• Refugee : The Eritrean exodus
    Série en 5 parties

    Follow Chris Cotter, an American traveler, as he explores a common migration path through Ethiopia and into Israel, tracking the plight of Eritrean refugees. Chris and his crew visit several refugee camps, including the never-before-documented Afar region. The refugees tell stories of oppression, torture, and survival. Searching for solutions, Chris speaks to various NGOs and experts, including Assistant Secretary of State, Anne Richard. The outlook is bleak, but the spirit of the Eritrean refugees is hard to ignore.

    https://www.theeritreanexodus.com

    Part 1 :
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YjouQhlllLY

    Part 2 :
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0WHlK12IOG8

    Part 3 :
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WkDeHGb8uWA

    Part 4 :
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NqP2DQe34wo&t=36s

    Part 5 :
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gqS6AadI4rk


    #réfugiés #réfugiés_érythréens #asile #migrations #Erythrée #Ethiopie #camps_de_réfugiés #frontières #histoire #frontière #indépendance #guerre_d'indépendance #Isaias_Afwerki #service_militaire #dictature #prisons #prisons_souterraines #sous-sol #souterrain #torture #enfants #Shire #Aysaita #Adi_Harush #Mai-Aini #Hitsas #viol #trafic_d'êtres_humains #Sinaï #kidnapping #esclavage #esclavage_moderne #néo-esclavage #rançon #Israël
    #film #film_documentaire #série

    –-> Très nord-américain dans le style, mais des images des camps de réfugiés en Ethiopie très parlantes et que je n’avais jamais vues...

    ping @isskein @karine4

  • Eritrea in caduta libera sui diritti umani

    L’Eritrea di #Isaias_Afewerki è oggi uno dei peggiori regimi al mondo. Dove la guerra con l’Etiopia è usata per giustificare un servizio militare a tempo indeterminato. E dove avere un passaporto è quasi un miraggio. Gli ultimi attacchi sono stati rivolti agli ospedali cattolici.

    Il rispetto dei diritti umani in Eritrea è solo un ricordo che si perde nei tempi. La lista di violazioni è lunga e gli esempi recenti non mancano. L’ultima mossa del regime di Isaias Afewerki, al potere dal 1991, è stata quella di ordinare la chiusura dei centri sanitari gestiti dalla Chiesa cattolica nel paese, responsabile di una quarantina tra ospedali e scuole in zone rurali che garantiscono sanità e istruzione alle fette più povere della popolazione. Ebbene, qualche giorno fa in questi luoghi si sono presentati militari armati che hanno sfondato porte e cacciato fuori malati, vecchi e bambini. E preteso l’esproprio coatto degli immobili.

    Il 29 aprile, quattro vescovi avevano chiesto di aprire un dialogo con il governo per cercare una soluzione alla crescente povertà e mancanza di futuro per il popolo. Mentre il 13 giugno sono stati arrestati cinque preti ortodossi ultrasettantenni.

    Daniela Kravetz, responsabile dei rapporti tra Nazioni Unite e Africa, ha riportato che il 17 maggio «trenta cristiani sono stati arrestati durante un incontro di preghiera, mentre qualche giorno prima erano finiti in cella 141 fedeli, tra cui donne e bambini». L’Onu chiede ora che «con urgenza il Governo eritreo torni a permettere la libera scelta di espressione religiosa».

    Guerra Eritrea-Etiopia usata come scusa per il servizio militare a tempo indeterminato

    L’ex colonia italiana ha ottenuto di fatto l’indipendenza dall’Etiopia nel 1991, dopo un conflitto durato trent’anni. E nonostante la recente distensione tra Asmara e Addis Abeba, la guerra tra le due nazioni continua a singhiozzo lungo i confini.

    Sono ancora i rapporti con la vicina Etiopia, del resto, ad essere usati dal dittatore Afewerki per giustificare l’imposizione del servizio militare a tempo indeterminato. I ragazzi, infatti, sono arruolati verso i 17 anni e il servizio militare può durare anche trent’anni, con paghe miserabili e strazianti separazioni. Le famiglie si vedono portare via i figli maschi senza conoscerne la destinazione e i ragazzi spesso non tornano più.

