• Meaningful Connectivity — unlocking the full power of internet access - Alliance for Affordable Internet
    https://a4ai.org/meaningful-connectivity

    The meaningful connectivity standard is a tool to raise the bar for internet access and set more ambitious policy goals for digital development.

    1. Regular internet access > We benefit most from the internet when we can use it regularly. As our societies grow more digital and the internet is integrated into our daily lives, connecting occasionally is not enough.

    2. Daily access to the internet is the minimum we need to see real benefits for work, education and communication.

    3. An appropriate device > To experience the full power of the internet, we need the right device for the task at hand. A smartphone gives us the functionality to create and consume content in a way that basic phones don’t — and the portability to use the internet anywhere. Ideally we will have access to a range of device types.

    4. Enough data > While some people have unlimited data packages, others experience severe data scarcity, preventing them from doing certain online tasks or forcing them to wait until they can connect to public Wi-Fi.

    5. An unlimited broadband connection at home, or place of work or study gives us reliable internet access in our daily lives to use the full breadth of the internet’s potential.

    6. A fast connection > Our internet speeds make or break our online experience. We all know the frustration of a buffering movie or an unstable video call. And without fast speeds, services like telehealth are a non-starter.
    A 4G mobile connection is the minimum threshold that can give us the speeds we need for the experience we want.

    #internet #connectivité #fracture_numérique

  • Graines de Troc, une autre façon de s’échanger graines et savoir-faire
    http://grainesdetroc.fr/index.php

    C’est une plate-forme en ligne où chacun peut proposer et échanger ses graines, en constituant tous ensemble une collection commune. Chaque envoi de graines permet d’obtenir un jeton et donne la possibilité de choisir parmi les variétés de la collection.

    Le troc, c’est l’occasion de partager nos richesses et de faire l’expérience d’un autre mode d’échange.

    C’est celle aussi de sortir nos graines des placards. Toutes ont leur place : les variétés introuvables mais aussi les plus communes, les anciennes et pourquoi pas d’étonnantes inconnues.

    Avec ces gestes simples, vous défendez ce que nos ancêtres nous ont transmis. Nous soutenons les collectifs qui se mobilisent pour défendre la biodiversité cultivée, contre ceux qui confisquent le vivant et l’uniformisent à outrance.

    Il s’agit également de relayer les indispensables trocs locaux, et de les connecter dans une dimension un peu plus grande.

  • Khrys’coronalungo du lundi 1er juin 2020
    https://framablog.org/2020/06/01/khryscoronalungo-du-lundi-1er-juin-2020

    Comme chaque lundi, un coup d’œil dans le rétroviseur pour découvrir les informations que vous avez peut-être ratées la semaine dernière. Brave New World Covid-19 : les (très) bonnes recettes de la Nouvelle-Zélande pour maîtriser le virus – Le Parisien (leparisien.fr) … Lire la suite­­

    #Claviers_invités #Internet_et_société #Libr'en_Vrac #Libre_Veille #Non_classé #GAFAM #Internet #Revue_de_web #Revue_hebdo #Surveillance #veille #webrevue
    https://aod-rfi.akamaized.net/rfi/francais/audio/modules/actu/202005/Atelier_medias_23052020_Olivier-Tesquet.mp3

  • Comment j’ai sauvegardé « mon Web » sur un disque dur. – Graphisme & interactivité
    https://graphism.fr/comment-jai-sauvegarde-mon-web-sur-un-disque-dur

    Au mois de novembre dernier, j’ai entrepris de me créer une sauvegarde de « mon Web » en local, offline, sur un disque dur. Quand je dis mon web, ce sont les médias, outils, savoirs, vidéos, documents, etc. qui comptent pour moi et que j’utilise régulièrement.

    Dans cet article, je vais vous expliquer :

    pourquoi j’ai eu cette drôle d’idée
    ce que j’ai mis dans cette sauvegarde
    comment j’ai fait pour récupérer tout un tas de contenu en ligne
    ce qu’il me reste à faire
    J’ai appelé ça « BCKUP » pour Backup (sauvegarde), j’ai bricolé un logo en ASCII aussi.

    #internet #censure #blackout #diy #autonomie

  • How Bill Gates described the internet ’tidal wave’ in 1995
    https://www.cnbc.com/2020/05/26/how-bill-gates-described-the-internet-tidal-wave-in-1995.html

    As a pioneer of the personal computer revolution, Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates spent decades working toward his goal of putting “a computer on every desk and in every home.”

    So it’s no surprise that, by the mid-1990s, Gates was among the earliest tech CEOs to recognize the vast promise of the internet for reaching that goal and growing his business.

    Exactly 25 years ago today, on May 26, 1995, Gates wrote an internal memo to Microsoft’s executive staff and his direct reports to extol the benefits of expanding the company’s internet presence. Gates, who was still Microsoft’s CEO at that point, titled his memo, simply: “The Internet Tidal Wave.”

    “The Internet is a tidal wave. It changes the rules. It is an incredible opportunity as well as [an] incredible challenge,” Gates wrote in the memo.

    The point of the memo was that the internet was fast becoming a ubiquitous force that was already changing the way people and businesses communicated with each other on a daily basis.

    “I have gone through several stages of increasing my views of [the internet’s] importance,” Gates told Microsoft’s executive team in the memo, which WIRED magazine re-printed in full in 2010. “Now I assign the internet the highest level of importance.”

    Gates goes on to pinpoint his foremost goal for the memo: “I want to make clear that our focus on the Internet is crucial to every part of our business.”
    1:37
    Watch 33-year old Bill Gates explain his hiring process

    In the memo, Gates explained a bit about how he saw the internet being used in 1995, with both businesses and individuals publishing an increasing amount of content online, from personal websites to audio and video files.

    “Most important is that the Internet has bootstrapped itself as a place to publish content,” Gates wrote. “It has enough users that it is benefiting from the positive feedback loop of the more users it gets, the more content it gets, and the more content it gets, the more users it gets.”

    Gates saw that as one area where Microsoft would have to seize the available opportunities to serve its software customers. He notes that audio and video content could already be shared online in 1995, including in real-time with phone calls placed over the web and even early examples of online video-conferencing.

    While that technology provided exciting opportunities, Gates says, the audio and video quality of those products at the time was relatively poor. “Even at low resolution it is quite jerky,” he wrote of the video quality at that point, adding that he expected the technology to improve eventually “because the internet will get faster.”

    (And, he was certainly correct there, as video-conferencing software has been in increasingly high demand in recent years and is widely in use now by the millions of American workers currently working remotely due to coronavirus restrictions.)

    Gates writes that improving the internet infrastructure to offer higher quality audio and video content online would be essential to unlocking the promise of the internet. While Microsoft’s Office Suite and Windows software were already popular with computer users, Gates argued that they would need to be optimized for use online in order “to make sure you get your data as fast as you need it.”

    “Only with this improvement and an incredible amount of additional bandwidth and local connections will the internet infrastructure deliver all of the promises of the full blown Information Highway,” Gates wrote before adding, hopefully: “However, it is in the process of happening and all we can do is get involved and take advantage.”

    The then-CEO of Microsoft also pushed the need to beef up Microsoft’s own website, where he said customers and business clients should have access to a wealth of information about the company and its products.

