• Au procès du Mediator, les « négligences » de l’ANSM à la barre
    https://www.lemonde.fr/societe/article/2019/11/12/au-proces-du-mediator-les-negligences-de-l-ansm-a-la-barre_6018817_3224.html

    « Il a été établi que l’ANSM n’avait pas, à compter des premières alertes de 1995 et jusqu’en 2009, accompli les diligences normales compte tenu de la nature de sa mission, de ses compétences, du pouvoir et des moyens dont elle disposait », peut-on lire dans l’ordonnance qui renvoie l’agence devant le tribunal, aux côtés du laboratoire.
    Face à face

    Servier et ANSM ont beau se trouver côte à côte sur les bancs des prévenus, ils sont en réalité face à face. Les avocats du laboratoire et ceux de l’agence ne cessent de se contrecarrer depuis l’ouverture des débats, chacun s’évertuant à souligner la responsabilité de l’autre dans l’affaire.

    Une distinction est d’ores et déjà établie : contrairement au laboratoire, l’agence doit répondre d’une faute non intentionnelle. Alors que Servier est jugé pour « tromperie », « escroquerie », « trafic d’influence » et « homicides involontaires par violations manifestement délibérées », l’ANSM l’est uniquement pour « homicides involontaires par négligence », ce que l’on pourra considérer comme déjà bien assez infamant pour une autorité censée, précisément, faire en sorte que les citoyens prenant des médicaments n’en meurent pas.

    Il sera par exemple intéressant de comprendre les bizarreries autour du renouvellement de l’autorisation de mise sur le marché (AMM) du Mediator. En 1995, alors que Servier demande à pouvoir vendre son médicament avec l’indication « adjuvant du régime du diabète », l’ANSM émet un avis défavorable, et écrit : « Cette indication n’est pas justifiée. En conséquence, aucune mention des propriétés pharmacologiques en relation avec cette indication ne peut être acceptée. »

    Deux ans plus tard, en août 1997, une employée de l’ANSM, Arielle North, écrit au groupe Servier qu’il peut « maintenir les mentions concernant l’indication thérapeutique du diabète » sur l’étiquette du Mediator, qui continuera donc à être vendu pour une indication fallacieuse. Arielle North viendra témoigner le 14 novembre.

    L’agence va devoir s’expliquer sur sa passivité, voire sa bienveillance, vis-à-vis de Servier. Sa « réponse insuffisante aux comportements fautifs » du groupe pharmaceutique, écrivent les juges d’instruction, « peut s’expliquer, en partie, par le vaste réseau d’influence tissé par les laboratoires Servier sur de nombreux responsables, agents et experts des autorités de santé », une influence qui « n’a pu que pervertir la nature et l’efficience du contrôle confié aux autorités ». Ce volet, celui des conflits d’intérêts entre le laboratoire et l’administration publique, constituera, au printemps 2020, le dernier chapitre du procès du Mediator.

    #Médiator #Conflits_intérêt #ANSM #Régulation #Indépendance _scientifique

  • Pôle Emploi dématérialisé : le casse-tête des travailleurs précaires
    https://www.franceinter.fr/amp/pole-emploi-dematerialise-le-casse-tete-des-travailleurs-precaires

    Confié au prestataire privé, le traitement des données doit souvent repasser entre les mains des agents #indemnisation de Pôle emploi. « Le sous-traitant a des règles, comme par exemple ne pas accepter plusieurs documents dans le même envoi, s’agace Christophe, ou alors, lorsque le métier n’est pas précisé explicitement sur l’attestation, ils mettent ’métier indéterminé’. Ça va parfois plus vite de supprimer tout ce qui a été fait et de tout ressaisir ». Toutefois, Pôle emploi assure que le prestataire doit respecter le cahier des charges qu’on lui fixe.
    Plus d’algorithmes, moins d’humains... Mais un travail « plus complexe »

    Après la saisie, les données sont passées à la moulinette de l’#algorithme chargé de déterminer l’accès aux #droits et de calculer leur montant. Aujourd’hui, « plus de la moitié des dossiers d’allocation sont décidés automatiquement par l’algorithme de Pôle emploi », déclare Alexandra Nougarede, déléguée syndicale SNU FSU et conseillère depuis 20 ans. Une progression fulgurante, puisque au quatrième trimestre 2015, seuls 1 % des dossiers étaient traités automatiquement.

    Entre les #erreurs liées à la #sous-traitance et les automatismes de l’algorithme, les agents indemnisation se retrouvent avec"une charge de travail qui explose", estime Yoan Piktoroff. Selon Alexandra Nougarede, les « rattrapages manuels » des conseillers après le traitement par l’algorithme sont plus en plus fréquents, car « l’algorithme entraîne pas mal d’erreurs de calcul des droits ». Auxquels s’ajoute des « bugs réguliers ». D’ailleurs, « depuis le mois d’août, il y en a beaucoup sur l’actualisation », note-t-elle.

    Un travail de « rattrapage » d’autant plus important qu’il y a « de plus en plus de demandeurs qui cumulent des petits boulots et de moins en moins en CDI », juge le conseiller Pôle emploi. « Quand une personne a travaillé à temps plein avec un salaire équivalent tous les mois, c’est très facile à calculer par algorithme. Mais c’est bien plus difficile de calculer les situations complexes, lorsqu’il y a plusieurs employeurs, des salaires et des temps de travail variables », tranche Marie Lacoste.

  • Cri d’alarme de la Banque Mondiale : une récession économique au Liban plus grave encore
    https://libnanews.com/cri-dalarme-de-la-banque-mondiale-une-recession-economique-au-liban-plus-

    Cette déclaration intervient alors q’un rapport publié par Global Credit Suisse indique que la fortune nette des libanais a augmenté, s’établissant désormais à 232.2 milliards de dollars, en raison des différentiels entre les classes socio-économiques libanaises, alors qu’un nombre estimé de 1.5 millions de libanais vivent avec seulement 6 000 LL, soit 4 dollars, par jour.

    Une richesse au prix de l’appauvrissement du plus grand nombre
    https://libnanews.com/liban-la-richesse-nette-estimee-a-2322-milliards-de-dollars/amp

    Selon l’étude, « La richesse nette totale privée du Liban s’élevait à 133,4 milliards de dollars à la fin de 2010

  • Une agence #Pôle_emploi d’#Orléans occupée par des #gilets_jaunes

    #Action_surprise ce mardi matin d’une vingtaine de gilets jaunes ! lls ont occupé pendant plus de 2 heures l’entrée de l’agence Pôle Emploi #Coligny, à Orléans. Soutenus par le syndicat SUD Emploi, ils souhaitaient alerter les demandeurs d’emploi sur les nouvelles règles d’indemnisation.

    https://www.francebleu.fr/infos/economie-social/une-agence-pole-emploi-d-orleans-occupee-par-des-gilets-jaunes-1572951362
    #résistance #indemnisation #chômage #occupation

  • A New Delhi, la pollution a atteint un niveau record
    https://www.franceinter.fr/emissions/les-histoires-du-monde/les-histoires-du-monde-04-novembre-2019

    les niveaux de micro-particules relevés à différents points de la capitale [sont évalués à] près de 1 000 microgrammes par mètre cube à plusieurs points du centre-ville. Or l’OMS met le seuil de dangerosité à 25 microgrammes par mètre cube.