    Le città sono prevalentemente abitate da donne, anziani e bambini. E per chi si oppone le alternative sono la prigione, se non la tortura. Uno dei sistemi più usati dai carcerieri è la cosiddetta Pratica del Gesù, che consiste nell’appendere chi si rifiuta di collaborare, con corde legate ai polsi, a due tronchi d’albero, in modo che il corpo assuma la forma di una croce. A volte restano appesi per giorni, con le guardie che di tanto in tanto inumidiscono le labbra con l’acqua.

    Eritrea: storia di un popolo a cui è vietato viaggiare

    l passaporto, che solo i più cari amici del regime ottengono una volta raggiunta la maggiore età, per la popolazione normale è un miraggio. Il prezioso documento viene consegnato alle donne quando compiono 40 anni e agli uomini all’alba dei 50. A quell’età si spera che ormai siano passate forza e voglia di lasciare il paese.

    Oggi l’Eritrea è un inferno dove tutti spiano tuttti. Un paese sospettoso e nemico d chiunque, diventato sotto la guida di Afewerki uno dei regimi più totalitari al mondo, dove anche parlare al telefono è rischioso.

    E pensare che negli anni ’90, quando l’Eritrea si separò dall’Etiopia, era vista come la speranza dell’Africa. Un paese attivo, pieno di potenziale, che si era liberato da solo senza chiedere aiuto a nessuno. Il mondo si aspettava che diventasse la Taiwan del Corno d’Africa, grazie anche a una cultura economica che gli altri stati se la sognavano.

    L’Ue investe in Etiopia ed Eritrea

    L’Unione europea sta per erogare 312 milioni di euro di aiuti al Corno d’Africa per la costruzione di infrastrutture che consentiranno di far transitare merci dall’Etiopia al mare, attraversando quindi l’Eritrea. Una decisione su cui ha preso posizione Reportes sans frontières, che chiede la sospensione di questo finanziamento ad un paese che, si legge in una nota, «continua a violare i diritti umani, la libertà di espressione e e di informazione e detiene arbitrariamente, spesso senza sottoporli ad alcun processo, decine di prigionieri politici, tra cui molti giornalisti».

    Cléa Kahn-Sriber, responsabile di Reporter sans frontières in Africa, ha dichiarato essere «sbalorditivo che l’Unione europea sostenga il regime di Afeweki con tutti questi aiuti senza chiedere nulla in cambio in materia di diritti umani e libertà d’espressione. Il regime ha più giornalisti in carcere di qualsiasi altro paese africano. Le condizioni dei diritti umani sono assolutamente vergognose».

    La Fondazione di difesa dei Diritti umani per l’Eritrea con sede in Olanda e composta da eritrei esiliati sta intraprendendo azioni legali contro l’Unione europea. Secondo la ricercatrice universitaria eritrea Makeda Saba, «l’Ue collaborerà e finanzierà la #Red_Sea_Trading_Corporation, interamente gestita e posseduta dal governo, società che il gruppo di monitoraggio dell’Onu su Somalia ed Eritrea definisce coinvolta in attività illegali e grigie nel Corno d’africa, compreso il traffico d’armi, attraverso una rete labirintica multinazionale di società, privati e conti bancari». Un bel pasticcio, insomma.

    Pericoloso lasciare l’Eritrea: il ruolo delle ambasciate

    Chi trova asilo in altre nazioni vive spiato e minacciato dai propri connazionali. Lo ha denunciato Amnesty International, secondo cui le nazioni dove i difensori dei diritti umani eritrei corrono i maggiori rischi sono Kenya, Norvegia, Olanda, Regno Unito, Svezia e Svizzera. Nel mirino del potere eritreo ora c’è anche un prete candidato al Nobel per la pace nel 2015, Mussie Zerai.

    «I rappresentanti del governo eritreo nelle ambasciate impiegano tutte le tattiche per impaurire chi critica l’amministrazione del presidente Afewerki, spiano, minacciano di morte. Chi è scappato viene considerato traditore della patria, sovversivo e terrorista».

