industryterm:online library

  • Harvest selection on multiple traits in the wild revealed by aquatic animal telemetry - Moland - - Ecology and Evolution - Wiley Online Library

    Harvesting can have profound impacts on the ecology and evolution of marine populations. However, little is known about the strength and direction of fisheries‐induced selection acting on multiple traits in the wild. Here, we used acoustic telemetry to directly monitor individual behavior and fate in an intensively harvested species, the European lobster (Homarus gammarus, n = 100), in southern Norway. Overall, 24% of the tracked lobsters survived the two‐month harvest season within the study area. Our results indicated that local survival was not random with respect to phenotype. We found no clear support for fisheries‐induced selection acting directly on body size. However, lobsters with large crusher claws relative to their body size, typical of socially dominant individuals, appeared at higher risk of being captured in the conventional trap fishery. We also detected a fine‐scale spatial gradient in survival. After accounting for this gradient, individuals displaying larger home ranges were more likely to survive the harvest season. Finally, we found significant repeatabilities for lobster behavior on a monthly timescale, indicating that individual behavioral attributes tended to persist and may reflect personality. Our study therefore provides empirical support for the need to consider an evolutionary enlightened approach to fisheries management that considers the influence of harvest on multiple traits of target species.

    #biodiversité #nature #environnement #faune #flore

  • North Korea’s nuclear test site has collapsed ... and that may be why Kim Jong-un suspended tests | South China Morning Post

    North Korea’s mountain nuclear test site has collapsed, putting China and other nearby nations at unprecedented risk of radioactive exposure, two separate groups of Chinese scientists studying the issue have confirmed. 

    The collapse after five nuclear blasts may be why North Korean leader Kim Jong-un declared last Friday that he would freeze the hermit state’s nuclear and missile tests and shut down the site, one researcher said. 

    The last five of Pyongyang’s six nuclear tests have all been carried out under Mount Mantap at the Punggye-ri nuclear test site in North Korea’s northwest.

    A research team led by Wen Lianxing, a geologist with the University of Science and Technology of China in Hefei, concluded the collapse occurred following the detonation last autumn of North Korea’s most powerful thermal nuclear warhead in a tunnel about 700 metres (2,296 feet) below the mountain’s peak. 

    The test turned the mountain into fragile fragments, the researchers found.

    Ah ! souvenirs de Beryl…

    • La page web de l’Université de science et technologie de Chine vue dans la vidéo est celle-ci



      中国科学技术大学地震与地球内部物理实验室温联星研究组通过分析地震记录,确认朝鲜自2009年以来一直用于核试验的丰溪里万塔山已塌陷。该研究成果于2018年4月23日被国际地球物理权威学术期刊《地球物理研究快报》(Geophysical Research Letters) 接收。该研究组博士生田冬冬、姚家园为共同第一作者。研究还确认,2017年9月23日和10月12日在丰溪里试验场发生的三个小事件为核试验触发的、发生在万塔山之外的一个天然地震群。


    • La page web mentionne un article publié dans le numéro du 16 avril 2018 de Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 45, Issue 7

      Article publié en ligne le 14 mars 2018

      North Korea’s 2017 Test and its Nontectonic Aftershock - Liu - 2018 - Geophysical Research Letters - Wiley Online Library

      Seismology illuminates physical processes occurring during underground explosions, not all yet fully understood. The thus‐far strongest North Korean test of 3 September 2017 was followed by a moderate seismic event (mL 4.1) after 8.5 min. Here we provide evidence that this aftershock was a nontectonic event which radiated seismic waves as a buried horizontal closing crack. This vigorous crack closure, occurring shortly after the blast, is studied in the North Korea test site for the first time. The event can be qualitatively explained as rapid destruction of an explosion‐generated cracked rock chimney due to cavity collapse, although other compaction processes cannot be ruled out.