    #pollution #climat #environnement #new-delhi #inde

  • Aides aux auteurs, de quoi payer la blague (à tabac) pendant un mois :(
    J’ai reçu ça :

    Mesure de soutien au pouvoir d’achat des artistes auteurs : vous êtes #éligible

    Une aide financière visant à soutenir le #pouvoir_d'achat des artistes auteurs a été mise en place par le Gouvernement. Nous vous informons que vous y êtes éligible.
    Le montant de l’aide dont vous êtes bénéficiaire s’élève à 63,08 €.

    Le versement du montant dont vous êtes bénéficiaire interviendra courant décembre

    Revenus de 8 750 euros pour 2018, 2122 euros de cotisations sociales, sans vacances ni chômage, et je vais percevoir 63€ d’aides du gouvernement pour Noël 2019 ? c’est même pas le prix du PQ ou pire, des frais administratifs de cette campagne médiatique de « #soutien_aux_auteurs » et à la « #création_française ».

    #honte #mépris #belle_jambe #mesure_de_rien #charité #élection_piège_à_con #Agessa

  • Tuberculose : l’Inde face au fléau de l’antibiorésistance - Asialyst
    https://asialyst.com/fr/2019/10/26/inde-tuberculose-fleau-antibioresistance

    Le 9 octobre dernier s’ouvrait la conférence internationale du Fonds mondial contre le paludisme, le sida et la tuberculose. On le sait peu, mais c’est aujourd’hui cette dernière qui tue le plus dans le monde. Alors qu’elle concentre 27 % des malades, l’Inde fait face à un phénomène aggravant : la bactérie a muté et résiste aux antibiotiques. Enquête au cœur de cette nouvelle menace à Bombay.

    #santé #antibiotiques #Inde #it_has_begun

  • Hong Kong, Kashmir : a Tale of Two Occupations — Strategic Culture
    https://www.strategic-culture.org/news/2019/08/07/hong-kong-kashmir-a-tale-of-two-occupations

    L’histoire de la RDA et du mur de Berlin nous a montre que les idée aussi erronnées soient-elles ajoutent à la réalité objective la force nécessaire pour la pousser vers un changement radical. Ceci n’arrivera pas à Hongkong mais au Cachemire la folie hindoue risque de provoquer un conflit majeur. Comptons sur la sagesse du gouvernement de Pekin pour éviter le pire à ses voisins.

    While China identified “Occupy Hong Kong” as a mere Western-instilled and instrumentalized plot, India, for its part, decided to go for Full Occupy in Kashmir.

    Curfew was imposed all across the Kashmir valley. Internet was cut off. All Kashmiri politicians were rounded up and arrested. In fact all Kashmiris – loyalists (to India), nationalists, secessionists, independentists, apolitical – were branded as The Enemy. Welcome to Indian “democracy” under the crypto-fascist Hindutva.

    “Jammu and Kashmir”, as we know it, is no more. They are now two distinct entities. Geologically spectacular Ladakh will be administered directly by New Delhi. Blowback is guaranteed. Resistance committees are already springing up.
    In Kashmir, blowback will be even bigger because there will be no elections anytime soon. New Delhi does not want that kind of nuisance – as in dealing with legitimate representatives. It wants full control, period.

    Starting in the early 1990s, I’ve been to both sides of Kashmir a few times. The Pakistani side does feel like Azad (“Free”) Kashmir. The Indian side is unmistakably Occupied Kashmir. This analysis is as good as it gets portraying what it means to live in IOK (Indian-occupied Kashmir).

    BJP minions in India scream that Pakistan “illegally” designated Gilgit-Baltistan – or the Northern Areas – as a federally administered area. There’s nothing illegal about it. I was reporting in Gilgit-Baltistan late last year, following the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). Nobody was complaining about any “illegality”.

    Pakistan officially said it “will exercise all possible options to counter [India’s] illegal steps” in Kashmir. That’s extremely diplomatic. Imran Khan does not want confrontation – even as he knows full well Modi is pandering to Hindutva fanatics, aiming to turn a Muslim-majority province into a Hindu-majority province. In the long run though, something inevitable is bound to emerge – fragmented, as a guerrilla war or as a united front.

    Welcome to the Kashmiri Intifada.

    #Chine #Inde #Hongkong #Cachemire

  • Diminution des effectifs, choix commerciaux au détriment de la vérification des infos, des erreurs d’orientation menant à des bad buzz comme la pseudo arrestation de XDDL,... des anciens de l’AFP sont inquiets et lancent une tribune à l’amer sur le devenir de la troisième agence mondiale face aux atteintes au statut ?

    A lire chez #Acrimed, Action Critique Médias : https://www.acrimed.org/Quel-avenir-pour-la-troisieme-agence-mondiale
    #information #independance #medias

  • Return : voluntary, safe, dignified and durable ?

    Voluntary return in safety and with dignity has long been a core tenet of the international refugee regime. In the 23 articles on ‘Return’ in this issue of FMR, authors explore various obstacles to achieving sustainable return, discuss the need to guard against premature or forced return, and debate the assumptions and perceptions that influence policy and practice. This issue also includes a mini-feature on ‘Towards understanding and addressing the root causes of displacement’.


    https://www.fmreview.org/return

    #revue #retours_volontaires #dignité #retour #retour_au_pays
    #Soudan_du_Sud #réfugiés_sud-soudanais #réfugiés_Rohingya #Rohingya #Inde #Sri_Lanka #réfugiés_sri-lankais #réfugiés_syriens #Syrie #Allemagne #Erythrée #Liban #Turquie #Jordanie #Kenya #réfugiés_Somaliens #Somalie #Dadaab #Myanmar #Birmanie #Darfour #réintégration_économique #réintégration

    ping @isskein @karine4 @_kg_

  • La vague et la feu : après les condamnations, le nouveau souffle de la rue catalane
    https://lemediapresse.fr/international/la-vague-et-la-feu-apres-les-condamnations-le-nouveau-souffle-de-la-ru

    Après la lourde condamnation des leaders indépendantistes - de 9 à 13 ans de prison pour 9 d’entre eux -, la #Catalogne a vécu une chaude semaine, rythmée par d’importantes émeutes et des formes de luttes inédites. Notre reportage.