    In aprile il ministro dell’Informazione, #Yemane_Gebre_Meskel, e gli ambasciatori di Giappone e Kenia hanno scritto su Twitter post minacciosi contro gli organizzatori e i partecipanti ad una conferenza svoltasi a Londra dal titolo “Costruire la democrazia in Eritrea”. Nel tweet, #Meskel ha definito gli organizzatori «collaborazionisti».

    Non va meglio agli esiliati in Kenya. Nel 2013, a seguito del tentativo di registrare un’organizzazione della società civile chiamata #Diaspora_eritrea_per_l’Africa_orientale, l’ambasciata eritrea ha immediatamente revocato il passaporto del presidente e co-fondatore, #Hussein_Osman_Said, organizzandone l’arresto in Sud Sudan. L’accusa? Partecipare al terrorismo, intento a sabotare il governo in carica.

    Amnesty chiede quindi «che venga immediatamente sospeso l’uso delle ambasciate all’estero per intimidire e reprimere le voci critiche».

    Parlando delle ragioni che hanno scatenato l’ultimo atto di forza contro gli ospedali, padre Zerai ha detto che «il regime si è giustificato facendo riferimento a una legge del 1995, secondo cui le strutture sociali strategiche come ospedali e scuole devono essere gestite dallo stato».

    Tuttavia, questa legge non era mai stata applicata e non si conoscono i motivi per cui all’improvviso è cominciata la repressione. Padre Zerai la vede così: «La Chiesa cattolica eritrea è indipendente e molto attiva nella società, offre supporto alle donne, sostegno ai poveri e ai malati di Aids ed è molto ascoltata». A preoccupare il padre, e non solo lui, sono ora «il silenzio dell’Unione europea e della comunità internzionale. Siamo davati a crimini gravissimi e il mondo tace».

    https://www.osservatoriodiritti.it/2019/07/04/eritrea-news-etiopia-guerra
    #droits_humains #Erythrée #COI #Afewerki #service_militaire #guerre #Ethiopie #religion #passeport #torture #totalitarisme #dictature #externalisation #UE #EU #aide_au_développement #coopération_au_développement #répression #Eglise_catholique

  • Il “vicedittatore” eritreo, aggredito a Roma: è colui che ha ordinato il mio rapimento in Somalia

    Il 5 luglio scorso a Roma all’uscita da un ristorante l’ambasciatore dello Stato di Eritrea,
    Petros Fessazion, è stato aggredito da alcune persone, quasi certamente suoi connazionali
    stanchi di un regime repressivo che nega le libertà fondamentali dell’uomo.
    Ma con l’ambasciatore Petros, probabilmente c’era Yemane Gebrehab, il numero due della dittatura
    al potere nell’ex colonia italiana, rimasto gravemente ferito a uno zigomo.

    Ma nell’ospedale romano dove è stato ricoverato non risulta nessuno con quel nome.
    Che abbia dato generalità false per evitare di essere riconosciuto è assai probabile, ma, ovviamente
    non è certo. Per altro la presenza di Yemane era prevista in numerose iniziative in Europa
    dove il “vice-dittatore” non è comparso. Massimo Alberizzi scrive a Petros e a Yemane,
    che a suo tempo l’aveva condannato a morte e fatto rapire in Somalia.


    http://www.africa-express.info/2017/07/17/il-vicedittatore-eritreo-aggradito-roma-ha-ordinato-il-mio-rapiment

    #Petros_Fessazion #Erythrée #Yemane_Gebreab #Isaias_Afeworki

    Et quelques #victimes du régime:

    Dove sono finiti in miei amici #Petros_Solomon, #Haile_Woldensaye, #Mohammed_Sharifo , ex ministri, o #Isaac_Dawit, giornalista, solo per citarne alcuni, arrestati e messi in qualche arroventata galera dell’infuocato bassopiano? E Aster, la moglie di Petros? Avete ingannato anche lei, una combattente per la libertà, una vostra compagna d’armi.