    “Today, it’s quite random what is on the home page and the quality of information is very low,” Gates wrote in the 1995 memo. “If you look up speeches by me all you find are a few speeches over a year old. I believe the Internet will become our most important promotional vehicle and paying people to include links to our home pages will be a worthwhile way to spend advertising dollars.”

    Gates told his employees that Microsoft needed to “make sure that great information is available” on the company’s website, including using screenshots to show examples of the company’s software in action.

    “I think a measurable part of our ad budget should focus on the Internet,” he wrote. “Any information we create — white papers, data sheets, etc., should all be done on our Internet server.”

    After all, Gates argued, the internet offered Microsoft a great opportunity to communicate directly with the company’s customers and clients.

    “We have an opportunity to do a lot more with our resources. Information will be disseminated efficiently between us and our customers with less chance that the press miscommunicates our plans. Customers will come to our ‘home page’ in unbelievable numbers and find out everything we want them to know.”

    Of course, in 1995, it wasn’t just Gates’ fellow executives at Microsoft who needed convincing that the internet was the future. In November of that year, Gates went on CBS’s “Late Show with David Letterman” to promote his book “The Road Ahead” and Microsoft’s then-newly launched Internet Explorer, the company’s first web browser.

    Gates touted the possibilities of the World Wide Web in his interview with Letterman, calling the internet “a place where people can publish information. They can have their own homepage, companies are there, the latest information.”

    The comedian wasn’t particularly impressed. “I heard you could watch a live baseball game on the internet and I was like, does radio ring a bell?” Letterman joked.

    That same year, Gates gave an interview with GQ magazine’s UK edition in which he predicted that, within a decade, people would regularly watch movies, television shows and other entertainment online. In fact, 10 years later, in 2005, YouTube was founded, followed two years later by Netflix.

    However, Gates missed the mark when the interviewer suggested that the internet could also become rife with misinformation that could more easily spread to large groups of impressionable people. The Microsoft co-founder was dubious that the internet would become a repository for what might now be described as “fake news,” arguing that having more opportunities to verify information by authorities, such as experts or journalists, would balance out the spread of misinformation.

    #Histoire_numérique #Bill_Gates #Internet

  • Le #monde_d’après : les #États-Unis « courent au précipice », avertit Noam Chomsky
    https://www.lapresse.ca/international/etats-unis/202005/25/01-5274889-le-monde-dapres-les-etats-unis-courent-au-precipice-avertit-noam

    Q. : De nombreux pays utilisent la #technologie pour #surveiller leur population afin de combattre le #virus. Sommes-nous dans une nouvelle ère de #surveillance #numérique ?

    R : Il y a des sociétés qui développent des #technologies qui permettent aux employeurs de voir ce que leurs employés ont sur leur écran d’ordinateur, de vérifier vos frappes sur le clavier, et, si vous vous éloignez de votre écran, de comptabiliser ça comme une pause. L’« #internet_des_choses » est en marche. Tout objet domestique contient de l’électronique. C’est pratique […], mais l’information va aussi à Google, Facebook et au gouvernement. Cela donne un potentiel énorme de #contrôle et de #surveillance, et c’est déjà là, ce n’est pas dans le futur.

    Si on laisse ces géants technologiques contrôler notre vie, c’est ce qui se passera. Ça ressemblera à la Chine, où il y a des systèmes de +crédits+ sociaux, de la technologie de reconnaissance faciale partout. Tout ce que vous faites est surveillé. Vous traversez au mauvais endroit, vous pouvez perdre des crédits. 

    Ce n’est pas inévitable, de même que le changement climatique n’est pas inévitable. On peut laisser ça se produire, ou l’arrêter.

    #GAFA #silicon_valley

  • Condé Nast publie son glossaire en ligne de la mode durable


    De l’urgence climatique aux conséquences environnementales de la mode en passant par le rôle socio-économique du secteur et la durabilité des produits, un glossaire en langue anglaise entend clarifier les différents termes et enjeux de la mode responsable.

    Ce dernier a été mis sur pied par le groupe d’édition américain Condé Nast (Vogue, Vanity Fair, GQ...) en relation avec le Centre for Sustainable Fashion (CSF) et le London College of Fashion de l’Université des Arts de Londres (UAL), en relation avec chercheurs et universitaires du domaine. Scindé en quatre parties et dix sous-thèmes, le glossaire explique plus de 250 mots ou expressions liés à la mode durable.

Des notions d’empreinte carbone et dégradation des sols jusqu’au micro-plastiques et au #greenwashing, ces termes feront l’objet d’une mise à jour régulière de leur définition. A noter que ce glossaire va par ailleurs plus loin que les simples termes industriels, et rappelle ainsi la nature du protocole de #Kyoto, les problématiques d’appropriation culturelle et même les suicides d’exploitants agricoles dans le domaine du coton.

    “Nous pouvons créer une nouvelle ère de beauté et de style, fruit de notre compréhension et notre lien intime avec notre bien le plus précieux : la terre, le plus grand designer que le monde ait jamais connu" , indique dans le communiqué de lancement Dilys Williams, professeur de design de mode durable et directrice du Centre for Sustainable Fashion, qui a pris part au projet.

    https://www.condenast.com/glossary/social-cultural-and-economic-impacts-of-fashion
    The Sustainable Fashion Glossary is our long-standing commitment to drive change in the world of fashion, design, and style, bringing together academic rigour and Condé Nast’s diverse point of view.
    It has been created by Condé Nast, in partnership with the Centre for Sustainable Fashion, London College of Fashion, University of Arts London.
    https://images.ctfassets.net/hbmwn5pbkdff/2WqlvcBkNqUvlgIyak8UNf/12af7f8d9ec117a52d14d00c69e00afc/Social__cultural_and_economic_impacts_of_fashion_16_9__1_.jpeg

    GLOSSARY
    Animal welfare
    See also: Endangered species, Biodiversity, Respect, Well-being, Natural materials, Cashmere, Faux fur, Fish skin.

    Artisan
    See also: Heritage crafts, Human rights, Modern slavery, Living wage, Global inequality, Equality, Localism.

    Bonded labor
    See also: Cash crops, Farmer suicide, Child labor, Migrant workers, Poverty, Human rights.

    Cash crops
    See also: Genetically modified (GM) crops, Farmer suicide, Child labor, Bonded labor.

    Child labor
    See also: Hazardous chemicals, Health hazards, Farmer suicide, Migrant workers, Poverty, Modern slavery, Living wage, Human rights.

    Collective bargaining
    See also: Poverty, Living Wage, Migrant workers, Modern slavery, Offshore manufacture, Supply chain, Transparency, Zero-hour contract.

    Craft clusters
    See also: Artisan, Heritage crafts, Modern slavery, Localism, Inclusion, Respect, Reshoring, Prosperity, Well-being.

    Cultural appropriation
    See also: Globalization, Decolonization, Diversity, Inclusion, Respect, Localism.

    Endangered species
    See also: Ecosystem, Irreversibility, Animal welfare

    Farmer suicide
    See also: Water use, Water scarcity, Bonded labor, Social costs.

    Globalization
    See also: Global inequality, Externalized costs, Offshore manufacture, Decolonization, Interdependence, Cultural appropriation, Localism.

    Greenwashing
    See also: Growth, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Climate crisis, United Nations Fashion Industry Charter for Climate Action, Accountability, Corporate social responsibility (CSR), Respect.

    Heritage crafts
    See also: Artisan, Craft clusters, Offshore manufacture, Reshoring, Localism, Sufficiency.