    #International #Espagne #indépendantisme #Mouvements_sociaux

  • On the front line of climate change in India’s Sundarbans
    https://news.mongabay.com/2019/10/sundarbans-climate-change-tigers-india/?n3wsletter

    With the ocean swallowing up land in the world’s largest mangrove forest, humans and tigers are being squeezed into an ever-shrinking space, with deadly consequences. Words by Johan Augustin; Images by Jonas Gratzer.

    Honey gatherer Dhruba Barkandaj demonstrates wearing a mask on the back of his head to prevent an attack by tigers, which typically blindside their prey in the Indian Sundarbans. Image by Jonas Gratzer for Mongabay.

    #Inde #climat #mangrove

  • BANNEDTHOUGHT.NET - Blocking of this site by the Indian government.
    http://www.bannedthought.net/IndiaBanningBT.htm
    http://www.bannedthought.net/India-GovBanOnBT/IndiaBanningBT.jpg
    Vou connaissez Naxalbari ? Moi, je viens d’apprendre que cette ville se trouve au Bengale-Occidental et qu’en 1967 les paysans pauvres de cette région proche du Nepal se sont élevés contre l’exploitation par les propriétaires de grandes terres. Depuis le terme naxalite est devenu un synonyme pour les maoistes d’Inde. Une fois mis sur la piste on découvre plein de choses sur la résistance populaire contre l’état hindou.

    At 7 minutes to midnight (New Delhi time) on November 11, 2018, the Indian government sent us at BannedThought.net an email informing us that in less than two days time it would hold a hearing in New Delhi to decide upon blocking public access by people in India to this website, or at least to the parts of it which contain materials from India and which express the views of large numbers of people in India which the government disapproves of.

    Bengale-Occidental
    https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bengale-Occidental

    Naxalbari
    https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naxalbari

    Naxalite
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naxalite

    The Cultural Aspect of The Naxalbari Uprising | Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist)
    http://cpiml.org/feature/the-cultural-aspect-of-the-naxalbari-uprising

    (Excerpts from an article by Pranay Krishna (translated from Hindi)
    which appeared in the Deepavali Special edition of the Hindi daily Prabhat Khabar in November 2009)

    maoistroad : THE NAXALBARI UPRISING A new dawn was breaking...
    https://maoistroad.blogspot.com/2013/06/the-naxalbari-uprising-new-dawn-was.html

    30 years of Naxalbari
    — An Epic of Heroic Struggle and Sacrifice

    INDIA - The lessons of the Naxalbari urprising
    https://www.newepoch.media/single-post/2018/12/04/INDIA---The-lessons-of-the-Naxalbari-urprising

    #Inde

  • Les ventes de #Huawei progressent, malgré les sanctions américaines...
    http://www.boursier.com/actualites/economie/les-ventes-de-huawei-progressent-malgre-les-sanctions-americaines-42425.ht

    Du côté de la #5G, le ciel semble également s’éclaircir, malgré les efforts américains pour bloquer Huawei dans cette nouvelle technologie. Mercredi, il a signé plus de 60 contrats commerciaux 5G pour dans le monde entier... L’#Inde a dit ne « rien avoir contre Huawei » et en #Allemagne, l’un des plus grands marchés européens, l’administration Merkel a déclaré que le matériel de Huawei ne serait pas exclus lors de futurs achats 5G. Le plus gros pari de Huawei reste cependant en #Chine, où les opérateurs publics sont prêts à construire leurs propres réseaux 5G.

    #etats-unis

  • UNHCR in Libya Part 1 : From standing #WithRefugees to standing #WithStates ?

    October 3rd is a day upon which the UNHCR “remember and commemorate all the victims of immigration and promote awareness-raising and solidarity initiatives.”

    With that very sentiment in mind, Euronews has undertaken an investigation into the UNHCR’s operation in Libya, where tens of thousands of migrants live in detainment camps, hoping to make it to Europe.

    We uncover the extent of neglect in terms of care that can be found where migrants wait to be processed. We ask why the UN’s humanitarian agency cannot have the required access in Libya when the mother organisation - The United Nations - is working with the Tripoli-based government. We ask why there is a severe lack of transparency surrounding the agency’s operation and we talk to some of the migrants involved in the process and allow them to tell their stories.


    https://www.euronews.com/2019/10/02/unhcr-in-libya-part-1-from-standing-withrefugees-to-standing-withstates
    #Libye #HCR #UNCHR #responsabilité #camps_de_réfugiés #réfugiés #asile #migrations #ONU #nations_unies #transparence #droits_humains #droits_fondamentaux #réinstallation #inefficacité #argent #financement #aide_humanitaire #indépendance

    ping @isskein @karine4 @reka

    • UNHCR in Libya Part 2 : Migrants in detention centres : ’Why does UNHCR want to keep us in prison ?’

      In this, the second part of our four-part investigation into the UNHCR’s operation in Libya, we talk to those migrants actually involved in the registration and detainment process. They tell Euronews their stories.

      Despite increased EU funding to the Libyan coastguard, and an Italian memorandum of understanding with the DCIM (the body responsible for running migrant detention centres) no effective provision has been made by the EU to implement migrants’ human rights and living conditions in Libya.

      The migrant experience in the embattled North African nation is deteriorating. Many people in that position who spoke to Euronews have reported abuses after being thrown into detention centres with the hope of being registered by UNHCR. Testimonies include instances of torture, rape and extortion at the hands of local militias and when this leads to an attempt to cross the Mediterranean sea, reports also detail how they have been intercepted by the Libyan coastguards and automatically re-incarcerated into the detention centres.

      “It has become an infinite, terrible circle from which there is no way out”, Julien Raickman, head of the MSF-France’s Libyan operation, told The Times.

      UNHCR’s main mission in Libya is to register migrants and find a solution to get them out of the country. However, as Raickman adds, “the resettlement procedure is totally blocked”.


      https://www.euronews.com/2019/10/02/unhcr-in-libya-part-2-migrants-in-detention-centres-why-does-unhcr-want-to
      #centres_de_détention #détention #Qasr_Bin_Gashir #Zintan #Az-Zāwiyah #Abu_Salim ##Az-Zawiyah

    • UNHCR in Libya Part 3: Former staffer blows whistle on favouritism and ’culture of impunity’

      Libya’s United Nations Refugee Agency has been branded “the worst in the region” by a former staff member who has alleged corruption, mismanagement and incompetence in its dealings with tens of thousands of vulnerable refugees and asylum seekers.

      The former staff member, who spoke to Euronews on condition of anonymity, painted an image of an agency overstretched and out of its depth, with asylum seekers left homeless, deprived of medical care and in legal limbo in an increasingly violent and unstable Libya.

