industryterm:web services

  • #CBP terminates controversial $297 million #Accenture contract amid continued staffing struggles

    #Customs_and_Border_Protection on Thursday ended its controversial $297 million hiring contract with Accenture, according to two senior DHS officials and an Accenture representative.
    As of December, when CBP terminated part of its contract, the company had only completed processing 58 applicants and only 22 had made it onto the payroll about a year after the company was hired.
    At the time, the 3,500 applicants that remained in the Accenture hiring pipeline were transferred to CBP’s own hiring center to complete the process.

    CBP cut ties with Accenture on processing applicants a few months ago, it retained some services, including marketing, advertising and applicant support.
    This week, the entire contract was terminated for “convenience,” government speak for agreeing to part ways without placing blame on Accenture.
    While government hiring is “slow and onerous, it’s also part of being in the government” and that’s “something we have to accept and deal with as we go forward,” said one of the officials.
    For its efforts, CBP paid Accenture around $19 million in start-up costs, and around $2 million for 58 people who got job offers, according to the officials.
    Over the last couple of months, CBP explored how to modify the contract, but ultimately decided to completely stop work and return any remaining funds to taxpayers.
    But it’s unclear how much money, if any, that will be.

    In addition, to the funds already paid to Accenture, CBP has around $39 million left to “settle and close the books” with the company, an amount which has yet to be determined.
    In November 2017, CBP awarded Accenture the contract to help meet the hiring demands of an executive order on border security that President Donald Trump signed during his first week in office. The administration directed CBP to hire an additional 7,500 agents and officers on top of its current hiring goals.
    “We were in a situation where we needed to try something new” and “break the cycle of going backwards,” said a DHS official about why the agency started the contract.

    Meanwhile, hiring remains difficult for the agency amid a surge of migrants at the southern border that is stretching CBP resources thin.
    It “continues to be a very challenging environment,” said one official about hiring efforts this year.

    In fact, one of the reasons that CBP didn’t need Accenture to process applicants, is because the agency didn’t receive as many applications as it initially planned for.
    The agency has been focused on beating attrition and has been able to recently “beat it by a modest amount,” said the official. “Ultimately we would like to beat it by a heck of a lot, but we’re not there yet.”
    #frontières #contrôles_frontaliers #USA #Ests-Unis #complexe_militaro-industriel #business

    • Border Profiteers

      On a recent sunny spring afternoon in Texas, a couple hundred Border Patrol agents, Homeland Security officials, and salespeople from a wide array of defense and security contractors gathered at the Bandera Gun Club about an hour northwest of San Antonio to eat barbecue and shoot each other’s guns. The techies wore flip-flops; the veterans wore combat boots. Everyone had a good time. They were letting loose, having spent the last forty-eight hours cooped up in suits and ties back at San Antonio’s Henry B. Gonzalez convention center, mingling and schmoozing, hawking their wares, and listening to immigration officials rail about how those serving in enforcement agencies are not, under any circumstances, Nazis.

      These profiteers and bureaucrats of the immigration-industrial complex were fresh from the 2019 #Border_Security_Expo —essentially a trade show for state violence, where law enforcement officers and weapons manufacturers gather, per the Expo’s marketing materials, to “identify and address new and emerging border challenges and opportunities through technology, partnership, and innovation.” The previous two days of panels, speeches, and presentations had been informative, a major in the Argentine Special Forces told me at the gun range, but boring. He was glad to be outside, where handguns popped and automatic rifles spat around us. I emptied a pistol into a target while a man in a Three Percenter militia baseball hat told me that I was a “natural-born killer.” A drone buzzed overhead until, in a demonstration of a company’s new anti-drone technology, a device that looked like a rocket launcher and fired a sort of exploding net took it down. “This is music to me,” the Argentine major said.

      Perhaps it’s not surprising the Border Security Expo attendees were so eager to blow off steam. This year’s event found many of them in a defensive posture, given the waves of bad press they’d endured since President Trump’s inauguration, and especially since the disastrous implementation of his family separation policy, officially announced by former Attorney General Jeff Sessions in April of 2018, before being rescinded by Trump two-and-a-half months later. Throughout the Expo, in public events and in background roundtable conversations with reporters, officials from the various component parts of the Department of Homeland Security rolled out a series of carefully rehearsed talking points: Immigrations and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and Customs and Border Patrol (CBP) need more money, personnel, and technology; taking migrants to hospitals distracts CBP officers from their real mission; and the 1997 Flores court settlement, which prohibits immigration enforcement agencies from detaining migrant families with children for more than twenty days, is undermining the very sovereignty of the United States. “We want a secure border, we want an immigration system that has integrity,” Ronald Vitiello, then–acting head of ICE, said in a keynote address to the hundreds of people gathered in San Antonio. “We have a generous immigration system in this country, but it has to have integrity in order for us to continue to be so generous.”

      More of a technocrat than his thuggish predecessor Thomas Homan, Vitiello also spoke at length about using the “dark web” to take down smugglers and the importance of having the most up-to-date data-management technology. But he spoke most adamantly about needing “a fix” for the Flores settlement. “If you prosecute crimes and you give people consequences, you get less of it,” he said. “With Flores, there’s no consequence, and everybody knows that,” a senior ICE official echoed to reporters during a background conversation immediately following Vitiello’s keynote remarks. “That’s why you’re seeing so many family units. We cannot apply a consequence to a family unit, because we have to release them.”