    #Aster_Yohannes

    • Et un article sur Yemane Gebreab, numéro 2 du régime érythréen, reçu via la newsletter de Human Rights Concern Eritrea, 15.11.2017 :
      Yemane Gebreab’s Deadly Schemes and Network of Terror

      Various media outlets have reported that Yemane Gebreab (the Eritrean President’s Advisor) was not allowed to address the Eritrean government supporters’ public seminar, in Arlington, on 8 October 2017, during his visit in the United States. He was denied entry to the seminar venue by US law enforcement officers. It seems plausible that he was in violation of a US Executive Order which listed him as a person who threatened US national security and foreign policy with regard to the Somalia situation. Human Rights Concern Eritrea (HRCE) has previously written about the danger Yemane Gebreab poses to Eritreans inside and outside Eritrea and the international community at large. In particular, Yemane Gebreab set-up an unsuccessful assassination attempt in Somalia on an Italian journalist who lived to tell the story.

      Whilst the flier which was distributed to advertise the event at which Yemane Gebreab was going to be present, alongside Eritrean Foreign Minister Osman Saleh, the official website of the Eritrean Government reported that Osman Saleh alone conducted the seminar. Since the news that Yemane Gebreab was detained spread quickly, it appears the Eritrean Government tried to cover up this embarrassing turn of events. Manufacturing after-the-fact appearances is no new thing for the Eritrean government.

      The UN conducted an inquiry into human rights violations in Eritrea and concluded in June 2016 that crimes against humanity were both widespread and systematic. The country is a one-party state, run by the top members of the People’s Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ), whose chairman is also the current and only president since 1991, Isaias Afewerki. His personal advisor is Yemane Gebreab, the man who proposes policies and implements them. Except that he does much more.

      Yemane Gebreab is widely known as the Presidential Advisor in Eritrea and head of Political Affairs in the PFDJ. However, these titles are nominal and only some of the roles he plays. Not only is Yemane Gebreab one of the main political minds behind the PFDJ, but his activities also range as widely in scope and depth as they do in nefariousness. He is active both at national and international level. HRCE has previously called for his arrest, and has since spoken to and received confidential testimonies from agents who in the past were deployed by Yemane Gebreab himself. They confirmed what most Eritreans already knew about him, through word of mouth or partial first-hand experience.

      On the international front, Yemane Gebreab is perhaps most infamous for masterminding and establishing the Young PFDJ (YPFDJ), a youth organisation which has parallels with the Balilla organisation which existed in Fascist Italy during the first half of the 20th century. YPFDJ even has enforcers called Eri-Blood, who intimidate anyone who expresses discontent with the Eritrean government and its practices. However, intimidation is not the only purpose of this organisation. Through the YPFDJ, whose members are not necessarily only youth, the PFDJ organises propaganda campaigns and spreads misinformation among the diaspora and other groups which interact with the Eritrean community abroad. Just as the YPFDJ meetings, often headed by Yemane Gebreab himself, spread false propaganda, they also serve as a means to fundraise and host events where money is either directly collected or obtained through sales of tickets or other items. This alone should have landed Yemane Gebreab in a US jail in the years since the standing executive order was first issued in 2010 by the then president Barack Obama.

      Most of the funds raised by the YPFDJ and PFDJ in the diaspora come from the older segments of the Eritrean community abroad. Worryingly, however, Yemane Gebreab organises these supporters to act as his informants. The former-agents whom HRCE has spoken with say that even middle-aged or elderly women, or other members of the Eritrean community abroad who might not raise suspicion, are used to spy on fellow Eritreans in the diaspora. Though many Eritreans knew this already, the testimony HRCE has received confirms the extent to which this tactic is systematic and widespread. Whilst the ordinary civilian may be used as an informant for Yemane Gebreab, trained individuals ranging from youth to middle-aged are deployed in the diaspora community.