      Migrants and refugees on the ground told Euronews that they had even bribed their way into Libya’s notorious detention centres in an effort to speed up their asylum claims. There they face exploitation at the hands of militia groups, which run the centres in all but name.

      The former staff member described a chaotic infrastructure at UNHCR, where he worked for several years, with asylum seekers registered under incorrect nationalities and others forced to wait for months to hear the status of their applications.

      Meanwhile, questions about UNHCR in Libya have stretched to procurement. An internal audit found that the agency had purchased laptop computers at inflated prices (eight laptops for just under $50,000) and used two travel agents to purchase almost $200,000 worth of flight tickets. The audit also notes that “no competitive bidding was conducted for the travel services” (sect. D of OIOS report 2019/007).
      Medical care

      Euronews has spoken to dozens of asylum seekers on the ground in Libya, including a man suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis. Asyas, 30, was discharged from the hospital by a UN medical partner, the International Medical Corps (IMC), and was now living in a private home in Tripoli.

      “I’m just waiting to die,” he told us.

      A medical source in Tripoli said that the hospitalisation of migrants and refugees - especially those cases with tuberculosis - is expensive, and some public hospitals lack the equipment to correctly diagnose the cases.

      As a result, NGOs have to find a balance between paying very high bills to private hospitals or discharging patients too early, the source concludes.

      The IMC told Euronews it cannot comment on the case.

      The feeling on the streets is one of abandonment by international institutions. Asylum seekers in urban areas believe that the UN agency will be there to help them find accommodation for example but the UNHCR are not obligated to do so.

      In one case, a group of Sudanese refugees – including expectant mothers and newborn babies - have been living for several months in an abandoned warehouse in an area of Tripoli known as al-Riyadiya.

      The group were since evicted from the warehouse and are now sleeping in front the UNHCR community day centre, waiting to be moved to safer housing.

      Commenting on the experiences Euronews uncovered, a spokesperson for the UNHCR, Charlie Yaxley, said: “Life for many refugees is extremely difficult and what we can do is at times very limited.”
      Libya in the eye of the storm

      Libya has been at the forefront of the migrant crisis and is the embarkation point for many boats that attempt to cross the Mediterranean to Italy.

      Libya’s lawlessness since the 2011 war that followed the overthrow of Colonel Gaddafi has seen the rise of numerous militia groups, all competing for a piece of the lucrative migrant trade.

      A large part of that trade is the operation of detention centres, officially run by the government but effectively controlled by militia groups. Asylum seekers detained in Libya are held at the centres, where they are often subject to abuse and violence.

      The conditions at detention centres has got so bad that the UNHCR prioritise the processing of refugees and migrants that are held in them - as they are considered among the most vulnerable. This has led to asylum seekers actually bribing their way into centres, sources say.

      In December, migrants and refugees detained in Khoms Suq al-Khamis started a hunger strike to persuade UNHCR to visit the centre and register them in the hope that this might stop them from being sold and disappeared.

      Amina, a Somali refugee now in Triq al-Sikka facility in Tripoli confirmed to Euronews that she paid money to be “accepted into detention and have a better chance to be registered and evacuated".

      The former UN staff member detailed one case where he claims a pregnant rape victim had opted to return to a detention centre in order to be considered for evacuation.

      At the Abu Salim detention centre, Eritrean refugees have been begging the detention centre manager to admit them, with the sole hope of being evacuated.

      Others are paying to get themselves in to the UNHCR’s Gathering and Departure Facility (GDF) - managed by the Libyan Ministry of Interior, UNHCR and UNHCR’s partner LibAid - in Tripoli, where refugees are normally hosted until their transfer to another state is confirmed.

      There, one refugee awaiting evacuation told Euronews: “The guards who are working at the gate, brought inside Somalian and Eritrean women; they paid 2000 dinars (around 430€) each. We told this to UNHCR, and they asked us not to tell anyone”.

      Commenting on the allegations, Yaxley said: “UNHCR takes any claims of misconduct very seriously. Any claim that is found to be valid following an investigation is followed by a zero tolerance approach. We strongly encourage any victims to directly contact our Inspector General’s Office.”.
      Lack of information

      Aside from bribery, the former employee said that the fate of individual asylum seekers and their families in Libya largely relies on luck.

      “It’s up to the office,” the source said.

      “At the beginning of 2019, the UNHCR registered a woman from Ivory Coast (which is not among the 9 nationalities that are prioritised according to Cochetel), only because there was a recommendation letter from a higher rank.

      “Sometimes you may wait months to register a case because no one will give you approval; there are cases of favouritism and a lazy attitude. All registration processes are unclear.”

      Many refugees and asylum seekers in Tripoli complained to Euronews about the lack of information available to them about their personal case. The former employee said that this is part of a strategy at the agency in order to avoid having to deal with the huge amount of admin involved.

      “It’s a general attitude not to answer refugees and keep them blind to avoid more requests. In Tripoli, refugees or asylum seekers are left without a clue. They don’t know if they are accepted or rejected.

      “They receive very little information about their file and most of the time, no proper update about the process, or in case they have to appeal if their request has been rejected.”

      The source said that since September 2017 there is no system in place to appeal against rejection on their refugee status, and asylum seekers don’t know they have the right to appeal the decision within 30 days.

      One family from Nigeria, now detained in Az-Zāwiyah detention centre, described their experience.

      “The first time we managed to meet UNHCR was secretly in Tarik Al Matar centre in July 2018. Since that time UNHCR is refusing to register us. When we try to ask about our cases they kept telling us later, next time, next time,” the father said.

      “Sometimes they avoid us totally. Once, UNHCR has even advised us to return home. My youngest girl has been born in detention and the eldest have some traumatic effects due to a whole lot of horrible stuff they’ve experienced.”

      Meanwhile the situation in Libya is only likely to get worse, with a bottleneck in some states like Niger slowing down the evacuation plan from Libya.

      There are currently 1,174 evacuees from Libya staying in Niger, including 192 evacuated unaccompanied children, according to UNHCR. With the Emergency Transit Mechanism (ETM) at full capacity, many cases are still pending a decision.

      “The Government of Niger has generously offered additional space for up to 1,500 refugees in the Emergency Transit Mechanism run by UNHCR in Niamey with financial support from the European Union,” writes Cochetel in May 2018.

      Mistakes

      To make the situation worse, according to the former employee, many mistakes have been made including nationalities wrongly assigned to individuals.

      “UNHCR was registering Chadians as Sudanese, or Ethiopians as Eritreans. The UNHCR staff in Libya was not qualified to properly understand the situation,” the source said.

      Commenting on that claim, Yaxley said: “UNHCR staff are selected through the same processes as in all other operations worldwide, following human resources rules. There are over 100 national staff working in Libya. UNHCR does not work with external contractors.”

      The aforementioned concentration on nine specified nationalities was put in place in order to keep numbers down, the former staff member said.