      Meanwhile, around 550 miles to the west, in El Paso, hundreds of migrants, including children and families, were being held by CBP under a bridge, reportedly forced to sleep on the ground, with inadequate medical attention. “They treated us like we are animals,” one Honduran man told Texas Monthly. “I felt what they were trying to do was to hurt us psychologically, so we would understand that this is a lesson we were being taught, that we shouldn’t have crossed.” Less than a week after the holding pen beneath the bridge closed, Vitiello’s nomination to run ICE would be pulled amid a spate of firings across DHS; President Trump wanted to go “in a tougher direction.”

      Family Values

      On the second day of the Border Security Expo, in a speech over catered lunch, Scott Luck, deputy chief of Customs and Border Protection and a career Border Patrol agent, lamented that the influx of children and families at the border meant that resources were being diverted from traditional enforcement practices. “Every day, about 150 agents spend their shifts at hospitals and medical facilities with illegal aliens receiving treatment,” he said. “The annual salary cost for agents on hospital watch is more than $11.5 million. Budget analysts estimate that 13 percent of our operational budget—the budget that we use to buy equipment, to buy vehicles for our men and women—is now used for transportation, medical expenses, diapers, food, and other necessities to care for illegal aliens in Border Patrol custody.”

      As far as Luck was concerned, every dollar spent on food and diapers is one not spent on drones and weapons, and every hour an agent spends guarding a migrant in a hospital is an hour they don’t spend on the border. “It’s not what they signed up for. The mission they signed up for is to protect the United States border, to protect the communities in which they live and serve,” he told reporters after his speech. “The influx, the volume, the clutter that this creates is frustrating.” Vitiello applied an Orwellian inversion: “We’re not helping them as fast as we want to,” he said of migrant families apprehended at the border.

      Even when discussing the intimate needs of detained migrant families, the language border officials used to describe their remit throughout the Expo was explicitly militaristic: achieving “operational control,” Luck said, requires “impedance and denial” and “situational awareness.” He referred to technology as a “vital force multiplier.” He at least stopped short of endorsing the president’s framing that what is happening on the border constitutes an invasion, instead describing it as a “deluge.”

      According to the Migration Policy Institute, a non-partisan think tank, the U.S. immigrant population has continued to grow—although at a slower rate than it did before the 2007 recession, and undocumented people appear to make up a smaller proportion of the overall population. Regardless, in fiscal year 2018, both ICE and CBP stepped up their enforcement activities, arresting, apprehending, and deporting people at significantly higher rates than the previous year. More than three times as many family members were apprehended at the border last year than in 2017, the Pew Research Center reports, and in the first six months of FY 2019 alone there were 189,584 apprehensions of “family units”: more than half of all apprehensions at the border during that time, and more than the full-year total of apprehended families for any other year on record. While the overall numbers have not yet begun to approach those of the 1980s and 1990s, when apprehensions regularly exceeded one million per year, the demographics of who is arriving at the United States southern border are changing: fewer single men from Mexico and more children and families from Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador—in other words, an ever-wider range of desperate victims of drug gangs and American policies that have long supported corrupt regimes.

      This change has presented people like Luck with problems they insist are merely logistical: aging Border Patrol stations, he told us at the Expo, “are not luxurious in any way, and they were never intended to handle families and children.” The solution, according to Vitiello, is “continued capital investment” in those facilities, as well as the cars and trucks necessary to patrol the border region and transport those apprehended from CBP custody to ICE detention centers, the IT necessary to sift through vast amounts of data accumulated through untold surveillance methods, and all of “the systems by which we do our work.”

      Neither Vitiello nor Luck would consider whether those systems—wherein thousands of children, ostensibly under the federal government’s care, have been sexually abused and five, from December through May of this year, have died—ought to be questioned. Both laughed off calls from migrant justice organizers, activists, and politicians to abolish ICE. “The concept of the Department of Homeland Security—and ICE as an agency within it—was designed for us to learn the lessons from 9/11,” Vitiello said. “Those needs still exist in this society. We’re gonna do our part.” DHS officials have even considered holding migrant children at Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, according to the New York Times, where a new $23 million “contingency mass migration complex” is being built. The complex, which is to be completed by the end of the year, will have a capacity of thirteen thousand.

      Violence is the Point

      The existence of ICE may be a consequence of 9/11, but the first sections of fencing along the U.S.-Mexico border—originally to contain livestock—went up in 1909 through 1911. In 1945, in response to a shift in border crossings from Texas to California, the U.S. Border Patrol and the Immigration and Naturalization Service recycled fencing wire and posts from internment camps in Crystal City, Texas, where more than a hundred thousand Japanese Americans had been imprisoned during World War II. “Although the INS could not erect a continuous line of fence along the border, they hoped that strategic placement of the fence would ‘compel persons seeking to enter the United States illegally to attempt to go around the ends of the fence,’” historian Kelly Lytle Hernández, quoting from government documents, writes in Migra! A History of the U.S. Border Patrol. “What lay at the end of the fences and canals were desert lands and mountains extremely dangerous to cross without guidance or sufficient water. The fences, therefore, discouraged illegal immigration by exposing undocumented border crossers to the dangers of daytime dehydration and nighttime hypothermia.”