    Human rights
    See also: Poverty, Modern slavery, Living wage, Child labor, Collective bargaining, Offshore manufacture, Supply chain, Transparency, Zero-hour contract, Global inequality.

    In-work poverty
    See Poverty.

    Living wage
    See also: Collective bargaining, Equality, Equity, Global inequality, Modern slavery, Migrant workers, Zero-hour contract.

    Migrant workers
    See also: Modern slavery, Human rights, Living wage, Zero-hour contract, Global inequality, Collective bargaining, Equality, Equity, Respect.

    Modern Slavery
    See also: Human rights, Equality, Equity, Living Wage, Zero-hour contract, Collective bargaining, Migrant workers, Supply chain.

    Offshore manufacture
    See also: Reshoring, Localism, Environmental costs, Social costs, Accountability, Corporate social responsibility (CSR), Global inequality, Human rights, Living wage, Poverty, Modern slavery, Water pollution, Health hazards.

    Poverty
    See also: Living Wage, Human rights, Equality, Equity, Modern slavery, Zero-hour contract, Collective bargaining, Migrant workers.

    Poverty wages
    See Poverty.

    Rana Plaza
    See also: Offshore manufacture, Supply chain, Transparency, Poverty, Collective bargaining, In-work poverty, Human rights, Social costs.

    Reshoring
    See also: Accountability, Environmental costs, Social costs, Distribution, Localism.

    Social costs
    See also: Environmental costs, Global inequality, Accountability, Corporate social responsibility (CSR), Offshore manufacture, Supply chain.

    Supply chain
    See also: Transparency, Accountability, Value chain, Reshoring, Distribution, Environmental costs, Social costs, Fast fashion, Human rights, Modern slavery.

    Traceability
    See also: Accountability, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), Offshore manufacture, Externalized costs, Respect, Child labor, Human rights, Living wage, Modern slavery, Reshoring.

    Transparency
    See also: Corporate social responsibility (CSR), Respect, Child labor, Human rights, Living wage, Modern slavery, Offshore manufacture, Reshoring.

    Vulnerable species
    See Endangered species.

    Zero-hour contract
    See also: Living wage, Human rights, Poverty, Collective bargaining, Migrant workers.

    #argumentaire #publicité #marketing #manipulation #internet #médias #presse #enfumage #vocabulaire #langue_de_bois #textile #vétements #mode

  • La newsletter #Afnic du mois de mai est en ligne sur http://afnic-media.fr/newsletter/20200519.html

    Recevez directement les prochains numéros en vous abonnant ici https://www.afnic.fr/fr/ressources/newsletter-afnic-36.html #PointFR #Internet #Web #France

    May issue of the #Afnic newsletter is out and available on http://afnic-media.fr/newsletter/20200519-english.html

    Get the next ones directly in your mailbox by subscribing here http://afnic-media.fr/newsletter/20200519-english.html #DotFR #Web #Internet #ccTLDs

  • Khrys’coronalungo du lundi 18 mai 2020
    https://framablog.org/2020/05/18/khryscoronalungo-du-lundi-18-mai-2020

    Comme chaque lundi, un coup d’œil dans le rétroviseur pour découvrir les informations que vous avez peut-être ratées la semaine dernière. Brave New World Le gouvernement australien publie le code source pour Android et iOS de l’application CovidSafe (developpez.com) Le … Lire la suite­­

    #Claviers_invités #Internet_et_société #Libr'en_Vrac #Libre_Veille #Non_classé #GAFAM #Internet #Revue_de_web #Revue_hebdo #Surveillance #veille #webrevue

  • Haine en ligne : l’Assemblée nationale adopte la loi Avia, critiquée jusqu’à la fin
    https://www.lesechos.fr/tech-medias/hightech/haine-en-ligne-lassemblee-nationale-examine-la-loi-avia-critiquee-jusqua-la

    Clap de fin pour la proposition de loi Avia. Après un an de va-et-vient parlementaire et une pluie de critiques émises par des acteurs aussi divers que le Sénat, la Commission européenne, les géants du numérique et même certaines associations LGBT, l’Assemblée nationale a adopté, ce mercredi après-midi en troisième et dernière lecture, ce texte controversé porté par la députée LREM Laëtitia Avia visant à combattre la haine en ligne sur Internet. La France Insoumise (LFI) avait certes déposé une motion de rejet, soutenue par Les Républicains, mais au global la majorité macroniste l’a emporté. Le Parti Socialiste lui s’est abstenu.

    Les grandes plateformes comme Facebook ou YouTube, mais aussi les moteurs de recherche, les blogs et les forums, devront désormais retirer sous 24 heures tout contenu haineux « manifestement illégal » sous peine d’une amende pouvant atteindre 4 % de leur chiffre d’affaires mondial. Les contenus terroristes ou pédo-pornographiques, eux, devront être retirés en 1 heure, contre 24 heures aujourd’hui.

    La loi oblige aussi les plateformes à créer un bouton de signalement unique, donne de nouveaux pouvoirs au CSA et créé un parquet spécialisé sur le numérique (comme il existe un parquet antiterroriste, par exemple). Le texte doit également permettre de bloquer les sites haineux. « Certains de ces sites font 800.000 visites par mois, voilà où on est en » alerte Frédéric Potier, le délégué interministériel à la lutte contre le racisme, l’antisémitisme et la haine anti-LGBT (Dilcrah).

    […]

    Les décrets doivent maintenant préciser quelles sont les plateformes concernées à partir d’un seuil minimal d’utilisateurs. L’objectif étant de ne pas créer une charge trop lourde pour les sites français type Doctissimo ou BlaBlaCar qui n’ont pas les mêmes outils que les Gafa. Selon Laëtitia Avia, les décrets devraient entrer en vigueur « avant l’été ».

  • HANDBUCH-FÜR-MEDIENGUERILLAS
    https://www.hogesatzbau.de/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/HANDBUCH-F%C3%9CR-MEDIENGUERILLAS.pdf

    Wir alle verarschen gerne Opfer im Internet. Die Bezeichnungen dafür sind vielfältig: Trollen, shitposten, ficken, memetische Kriegsführung oder einfach nur verarschen. Hier ein kleines Hand-buch, ohne Anspruch auf Vollständigkeit.

    Antwort der Bundesregierung auf die Kleine Anfrage zu Aktivitäten des rechten Internetnetzwerkes Reconquista Germanica
    http://dip21.bundestag.de/dip21/btd/19/019/1901994.pdf

    Deutscher Bundestag Drucksache19/1994 19. Wahlperiode
    04.05.2018 Antwort der Bundesregierung auf die Kleine Anfrage der Abgeordneten Ulla Jelpke, Dr. André Hahn, Gökay Akbulut, weiterer Abgeordneter und der Fraktion DIE LINKE.
    – Drucksache 19/1665 – Aktivitäten des rechten Internetnetzwerkes Reconquista Germanica

    Das Netzwerk der Neuen Rechten – Buch und Landkarte über das neurechte Milieu in Deutschland
    https://www.neuerechte.org

    Fast unbemerkt von der Öffentlichkeit ist im vergangenen Jahrzehnt eine „patriotische Parallelgesellschaft“ in Deutschland entstanden. Ein neues und einflussreiches neurechtes Netzwerk aus mehr als 170 Stiftungen, Vereinen, Medien und Kampagnen ist herangewachsen. Eine Gegenkultur mit Jugendbewegung, Frauenbewegung, Gewerkschaft, Flüchtlingshilfsorganisation, Künstler*innen, Hipstermagazin, Modelabels, Trollarmeen im Netz, Parteien und sogar einem eigenen Bier.