      Libya’s Undersecretary of the Ministry of Interior for Migration, Mohammed Al-Shibani, said that on the contrary the Libyan government is not refusing to register other nationalities. “The nationalities are determined by the UN not by us,” he said.

      Procurement

      On issues with procurement, the former staff member points Euronews at the internal UN audit of the operations in Libya, which found that UNHCR designated procurements to 12 partners worth $4.7 million and $4.0 million in 2017 and 2018 respectively.

      But the mission “did not conduct any cost-benefit analysis”, opting instead for direct procurement “despite the significant differences between official and market exchange rates.

      In 2017 and 2018, “the mission designated procurement exceeding $100,000 to three partners without them being pre-qualified by the Procurement Service at headquarters”. A lack of procurement plans resulted in ’’unnecessary and higher” costs.

      For example, the audit found a transaction for eight laptops with total expenditure of $47,067 (equivalent to a unit cost per laptop of $5,883). Moreover, flight tickets amounting to $128,000 and $66,000 during 2017 and 2018 were bought from two different travel agencies without any clear process for selection, as mentioned in the audit and confirmed by a former UN source.

      “The mission was unable to demonstrate it used its resources effectively and efficiently in providing for the essential needs of persons of concern. The lack of reporting also increased UNHCR’s reputational risk”, reads the audit.

      https://www.euronews.com/2019/10/03/unhcr-in-libya-part-3-former-staffer-blows-whistle-on-favouritism-and-cult
      #impunité

    • UNHCR in Libya Part 4: The detention centres - the map and the stories

      When NGO workers arrived at the Janzoor detention centre in Libya in October 2018 to collect 11 unaccompanied minors due to be returned to their country of origin, they were shocked to find that the young people had completely disappeared.

      The failed asylum seekers were registered and ready to go, a staff member at the International Organisation of Migration, who wished to remain anonymous, told Euronews. It took six months to find out what had happened to the group.

      “They were sold and their families were asked for ransom”, the former staff member said.

      In February 2019, the Libyan government revealed that there were 23 detention centres operating in Libya, holding over 5,000 asylum seekers. While they are officially run by the government, in reality it is Libya’s complex patchwork of militias that are in control.

      Even those ostensibly run by Libya’s Directorate for Combatting Illegal Migration (DCIM) are effectively under the control of whichever armed group controls the neighbourhood where a centre is located.
      Rule of militias

      Militias, also known as “katibas”, are de-facto in control of the gates of the centres and the management. In many cases, migrants and refugees are under arrest in locations which are not considered official detention facilities, but “holding places” for investigation.

      By correct protocol, they should be sent to proper detention facilities, but in reality procedures are seldom respected and asylum seekers are detained with no legal review or rights.

      For many migrants and refugees, the ordeal begins at sea.

      According to the Libyan coast guard, from January to August 2019, nearly 6,000 people were intercepted and brought back to Libya.

      On September 19, a man from Sudan died after being shot in the stomach hours after being returned to shore.

      The IOM, whose staff witnessed the attack, said it occurred at Abusitta disembarkation point in Tripoli, when 103 people that had been returned to shore were resisting being sent back to detention centres.

      IOM staff who were on the scene, reported that armed men began shooting in the air when several migrants tried to run away from their guards.

      “The death is a stark reminder of the grim conditions faced by migrants picked up by the Coast Guard after paying smugglers to take them to Europe, only to find themselves put into detention centres” said IOM Spokesperson Leonard Doyle.

      With conflict escalating in Tripoli and many detention centres located on the frontline, the majority of the people intercepted by Libyan coast guards are brought to al-Khoms, a coastal city 120km east of the Libyan capital.

      Tortured, sold, and released

      According to UN sources, guards at the city’s two detention facilities - al-Khoms and Souq al-Khamis - have either facilitated access to the militias or were afraid to deny them access.

      “Let me be honest with you, I don’t trust anyone in al-Khoms centre,” a former DCIM official told Euronews.

      “The detention centre has been officially closed by the DCIM but the militia there do whatever they want and they don’t respect the orders given by the Ministry of Interior.

      “People have been tortured, sold and released after paying money. The management and the militia in al-Khoms, they act independently from the government”.

      Last June, during the protection sector coordination meeting in Tripoli, UN agencies and international organisations raised the question of people disappearing on a daily basis.

      “In one week at least 100 detainees disappeared and despite the closure of the centre, the Libyan coast guard continued to bring refugees to al-Khoms detention centre” according to a note of the meeting seen by Euronews.

      The head of an international organisation present at the meeting, who asked to remain anonymous, said: “Many organisations have been turning their back on the situation, as they were not visiting the centre anymore.

      “19 people from Eritrea were at risk, including young ladies between 14 and 19 years old”.

      During a press briefing last June, the spokesman for UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Rupert Colville, reported that women held in detention have been sold into sexual exploitation.

      David, a migrant who had been detained in Misrata detention centre was able to get out after transiting from a safe house in al-Khoms. He said that centre staff “had been extorting money from detainees for months.

      “I didn’t have a choice as the UN refused to register me because I come from Central African Republic and my nationality is not among the one recognised by UNHCR.”

      Detention centres are still open

      In August 2019, Libyan authorities in Tripoli confirmed the shutdown of three detention centres in Misrata, Khoms and Tajoura, but DCIM officers and migrants held in detention confirmed to Euronews that the centres are still open.

      While it is impossible to independently verify the current status of the facilities - as as the Ministry of Interior in Tripoli does not authorise access to them - Euronews was able to speak on the phone with detainees.

      “Just bring a letter with the authorisation from the Ministry of Interior and I will let you enter,” said one commander from Tajoura on the phone, confirming that the centre was still running.

      Another source at the DCIM in Tripoli mentioned that Tajoura was still running and the militia was mainly arresting people from street to fill the hangars again.

      The decision to close the Az-Zāwiyah detention centre - mentioned in PART 1 and 2 - was taken in April 2018 by former head of DCIM Colonel Mohamed Besher. But the centre has instead been transformed into an arrest and investigation centre.

      Located at the Az-Zāwiyah Refinery, which is secured by Al-Nasser brigade since 2011, it is close to the base of the Az-Zāwiyah coastguard

      Both the commander of the Libyan Coast Guard’s Unit and the head of Al-Nasr brigade are sanctioned by UN and the United States for alleged involvement in human trafficking and migrant smuggling.

      Mohammed Kushlaf is working in cooperation with “Osama” (➡️ SEE PART 2), who is in charge of the detention facility. His name appears 67 times in the recent investigation conducted by Italian prosecutor Luigi Patronaggio.

      ‘Inhumane conditions’

      The investigation had “confirmed the inhumane conditions” endured by many migrants and “the need to act, at an international level, to protect their most basic human rights.”