      Apprehension and deportation tactics continued to escalate in the years following World War II—including Operation Wetback, the infamous (and heavily propagandized) mass-deportation campaign of 1954—but the modern, militarized border era was greatly boosted by Bill Clinton. It was during Clinton’s first administration that Border Patrol released its “Strategic Plan: 1994 and Beyond,” which introduced the idea of “prevention through deterrence,” a theory of border policing that built on the logic of the original wall and hinges upon increasing the “cost” of migration “to the point that many will consider it futile to continue to attempt illegal entry.” With the Strategic Plan, the agency was requesting more money, officers, and equipment in order to “enhance national security and safeguard our immigration heritage.”

      The plan also noted that “a strong interior enforcement posture works well for border control,” and in 1996, amid a flurry of legislation targeting people of color and the poor, Congress passed the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act, which empowered the federal government to deport more people more quickly and made it nearly impossible for undocumented immigrants to obtain legal status. “Before 1996, internal enforcement activities had not played a very significant role in immigration enforcement,” the sociologists Douglas Massey and Karen A. Pren wrote in 2012. “Afterward these activities rose to levels not seen since the deportation campaigns of the Great Depression.” With the passage of the Patriot Act in 2001 and the creation of the Department of Homeland Security and Immigration and Customs Enforcement in 2002, immigration was further securitized and criminalized, paving the way for an explosion in border policing technology that has further aligned the state with the defense and security industry. And at least one of Border Patrol’s “key assumptions,” explicitly stated in the 1994 strategy document, has borne out: “Violence will increase as effects of strategy are felt.”

      What this phrasing obscures, however, is that violence is the border strategy. In practice, what “prevention through deterrence” has meant is forcing migrants to cross the U.S.-Mexico border in the desert, putting already vulnerable people at even greater risk. Closing urban points of entry, for example, or making asylum-seekers wait indefinitely in Mexico while their claims are processed, pushes migrants into remote areas where there is a higher likelihood they will suffer injury and death, as in the case of seven-year-old Jakil Caal Maquin, who died of dehydration and shock after being taken into CBP custody in December. (A spokesperson for CBP, in an email response, deflected questions about whether the agency considers children dying in its custody a deterrent.) Maquin is one of many thousands who have died attempting to cross into the United States: the most conservative estimate comes from CBP itself, which has recovered the remains of 7,505 people from its southwest border sectors between 1998 and 2018. This figure accounts for neither those who die on the Mexican side of the border, nor those whose bodies remain lost to the desert.

      Draconian immigration policing causes migrants to resort to smugglers and traffickers, creating the conditions for their exploitation by cartels and other violent actors and increasing the likelihood that they will be kidnapped, coerced, or extorted. As a result, some migrants have sought the safety of collective action in the form of the “caravan” or “exodus,” which has then led the U.S. media and immigration enforcement agencies to justify further militarization of the border. Indeed, in his keynote address at the Expo, Luck described “the emerging prevalence of large groups of one hundred people or more” as “troubling and especially dangerous.” Later, a sales representative for the gun manufacturer Glock very confidently explained to me that this was because agents of al-Shabaab, the al-Qaeda affiliate in Somalia, were embedded with the caravans.

      Branding the Border

      Unsurprisingly, caravans came up frequently at the Border Security Expo. (An ICE spokesperson would later decline to explain what specific threat they pose to national security, instead citing general statistics about the terrorist watchlist, “special interest aliens,” and “suspicious travel patterns.”) During his own keynote speech, Vitiello described how ICE, and specifically its subcomponent Homeland Security Investigations, had deployed surveillance and intelligence-gathering techniques to monitor the progress of caravans toward the border. “When these caravans have come, we’ve had trained, vetted individuals on the ground in those countries reporting in real time what they were seeing: who the organizers were, how they were being funded,” he said, before going on an astonishing tangent:

      That’s the kind of capability that also does amazing things to protecting brands, property rights, economic security. Think about it. If you start a company, introduce a product that’s innovative, there are people in the world who can take that, deconstruct it, and create their own version of it and sell it as yours. All the sweat that went into whatever that product was, to build your brand, they’ll take it away and slap it on some substandard product. It’s not good for consumers, it’s not good for public safety, and it’s certainly an economic drain on the country. That’s part of the mission.

      That the then–acting director of ICE, the germ-cell of fascism in the bourgeois American state, would admit that an important part of his agency’s mission is the protection of private property is a testament to the Trump administration’s commitment to saying the quiet part out loud.

      In fact, brands and private industry had pride of place at the Border Security Expo. A memorial ceremony for men and women of Border Patrol who have been killed in the line of duty was sponsored by Sava Solutions, an IT firm that has been awarded at least $482 million in federal contracts since 2008. Sava, whose president spent twenty-four years with the DEA and whose director of business development spent twenty with the FBI, was just one of the scores of firms in attendance at the Expo, each hoping to persuade the bureaucrats in charge of acquiring new gear for border security agencies that their drones, their facial recognition technology, their “smart” fences were the best of the bunch. Corporate sponsors included familiar names like Verizon and Motorola, and other less well-known ones, like Elbit Systems of America, a subsidiary of Israel’s largest private defense contractor, as well as a handful of IT firms with aggressive slogans like “Ever Vigilant” (CACI), “Securing the Future” (ManTech), and “Securing Your Tomorrow” (Unisys).

