migration Alliance” to address data access, security and ethics concerns. A new partnership between the ESA and GMV – “Bigmig" – aims to support “migration management and prevention” through a combination of satellite observation and machine-learning techniques (the company emphasised to the Bureau that its focus was humanitarian). And a consortium of universities and private sector partners – GMV among them – has just launched a €3 million EU-funded project, named Hummingbird, to improve predictions of migration patterns, including through analysing phone call records, satellite imagery and social media.

    At a conference in Berlin in October 2019, dozens of specialists from academia, government and the humanitarian sector debated the use of these new technologies for “forecasting human mobility in contexts of crises”. Their conclusions raised numerous red flags. They found a “striking absence” of agreed upon core principles. It was hard to balance the potential good with ethical concerns, because the most useful data tended to be more specific, leading to greater risks of misuse and even, in the worst case scenario, weaponisation of the data. Partnerships with corporations introduced transparency complications. Communication of predictive findings to decision makers, and particularly the “miscommunication of the scope and limitations associated with such findings”, was identified as a particular problem.

    The full consequences of relying on artificial intelligence and “employing large scale, automated, and combined analysis of datasets of different sources” to predict movements in a crisis could not be foreseen, the workshop report concluded. “Humanitarian and political actors who base their decisions on such analytics must therefore carefully reflect on the potential risks.”

    A fresh crisis

    Until recently, discussion of such risks remained mostly confined to scientific papers and NGO workshops. The Covid-19 pandemic has brought it crashing into the mainstream.

    Some see critical advantages to using call data records to trace movements and map the spread of the virus. “Using our mobile technology, we have the potential to build models that help to predict broadly how the virus might move,” an O2 spokesperson said in March. But others believe that it is too late for this to be useful. The UK’s chief scientific officer, Patrick Vallance, told a press conference in March that using this type of data “would have been a good idea in January”.

    Like the 2015 refugee crisis, the global emergency offers an opportunity for industry to get ahead of the curve with innovative uses of big data. At a summit in Downing Street on 11 March, Dominic Cummings asked tech firms “what [they] could bring to the table” to help the fight against Covid-19.

    Human rights advocates worry about the longer term effects of such efforts, however. “Right now, we’re seeing states around the world roll out powerful new surveillance measures and strike up hasty partnerships with tech companies,” Anna Bacciarelli, a technology researcher at Amnesty International, told the Bureau. “While states must act to protect people in this pandemic, it is vital that we ensure that invasive surveillance measures do not become normalised and permanent, beyond their emergency status.”

    More creative methods of surveillance and prediction are not necessarily answering the right question, others warn.

    “The single largest determinant of Covid-19 mortality is healthcare system capacity,” said Sean McDonald, a senior fellow at the Centre for International Governance Innovation, who studied the use of phone data in the west African Ebola outbreak of 2014-5. “But governments are focusing on the pandemic as a problem of people management rather than a problem of building response capacity. More broadly, there is nowhere near enough proof that the science or math underlying the technologies being deployed meaningfully contribute to controlling the virus at all.”

    Legally, this type of data processing raises complicated questions. While European data protection law - the GDPR - generally prohibits processing of “special categories of personal data”, including ethnicity, beliefs, sexual orientation, biometrics and health, it allows such processing in a number of instances (among them public health emergencies). In the case of refugee movement prediction, there are signs that the law is cracking at the seams.
    “There is nowhere near enough proof that the science or math underlying the technologies being deployed meaningfully contribute to controlling the virus at all.”

    Under GDPR, researchers are supposed to make “impact assessments” of how their data processing can affect fundamental rights. If they find potential for concern they should consult their national information commissioner. There is no simple way to know whether such assessments have been produced, however, or whether they were thoroughly carried out.

    Researchers engaged with crunching mobile phone data point to anonymisation and aggregation as effective tools for ensuring privacy is maintained. But the solution is not straightforward, either technically or legally.

    “If telcos are using individual call records or location data to provide intel on the whereabouts, movements or activities of migrants and refugees, they still need a legal basis to use that data for that purpose in the first place – even if the final intelligence report itself does not contain any personal data,” said Ben Hayes, director of AWO, a data rights law firm and consultancy. “The more likely it is that the people concerned may be identified or affected, the more serious this matter becomes.”