      The Government of National Accord has supported the UN sanctions and issued public statements of condemnation against the trafficking and smuggling of migrants.

      The Libyan prosecutor has also issued an order to suspend the commander of the Libyan Coast Guard and bring him into custody for investigations, although this was never implemented, confirmed a Libyan lawyer working at the Ministry of Justice.

      Sources at the DCIM mentioned that between September 2018 and April 2019 - when the Libyan National Army (LNA) troops guided by the general Khalifa Haftar seized Tripoli’s southern suburbs – many detention centres were located near the clashes.

      Salaheddin, Ain Zara, Qasr Bin Ghashir and Tariq Al Matar detention centres have been closed because of the conflict.

      As a result, large groups of refugees and migrants have been displaced or transferred to other locations. A DCIM officer in Tripoli mentioned that “The Tariq Al Matar centre was in the middle of the clashes and many refugees left to find safety in other areas after a few people were injured. A group was transferred to Ain Zara and another to Janzour detention centre, some 20 kilometres southwest of Tripoli’s centre.”

      Migrants being recruited to help militia in Libya’s civil war

      In September and several times in December and January, refugees say they were forced to move and pack weapons as fighting between rival armed groups in the capital of Tripoli flared up.

      They also engaged directly with local militia, from the Tripoli suburb of Tarhouna, that was controlling Qasr Bin Ghashir detention centre at the time.

      “No one was fighting on the front but they would ask us to open and close the gate and move and pack weapons”, said Musa, a Sudanese refugee who left Qasr Bin Ghashir in April following the attack.

      On October 2, Abdalmajed Adam, a refugee from South Sudan was also injured by a random bullet on his shoulder and was taken to a military hospital,” adds Musa.

      The militia who is controlling the area where Abu Salim detention centre is located is known as Ghaniwa and is aligned to the GNA.

      The group has been asking refugees, especially Sudanese – as they speak Arabic - to follow them to the frontline.

      “Last August they bought us to Wadi Al-Rabea in southern Tripoli, and asked us to load weapons. I was one of them. They took five of us from the centre,” said Amir, a Sudanese asylum seeker who is detained in Abu Salim.

      A former DCIM officer confirmed that in June 2018, the head of Abu Salim DCIM, Mohamed al-Mashay (aka Abu Azza), was killed by an armed group following internal disputes over power.

      The Qasr Bin Ghashir detention centre, in which 700 people were locked up, was attacked on April 23. Video and photographic evidence shows refugees and migrants trapped in detention having incurred gunshot wounds.

      Multiple reports suggested several deaths and at least 12 people injured. A former DCIM officer mentioned that behind the attack there was a dispute over the control of the territory: it is a very strategic point being the main road to enter to Tripoli.


      https://www.euronews.com/2019/10/03/unhcr-in-libya-part-4-the-detention-centres-the-map-and-the-stories

      #torture #traite_d'êtres_humains #cartographie #visualisation #localisation

  • Quand la médecine change d’avis : 5 exemples de revirements spectaculaires | egora.fr
    https://www.egora.fr/actus-pro/recherche/51042-quand-la-medecine-change-d-avis-5-exemples-de-revirements-spectaculaires

    (sous #paywall, trouvé ailleurs (FB))

    Le Dr Vinay Prasad et ses collègues se sont employés à compiler des revirements médicaux spectaculaires, qui voient des pratiques médicales bien instituées contredites par la recherche clinique. Supplémentation post-partum en vitamine A, antidépresseurs chez les patients Alzheimer, chimio intra-hépatique… Florilège de ces moments où la médecine a dû se dédire.

    Les revirements de jurisprudences ont leur pendant en clinique : le revirement médical ("medical reversal"). Théorisé par le Dr Vinay Prasad, le revirement médical désigne ce moment où des années, voire des décennies, de pratique se trouvent soudain invalidées à la faveur d’un essai clinique randomisé de qualité. Les sociétés savantes se voient alors contraintes de plancher à nouveau sur leurs recommandations, et les cliniciens d’expliquer à leurs patients, bon an mal an, que le traitement d’hier est devenu inutile ou même dangereux.

    Dans une étude publiée cet été dans la revue eLife, Vinay Prasad et ses collègues des universités d’Oregon, de Chicago et du Maryland, se sont employés à documenter de tels revirements médicaux. Un travail de titan, qui a consisté à passer au crible 3000 essais parus dans un trio de revues médicales prestigieuses (NEJM, Lancet, Jama) et nécessité 7000 heures de travail. Une façon, pour ce pourfendeur infatigable des mauvaises pratiques en recherche clinique, de défendre son point de vue : il ne faut jamais hésiter à renoncer à une pratique inefficiente. Primum non nocere. En voici un florilège.

    • Rupture prématurée des membranes avant terme : mieux vaut attendre
    Pendant longtemps, les gynécologues-obstétriciens ont recommandé de déclencher l’accouchement en cas de rupture prématurée des membranes (RPM) avant terme à un stade avancé de la grossesse (34 semaines d’aménorrhée ou plus). La crainte d’une infection intra-utérine, en particulier si le nouveau-né était prématuré, commandait de hâter la délivrance. Le manuel Merck le conseille encore aujourd’hui. Mais en 2016, l’essai australien PPROMT a montré que l’attitude interventionniste ne permettait de réduire ni le risque septique, ni la morbimortalité néonatale, tandis que les nouveau-nés issus du groupe sous simple surveillance avaient (logiquement) moins de problèmes respiratoires. Revirement médical : sauf complication, il est aujourd’hui recommandé d’adopter une attitude expectative jusqu’aux 37 semaines règlementaires.

    • Les antidépresseurs dans la maladie d’Alzheimer : à oublier ?
    Les malades d’Alzheimer souffrant de trouble dépressif majeur ont longtemps fait l’objet d’une prise en charge médicamenteuse proche de celle des autres patients, notamment à base d’inhibiteurs sélectifs de la recapture de sérotonine (ISRS). Mais un essai contrôlé randomisé anglais (HTA-SADD), réalisé auprès de 228 patients Alzheimer, a renversé la tendance en 2011 : il a montré que ni la sertraline (ISRS) ni la mirtazapine (ISRSNA) n’étaient plus efficaces qu’un simple placebo pour réduire les symptômes dépressifs à court ou long terme (6 mois). Une autre étude a confirmé ce résultat pour la sertraline.

    Ces données invitent à mettre l’accent sur les interventions psychosociales dans la dépression associée à la maladie d’Alzheimer, et à ne pas se faire d’illusion sur l’efficacité d’une prise en charge médicamenteuse. Elles suggèrent également que les mécanismes de la dépression en jeu chez ces patients se démarquent de ceux à l’œuvre en population générale.