      The presence of these firms—and indeed the very existence of the Expo—underscores an important truth that anyone attempting to understand immigration politics must reckon with: border security is big business. The “homeland security and emergency management market,” driven by “increasing terrorist threats and biohazard attacks and occurrence of unpredictable natural disasters,” is projected to grow to more than $742 billion by 2023 from $557 billion in 2018, one financial analysis has found. In the coming decades, as more people are displaced by climate catastrophe and economic crises—estimates vary between 150 million and 1 billion by 2050—the industry dedicated to policing the vulnerable stands to profit enormously. By 2013, the United States was already spending more on federal immigration enforcement than all other federal law enforcement agencies combined, including the FBI and DEA; ICE’s budget has doubled since its inception in 2003, while CBP’s has nearly tripled. Between 1993 and 2018, the number of Border Patrol agents grew from 4,139 to 19,555. And year after year, Democrats and Republicans alike have been happy to fuel an ever more high-tech deportation machine. “Congress has given us a lot of money in technology,” Luck told reporters after his keynote speech. “They’ve given us over what we’ve asked for in technology!”

      “As all of this rhetoric around security has increased, so has the impetus to give them more weapons and more tools and more gadgets,” Jacinta Gonzalez, a senior campaign organizer with Mijente, a national network of migrant justice activists, told me. “That’s also where the profiteering comes in.” She continued: “Industries understand what’s good for business and adapt themselves to what they see is happening. If they see an administration coming into power that is pro-militarization, anti-immigrant, pro-police, anti-communities of color, then that’s going to shape where they put their money.”

      By way of example, Gonzalez pointed to Silicon Valley billionaire Peter Thiel, who spent $1.25 million supporting Trump’s 2016 election campaign and followed that up last year by donating $1 million to the Club for Growth—a far-right libertarian organization founded by Heritage Foundation fellow and one-time Federal Reserve Board prospect Stephen Moore—as well as about $350,000 to the Republican National Committee and other GOP groups. ICE has awarded Palantir, the $20 billion surveillance firm founded by Thiel, several contracts worth tens of millions of dollars to manage its data streams—a partnership the agency considers “mission critical,” according to documents reviewed by The Intercept. Palantir, in turn, runs on Amazon Web Services, the cloud computing service provided by the world’s most valuable public company, which is itself a key contractor in managing the Department of Homeland Security’s $6.8 billion IT portfolio.

      Meanwhile, former DHS secretary John Kelly, who was Trump’s chief of staff when the administration enacted its “zero-tolerance” border policy, has joined the board of Caliburn International—parent organization of the only for-profit company operating shelters for migrant children. “Border enforcement and immigration policy,” Caliburn reported in an SEC filing last year, “is driving significant growth.” As Harsha Walia writes in Undoing Border Imperialism, “the state and capitalism are again in mutual alliance.”

      Triumph of the Techno-Nativists

      At one point during the Expo, between speeches, I stopped by a booth for Network Integrity Systems, a security firm that had set up a demonstration of its Sentinel™ Perimeter Intrusion Detection System. A sales representative stuck out his hand and introduced himself, eager to explain how his employer’s fiber optic motion sensors could be used at the border, or—he paused to correct himself—“any kind of perimeter.” He invited me to step inside the space that his coworkers had built, starting to say “cage” but then correcting himself, again, to say “small enclosure.” (It was literally a cage.) If I could get out, climbing over the fencing, without triggering the alarm, I would win a $500 Amazon gift card. I did not succeed.

      Overwhelmingly, the vendors in attendance at the Expo were there to promote this kind of technology: not concrete and steel, but motion sensors, high-powered cameras, and drones. Customs and Border Patrol’s chief operating officer John Sanders—whose biography on the CBP website describes him as a “seasoned entrepreneur and innovator” who has “served on the Board of Directors for several leading providers of contraband detection, geospatial intelligence, and data analytics solutions”—concluded his address by bestowing on CBP the highest compliment he could muster: declaring the agency comparable “to any start-up.” Rhetoric like Sanders’s, ubiquitous at the Expo, renders the border both bureaucratic and boring: a problem to be solved with some algorithmic mixture of brutality and Big Data. The future of border security, as shaped by the material interests that benefit from border securitization, is not a wall of the sort imagined by President Trump, but a “smart” wall.

      High-ranking Democrats—leaders in the second party of capital—and Republicans from the border region have championed this compromise. During the 2018-2019 government shutdown, House Homeland Security Committee Chairman Bennie Thompson told reporters that Democrats would appropriate $5.7 billion for “border security,” so long as that did not include a wall of Trump’s description. “Walls are primitive. What we need to do is have border security,” House Majority Whip Jim Clyburn said in January. He later expanded to CNN: “I’ve said that we ought to have a smart wall. I defined that as a wall using drones to make it too high to get over, using x-ray equipment to make it too wide to get around, and using scanners to go deep enough not to be able to tunnel under it. To me, that would be a smart thing to do.”

      Even the social democratic vision of Senator Bernie Sanders stops short at the border. “If you open the borders, my God, there’s a lot of poverty in this world, and you’re going to have people from all over the world,” he told Iowa voters in early April, “and I don’t think that’s something that we can do at this point.” Over a week later, during a Fox News town hall with Pennsylvania voters, he recommitted: “We need border security. Of course we do. Who argues with that? That goes without saying.”

      To the extent that Trump’s rhetoric, his administration’s immigration policies, and the enforcement agencies’ practices have made the “border crisis” more visible than ever before, they’ve done so on terms that most Democrats and liberals fundamentally agree with: immigration must be controlled and policed; the border must be enforced. One need look no further than the high priest of sensible centrism, Thomas Friedman, whose major complaint about Trump’s immigration politics is that he is “wasting” the crisis—an allusion to Rahm Emanuel’s now-clichéd remark that “you never want a serious crisis to go to waste.” (Frequently stripped of context, it is worth remembering that Emanuel made this comment in the throes of the 2008 financial meltdown, at the Wall Street Journal’s CEO Council, shortly following President Obama’s election.) “Regarding the border, the right place for Democrats to be is for a high wall with a big gate,” Friedman wrote in November of 2018. A few months later, a tour led by Border Patrol agents of the San Ysidro port of entry in San Diego left Friedman “more certain than ever that we have a real immigration crisis and that the solution is a high wall with a big gate—but a smart gate.”