      Plain Language Summary
      North Korea detonated its strongest underground nuclear test in September 2017. It attracted the public interest worldwide not only due to its significant magnitude (6.3 mb) but also because it was followed 8.5 min later by a weaker event. Was the delayed shock a secondary explosion, an earthquake provoked by the shot, or something else? We answer these questions, thanks to unique data from near‐regional broadband stations. We basically solve a simple problem—fitting observed seismograms by synthetics. The good fit means that we understand why and how the seismic waves are radiated. According to our model, the explosion created a cavity and a damaged “chimney” of rocks above it. The aftershock was neither a secondary explosion nor a triggered tectonic earthquake. It occurred due to a process comparable to a “mirror image” of the explosion, that is, a rock collapse, or compaction, for the first time documented in North Korea’s test site. Interestingly, shear fault motions, typical for natural earthquakes, were extremely small both in the explosion and in the aftershock. Small natural earthquakes also occur at the test site, and geotechnical works might trigger them. Thus, all studies related to rock stability of the site, and prevention of radioactive leakage, are important.

    • Figure 4
      Inferred interpretation of (a–c) mainshock and (d–f) nontectonic aftershock. Dominant body forces equivalent to seismic radiation are shown for an assumed depth of 1.5 km. The force couples are annotated with their relative size. Scaling factors for mainshock and aftershock are 5.33e17 and 3.40e16 Nm, respectively. The events radiated as an opening and closing horizontal crack, with a significant compensated linear vector dipole contribution. Schematic sketch (g) shows the structural elements and processes, discussed in the text. (h) Vertical components of normalized full‐band raw data of Event 1 (red) and Event 2 (black). Traces of Event 2 are plotted with opposite sign; thus, the surface waves match with Event 1. It illustrates the “mirror‐image” character of the two sources. Note also the absence of high‐frequency body phases in the records of Event 2, similar to “collapse” events (Engdahl, 1972; Ryall & Savage, 1969; Willis, 1963). Origin time is at t = 0.

    • La fermeture du site et l’effondrement de la cheminée ne convainquent pas tout le monde…

      Optimism About Korea Will Kill Us All – Foreign Policy

      Last week’s inter-Korean summit, and North Korean leader Kim Jong Un’s declaration that he would “close” his nuclear test site by May, were greeted widely with celebration. But contrary to the hoopla, we have now arrived at an especially dangerous moment in Washington’s relationship with Pyongyang. We are on the verge of letting our hopes get in the way of our survival.

      Consider the now widespread view that North Korea’s test site is unusable or that the mountain that contains it has collapsed. This was always garbage reporting. You can download the two academic papers that are said to have originally made these claims — they say nothing of the kind. What the papers do is prove that, after North Korea’s big nuclear test in September 2017, the cavity created by the explosion collapsed in on itself. We already knew that probably happened (although it is cool to see it demonstrated through seismology).

      But the collapsing of the cavity and shrinking of the mountain do not mean the tunnels leading to it collapsed, let alone that the mountain itself had done so. And, of course, there are two other nuclear test complexes underneath entirely different mountains at the site. Kim was quoted as making this point himself: “Some said we will dismantle unusable facilities, but there are two more larger tunnels [in addition to] the original one and these are very in good condition as you will get to know that when coming and seeing them.” But commentators in the West, hoping for a diplomatic breakthrough (whether for political or more idealistic reasons), still heard what they wanted to hear about the condition of North Korea’s program.

      Les articles signalés sont d’une part celui pointé ci-dessus et aussi celui-ci (27/04/2018)

      Collapse and Earthquake Swarm after North Korea’s 3 September 2017 Nuclear Test - Tian - - Geophysical Research Letters - Wiley Online Library

      North Korea’s 3 September 2017 nuclear test was followed by several small seismic events, with one eight‐and‐a‐half minutes after the test and three on and after 23 September 2017. Seismic analysis reveals that the first event is a near vertical on‐site collapse toward the nuclear test center from 440±260 m northwest of the test site, with its seismic source best represented by a single force with a dip angle of 70°‐75° and an azimuth of ~150°, and the later events are an earthquake swarm located 8.4±1.7 km north of the test site within a region of 520 m, with a focal depth of at least 2.4 km and a focal mechanism of nearly pure strike‐slip along the north‐south direction with a high dip angle of 50°‐90°. The occurrence of the on‐site collapse calls for continued monitoring of any leaks of radioactive materials from the test site.

      (pdf téléchargeable : que de la technique…)

  • Arctic sea ice may be declining faster than expected: study

    FILE PHOTO: A Russian border mark is pictured at the Nagurskoye military base in Alexandra Land on the remote Arctic islands of Franz Josef Land, Russia March 29, 2017. Picture taken March 29, 2017.
    REUTERS/Sergei Karpukhin

    Arctic sea ice may be thinning faster than predicted because salty snow on the surface of the ice skews the accuracy of satellite measurements, a new study from the University of Calgary said on Tuesday.