    • Chimiothérapie intra-hépatique : une bonne idée, mais pas de plus-value
    Dans la prise en charge des métastases hépatiques dans le cancer du côlon, l’administration d’une chimiothérapie par voie intra-artérielle hépatique (CIAH) était fréquemment employée. Le rationnel était très convaincant : la vascularisation des métastases étant principalement artérielle, cette voie d’administration devait permettre de maximiser l’exposition des cellules tumorales aux agents cytotoxiques, tout en limitant les effets systémiques de la chimiothérapie.
    Mais en 2003, un essai randomisé européen a montré que la voie intraveineuse classique et la voie intra-hépatique n’induisaient aucune différence en matière de survie sans progression ou de survie globale. Plus complexe et coûteuse, et nécessitant la pose d’un cathéter dans l’artère hépatique, la voie intra-hépatique n’a donc plus de raison d’être employée en routine. Revirement médical.

    • Insomnie du sujet âgé : une bonne thérapie vaut mieux qu’un bon somnifère
    L’insomnie du sujet âgé appelle-t-elle une prise en charge médicamenteuse ? En 2006, une étude norvégienne s’est penchée pour la première fois sur la question en comparant un hypnotique non benzodiazépinique (zopiclone) avec une intervention non médicamenteuse. Cette dernière, de type cognitivo-comportementale (TCC-I), repose sur plusieurs axes : ancrer des comportements mieux adaptés (contrôler les stimuli associés à l’insomnie, réduire le temps au lit, améliorer l’hygiène de sommeil…), corriger les croyances erronées sur le sommeil et apprendre des techniques de relaxation.
    De faible taille (46 sujets), l’essai norvégien a néanmoins permis de conclure que la TCC-I améliorait le sommeil à court et à long terme, quand le zopiclone échouait à faire mieux qu’un placébo. Au regard des effets secondaires associés au zopiclone (somnolence, confusion) et à tous les hypnotiques, ce résultat, de niveau de preuve certes modeste, invite à privilégier l’approche interventionnelle dans la prise en charge de l’insomnie du sujet âgé.

    • Supplémentation en vitamine A : inutile contre la mortalité infantile
    La carence en vitamine A est un problème de santé publique majeur dans les pays à faible revenu, où elle provoque des troubles ophtalmiques (xérophtalmie, cécité nocturne) et affaiblit le système immunitaire. Sur la base de ces éléments, la supplémentation des mères pendant la période postnatale a ainsi été largement employée dans les pays d’Asie du Sud-est et d’Afrique, pour son effet supposément protecteur sur la mortalité infantile.

    En 2015, trois grands essais contrôlés randomisés se sont attaqués à la question, au Ghana, en Tanzanie et Inde. Au Ghana, la supplémentation tendait à accroître la mortalité infantile et les cas de fontanelle bombée ; en Inde (Haryana), elle réduisait la mortalité mais augmentait aussi les cas de fontanelle bombée ; en Tanzanie, elle n’avait aucun effet démontrable. Ces résultats ont mis fin à la pratique de la supplémentation en vitamine A en post-partum. La supplémentation est en revanche toujours conseillée chez les enfants entre 6 mois et cinq ans.

    La liste est encore longue : le Dr Prasad et ses collègues ont identifié 228 revirements médicaux, qui viennent s’ajouter à une précédente étude de la même équipe pour aboutir à quelque 396 pratiques médicales désavouées par la recherche clinique. Tous les domaines de la médecine sont concernés, de la cardiologie à la chirurgie, en passant par la cancérologie et la neurologie. Dans l’ensemble, les auteurs estiment que 13 % de tous les essais cliniques publiés donnent lieu à un revirement médical – et environ un tiers de ceux publiés dans les revues les plus prestigieuses.
    Point intéressant : la grande majorité (64 %) des revirements médicaux identifiés proviennent d’études indépendantes, les essais industriels ne représentant que 9 % du total. « Les revirements mettent en lumière l’importance de financer la recherche clinique de façon indépendante, publique et non entachée de conflits d’intérêts », concluent les auteurs.

    La démarche des chercheurs est également un plaidoyer en faveur d’une recherche clinique plus exigeante. « Incorporer de nouveaux traitements dans la pratique médicale sans données sur leur efficacité représente en danger », jugent-ils, d’autant que l’abandon des pratiques courantes s’avère souvent « lent et difficile ». Ils en appellent à mieux évaluer les traitements avant leur généralisation afin d’éviter « de porter atteinte aux patients comme à la réputation du champ médical »"

  • Think only authoritarian regimes spy on their citizens?

    Use of AI surveillance technology is becoming the global norm, even in liberal democracies.

    Almost half the world’s countries now deploy AI surveillance systems. So says a new report, The Global Expansion of AI Surveillance, from the #Carnegie_Endowment_for_International_Peace (https://carnegieendowment.org/2019/09/17/global-expansion-of-ai-surveillance-pub-79847). Such technologies vary from “#smart_city” projects, which use real-time data on residents to aid delivery of public services and enhance policing, to facial recognition systems, to border security, to governments spying on political dissidents.

    The main driver is China. The tech company Huawei alone is responsible for providing AI surveillance technology to at least 50 countries. But it’s not just Beijing pushing such technology. Western companies, from IBM to Palantir, are deeply involved. In Saudi Arabia, for instance, Huawei is helping create smart cities, Google and Amazon are building cloud computing servers for government surveillance and the UK arms firm BAE is providing mass monitoring systems.

    While authoritarian countries are investing heavily in such technology, it is most widespread in democracies. “Liberal democratic governments,” the report observes, “are aggressively using AI tools to police borders, apprehend potential criminals, monitor citizens for bad behaviour and pull out suspected terrorists from crowds.” Projects range from Baltimore’s secret use of drones for daily surveillance of the city’s residents, to Marseille’s mass monitoring project, built largely by the Chinese firm ZTE and given the very Orwellian name of Big Data of Public Tranquility, to the array of advanced surveillance techniques being deployed on the US-Mexico border.

    The technologies raise major ethical issues and questions about civil liberties. Yet even before we’ve begun to ask such questions, the technology has become so ubiquitous as to render the debate almost redundant. That should be as worrying as the technology itself.

    https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/sep/22/think-only-authoritarian-regimes-spy-on-their-citizens
    #surveillance #démocratie #intelligence_artificielle #big_data #index #Chine #Huawei #IBM #Palantir #Google #Amazon #BAE #drones #Baltimore #Marseille #ZTE #Big_data_of_public_tranquility

  • Dirty air: how India became the most polluted country on earth
    https://ig.ft.com/india-pollution

    Northern India’s geography means that pollution generated in the region is not easily dispersed because the #Himalayas form a barrier to the north, preventing poor air from dissipating. “We are sitting in a region where the wind dies in winter,” says Ms Narain. “Think of it like a big, massive bowl. That is why the ability to deal with the sources of the #pollution become critical.”