      As reasonable as this might sound to anxious New York Times readers looking for what passes as humanitarian thinking in James Bennet’s opinion pages, the horror of Friedman’s logic eventually reveals itself when he considers who might pass through the big, smart gate in the high, high wall: “those who deserve asylum” and “a steady flow of legal, high-energy, and high-I.Q. immigrants.” Friedman’s tortured hypothetical shows us who he considers to be acceptable subjects of deportation and deprivation: the poor, the lazy, and the stupid. This is corporate-sponsored, state-sanctioned eugenics: the nativism of technocrats.

      The vision of a hermetically sealed border being sold, in different ways, by Trump and his allies, by Democrats, and by the Border Security Expo is in reality a selectively permeable one that strictly regulates the movement of migrant labor while allowing for the unimpeded flow of capital. Immigrants in the United States, regardless of their legal status, are caught between two factions of the capitalist class, each of which seek their immiseration: the citrus farmers, construction firms, and meat packing plants that benefit from an underclass of unorganized and impoverished workers, and the defense and security firms that keep them in a state of constant criminality and deportability.

      You could even argue that nobody in a position of power really wants a literal wall. Even before taking office, Trump himself knew he could only go so far. “We’re going to do a wall,” he said on the campaign trail in 2015. However: “We’re going to have a big, fat beautiful door on the wall.” In January 2019, speaking to the American Farm Bureau Association, Trump acknowledged the necessity of a mechanism allowing seasonal farmworkers from Mexico to cross the border, actually promising to loosen regulations on employers who rely on temporary migrant labor. “It’s going to be easier for them to get in than what they have to go through now,” he said, “I know a lot about the farming world.”

      At bottom, there is little material difference between this and what Friedman imagines to be the smarter, more humane approach. While establishment liberals would no doubt prefer that immigration enforcement be undertaken quietly, quickly, and efficiently, they have no categorical objection to the idea that noncitizens should enjoy fewer rights than citizens or be subject to different standards of due process (standards that are already applied in deeply inequitable fashion).

      As the smorgasbord of technologies and services so garishly on display at the Border Security Expo attests, maintaining the contradiction between citizens and noncitizens (or between the imperial core and the colonized periphery) requires an ever-expanding security apparatus, which itself becomes a source of ever-expanding profit. The border, shaped by centuries of bourgeois interests and the genocidal machinations of the settler-colonial nation-state, constantly generates fresh crises on which the immigration-industrial complex feeds. In other words, there is not a crisis at the border; the border is the crisis.

      CBP has recently allowed Anduril, a start-up founded by one of Peter Thiel’s mentees, Palmer Luckey, to begin testing its artificial intelligence-powered surveillance towers and drones in Texas and California. Sam Ecker, an Anduril engineer, expounded on the benefits of such technology at the Expo. “A tower doesn’t get tired. It doesn’t care about being in the middle of the desert or a river around the clock,” he told me. “We just let the computers do what they do best.”

  • Guzzle, PHP HTTP client — Guzzle Documentation

    Guzzle is a PHP HTTP client that makes it easy to send HTTP requests and trivial to integrate with web services.
    – Simple interface for building query strings, POST requests, streaming large uploads, streaming large downloads, using HTTP cookies, uploading JSON data, etc...
    – Can send both synchronous and asynchronous requests using the same interface.
    – Abstracts away the underlying HTTP transport, allowing you to write environment and transport agnostic code; i.e., no hard dependency on cURL, PHP streams, sockets, or non-blocking event loops.

    (en relation avec le ticket de SPIP)

    #guzzle #PHP #HTTP #API #curl #SPIP

  • #aws Landing Zone Solution -Accelerating #cloud Adoption

    Amazon Web Services (AWS) is an extensive cloud service platform by Amazon that extends database storage, computing power, content delivery, etc. helping businesses grow. AWS assist companies with a myriad of tasks including data processing, warehousing, game development and a lot more. Owing to its unique offering, the popularity of AWS continues to grow as it generated net sales revenue of a whopping USD 232 Billion in the year 2018.Challenges of Creating AWS AccountCreating an AWS account is a strenuous task to accomplish as it involves multiple steps that require manual authorization. Additionally, there are various other factors to take into consideration like the requirement of IAM (Identity and Access Management) account, logging accounts, handling of cross-account permissions (...)

    #landingzone #devops #cloud-services

  • Your Kid Can Code a Fruit Detector with This MIT App Inventor #aws #ai Services Extension

    I am using Amazon Web Services (AWS) for more than 2 years. I have always been thinking about finding ways for enabling anyone to use AWS cloud services. Especially I am trying to encourage kids to learn simple AI services that AWS provides.This easy to use AI services includes a chat-bot generation service called Amazon Lex, a text-to-speech service called Amazon Polly, an image and video recognition service called Amazon Rekognition and a language translation service called Amazon Translate.Visual block based programming tools are an important tool for teaching coding to kids. One of the most popular block based programming environment is Scratch. Scratch is a joint project between Google and MIT Media Lab and based on a Google project called Blockly, declared in 2012.In my previous (...)