    The report from the Canadian university’s Cryosphere Climate Research Group published in the academic journal Geophysical Research Letters found satellite estimates for the thickness of seasonal sea ice have been overestimated by up to 25 percent.

    That means the Arctic Ocean could be ice-free much sooner than some scientific predictions, which forecast sea ice will first disappear completely during summer months between 2040 and 2050, according to lead author Vishnu Nandan.

    • Effect of Snow Salinity on CryoSat-2 Arctic First-Year Sea Ice Freeboard Measurements - Nandan - 2017 - Geophysical Research Letters - Wiley Online Library

      The European Space Agency’s CryoSat-2 satellite mission provides radar altimeter data that are used to derive estimates of sea ice thickness and volume. These data are crucial to understanding recent variability and changes in Arctic sea ice. Sea ice thickness retrievals at the CryoSat-2 frequency require accurate measurements of sea ice freeboard, assumed to be attainable when the main radar scattering horizon is at the snow/sea ice interface. Using an extensive snow thermophysical property dataset from late winter conditions in the Canadian Arctic, we examine the role of saline snow on first-year sea ice (FYI), with respect to its effect on the location of the main radar scattering horizon, its ability to decrease radar penetration depth, and its impact on FYI thickness estimates. Based on the dielectric properties of saline snow commonly found on FYI, we quantify the vertical shift in the main scattering horizon. This is found to be approximately 0.07 m. We propose a thickness-dependent snow salinity correction factor for FYI freeboard estimates. This significantly reduces CryoSat-2 FYI retrieval error. Relative error reductions of ~11% are found for an ice thickness of 0.95 m and ~25% for 0.7 m. Our method also helps to close the uncertainty gap between SMOS and CryoSat-2 thin ice thickness retrievals. Our results indicate that snow salinity should be considered for FYI freeboard estimates.

  • Hundreds of Mysterious Stone ‘Gates’ Found in Saudi Arabia’s Desert - The New York Times

    Google Earth has unlocked the gates to ancient mysteries around the world.

    For years, amateur and professional archaeologists have used the search engine’s satellite imagery to discover mysterious earthworks in Kazakhstan, Roman ruins, a forgotten fortress in Afghanistan and more. In the past decade, Google Earth also has helped identify thousands of burial sites and other “works of the old men,” as they’re called, scattered across Saudi Arabia.

    Now, archaeologists have uncovered nearly 400 previously undocumented stone structures they call “gates” in the Arabian desert that they believe may have been built by nomadic tribes thousands of years ago.

    We tend to think of Saudi Arabia as desert, but in practice there’s a huge archaeological treasure trove out there and it needs to be identified and mapped,” said David Kennedy, an archaeologist at the University of Western Australia and author of a paper set to appear in the November issue of the journal Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy.

    You can’t see them very well from the ground level, but once you get up a few hundred feet, or with a satellite even higher, they stand out beautifully.

    Ground views of Samhah Gate 31. Scientists are not sure what purpose these structures served.
    Credit Grant Scroggie

  • #Caspian_Sea evaporating as temperatures rise, study finds

    Earth’s largest inland body of water has been slowly evaporating for the past two decades due to rising temperatures associated with climate change, a new study finds.

    Water levels in the Caspian Sea dropped nearly 7 centimeters (3 inches) per year from 1996 to 2015, or nearly 1.5 meters (5 feet) total, according to the new study. The current Caspian Sea level is only about 1 meter (3 feet) above the historic low level it reached in the late 1970s.

    Increased evaporation over the Caspian Sea has been linked to increased surface air temperatures. According to the data from the study, the average yearly surface temperature over the Caspian Sea rose by about 1 degree Celsius (1.8 degrees Fahrenheit) between the two time frames studied, 1979-1995 and 1996-2015. These rising temperatures are likely a result of climate change, according to the study’s authors.

    Evaporation brought about by warming temperatures appears to be the primary cause of the current drop in sea level and the decline will likely continue as the planet warms, according to the study’s authors.