      These youth, invariably members of the YPFDJ, but not necessarily openly so, are individuals who are carefully selected and sent to training camps inside Eritrea, often under the pretence of a vacation visit. They are trained using a program run by Yemane Gebreab which is intended to produce cadres fiercely loyal to the regime. These youth are taken around the country in a program called Zura-Hagerka, to the youth festival in Sawa Military Camp, to Nakfa (the old bastion town during the war for independence) to camps around Asmara (such as Asha Golgol) and other towns where their training is conducted. Not all of these youth are selected to become Yemane Gebreab’s agents. However, those who are selected are deployed in the diaspora and made to inform on the community, infiltrate organisations or set-up money laundering businesses, or even become part of the Eri- Blood.

      It is worrying that Eritrean youth from the diaspora willingly and voluntarily choose to partake in these criminal affairs, although the PFDJ regime has become expert at targeting the more vulnerable and disillusioned amongst the youth abroad. Unlike them, however, there are other Eritreans who also operate in the diaspora but have no choice in the matter. These are conscripts who hail from within the country and are trained in special cadre programs. These Eritreans might get brainwashed to the level of accepting the rhetoric fed them by Yemane Gebreab, although most are deeply aware that they have no choice but to obey, for it is not only their lives which are endangered; they also fear for their families. Few who manage to escape the grip of Yemane Gebreab’s network manage to share inside information. They are unambiguous about the fact that Yemane Gebreab runs these programs, participates in training and brainwashing cadres, as well as being the person who has the final word in all decision-making.

      The cadres deployed outside Eritrea by Yemane Gebreab have a slightly different job from the YPFDJ youth who are trained in the country and then sent back to their diaspora communities, although it must be kept in mind that often their roles overlap. These agents are told the country depends on them and that their training and job has been entrusted to them by the Eritrean people. They are made to believe they are the true inheritors of the legacy which led to the country’s independence and are instructed in no uncertain terms to put the country before their lives. Of course, by “country” Yemane Gebreab means the interests of himself, Isaias Afwerki and their kleptocratic clique. In fact, veneration of Isaias Afwerki is part of their training as they are assured that if it were not for Isaias Afwerki and the PFDJ, the country would be lost.

      Thus trained, involuntarily conscripted men and women from Eritrea are often sent to work in embassies, consulates or other PFDJ offices around the world. The former agents whom HRCE spoke with clarify that these cadres are assigned the job of spying and watching every move of ambassadors, consuls and other staff in these offices. The sources recall how, during their training, Yemane Gebreab would warn them to watch very closely Eritrean officials, diplomats and other leadership figures who visit from Eritrea. He would caution them that they are to monitor these diplomats’ movements as if they were a cancerous tumour. Accordingly, he instructs the agents he sends abroad to record what Eritrean diplomats and officials say in meetings and at public events, keeping an eye out for any sign of dissent or criticism. If these officials show any hint of discontent, they are to be reported and are consequently recalled back to the country.

      While abroad, the cadres deployed from Eritrea are also made to monitor and report on Eritrean-owned businesses and Eritrean individuals. They may receive orders to repatriate individuals targeted by the PFDJ and Yemane Gebreab. In practice, this translates to finding ways to undermine these individuals and business owners so that either their immigration status or licences are revoked. It may even extend to outright abduction and enforced disappearance. This practice seems to be done more in African and middle-eastern countries, where some of governments might even co-operate with the PFDJ in deporting targeted individuals. Examples of this can be found in neighbouring countries such as Sudan, where, throughout the years, abductions of Eritreans from Sudanese territory are conducted by Eritrean agents.

      Moreover, agents who answer to and co-operate with Yemane Gebreab can also be foreign nationals. Recalling the assassination attempt on the Italian journalist mentioned above, the Somalis who allowed the journalist to escape were reprimanded by Yemane Gebreab. Furthermore, part of the reason his name is the only non-Somali name on the list in the Executive Order concerning the turmoil in Somalia is due to his and his agents’ work in the region.

      However, the international activities by Yemane Gebreab form only part of the picture, as he is also deeply entrenched in the terror his activities within the country cause to the Eritrean People. As mentioned in a previous article, Yemane Gebreab admits in an interview that he and the PFDJ arrested without due legal process and detained incommunicado a group of journalists and his former colleagues and senior ministers known as the G11 in 2001. (The G11 were part of the G15, a group of senior government officials who publicly called for democracy and change, but only 11 of them were in the country at the time of arrest, and few are thought to survive to this day). Though this case is the most famous internationally, Yemane Gebreab is co-perpetrator of other persecutions and enforced disappearances within the country.