    #amazon-translate #amazon-rekognition #amazon-polly

  • Is Being VC Backed #startup Really Compatible with Open Source Business Models?

    After closing their latest funding round, Redis Labs (circa $146 millions raised to date) announced new licence changes (again) to their Redis Modules. Before that we had high profile startups Confluent (behind Apache Kafka with circa $205m raised to date) and MongoDB Inc (now a public company) change their licences. These licence changes are according to their executives necessary to protect against what they perceive as unfair practices from big cloud vendors (Amazon Web Services often cited as biggest culprit) — who do not make significant contributions (or none at all!) to open source projects and yet fork projects to create competing hosted services. The following are some of the quotes from Redis Labs and Confluent executives that echo the sentiment of unfairness towards the big (...)

    #open-source #silicon-valley #aws #venture-capital

  • Build your own #oauth2 Server in #go

    Build your Own OAuth2 Server in GoHello, in today’s article, I will show you how you can build your own OAuth2 server just like google, facebook, github etc.This will be very helpful if you want to build a production ready public or private API. So let’s get started.What is OAuth2?Open Authorization Version 2.0 is known as OAuth2. It’s one kind of protocol or framework to secure RESTful Web Services. OAuth2 is very powerful. Now a days, majority of the REST API are protected with OAuth2 due to it’s rock solid security.OAuth2 has two parts01. Client02. ServerOAuth2 ClientIf you’re familiar with this screen, you know what I’m talking about. Anyway, Let me explain the story behind the image:You’re building a user facing application that works with user’s github repositories. For example: CI tools (...)

    #golang #oauth #oauth2-server-in-go

  • Amazon Web Services SDK

    Check if the string contains itself V3062 An object ‘attributeName’ is used as an argument to its own method. Consider checking the first actual argument of the ‘Contains’ method. AWSSDK.MobileAnalytics.Net45 CustomEvent.cs 261 /// /// Dictionary that stores attribute for this event only. /// private Dictionary _attributes = new Dictionary(); /// /// Gets the attribute. /// … Continue reading Amazon Web Services SDK

  • The Great #serverless Cost Debate(Serverless! = Costless)

    Source: skitterphoto.comIf you’re worried about switching to a serverless framework being too expensive for your business, you’re not alone. Total spending on cloud services will top $411 billion by 2020. The good news is there are many ways to track and lower the costs of your serverless operation without slowing down your business.So what is AWS Lambda and how can it help your business? Find out more by reading these frequently asked questions.Working with AmazonAWS meaning Amazon Web Services is Amazon’s cloud computing business. AWS serverless is just going into its fifth year in use.Because outsourcing computing power is still so new, it still has many tech workers asking, “What is serverless?” How could using someone else’s servers be efficient or cost effective? Let’s talk about the (...)

    #serverless-costless #aws-lambda #analysis #serverless-cost-debate

  • Use a #yubikey as a #mfa device to replace Google Authenticator

    Yep, just a door lock.DISCLAIMERU2F should be used when possible because it is significantly safer than any other alternative. The only reason I’m using TOTP rather than U2F, is because Amazon Web Services does not support 2 MFA devices attached to the same user, and their AWS CLI does not support U2F yet.Basically, you can use U2F to access the web console, but forget about using U2F when running CLI commands in the terminal (and for me, this is not acceptable).What is a YubiKeyThe YubiKey is a small hardware authentication device, created by Yubico, that supports a wide range of authentication protocols.It’s a USB key (some versions support USB-A, some USB-C and the latest versions even support NFC) with a LED and a button.NOTE: Seems like the YubiKey 4 with firmwares between 4.2.6 and (...)

    #otp #security #2fa

  • Top 5 Amazon Web Services or #aws Courses to Learn Online — FREE and Best of Lot

    Top 5 Amazon Web Services or AWS Courses to Learn Online — FREE and Best of LotA list of some free AWS courses to learn Amazon Web Services online at your own paceHello guys, if you want to learn Amazon Web Services, popularly known as AWS and looking for some awesome resources e.g. books, courses, and tutorials then you have come to the right place.In this article, I am going to share some of the best Amazon Web Services or AWS courses which will help you to learn this revolutionary and valuable technology free of cost.Unlike other free courses, these are genuine free AWS courses which are made free by their authors and instructors for the promotional and educational purpose.You just need to enroll with them and then you can learn AWS at any time, at any place and on your own schedule.But, (...)

    #tech #programming #web-development #cloud-computing

  • How to Ensure #hipaa Compliance Using #aws

    HIPAA is the acronym for the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996. This act was created by the United States Congress in 1966, and is an amendment of both the Public Health Service Act (PHSA) and the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA). It is amended into the Internal Receive Code of 1996, and seeks to protect the health insurance coverage of individuals and groups.Image Credit: Amazon Web ServicesYou have 5 titles in HIPAA Compliance, of which Title-II is most applicable for healthcare app development with respect to patient data privacy and preventing healthcare fraud. Title-II HIPAA Compliance has AS or Administrative Simplification provision where national standards are set for electronic health care transactions and health insurance plans, and (...)