    From our point of view as geoscientists, it’s an interesting place because it’s possible to construct a sort of budget for the total amount of water that’s there,” said Clark Wilson, a geophysicist with the Jackson School of Geosciences at the University of Texas at Austin, and co-author of the new study published in Geophysical Research Letters, a journal of the American Geophysical Union. “The real control that causes it to go up and down over long periods of time is really most likely the evaporation, which is almost completely dominated by temperature.


  • Study : Ship Emissions Make Thunderstorms More Intense – gCaptain

    A new study mapping lightning around the globe finds lightning strokes occur nearly twice as often directly above heavily-trafficked shipping lanes in the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea than they do in areas of the ocean adjacent to shipping lanes that have similar climates.

    The difference in lightning activity can’t be explained by changes in the weather, according to the study’s authors, who conclude that aerosol particles emitted in ship exhaust are changing how storm clouds form over the ocean.

    The study published Sept. 7 in Geophysical Research Letters is the first to show ship exhaust can alter thunderstorm intensity. The researchers conclude that particles from ship exhaust make cloud droplets smaller, lifting them higher in the atmosphere. This creates more ice particles and leads to more lightning.

    The results provide some of the first evidence that humans are changing cloud formation on a nearly continual basis, rather than after a specific incident like a wildfire, according to the authors. Cloud formation can affect rainfall patterns and alter climate by changing how much sunlight clouds reflect to space.

    It’s one of the clearest examples of how humans are actually changing the intensity of storm processes on Earth through the emission of particulates from combustion,” said lead author Joel Thornton, a UW professor of atmospheric sciences.

    • L’article est en accès libre
      Lightning Enhancement Over Major Oceanic Shipping Lanes - Thornton - 2017 - Geophysical Research Letters - Wiley Online Library

      Using twelve years of high resolution global lightning stroke data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN), we show that lightning density is enhanced by up to a factor of two directly over shipping lanes in the northeastern Indian Ocean and the South China Sea as compared to adjacent areas with similar climatological characteristics. The lightning enhancement is most prominent during the convectively active season, November-April for the Indian Ocean and April-December in the South China Sea, and has been detectable from at least 2005 to the present. We hypothesize that emissions of aerosol particles and precursors by maritime vessel traffic lead to a microphysical enhancement of convection and storm electrification in the region of the shipping lanes. These persistent localized anthropogenic perturbations to otherwise clean regions are a unique opportunity to more thoroughly understand the sensitivity of maritime deep convection and lightning to aerosol particles.

      Plain Language Summary
      Lightning results from strong storms lifting cloud drops up to high altitudes where freezing occurs and collisions between drops, graupel, and ice crystals lead to electrification. Thus, lightning is an indicator of storm intensity and sensitive to the microphysics of cloud drop formation, interactions, and freezing. We find that lightning is nearly twice as frequent directly over two of the world’s busiest shipping lanes in the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea. The lightning enhancement maximizes along the same angular paths ships take along these routes and cannot be explained by meteorological factors, such as winds or the temperature structure of the atmosphere. We conclude that the lightning enhancement stems from aerosol particles emitted in the engine exhaust of ships traveling along these routes. These particles act as the nuclei on which cloud drops form, and can change the vertical development of storms, allowing more cloud water to be transported to high altitudes, where electrification of the storm occurs to produce lightning. These shipping lanes are thus an ongoing experiment on how human activities that lead to airborne particulate matter pollution can perturb storm intensity and lightning.

  • Common climatic signal from glaciers in the European Alps over the last 50 years - Vincent - 2017 - Geophysical Research Letters - Wiley Online Library

    Merci à @freakonometrics d’avoir signalé cette recherche sur Twitter, je la référence ici.

    Conventional glacier-wide mass balances are commonly used to study the effect of climate forcing on glacier melt. Unfortunately, the glacier-wide mass balances are also influenced by the glacier’s dynamic response. Investigations on the effects of climate forcing on glaciers can be largely improved by analyzing point mass balances. Using a statistical model, we have found that 52% of the year-to-year deviations in the point mass balances of six glaciers distributed across the entire European Alps can be attributed to a common variability. Point mass balance changes reveal remarkable regional consistencies reaching 80% for glaciers less than 10 km apart. Compared to the steady state conditions of the 1962–1982 period, the surface mass balance changes are −0.85 m water equivalent (w.e.) a−1 for 1983–2002 and −1.63 m w.e. a−1 for 2003–2013. This indicates a clear and regionally consistent acceleration of mass loss over recent decades over the entire European Alps.