    Seit Jahren spüren wir ihm nach: seinen öffentlichen Seiten und denen, die im Dunkeln liegen. Parallel zu dieser Webseite ist unser Report „Das Netzwerk der Neuen Rechten“ im Rowohlt Verlag erschienen. In dem Buch enthüllen wir erstmals das Ausmaß und die ganze Breite des Milieus - seine ideologischen Grundlagen, seine führenden Köpfe, seine wichtigen Zeitschriften, Verlage, Internet-Plattformen, Burschenschaften und Finanziers.

    Und wir erklären die Aktionsformen und Strategien der Szene, zeigen die engen Kontakte zur AfD auf, wie die Strömung international vernetzt ist und wie sie den Anschluss an die gesellschaftliche Mitte sucht.

    #Allemagne #extrême_droite #réseaux #politique #internet

  • Khrys’coronalungo du lundi 11 mai 2020
    https://framablog.org/2020/05/11/khryscoronalungo-du-lundi-11-mai-2020

    Comme chaque lundi, un coup d’œil dans le rétroviseur pour découvrir les informations que vous avez peut-être ratées la semaine dernière. Brave New World A Singapour, le traçage par app dégénère en #Surveillance de masse (letemps.ch) À Singapour, un robot … Lire la suite­­

    #Claviers_invités #Internet_et_société #Libr'en_Vrac #Libre_Veille #Non_classé #GAFAM #Internet #Revue_de_web #Revue_hebdo #veille #webrevue
    https://mamot.fr/system/media_attachments/files/009/551/047/original/9da8644dbe3cd097.mp4?1588965918

  • L’accès et la circulation des savoirs se font dans un monde de plus en plus ouvert. Les données en libre accès se multiplient, mais leurs usages ne vont pas de soi… #numérique #internet #usages #openaccess

    https://sms.hypotheses.org/24810

    Open source, open educational resources, open data, open courses, ces différentes expressions anglophones traduisent la multiplication des données actuellement accessibles en mode ouvert sur le web. Elles modifient progressivement les modalités d’accès et de circulation des savoirs à l’ère des géants du numérique –les GAFAM. Dans les domaines de l’éducation comme des données publiques, leurs usages ne vont pas forcément de soi.

    Ces questionnements ont fait l’objet d’un ouvrage collectif coordonné par Luc Massou, Brigitte Juanals, Philippe Bonfils et Philippe Dumas, regroupant une sélection de communications sur les sources ouvertes numériques dans le secteur éducatif et social réalisées lors d’un colloque à l’université Aix-Marseille en 2016 (...)

    • La #science_ouverte doit être interrogée bien au-delà de ce premier discours consensuel sur l’ouverture des données et des publications (soit un mouvement contre les éditeurs privés et l’appropriation commerciale du savoir - mouvement qui, soit dit au passage, est en phase d’institutionnalisation depuis quelques années).
      Plusieurs points sont systématiquement refoulés : le coût écologique de l’ouverture des données, la gouvernance économique (volonté de réduire les coûts), la transformation (voir la destruction) des métiers d’éditeur et de bibliothécaire...
      Les politiques scientifiques d’évaluation sont également systématiquement passés sous silence (le fameux #publish_or_perish). Je vous invite à lire ce très bon texte de #Peter_Sloterdijk (https://seenthis.net/messages/54405) sur l’augmentation du plagiat comme conséquence du publish or perish (ou publier pour publier à défaut d’être lu : le pacte de non-lecture).
      Ce que l’ouverture des données va également permettre, c’est le recours massif aux robots (#machine_learning), seuls capables de rechercher les mots clefs souhaités dans un corpus numérique monstrueux. Cela pose et posera des questions épistémologiques qui ne sont pour le moment jamais évoqués dans cet appel à une science 2.0 (ou e-science) jamais nommée.

      P.-S. Je parle essentiellement ici des SHS.

      #informatisation #accès_ouvert #open_access

  • Monitoring being pitched to fight Covid-19 was tested on refugees

    The pandemic has given a boost to controversial data-driven initiatives to track population movements

    In Italy, social media monitoring companies have been scouring Instagram to see who’s breaking the nationwide lockdown. In Israel, the government has made plans to “sift through geolocation data” collected by the Shin Bet intelligence agency and text people who have been in contact with an infected person. And in the UK, the government has asked mobile operators to share phone users’ aggregate location data to “help to predict broadly how the virus might move”.

    These efforts are just the most visible tip of a rapidly evolving industry combining the exploitation of data from the internet and mobile phones and the increasing number of sensors embedded on Earth and in space. Data scientists are intrigued by the new possibilities for behavioural prediction that such data offers. But they are also coming to terms with the complexity of actually using these data sets, and the ethical and practical problems that lurk within them.

    In the wake of the refugee crisis of 2015, tech companies and research consortiums pushed to develop projects using new data sources to predict movements of migrants into Europe. These ranged from broad efforts to extract intelligence from public social media profiles by hand, to more complex automated manipulation of big data sets through image recognition and machine learning. Two recent efforts have just been shut down, however, and others are yet to produce operational results.

    While IT companies and some areas of the humanitarian sector have applauded new possibilities, critics cite human rights concerns, or point to limitations in what such technological solutions can actually achieve.

    In September last year Frontex, the European border security agency, published a tender for “social media analysis services concerning irregular migration trends and forecasts”. The agency was offering the winning bidder up to €400,000 for “improved risk analysis regarding future irregular migratory movements” and support of Frontex’s anti-immigration operations.

    Frontex “wants to embrace” opportunities arising from the rapid growth of social media platforms, a contracting document outlined. The border agency believes that social media interactions drastically change the way people plan their routes, and thus examining would-be migrants’ online behaviour could help it get ahead of the curve, since these interactions typically occur “well before persons reach the external borders of the EU”.

    Frontex asked bidders to develop lists of key words that could be mined from platforms like Twitter, Facebook, Instagram and YouTube. The winning company would produce a monthly report containing “predictive intelligence ... of irregular flows”.

    Early this year, however, Frontex cancelled the opportunity. It followed swiftly on from another shutdown; Frontex’s sister agency, the European Asylum Support Office (EASO), had fallen foul of the European data protection watchdog, the EDPS, for searching social media content from would-be migrants.

    The EASO had been using the data to flag “shifts in asylum and migration routes, smuggling offers and the discourse among social media community users on key issues – flights, human trafficking and asylum systems/processes”. The search covered a broad range of languages, including Arabic, Pashto, Dari, Urdu, Tigrinya, Amharic, Edo, Pidgin English, Russian, Kurmanji Kurdish, Hausa and French.

    Although the EASO’s mission, as its name suggests, is centred around support for the asylum system, its reports were widely circulated, including to organisations that attempt to limit illegal immigration – Europol, Interpol, member states and Frontex itself.

    In shutting down the EASO’s social media monitoring project, the watchdog cited numerous concerns about process, the impact on fundamental rights and the lack of a legal basis for the work.

    “This processing operation concerns a vast number of social media users,” the EDPS pointed out. Because EASO’s reports are read by border security forces, there was a significant risk that data shared by asylum seekers to help others travel safely to Europe could instead be unfairly used against them without their knowledge.