    #amazon-web-services #hipaa-compliance #cloud-services

  • #java Template Engines

    IntroductionAll web applications display dynamic information that is fetched from the computer resources that support the web application (in contrast to web sites, which may only display static content). In many cases a web application is supported by a web server like Tomcat or by “serverless” components like Amazon Web Services (AWS) Lambda. To simplify the discussion in this article, the back end system will be referred to as a web server.When the web application page is displayed, it will contain the dynamic information fetched from the web server. There are two ways that dynamic information from the server can be included in the web page:JavaScript running on the client (the web browser) can fetch the data from the server and insert the data into the page by modifying the in-memory (...)

    #spring-boot #java-template-engines #java-template #web-development

  • Amazon, AI and Medical Records: Do the Benefits Outweigh the Risks? - Knowledge Wharton

    Last month, Amazon unveiled a service based on AI and machine-learning technology that could comb through patient medical records and extract valuable insights. It was seen as a game changer that could alleviate the administrative burden of doctors, introduce new treatments, empower patients and potentially lower health care costs. But it also carries risks to patient data privacy that calls for appropriate regulation, according to Wharton and other experts.

    Branded Comprehend Medical, the Amazon Web Services offering aims “to understand and analyze the information that is often trapped in free-form, unstructured medical text, such as hospital admission notes or patient medical histories.” Essentially, it is a natural language processing service that pores through medical text for insights into disease conditions, medications and treatment outcomes from patient notes and other electronic health records.

    The new service is Amazon’s latest foray into the health care sector. In June, the company paid $1 billion to buy online pharmacy PillPack, a Boston-based startup that specializes in packing monthly supplies of medicines to chronically ill patients. In January, Amazon teamed up with Berkshire Hathaway and JPMorgan Chase to form a health care alliance that aims to lower costs and improve the quality of medical care for their employees.

    “Health care, like everything else, is becoming more of an information-based industry, and data is the gold standard — and Amazon knows as well as anyone how to handle and analyze data,” said Robert Field, Wharton lecturer in health care management who is also professor of health management and policy at Drexel University. “It’s a $3.5 trillion industry and 18% of our economy, so who wouldn’t want a piece of that?”

    AI offers “enormous” promise when it comes to bringing in new and improved treatments for patient conditions, such as in the area of radiology, added Hempstead. Machine learning also potentially enables the continual improvement of treatment models, such as identifying people who could participate in clinical trials. Moreover, Amazon’s service could “empower a consumer to be more in charge of their own health and maybe be more active consumer of medical services that might be beneficial to their health,” she said.

    On the flip side, it also could enable insurers to refuse to enroll patients that they might see as too risky, Hempstead said. Insurers are already accessing medical data and using technology in pricing their products for specific markets, and the Amazon service might make it easier for them to have access to such data, she noted.

    #Santé_publique #Données_médicales #Amazon #Intelligence_artificielle

  • Will #cisco Be the Next Roadkill for #aws?

    I’m not keeping very close track, but it feels like months since Amazon Web Services (AWS) most recently turned a major tech industry upside down. But with all their resources and market power, I’m sure there’s always something interesting cooking in the kitchens of wherever Amazon’s headquarters happens to be right now.So let me throw my purely speculative prediction into the silence. As I describe in my Learn AWS in a Month of Lunches book, AWS has happily replaced your server room with EC2, your SAN and NAS with S3, your data warehousing with Redshift, and your database with RDS (and Aurora). They’ve also invented entirely new deployment models: politely informing you, for instance, that you simply have to serve your mobile apps via serverless functions (Lambda).So what’s next? Well how (...)

    #cloud-computing #networking #routing

  • How to Figure Out #aws Pricing for a Mobile Application

    There are lots of reasons why businesses choose Amazon Web Services cloud for their apps. Companies get storage, analytics, computing, and many other services using one global platform. AWS is taking good care of its clients, lowering tech costs and speeding up the development process. What else can a company owner ask for? You must be thinking about transparent pricing options at the moment.In this article, we’re reviewing AWS features specifically for mobile applications, their pricing, and free trial options. And finally, we’re going to figure out what an AWS calculator is and how it can help you in your work.Benefits of Using AWS for Your Mobile ApplicationDespite the complexity of AWS pricing system, we have to mention its three most important benefits that can help your business (...)

    #mobile-app-development #amazon-web-services #aws-lambda

  • Authentication with #aws Cognito

    Authentication is the gateway for your application (iron gate by A. Gaudi)IntroductionThe login page is the fist thing that most web application users encounter. Account creation is the gateway through which all new application users pass through before they can use a web application. This means that authentication (account creation, login and user data management) is a critical component for most web applications.This article discusses the Amazon Web Services (AWS) Cognito service and how it can be used to build server side authentication for a #java web application constructed using the Spring framework.The Java source code for the demonstration application described in this article is available on GitHub, under the Apache 2 software license.Creating strong authentication software that (...)

    #aws-cognito #spring-framework #aws-authentication

  • Should You Get an #aws Certification?

    The short answer, if you’re an IT worker who comes into contact with cloud computing at least, is simple.Yes.Don’t want to take my word for it? Thankfully, you needn’t — it’s all there in the numbers. #amazon commands a 33% share of the cloud computing market — 3x morethan the next biggest competitor, Microsoft (11%). On top of that, AWS is currently achieving year-on-year growth of 43%, meaning that they’re likely to not just maintain, but enlarge this market share into the future.Numbers tell one side of the story, but what’s the state of play in the real world? To find out exactly why achieving AWS (Amazon Web Services) certification is a wise move, and to learn how to get the most out of your certification experience, we spoke to three experts with their fingers very much in the cloud computing (...)