    #climat #glaciers

  • Russian Performance : A Cartography of its History

    C’est juste un reminder d’une exposition du musée Garage à Moscou qui a eu lieu en 2014

    Russian Performance: A Cartography of its History is the first exhibition to explore a century of the medium’s history and unique traditions in Russia. Spanning the early experiments of the Futurists to the radical actions of today, the project also emphasizes the significance of Russian performance in an international context.

    Based on four years of intensive research, the exhibition takes a chronological structure, with the peculiarities of each decade or epoch reflected in the architectural design of the corresponding section of the show. Cutting-edge multimedia technologies will enable viewers to participate in a performance that is shaped by their own choices, navigating a number of alternative scenarios that are available alongside the main route. Specific #tags linking each work to one of the project’s key themes (such as Statement, Costume, Landscape, Interactive Object) will assist visitors in traversing the exhibition according to their individual routes, which can be mapped with a specially designed free app.


    « Russian Performance : A Cartography of its History » : Garage Museum of Contemporary Art. - Free Online Library

    “Russian Performance: A Cartography of its History”


    Based on years of archival research, “Russian Performance: A Cartography of its History” provided a comprehensive overview of the subject over the last hundred years, from the artistic experiments of the early Russian avant-garde through the Moscow Conceptualism of the 1970s to the political post-perestroika work of the “New Wave” and Moscow Actionism groups, the apolitical collective performances of the early 2000s, and the renewed interest in activism and politics in performance in the 2010s. An enlarged photograph of the anti-Putin protest group Pussy Riot (by prominent Moscow photographer Igor Mukhin) was the not-so-subtle exit point of the exhibition.

    Rather than articulating performance as a genre, through which questions are produced only by the medium itself, the exhibition embedded the medium in very a specific sociopolitical and cultural context, with its own questions, issues, and anxieties. This raises the question of how performance has been defined through art history: more often than not with a strong, if not exclusive, focus on a Euro-American context, associated with the transgressive, bodily, or identity politics of those artistic practices that emerged in the 1960s and ’70s. An exhibition of this kind can revise that history even as it is being written. Performance is a medium that escapes a stable definition, mainly because its manifestations are as varied as the artists practicing it. This wide range was reflected in the exhibition, and its organizers (Garage curator Yulia Aksenova and its head archivist, Sasha Obukhova) actively destabilized the definition of performance. The show’s first room featured some obvious examples, such as the 1913 Futurist opera Victory over the Sun. But then the focus shifted to the theatrical experiments of Vsevolod Meyerhold and Sergei Eisenstein—traditionally shown as part of theater history, yet now framed as Russian performance in a broader sense—as well as filmed and photographic documentation of mass revolutionary demonstrations and parades that took place in Russia in the 1910s and ’20s. Performance beyond any artistic intention, without any institutional framework, and solely designed for ideological purposes? The proposition may seem exaggerated, but it is certainly thought-provoking. And one only need recall the often extreme interventions of the Moscow Actionists to realize the fine line between artistic intention and public domain—most notably Alexander Brener spray-painting a green dollar sign on one of Kazimir Malevich’s Suprematist paintings at the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam in 1997, as documented in a previous exhibition at Garage.

    #art #cartographie #russie #moscou #garage #soviétisme

  • Green grabs, land grabs and the spatiality of displacement: eviction from Mozambique’s Limpopo National Park - Lunstrum - 2015 - Area - Wiley Online Library;jsessionid=F73AF8B9F1EE91764EF2CC866EF1EB9F.f02t02
    via @cdb_77

    The Mozambican state is currently working to relocate 7000 people from the interior of the Limpopo National Park (LNP), itself part of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park (GLTP). As the process began in 2003, this stands out as one of the region’s most protracted contemporary conservation-related evictions. I draw from this case to shed light on the increasingly complex spatial dynamics of land and green grabs and, more specifically, demonstrate the importance of zooming out from discrete land acquisitions to examine how their resulting displacements are increasingly shaped by spatial processes at and beyond their borders. In doing so, we begin to see that displacement from the LNP is not a simple case of eviction from a discrete protected area. Rather, it has been provoked by the opening of the international border, hence drawing transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs) like the GLTP into the purview of land and green grabs.