    Social media monitoring “poses high risks to individuals’ rights and freedoms,” the regulator concluded in an assessment it delivered last November. “It involves the use of personal data in a way that goes beyond their initial purpose, their initial context of publication and in ways that individuals could not reasonably anticipate. This may have a chilling effect on people’s ability and willingness to express themselves and form relationships freely.”

    EASO told the Bureau that the ban had “negative consequences” on “the ability of EU member states to adapt the preparedness, and increase the effectiveness, of their asylum systems” and also noted a “potential harmful impact on the safety of migrants and asylum seekers”.

    Frontex said that its social media analysis tender was cancelled after new European border regulations came into force, but added that it was considering modifying the tender in response to these rules.
    Coronavirus

    Drug shortages put worst-hit Covid-19 patients at risk
    European doctors running low on drugs needed to treat Covid-19 patients
    Big Tobacco criticised for ’coronavirus publicity stunt’ after donating ventilators

    The two shutdowns represented a stumbling block for efforts to track population movements via new technologies and sources of data. But the public health crisis precipitated by the Covid-19 virus has brought such efforts abruptly to wider attention. In doing so it has cast a spotlight on a complex knot of issues. What information is personal, and legally protected? How does that protection work? What do concepts like anonymisation, privacy and consent mean in an age of big data?
    The shape of things to come

    International humanitarian organisations have long been interested in whether they can use nontraditional data sources to help plan disaster responses. As they often operate in inaccessible regions with little available or accurate official data about population sizes and movements, they can benefit from using new big data sources to estimate how many people are moving where. In particular, as well as using social media, recent efforts have sought to combine insights from mobile phones – a vital possession for a refugee or disaster survivor – with images generated by “Earth observation” satellites.

    “Mobiles, satellites and social media are the holy trinity of movement prediction,” said Linnet Taylor, professor at the Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology and Society in the Netherlands, who has been studying the privacy implications of such new data sources. “It’s the shape of things to come.”

    As the devastating impact of the Syrian civil war worsened in 2015, Europe saw itself in crisis. Refugee movements dominated the headlines and while some countries, notably Germany, opened up to more arrivals than usual, others shut down. European agencies and tech companies started to team up with a new offering: a migration hotspot predictor.

    Controversially, they were importing a concept drawn from distant catastrophe zones into decision-making on what should happen within the borders of the EU.

    “Here’s the heart of the matter,” said Nathaniel Raymond, a lecturer at the Yale Jackson Institute for Global Affairs who focuses on the security implications of information communication technologies for vulnerable populations. “In ungoverned frontier cases [European data protection law] doesn’t apply. Use of these technologies might be ethically safer there, and in any case it’s the only thing that is available. When you enter governed space, data volume and ease of manipulation go up. Putting this technology to work in the EU is a total inversion.”
    “Mobiles, satellites and social media are the holy trinity of movement prediction”

    Justin Ginnetti, head of data and analysis at the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre in Switzerland, made a similar point. His organisation monitors movements to help humanitarian groups provide food, shelter and aid to those forced from their homes, but he casts a skeptical eye on governments using the same technology in the context of migration.

    “Many governments – within the EU and elsewhere – are very interested in these technologies, for reasons that are not the same as ours,” he told the Bureau. He called such technologies “a nuclear fly swatter,” adding: “The key question is: What problem are you really trying to solve with it? For many governments, it’s not preparing to ‘better respond to inflow of people’ – it’s raising red flags, to identify those en route and prevent them from arriving.”
    Eye in the sky

    A key player in marketing this concept was the European Space Agency (ESA) – an organisation based in Paris, with a major spaceport in French Guiana. The ESA’s pitch was to combine its space assets with other people’s data. “Could you be leveraging space technology and data for the benefit of life on Earth?” a recent presentation from the organisation on “disruptive smart technologies” asked. “We’ll work together to make your idea commercially viable.”

    By 2016, technologists at the ESA had spotted an opportunity. “Europe is being confronted with the most significant influxes of migrants and refugees in its history,” a presentation for their Advanced Research in Telecommunications Systems Programme stated. “One burning issue is the lack of timely information on migration trends, flows and rates. Big data applications have been recognised as a potentially powerful tool.” It decided to assess how it could harness such data.

    The ESA reached out to various European agencies, including EASO and Frontex, to offer a stake in what it called “big data applications to boost preparedness and response to migration”. The space agency would fund initial feasibility stages, but wanted any operational work to be jointly funded.

    One such feasibility study was carried out by GMV, a privately owned tech group covering banking, defence, health, telecommunications and satellites. GMV announced in a press release in August 2017 that the study would “assess the added value of big data solutions in the migration sector, namely the reduction of safety risks for migrants, the enhancement of border controls, as well as prevention and response to security issues related with unexpected migration movements”. It would do this by integrating “multiple space assets” with other sources including mobile phones and social media.

    When contacted by the Bureau, a spokeswoman from GMV said that, contrary to the press release, “nothing in the feasibility study related to the enhancement of border controls”.

    In the same year, the technology multinational CGI teamed up with the Dutch Statistics Office to explore similar questions. They started by looking at data around asylum flows from Syria and at how satellite images and social media could indicate changes in migration patterns in Niger, a key route into Europe. Following this experiment, they approached EASO in October 2017. CGI’s presentation of the work noted that at the time EASO was looking for a social media analysis tool that could monitor Facebook groups, predict arrivals of migrants at EU borders, and determine the number of “hotspots” and migrant shelters. CGI pitched a combined project, co-funded by the ESA, to start in 2019 and expand to serve more organisations in 2020.
    The proposal was to identify “hotspot activities”, using phone data to group individuals “according to where they spend the night”

    The idea was called Migration Radar 2.0. The ESA wrote that “analysing social media data allows for better understanding of the behaviour and sentiments of crowds at a particular geographic location and a specific moment in time, which can be indicators of possible migration movements in the immediate future”. Combined with continuous monitoring from space, the result would be an “early warning system” that offered potential future movements and routes, “as well as information about the composition of people in terms of origin, age, gender”.

    Internal notes released by EASO to the Bureau show the sheer range of companies trying to get a slice of the action. The agency had considered offers of services not only from the ESA, GMV, the Dutch Statistics Office and CGI, but also from BIP, a consulting firm, the aerospace group Thales Alenia, the geoinformation specialist EGEOS and Vodafone.

    Some of the pitches were better received than others. An EASO analyst who took notes on the various proposals remarked that “most oversell a bit”. They went on: “Some claimed they could trace GSM [ie mobile networks] but then clarified they could do it for Venezuelans only, and maybe one or two countries in Africa.” Financial implications were not always clearly provided. On the other hand, the official noted, the ESA and its consortium would pay 80% of costs and “we can get collaboration on something we plan to do anyway”.

    The features on offer included automatic alerts, a social media timeline, sentiment analysis, “animated bubbles with asylum applications from countries of origin over time”, the detection and monitoring of smuggling sites, hotspot maps, change detection and border monitoring.

    The document notes a group of services available from Vodafone, for example, in the context of a proposed project to monitor asylum centres in Italy. The proposal was to identify “hotspot activities”, using phone data to group individuals either by nationality or “according to where they spend the night”, and also to test if their movements into the country from abroad could be back-tracked. A tentative estimate for the cost of a pilot project, spread over four municipalities, came to €250,000 – of which an unspecified amount was for “regulatory (privacy) issues”.