    #Inde

  • How friendship makes cities

    Male migrants’ caring friendships (dostis) make cities, Delhi, run. One of capitalism’s “hidden abodes”, these friendships cradle the urban poor through its insecurities and violences. Friendships create wiggle room: the space-times for making meaningful lives. The fluidity of friendships, the multiple forms of relatedness and betrayal they encompass, are particularly well suited to subtending informal economy work. Based on interviews with working class men, I argue: friendships are ontologies through which male migrants experience a city as a particular city. The city figures in the imaginations of men as a space of possibility for friendships not defined by caste, kinship, and gender relations. Translated into everyday practices of “caring karna”, the city is where the “doing of caring” across difference materializes. But friendship is agonistic, fraught and fragile; always vulnerable to unfriending, based on those very plays of difference, which may re-orient people away from it. In ephemeral and infinite friendships, men care by standing witness to violence, to fight against indifference, to stake citizens’ claims to a just city. Friendship offers social scientists and working-class migrants wiggle room, a space of hopeful, dynamic, and relational sociality, integral to a vision of the city as a space of possibility.

    Priti Ramamurthy is a Professor in the Department of Gender, Women and Sexuality Studies at the University of Washington. An ethnographer, she has returned to the same villages in the Telangana region of southern India for three decades, to understand the relationship between the social reproduction of families, lives and livelihoods and processes of agrarian transformation. Prof. Ramamurthy’s articulation of feminist commodity chain analysis, as a way to track the creation of value and gendered identities, is a methodological contribution to studies of gender and globalization.

    – Antipode Online
    https://antipodeonline.org/2019/09/16/antipode-at-rc21

    #peace #ville #urban studies

  • The last rickshaws of Kolkata – in pictures | World news | The Guardian
    https://www.theguardian.com/world/gallery/2019/sep/09/the-last-rickshaws-of-kolkata-in-pictures

    Sat 14 Sep 2019 - Kolkata, one of Asia’s great melting pots, is the last place on Earth where rickshaw wallahs still haul people and goods through narrow lanes. With just hundreds left, Palani Mohan’s images capture them as they disappear.

    Almost all of the pullers originate from the state of Bihar, one of India’s poorest. They come here looking for work, leaving their families behind in the villages. It’s a hard and lonely existence, and one that is slowly dying out. The government of West Bengal state has described the jobs of the rickshaw pullers as ‘barbaric’, ‘despicable’ and ‘inhuman’. There is no place in the world today, it says, for ‘human horses’. Men with bare feet pulling others for 18 hours a day in the heat and the rain, for just a few rupees. But the city’s residents disagree.

    Photograph: Palani Mohan/The Guardian

    #photographie #transport #travail #Inde

  • India Renders 2M Stateless, Far-Right BJP Slammed by Hindu Nationalists for Excluding Hindus | News | teleSUR English
    https://www.telesurenglish.net/news/india-nrc-assam-1.9-million-stateless-citizenship-bjp-bengalis-20190

    India excluded 1.9 million from citizenship dividing families who have submitted the same documents to prove they are living in India before Bangladesh’s independence in 1971.

    Nearly 2 million people have been left off a list of citizens released Saturday in India’s northeastern state of Assam, after a mammoth years-long exercise to remove so-called illegal immigrants from neighboring Bangladesh.

    Officials checked documents submitted by roughly 33 million people for a draft released last year of a National Register of Citizens (NRC) in Assam, which left out more than 4 million residents of the state, many of them Hindu.

    But 31.1 million people now make up the final list, with 1.9 million excluded, said Prateek Hajela, the coordinator of the state’s register.

    “Any person who is not satisfied with the outcome of the claims and objections can file an appeal before the foreigners’ tribunals,” Hajela said in a statement, adding that everyone had received an adequate hearing.

    Critics accuse Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s ruling Hindu nationalist party of stoking sentiment against illegal immigrants and misusing the register to target even legal Muslim citizens.

    His close aide, Home Minister Amit Shah, has previously vowed to weed out illegal immigrants, calling them “termites”.

    He also said previously that Hindus, Sikhs, and Buddhists do not have to worry about NRC. However, after a large number of Hindus were excluded from the list the ruling party members have been criticizing the NRC.

    Modi’s Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), which also rules the state, has had to change tack in recent months.

    “Names of many Indian citizens who migrated from Bangladesh as refugees before 1971 have not been included in the NRC,” Assam’s Finance Minister Himanta Biswa Sarma said in a Twitter post, adding that some illegal migrants had been wrongfully added.

    Another BJP lawmaker, Shiladitya Deb, said he did not expect the list to be fair. “It will not have the names of many Bengali Hindus,” he said.

    Those excluded have 120 days to prove their citizenship at hundreds of regional quasi-judicial bodies known as foreigners’ tribunals. If ruled to be illegal immigrants there, they can appeal to higher courts.

    This decision came after the government decided to update the NRC which was formed after the 1951 Census. The current administration under Prime Minister Narendra Modi decided to update the list in 2015 and people had to prove their lineage that they came to India before March 24, 1971, the day Bangladesh became independent from Pakistan.

    During Bangladesh’s freedom struggle, many Bengali Muslims and Hindus alike migrated to India.

    People who could not prove their existence in India before that have been excluded even though they have Indian passports or served in the army.

    For example, Mohammad Sanaullah who served in the Indian army for 30 years found himself excluded from the list.

    Many families found that half of them made to the list. Mijanur Rahman, a 47-year-old farmer, his son, and two daughters were named as citizens while his wife and other three daughters were excluded.

    “Everyone in my family is on the list but not me,” said Munwara Khatun, accompanied by two grandchildren and her husband, Sahar Ali, at a registration center in Assam’s central district of Nagaon. “How can that be?”

    Her 65-year-old spouse, a farmer, said the draft list had also omitted her, prompting them to provide authorities with documents ranging from land records to her voter identification and the Aadhaar identification number of Indian residents.

    Some of the two dozen people at the center said officials had asked them to go to court to get included on the register.

    “They are saying go to court,” said car mechanic Ritesh Sutradhar, 45, who had been left out, along with his wife. “But who will pay for all that?”

    Two sisters Shefali Baidya and Mukul Bose submitted the same document belonging to her father. But Mukul was excluded from the list while Shefali was included.

    State officials say they do not know the eventual fate of those finally adjudged foreigners. Bangladesh has not committed to accepting them.

    More than 1,000 people are being held in Assam’s six detention centers for illegal immigrants and the state wants to set up more centers.

    Human rights activists have criticized conditions at the centers, and lawyers and activists point to problems with the functioning of the foreigners’ tribunals.​​​​​​​

    #Inde #Bangla_Desh #nationalisme #fascisme_hindou