    #Mozambique #terres #aires_protégées #évictions

  • Globalisation, Sustainability and the Role of Institutions: The Case of the Chilean Salmon Industry - Iizuka - 2015 - Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie - Wiley Online Library
    via @cdb_77

    The importance of aquaculture in the fishery sector is increasing. The growth of aquaculture complements the stagnant growth of extractive fisheries. Many countries are now entering this emerging economic activity. This positive feature has some serious drawbacks when the country has no local institutions to ensure the environmental sustainability of aquaculture. The Chilean salmon farming industry has grown dramatically since the mid-1980s to become the leading exporter of farmed salmon after Norway. The sector, however, suffered decline due to the sanitary crisis in 2007. It is said that this crisis was caused by overexploitation and overconcentration of fish farms. This paper tries to explain the mechanisms of the sanitary crisis – a ‘tragedy of the commons’ – by paying attention to the role of endogenous factors such as local knowledge, capacity building, local ecological conditions and the emergence of local institutions, focusing on the case of salmon farming in Chile.

    #saumon #aquaculture #Chili #écologie #pollution

  • Reconsidering Regime Type and Growth: Lies, Dictatorships, and Statistics - Magee - 2014 - International Studies Quarterly - Wiley Online Library

    Some recent papers have concluded that authoritarian regimes have faster economic growth than democracies. These supposed growth benefits of autocracies are estimated using data sets in which growth rates rely heavily on data reported by each government. Governments have incentives to exaggerate their economic growth figures, however, and authoritarian regimes may have fewer limitations than democracies on their ability to do so. This paper argues that growth data submitted to international agencies are overstated by authoritarian regimes compared to democracies. If true, it calls into question the estimated relationship between government type and economic growth found in the literature. To measure the degree to which each government’s official growth statistics are overstated, the economic growth rates reported in the World Bank’s World Development Indicators are compared to a new measure of economic growth based on satellite imaging of nighttime lights. This comparison reveals whether or not dictators exaggerate their true growth rates and by how much. Annual GDP growth rates are estimated to be overstated by 0.5–1.5 percentage points in the statistics that dictatorships report to the World Bank.

    #mensonges #statistiques redressés par #satellite, via @francoisbriatte

    • Figure 1 largely duplicates a figure from Henderson et al. (2012) showing the relationship between the change in the log of nighttime lights between 1992–93 and 2005–06 and the change in log GDP over those years. In the figure, we identify the countries classified as autocracies with a large round dot. As the figure reveals, the autocracies tend to lie above the regression line, which means that their reported GDP growth over the 13-year time period is above the level predicted by the growth in their nighttime lights. The two countries with the largest deviation between their growth in nighttime lights and reported growth in GDP are China and Myanmar.

  • Articles sur Berlin en accès libre sur Wiley

    Metropolis Berlin? Prospects and problems of post-November 1989 urban developments - Schmoll - 2009 - International Journal of Urban and Regional Research - Wiley Online Library

    Metropolis Berlin? Prospects and problems of post-November 1989 urban developments

    Fritz Schmoll

    Reflections on Berlin: The Meaning of Construction and the Construction of Meaning - Marcuse - 2002 - International Journal of Urban and Regional Research - Wiley Online Library

    Reflections on Berlin: The Meaning of Construction and the Construction of Meaning

    Peter Marcuse

    Berlin transformations: another view - Lenhart - 2003 - International Journal of Urban and Regional Research - Wiley Online Library

    Berlin transformations: another view

    Karin Lenhart

    Squatting and Urban Renewal: The Interaction of Squatter Movements and Strategies of Urban Restructuring in Berlin - HOLM - 2010 - International Journal of Urban and Regional Research - Wiley Online Library

    Squatting and Urban Renewal: The Interaction of Squatter Movements and Strategies of Urban Restructuring in Berlin


    #berlin #allemagne

  • “Infiltrators” or Refugees? An Analysis of Israel’s Policy Towards African Asylum-Seekers - Yaron - 2013 - International Migration - Wiley Online Library

    Accès payant, je le signale pour mes archives (via Cristina del Biaggio)

    “Infiltrators” or Refugees? An Analysis of Israel’s Policy Towards African Asylum-Seekers

    Hadas Yaron,
    Nurit Hashimshony-Yaffe,
    John Campbell


    This article adopts a genealogical approach in examining Israeli immigration policy by focusing on the situation confronting African asylum seekers who have been forced back into Egypt, detained and deported but who have not had their asylum claims properly assessed. Based on immigration policies formulated at the time of Israeli independence, whose principle objective was to secure a Jewish majority state, we argue that Israel’s treatment of African asylum seekers as ‘infiltrators’/economic migrants stems from an insistence on maintaining immigration as a sovereign issue formally isolated from other policy domains. Such an approach is not only in violation of Israel’s commitment to the Refugee Convention, it directly contributes to policies which are ineffective and unduly harsh.