    Stumbling blocks

    Elsewhere, efforts to harness social media data for similar purposes were proving problematic. A September 2017 UN study tried to establish whether analysing social media posts, specifically on Twitter, “could provide insights into ... altered routes, or the conversations PoC [“persons of concern”] are having with service providers, including smugglers”. The hypothesis was that this could “better inform the orientation of resource allocations, and advocacy efforts” - but the study was unable to conclude either way, after failing to identify enough relevant data on Twitter.

    The ESA pressed ahead, with four feasibility studies concluding in 2018 and 2019. The Migration Radar project produced a dashboard that showcased the use of satellite imagery for automatically detecting changes in temporary settlement, as well as tools to analyse sentiment on social media. The prototype received positive reviews, its backers wrote, encouraging them to keep developing the product.

    CGI was effusive about the predictive power of its technology, which could automatically detect “groups of people, traces of trucks at unexpected places, tent camps, waste heaps and boats” while offering insight into “the sentiments of migrants at certain moments” and “information that is shared about routes and motives for taking certain routes”. Armed with this data, the company argued that it could create a service which could predict the possible outcomes of migration movements before they happened.

    The ESA’s other “big data applications” study had identified a demand among EU agencies and other potential customers for predictive analyses to ensure “preparedness” and alert systems for migration events. A package of services was proposed, using data drawn from social media and satellites.

    Both projects were slated to evolve into a second, operational phase. But this seems to have never become reality. CGI told the Bureau that “since the completion of the [Migration Radar] project, we have not carried out any extra activities in this domain”.

    The ESA told the Bureau that its studies had “confirmed the usefulness” of combining space technology and big data for monitoring migration movements. The agency added that its corporate partners were working on follow-on projects despite “internal delays”.

    EASO itself told the Bureau that it “took a decision not to get involved” in the various proposals it had received.

    Specialists found a “striking absence” of agreed upon core principles when using the new technologies

    But even as these efforts slowed, others have been pursuing similar goals. The European Commission’s Knowledge Centre on Migration and Demography has proposed a “Big Data for Migration Alliance” to address data access, security and ethics concerns. A new partnership between the ESA and GMV – “Bigmig" – aims to support “migration management and prevention” through a combination of satellite observation and machine-learning techniques (the company emphasised to the Bureau that its focus was humanitarian). And a consortium of universities and private sector partners – GMV among them – has just launched a €3 million EU-funded project, named Hummingbird, to improve predictions of migration patterns, including through analysing phone call records, satellite imagery and social media.

    At a conference in Berlin in October 2019, dozens of specialists from academia, government and the humanitarian sector debated the use of these new technologies for “forecasting human mobility in contexts of crises”. Their conclusions raised numerous red flags. They found a “striking absence” of agreed upon core principles. It was hard to balance the potential good with ethical concerns, because the most useful data tended to be more specific, leading to greater risks of misuse and even, in the worst case scenario, weaponisation of the data. Partnerships with corporations introduced transparency complications. Communication of predictive findings to decision makers, and particularly the “miscommunication of the scope and limitations associated with such findings”, was identified as a particular problem.

    The full consequences of relying on artificial intelligence and “employing large scale, automated, and combined analysis of datasets of different sources” to predict movements in a crisis could not be foreseen, the workshop report concluded. “Humanitarian and political actors who base their decisions on such analytics must therefore carefully reflect on the potential risks.”

    A fresh crisis

    Until recently, discussion of such risks remained mostly confined to scientific papers and NGO workshops. The Covid-19 pandemic has brought it crashing into the mainstream.

    Some see critical advantages to using call data records to trace movements and map the spread of the virus. “Using our mobile technology, we have the potential to build models that help to predict broadly how the virus might move,” an O2 spokesperson said in March. But others believe that it is too late for this to be useful. The UK’s chief scientific officer, Patrick Vallance, told a press conference in March that using this type of data “would have been a good idea in January”.

    Like the 2015 refugee crisis, the global emergency offers an opportunity for industry to get ahead of the curve with innovative uses of big data. At a summit in Downing Street on 11 March, Dominic Cummings asked tech firms “what [they] could bring to the table” to help the fight against Covid-19.

    Human rights advocates worry about the longer term effects of such efforts, however. “Right now, we’re seeing states around the world roll out powerful new surveillance measures and strike up hasty partnerships with tech companies,” Anna Bacciarelli, a technology researcher at Amnesty International, told the Bureau. “While states must act to protect people in this pandemic, it is vital that we ensure that invasive surveillance measures do not become normalised and permanent, beyond their emergency status.”

    More creative methods of surveillance and prediction are not necessarily answering the right question, others warn.

    “The single largest determinant of Covid-19 mortality is healthcare system capacity,” said Sean McDonald, a senior fellow at the Centre for International Governance Innovation, who studied the use of phone data in the west African Ebola outbreak of 2014-5. “But governments are focusing on the pandemic as a problem of people management rather than a problem of building response capacity. More broadly, there is nowhere near enough proof that the science or math underlying the technologies being deployed meaningfully contribute to controlling the virus at all.”

    Legally, this type of data processing raises complicated questions. While European data protection law - the GDPR - generally prohibits processing of “special categories of personal data”, including ethnicity, beliefs, sexual orientation, biometrics and health, it allows such processing in a number of instances (among them public health emergencies). In the case of refugee movement prediction, there are signs that the law is cracking at the seams.
    “There is nowhere near enough proof that the science or math underlying the technologies being deployed meaningfully contribute to controlling the virus at all.”

    Under GDPR, researchers are supposed to make “impact assessments” of how their data processing can affect fundamental rights. If they find potential for concern they should consult their national information commissioner. There is no simple way to know whether such assessments have been produced, however, or whether they were thoroughly carried out.

    Researchers engaged with crunching mobile phone data point to anonymisation and aggregation as effective tools for ensuring privacy is maintained. But the solution is not straightforward, either technically or legally.

    “If telcos are using individual call records or location data to provide intel on the whereabouts, movements or activities of migrants and refugees, they still need a legal basis to use that data for that purpose in the first place – even if the final intelligence report itself does not contain any personal data,” said Ben Hayes, director of AWO, a data rights law firm and consultancy. “The more likely it is that the people concerned may be identified or affected, the more serious this matter becomes.”

    More broadly, experts worry that, faced with the potential of big data technology to illuminate movements of groups of people, the law’s provisions on privacy begin to seem outdated.