    More broadly, experts worry that, faced with the potential of big data technology to illuminate movements of groups of people, the law’s provisions on privacy begin to seem outdated.

    “We’re paying more attention now to privacy under its traditional definition,” Nathaniel Raymond said. “But privacy is not the same as group legibility.” Simply put, while issues around the sensitivity of personal data can be obvious, the combinations of seemingly unrelated data that offer insights about what small groups of people are doing can be hard to foresee, and hard to mitigate. Raymond argues that the concept of privacy as enshrined in the newly minted data protection law is anachronistic. As he puts it, “GDPR is already dead, stuffed and mounted. We’re increasing vulnerability under the colour of law.”

    https://www.thebureauinvestigates.com/stories/2020-04-28/monitoring-being-pitched-to-fight-covid-19-was-first-tested-o
    #cobaye #surveillance #réfugiés #covid-19 #coronavirus #test #smartphone #téléphones_portables #Frontex #frontières #contrôles_frontaliers #Shin_Bet #internet #big_data #droits_humains #réseaux_sociaux #intelligence_prédictive #European_Asylum_Support_Office (#EASO) #EDPS #protection_des_données #humanitaire #images_satellites #technologie #European_Space_Agency (#ESA) #GMV #CGI #Niger #Facebook #Migration_Radar_2.0 #early_warning_system #BIP #Thales_Alenia #EGEOS #complexe_militaro-industriel #Vodafone #GSM #Italie #twitter #détection #routes_migratoires #systèmes_d'alerte #satellites #Knowledge_Centre_on_Migration_and_Demography #Big_Data for_Migration_Alliance #Bigmig #machine-learning #Hummingbird #weaponisation_of_the_data #IA #intelligence_artificielle #données_personnelles

    ping @etraces @isskein @karine4 @reka

    signalé ici par @sinehebdo :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/849167

  • #catalogue de #films sur les #migrations

    La #liste de films ci-après a été réalisée par le RÉSEAU TRACES afin de faciliter la diffusion publique de films, l’organisation de projections qui seraient l’occasion d’échanges, mais également pour alimenter toute démarche de recherche. Cette liste est bien sûr non exhaustive et sera mise à jour très régulièrement. Il s’agit de films qui sont recommandés par des membres du réseau Traces dans une grande diversité.

    Nous tenons à votre disposition des liens de visionnement de la plupart des films, en accord avec leurs distributeurs, sur simple demande par email à reseau.traces@gmail.com.

    Nous pouvons aussi vous conseiller et vous orienter dans cette liste en fonction de thématiques ou de sensibilités qui vous intéresseraient plus particulièrement.

    http://traces-migrations.org/2020/04/09/films-sur-les-migrations
    #réseau_traces #cinéma
    #réfugiés #frontières #ressources_pédagogiques

    Liste de OUF ! #wow

    ping @isskein @_kg_ @karine4 @sinehebdo @reka

  • Cet historien de l’art a réfléchi sur toutes les images. Ses travaux nous aident à mieux comprendre le monde actuel où règnent les images
    #art #images #culture #savoirs #histoire

    https://sms.hypotheses.org/20650

    Horst Bredekamp est professeur émérite d’histoire de l’art à l’Université Humboldt de Berlin. Il appartient à une génération exceptionnelle d’historiens de l’art allemands qui ont su faire exploser les limites traditionnelles de leur champ de recherche au point qu’il n’est pas rare de les voir désigner comme anthropologues, sociologues ou bien philosophes.

    Avec Hans Belting et Gottfried Boehm, les trois « B’s » comme on les surnomme parfois, Horst Bredekamp a apporté une contribution majeure à la science de l’image (Bildwissenschaft) qu’il comprend comme une réflexion interdisciplinaire sur l’image, sur toutes les images. C’est dire l’immensité des recherches qui s’est offerte à lui. Il a écrit sur l’iconoclasme, la sculpture médiévale, le football, l’art des jardins, les cabinets d’art et de curiosité, mais aussi sur les artistes de la Renaissance (Botticelli, Michelangelo, etc), les plans de Saint-Pierre de Rome, l’iconographie politique ou encore les dessins des penseurs (Darwin, Galilée, Leibniz). (...)