    #migrations #asile #israël

  • International Political Sociology - Virtual Issue: Territorialities, Spaces, Geographies - Wiley Online Library

    En accès libre pendant un an, et tous les articles sont en pdf téléchargeables

    Territorialities, Spaces, Geographies

    This special issue presents a selection of work at the interstices between international relations and geography. It is an invitation for intensifying debates in International Political Sociology on transformations of space and scales, the use of geographical methods and concepts, and the nature and limits of geographical thought in international and global relations.

    The international is a spatial category and has been invested by variable geographies. The world of the international is flat; a two-dimensional world of relations between sovereign states claiming exclusive power over their territory and people. The international also persistently and often violently draws lines between itself and its outside: worlds of colonies, the uncivilised, transnational networks, and others. Recently, topographic categories are increasingly challenged by topological modes of enacting spatial relations and by analyses foregrounding the importance of temporal practices and narratives.

    This special issue samples an international political sociology that deploys and critically engages territorial, spatial, geographical modes of thinking and politics. What are the limits and transformations of spatial practices in contemporary politics? How are territorialities, borders, and lines invested in methods of governing and conceptions of order? What is the impact of foregrounding temporality and mobility on spatial categorizing of the international? How are geopolitics and territoriality produced?

    #géographie #sociologie-politique #frontières #territoires #espace

  • Nicolás Wey Gómez, The Tropics of Empire: Why Columbus Sailed South to the Indies - Steinberg - 2009 - Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography - Wiley Online Library

    Nicolás Wey Gómez, The Tropics of Empire: Why Columbus Sailed South to the Indies

    Philip E. Steinberg

    Article first published online: 23 NOV 2009

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9493.2009.00377_1.x

    © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Department of Geography, National University of Singapore and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

    #bibliographie #livre #cartographie-historique #géographie-historique #empire #explorations #découvertes


    Geografiska Annaler : Series B, Human Geography - Wiley Online Library


    Lena Magnusson Turner,
    Terje Wessel

    Article first published online: 28 FEB 2013

    Our purpose in this article is to examine socio-economic and spatial integration of ethnic minorities in the Oslo region. We analyse relocation between 1998 and 2008 for members of ten minority groups along three overlapping dimensions: upwards in the neighbourhood hierarchy, outwards from the inner city to all suburbs, and westwards from a less affluent to a more affluent part of the region. The results provide some limited support for spatial assimilation theory. Two minority groups, Iranians and Vietnamese, comply partly with the theory. Another group, Filipinos, has stagnated in its socio-economic and spatial integration. The remaining groups do not relocate in accordance with the native pattern, or fail to integrate in socio-economic terms. The discrepancy between theory and results is most pronounced along the westward axis. We interpret the results in a broader context of regional and national circumstances: spatial assimilation theory may have different utility in different welfare regimes, depending on spatial inequality and the politics of place.

    #migrations #asile #norvège #oslo

  • Health Workers Reach Index
    Online library : Save the Children UK

    A major new health workers index by Save the Children has ranked the best and worst countries for a child to fall sick in — with Chad and Somalia at the bottom and Switzerland and Finland at the top.

    The index measures not only how many health workers there are, but also their reach and impact.

    It shows that children living in the bottom 20 countries — which fall below the WHO minimum threshold of just over two health workers for every thousand people – are five times more likely to die than those further up the index.

    #santé #enfants

  • swissmiss | The Noun Project Swissmiss (swissmiss)

    The Noun Project’s mission is to share, celebrate, and enhance the world’s visual language. The goal is to collect and organize all the #symbols that form our language into one easy-to-use online library that can be accessed by anyone. All the symbols on their site are completely #free to download, and can be used for design projects, architecture presentations, art pieces – just about anything. The folks behind The Noun Project think a visual language that can be understood by all cultures and people is a pretty amazing thing. I fully agree.