      Inside Eritrea, Yemane Gebreab is one of the main political minds behind the PFDJ, and as such, he plans and implements various repressive internal policies. He plays a crucial role in the establishment and running of youth programs, including the national service and the National Union of Eritrean Youth and Students (NUEYS), the internal equivalent of the YPFDJ and the organisation which handles all Eritrean youth affairs before they are conscripted into the military, which occurs before they even finish secondary education. This includes participation in PFDJ organised events and the release or withholding of the ID card all students must have before they are conscripted, on penalty of detention and early conscription into the military.

      Whilst Gebreab partakes in shaping such national policies to the extent that he is known as second-in-command in the country after Isaias Afewerki, the cadres he controls are put to work even inside Eritrea. The espionage network in Eritrea is as unnerving as possible, but what makes it even more fearsome for those who have to live under it is that elements like those organised and deployed by Yemane Gebreab do not fall under the control of any normal intelligence agency. They receive orders and respond solely to the president’s office and to Yemane Gebreab. For years the Eritrean population has lived in dread of accidentally offending one of these informants or any other covert agents infiltrated within the population.

      A particular terrorising effect is achieved by the agents of Yemane Gebreab inside Eritrea by the fact that they not only spy on the population but also demand that citizens inform on each other. The testimonies received by HRCE clarify that the cadres and agents trained and deployed by Yemane Gebreab are often given quotas and targets to monitor. Consequently, they follow the target in public places such as cafes, places of work, churches, mosques, etc. In such places, these agents approach the persons running the locales, businesses or places of worship and force them to inform on the targeted citizens. This creates a daily atmosphere of terror in the population, because no one can be sure if their colleague, their waiter, their church leader or their imam is watching their every move and reporting to these agents. To use a recent development within the country as a further example, it appears that the PFDJ regime is now assigning one family in each neighbourhood to act as informants on a group of surrounding families, reporting the comings and goings of each member of the assigned families they watch.

      At this point it is important to remind the reader that Eritreans live in terror of the consequences that may befall them if they appear to know anything unauthorised or do not cooperate with the demands made of them. In such ways Yemane Gebreab instils fear among Eritreans so that no one dares to speak to their neighbour openly, let alone organise to demand their rights or change the system. There is now an entire generation born and raised in such conditions of fear, and Yemane Gebreab is the main actor pulling the strings of the mechanisms that have terrorised many of the young people as well as most of the adult population for their entire lives, both inside and outside Eritrea. Gebreab has committed crimes against humanity and used people who have been forced into slavery to partake in his schemes. He is one of the main persons, perhaps only the second after Isaias Afwerki, to have illegitimately detained and directly caused the deaths of hundreds accused of dissenting against the PFDJ, of whom the most famous are amongst the G11 and journalists forcibly disappeared in September 2001.

      It baffles the mind then that Yemane Gebreab has thus far been allowed to enter Europe and the United States of America freely. European leaders and representatives of other United Nations member states should refuse to interact with such a criminal and should denounce him. The UN has recommended that those who systematically perpetrate crimes against humanity in Eritrea should face prosecution and Yemane Gebreab should be one of the most wanted men in Eritrea, detained immediately upon setting foot outside Eritrea and prosecuted at the International Criminal Court (ICC). HRCE recognises that some steps such as sanction and seizure of financial assets have been taken by the United States. However, it is feared that the seriousness of Yemane Gebreab’s crimes are grossly underestimated by the leaders of such countries and international organisations.

      HRCE appeals to all countries to deny entry to Yemane Gebreab and to refuse political and financial cooperation with him and the party he represents. It seems that Yemane Gebreab has been set free losing a major opportunity to detain him. However, if the U.S, European or other country’s authorities get another chance to put him in custody, HRCE recommends that instead of being released to perpetrate further crimes against humanity, he should be detained until he is brought before the ICC to answer for the major role he has played in terrorising and eliminating innocent Eritreans.