    “We’re paying more attention now to privacy under its traditional definition,” Nathaniel Raymond said. “But privacy is not the same as group legibility.” Simply put, while issues around the sensitivity of personal data can be obvious, the combinations of seemingly unrelated data that offer insights about what small groups of people are doing can be hard to foresee, and hard to mitigate. Raymond argues that the concept of privacy as enshrined in the newly minted data protection law is anachronistic. As he puts it, “GDPR is already dead, stuffed and mounted. We’re increasing vulnerability under the colour of law.”

    https://www.thebureauinvestigates.com/stories/2020-04-28/monitoring-being-pitched-to-fight-covid-19-was-first-tested-o
    #cobaye #surveillance #réfugiés #covid-19 #coronavirus #test #smartphone #téléphones_portables #Frontex #frontières #contrôles_frontaliers #Shin_Bet #internet #big_data #droits_humains #réseaux_sociaux #intelligence_prédictive #European_Asylum_Support_Office (#EASO) #EDPS #protection_des_données #humanitaire #images_satellites #technologie #European_Space_Agency (#ESA) #GMV #CGI #Niger #Facebook #Migration_Radar_2.0 #early_warning_system #BIP #Thales_Alenia #EGEOS #complexe_militaro-industriel #Vodafone #GSM #Italie #twitter #détection #routes_migratoires #systèmes_d'alerte #satellites #Knowledge_Centre_on_Migration_and_Demography #Big_Data for_Migration_Alliance #Bigmig #machine-learning #Hummingbird #weaponisation_of_the_data #IA #intelligence_artificielle #données_personnelles

    ping @etraces @isskein @karine4 @reka

    signalé ici par @sinehebdo :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/849167

  • Covid hoaxes are using a loophole to stay alive—even after being deleted | MIT Technology Review
    https://www.technologyreview.com/2020/04/30/1000881/covid-hoaxes-zombie-content-wayback-machine-disinformation

    Pandemic conspiracy theorists are using the Wayback Machine to promote ’zombie content’ that avoids content moderators and fact-checkers.

    by Joan Donovan archive page
    April 30, 2020

    PHOTO BY CHRIS HALL ON UNSPLASH
    Since the onset of the pandemic, the Technology and Social Change Research Project at Harvard Kennedy’s Shorenstein Center, where I am the director, has been investigating how misinformation, scams, and conspiracies about covid-19 circulate online. If fraudsters are now using the virus to dupe unsuspecting individuals, we thought, then our research on misinformation should focus on understanding the new tactics of these media manipulators. What we found was a disconcerting explosion in “zombie content.”

    While the original page failed to spread fake news, the version of the page saved on the Internet Archive’s Wayback Machine absolutely flourished on Facebook. With 649,000 interactions and 118,000 shares, the engagement on the Wayback Machine’s link was much larger than legitimate press outlets. Facebook has since placed a fact-check label over the link to the Wayback Machine link too, but it had already been seen a huge number of times.

    There are several explanations for this hidden virality. Some people use the Internet Archive to evade blocking of banned domains in their home country, but it is not simply about censorship. Others are seeking to get around fact-checking and algorithmic demotion of content.

    When looking for more evidence of hidden virality, we searched for “web.archive.org” across platforms. Unsurprisingly, Medium posts that were taken down for spreading health misinformation have found new life through Wayback Machine links. One deleted Medium story, “Covid-19 had us all fooled, but now we might have finally found its secret,” violated Medium’s policies on misleading health information. Before Medium’s takedown, the original post amassed 6,000 interactions and 1,200 shares on Facebook, but the archived version is vastly more popular—1.6 million interactions, 310,000 shares, and still climbing. This zombie content has better performance than most mainstream media news stories and, yet it only exists as an archived record.

    Perhaps the most alarming element to a researcher like me is that these harmful conspiracies permeate private pages and groups on Facebook. This means researchers have access to less than 2 % of the interaction data, and that health misinformation circulates in spaces where journalists, independent researchers and public health advocates can not assess or counterbalance these false claims with facts. Crucially, if it weren’t for the Internet Archive’s records we would not be able to do this research on deleted content in the first place, but these use cases suggest that the Internet Archive will soon have to address how their service can be adapted to deal with disinformation.

    Hidden virality is growing in places where Whatsapp is popular because it’s easy to forward misinformation through encrypted channels and evade content moderation. But when hidden virality happens on Facebook with health misinformation, it is particularly disconcerting. More than 50% of Americans rely on Facebook for their news, and still, after many years of concern and complaint, researchers have a very limited window into the data. This means it’s nearly impossible to ethically investigate how dangerous health misinformation is shared on private pages and groups.

    All of this is a threat for public health in a different way than political or news misinformation, because people do quickly change their behaviors based on medical recommendations.

    #Fake_news #Viralité #Internet_archive #zombie_content #Joan_Donovan

  • #mémorandum Covid-19 pour du #Libre et de l’open en conscience : enseignements et impulsions futures
    https://framablog.org/2020/04/29/memorandum-covid-19-pour-du-libre-et-de-lopen-en-conscience-enseignements

    Nous publions ci-dessous un texte collectif, inititié par différents acteurs du libre et de l’Open(Source|Science|Hardware|Data), suivi des impulsions envisagées. À #Framasoft, nous signons rarement des tribunes en tant qu’organisation. Essentiellement pour trois raisons : 1) elles nous placent dans une situation … Lire la suite­­

    #Internet_et_société #Libres_Cultures #COVID19 #Hardware #open #open_source #OpenAcess #OpenData #tribune

  • Ne laissons pas s’installer le monde sans contact
    Appel au boycott de l’application StopCovid-19

    Écran total

    https://lavoiedujaguar.net/Ne-laissons-pas-s-installer-le-monde-sans-contact-Appel-au-boycott-d

    Du point de vue sanitaire, l’épidémie de Covid-19 mettra du temps à livrer tous ses mystères. Le brouillard qui entoure l’origine de la maladie, sa diffusion et sa létalité ne pourra se dissiper que lorsqu’elle cessera de frapper dans autant de pays à la fois. À ce jour, personne n’a l’air de savoir quand une telle accalmie se produira. D’ici là, pour continuer de vivre, nous ne devons ni sous-estimer, ni surestimer cette épidémie en tant que telle.

    Par contre, ce que nous sentons très clairement, c’est que la crise sanitaire a des chances importantes de précipiter l’avènement d’un nouveau régime social : un régime basé sur une peur et une séparation accrues, encore plus inégalitaire et étouffant pour la liberté. Si nous prenons la peine de lancer cet appel, c’est que nous pensons que cela n’est pas joué d’avance et que des possibilités vont se présenter, pour les populations, de l’empêcher. Mais alors que nous, simples citoyens, ressentons violemment la fragilité de nos existences face à la menace du virus et d’un confinement long, l’ordre politique et économique en vigueur semble, lui, à la fois ébranlé et renforcé par la secousse en cours. Il paraît en même temps fragile, et très solide sur ses bases les plus « modernes », c’est-à-dire les plus destructrices socialement. (...)

    #épidémie #technologie #gouvernements #Internet #France #numérisation #stratégie #Chine #traçage #fichage #surveillance #Edward_Snowden #boycott #télétravail

  • Les confinés, ce sont les plus mobiles !

    Le confinement spatial est aussi une question de #frontières. Les confinés sont ceux qui, même immobiles, « ont accès ». Pouvoir se confiner relève du même processus que pouvoir traverser une frontière légalement, il faut appartenir au cercle restreint des « acteurs » de la globalisation.

    Depuis que le virus Covid-19 a été identifié, le repli spatial a constitué une préconisation politique essentielle. Ce qui est recommandé sous le terme désormais consacré de distance sociale, c’est le maintien d’une distance minimale entre les personnes, bien géographique celle-là. Et la mettre en œuvre suppose une forme de maîtrise sur nos conditions de vie, sur notre habiter. Confiner, c’est placer entre des limites. Cela implique que le contour que l’on érige à la périphérie de soi-même, entoure un centre, stable lui ! En filigrane de cette politique, on voit s’esquisser une pensée politique de l’espace très classique, tout à fait en décalage avec l’analyse des mobilités contemporaines.