    #tech-certification #aws-certification #get-aws-certification

  • How to create a headless #drupal site

    ADCI SolutionsIn my previous article “RESTful Web Services in Drupal 8: quick start guide” I just mentioned some possibilities that arise from a decoupled Drupal approach. One of them is an opportunity to build a Drupal site with separate back-end and front-end. Why headless Drupal became a trend in a few past years? First of all, it makes a developer’s life easier: back-end and front-end teams can work separately from each other. Another advantage is an ability to serve content on the growing numbers of websites, back-end systems, different types of applications and multiple devices, such as IoT devices, wearables and more. All of these abilities are based on the web services principles.That’s where our knowledge of a RESTful API from the previous article will come in handy. In this (...)

    #react #web-development #headless-drupal-site #javascript

  • RESTful Web Services in #drupal 8 quick start guide

    By ADCI SolutionsHeadless Drupal is one of the most exciting topics that captured many minds in the last few years. It’s a phenomenon closely related to RESTful #api (also known as web services) — another popular term. It gives a wide range of new abilities for us as developers. We will look under the hood of the web services, how they work and how they can be used, go through the list of available tools. At the end of the article, we will use Drupal 8 Core #rest API to create a node. So let’s try to deal with all those fancy words and determine how it can help us to make our sites better.What is a Web Service?A little bit about the Internet of things, mobile apps and other stuffAssume you have two computers connected to the Internet, both are on the different continents. To communicate with (...)

    #mobile-app-development #web-development

  • #graphql APIs for backend devs

    From SOAP to #rest and probably GraphQLDuring my software development career I built and consumed a lot of web services. Usually they were consumed from server side apps built with .NET, One of the biggest project I have worked on was a platform where we merged a lot of data from different sources and displayed the results to the user on a web interface(yes, I was working on some kind of broker firm at that point).SOAP Web Services — with XSDAlmost all of those web endpoints were using SOAP and they were pretty easy to query because we always got a schema (an XSD) file from our partner. Receiving the XSD is a very good start because the client is generated for you by the tools. On the other hand it is not the best solution, sometimes we had to manually change the generated code because of the (...)

    #dotnet #web-development #api

  • Mock it until you have it

    Photo by rawpixel on UnsplashMock the HTTP and HTTPS websites and REST APIs so that you don’t depend on these services or internet while working on any related #development or automated testing.When developing a new client facing application either desktop, web or mobile, on of the biggest challenge is availability of right web services of API which might be part of your own server or some other third party web services if you are integrating your application to third party system. This problem also arises if application and the web services which are required to be consumed are being developed in parallel due to unavoidable situations.This problem is not just limited to development, its also a challenge in automated/manual testing. Any testing is only useful if its reliable. Having this (...)

    #automation-testing #api-integration #mobile-app-development #mocking

  • How a Pentagon Contract Sparked a Cloud War - Defense One

    The Joint Enterprise Defense Infrastructure [#JEDI] contract—perhaps worth as much as $10 billion over 10 years—will put a commercial company in charge of hosting and distributing mission-critical workloads and classified military secrets to warfighters around the globe.

    Many experts believe #Amazon Web Services is considered the odds-on favorite to win JEDI because it already hosts classified data, yet public jockeying for the department’s business spotlights a larger battle among industry for dominion over a growing federal cloud market.

    #google #silicon_valley #Pentagone

  • The final frontier that #amazon will disrupt

    Amazon is a company that offers everything from retail to web services to digital media. It succeeds because of its leadership principles and strategy — which Jeff Bezos drew on a napkin:For books (Amazon’s first industry), this strategy translates to:Lower cost structure due to no physical stores.Lower prices due to cost savings.Better customer experience due to lower prices and faster delivery.More customer traffic due to better customer experience.More sellers (publishers, writers) due to more customers.Better selection of books due to more publishers and writers.17 years ago, Jeff started a #space company called Blue Origin. The vision:A trillion humans in the solar system.Watching a recent interview with Jeff, it’s clear that space is the final industry that he wants to disrupt. Today, most (...)

    #product-management #product #tech

  • #aws #lambda Functions in #java

    Amazon Web ServicesIn the past supporting a web application required purchasing one or more computer systems to act as web servers. Additional hardware might include a load balancer to distribute web application load between the web servers and a database server. These computer systems would need to be housed in an air conditioned facility. An alarm system and other security measures would be needed to provide physical security. Enough Internet bandwidth would need to be purchased to support anticipated peak usage.In addition to the capital costs for computer hardware and facilities, staff would be needed to manage the computer systems.Amazon Web Services (AWS) has dramatically reduced the costs of web applications. There is no upfront cost for computing, internet bandwidth and database (...)

    #aws-lambda-functions #aws-lambda-in-java

  • Hydra : Hypermedia-Driven Web APIs

    À utiliser avec JSON-LD donc. Je garde pour plus tard… un jour où je devrais refaire une API…

    Hydra is an effort to simplify the development of interoperable, hypermedia-driven Web APIs. The two fundamental building blocks of Hydra are JSON‑LD and the Hydra Core Vocabulary.

    JSON‑LD is the serialization format used in the communication between the server and its clients. The Hydra Core Vocabulary represents the shared vocabulary between them. By specifying a number of concepts which are commonly used in Web APIs it can be used as the foundation to build Web services that share REST’s benefits in terms of loose coupling, maintainability, evolvability, and scalability. Furthermore it enables the creation of generic API clients instead of requiring specialized clients for every single API.

    #hydra #API #json-ld #spécification #développement #web #hyperliens