    Ne sont véritablement confiné·es aujourd’hui que celles et ceux qui ont un logement suffisamment grand pour permettre au nombre de personnes qui y vivent de ne pas trop en sortir. En avoir deux, qu’on soit des enfants en résidence alternée ou des couples non-concubins, c’est déjà se trouver hors de ce cadre normatif… Cette logique de sédentarité extrême se présente désormais comme une marginalité spatiale positive, car choisie. Ne sont donc concernés ni les sans-logis, ni les entassés. Notamment celles et ceux qui subissent, en prison ou en centre de rétention administrative, une assignation de mise l’écart de la société qui prend effet dans des lieux enclos où le confinement est paradoxalement impossible : les densités trop fortes s’y traduisent dans les faits par une promiscuité délétère.
    Ceux qui ont « accès »

    Le confinement dont il s’agit n’a rien d’un enfermement ! Et ce, malgré le sentiment croissant de frustration de celles et ceux qui l’appliquent depuis un mois en se privant de l’accès à la multiplicité des lieux habituellement fréquentés. A y regarder de plus près, ne sont finalement concernés que celles et ceux qui peuvent vivre entre quatre murs parce qu’ils le font de manière tout à fait connectée ! Pouvoir, depuis chez soi, conserver des ressources régulières, c’est travailler à distance, être retraité ou encore indemnisé pour un chômage partiel ou permanent, un arrêt maladie. On continue alors d’être relié à un système marchand, lui-même relayé par un complexe bancaire qui nous « donne accès ». Et place les personnes concernées en situation de continuer à consommer à distance (faire ses courses le moins loin possible du domicile, se faire livrer, etc.).

    Certes, certains biens et services, notamment immatériels, sont désormais inaccessibles : soins du corps, pratiques de sociabilité, offre culturelle. Et l’avalanche d’ouverture de contenus en ligne dans ces domaines ne compense pas ce qui fait leur force habituelle, l’intensité des liens que ces secteurs stimulent. Mais ce mode « dégradé » reste un luxe, la carapace électronique qui garantit la faisabilité de notre enfermement apparent. Toute cette insertion économique se produit dans un processus d’invisibilisation des liens, produit par le système capitaliste qui les financiarise. Qu’il est facile de commander sur une grande plateforme en ligne sans penser aux employés qui travaillent dans ses entrepôts, livrent, déploient matériellement les réseaux sur lesquels repose notre approvisionnement !
    Informalisés et autres illégalisés

    Les confiné·es sont donc celles et ceux qui, même immobiles, « ont accès ». A l’extrémité inverse du spectre social, les non-productifs, les « informalisés » et autres « illégalisés », celles et ceux qui ne peuvent plus vendre leur travail manuel et physique (ménage, construction), qui ne sont pas pris en charge par les systèmes de santé, et tous ceux qui ont du mal à se relier au monde libéral. On peut aussi assister à des bascules rapides : l’étudiant·e issu·e d’un milieu modeste, qui n’a pas d’ordinateur ou de bonne connexion internet chez lui, parfois confiné·e dans une chambre minuscule où il·elle est désormais privé de la restauration à bas prix du Crous, peut tout à fait décrocher de la dynamique vertueuse que ses efforts lui avaient permis d’intégrer, éjecté du monde mobile auquel il aspirait.

    Paradoxalement, celles et ceux qui peuvent aujourd’hui se confiner dans de bonnes conditions sont très exactement les personnes qui avaient accès à la liberté de mouvement dans le monde d’avant. Ce sont des personnes qui disposent d’un degré d’autonomie globale leur permettant de choisir les interactions qui les mondialisent : en d’autres termes. Ce sont précisément celles et ceux qui disposaient d’un niveau de « #frontiérité » élevé, pour reprendre une expression que j’ai forgée avec Frédéric Giraut pour qualifier nos capacités inégales à traverser les frontières.

    Pouvoir se confiner relève du même processus que pouvoir traverser une frontière légalement : il s’agit de deux modalités de l’appartenance au cercle restreint des « acteurs » de la globalisation. Ce sont deux faces de l’« inclusion différentielle » (Sandro Mezzadra) qui régit désormais le corps social. Loin de l’égalité démocratique, l’attribution des droits politiques, notamment l’accès à une citoyenneté pleine et entière, semble dépendre de cette aptitude à pouvoir démontrer de l’utilité individuelle dans la mondialisation. Gommer opportunément de nos radars le fait que ceux qui produisent à bas coût des jeans ou des téléphones, du coton ou des minerais, actent tout autant cette économie inter-reliée que les élites mondialisées. Ne pas voir l’écheveau des liens complexes de notre système monde dont le Covid-19 est le symptôme, ne pas considérer pas la matérialité des biens qui sont derrière les liens électroniques sur lesquels repose notre confinement, c’est faire l’autruche.

    Les confinés, c’est-à-dire les plus « frontiérisés », se trouvent être aussi les êtres humains qui ont la plus forte empreinte écologique ! Sortir du confinement ne se fera pas en réouvrant les frontières, mais en re-visibilisant les liens. L’analyse fine des inégalités territoriales du monde mobile qui a produit la crise du Covid-19 constitue une étape essentielle pour poser les bases de la justice sociale nécessaire pour imaginer l’« après ».

    https://www.liberation.fr/debats/2020/04/27/les-confines-ce-sont-les-plus-mobiles_1786544

    #confinement #mobilité #immobilité #globalisation #mondialisation #inclusion_différentielle #Mezzadra #Sandro_Mezzadra #repli_spatial #distance_sociale #distance_spatiale #sédentarité #marginalité #assignation #SDF #détention #détention_administrative #prisons #sans-abrisme #rétention #promiscuité #enfermement #télétravail #connectivité #internet #enfermement_apparent #confinés #non-confinés #espace #liberté_de_mouvement #liberté_de_circulation #autonomie #im/mobilité #hyper-mobilité #immobilité

    Tribune de #Anne-Laure_Amilhat-Szary (@mobileborders)

    ping @isskein @karine4

  • Juste Avant

    Dans « Juste Avant », un documentaire en 7 épisodes, sortie le 1er décembre 2019, Ovidie questionne la façon dont on éduque une adolescente quand on est mère et féministe, à travers une série de conversations avec sa fille de 14 ans. Les échanges mère-fille s’entrecroisent avec les témoignages des proches et les réflexions sur sa propre construction.

    Juste Avant (7/7) - Epilogue

    Juste Avant (6/7) - Sois belle et bats-toi !

    Juste Avant (5/7) - Toi, moi, et notre petit matriarcat

    Juste Avant (4/7) - Le temps de la capote à 1 franc

    Juste Avant (3/7) - « Tu sais ce que c’est le consentement ? »

    Juste Avant (2/7) - La maman ou la putain

    Juste Avant (1/7) - Moi à ton âge

    http://www.nouvellesecoutes.fr/podcasts/intime-politique

    #maculinity #paternalistic #nightmare #digital_penetration #consent #college #high_school #social_network #Instagram #Snapchat #pressure #toxic_relationship #rape #post_MeToo #safe_place #sexuality #equality #contraception #STI #AIDS #HIV #school #abortion #condom #morning-after_pill #practical_knowledge #theoretical_knowledge #political_reflexion #distance #third_party #vaccination #pregnant #youth #traumatism #mariage #couple #tradition #divorce #matriarchy #co_parent #food #internet #beauty #weight_watchers #epilation #awareness #body