• Les passagers du #Bosphore

    Le Bosphore est un pont entre l’Europe et l’Asie. Ses deux rives se regardent et se rencontrent sans cesse, comme une respiration. Ce bras de mer est inscrit dans l’identité vivante d’#Istanbul, dans les représentations et les imaginaires de ses habitants.

    Les trois épisodes des Passagers du Bosphore proposent un voyage sonore immersif, en son #binaural, à écouter avec un casque ou des oreillettes pour profiter de l’expérience, comme une invitation à ressentir le battement de cet espace mouvant : à bord d’un vapeur, d’une rive à l’autre, remonter le Bosphore.

    https://www.franceculture.fr/emissions/lexperience-le-podcast-original/les-passagers-du-bosphore

    https://cdn.radiofrance.fr/s3/cruiser-production/2019/10/febeec5c-5fca-4ce5-a017-b69819414213/bnc_pad_unit_binau_bos01.mp3

    #france_culture #podcast #radio #audio

  • A #Istanbul, le flow contre la destruction des #quartiers_populaires

    Leur histoire commence en 2008 à Istanbul, alors qu’ils sont encore au lycée : trois jeunes gens, issus de différentes minorités, se rencontrent, #Asil_Koç alias “#Slang”, #Veysi_Özdemir alias “#V.Z.” et #Burak_Kaçar, alias “#Zen-G”. Alors que leur quartier de #Sulukule subit une #gentrification violente, ces trois amis choisissent de transmettre leur colère aux sons de leurs #flows enflammés et sur des beats acérés. Radio Parleur les a rencontrés et vous livre leur histoire à travers ce reportage, qui a reçu le 2e prix du concours Paroles Partagées 2018.

    https://radioparleur.net/2018/07/03/a-istanbul-flow-contre-destruction-quartiers-populaires

    #Turquie #résistance #audio #urban_matter #villes #géographie_urbaines #musique_et_politique #musique

    https://vimeo.com/5071818


    https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=15&v=czcscMoVziI

    ping @sinehebdo

  • 440 pairs of women’s shoes...

    440 pairs of women’s shoes were hung on one of the city walls in Istanbul this week to draw attention to male domestic violence in the country. This is the number of women murdered by their husbands in Turkey in 2019.


    https://twitter.com/diorchild/status/1175355011536175109
    #violence_domestique #femmes #chaussures #manifestation #art_et_politique #Turquie #Istanbul #espace_public #visibilisation #féminicide

    Compte Instagram de l’artiste:
    https://www.instagram.com/vahittuna
    #Vahti_Tuna

    ping @isskein @visionscarto

  • Quelques #films autour de la question de la #gentrification, tirés de ce programme de projections de la Ciguë à Genève (coopérative d’habitation en Suisse) :


    https://twitter.com/coopcigue/status/1165977276472860672
    #urban_matter #villes #géographie_urbaine

    –------

    Gentrification : à qui la faute ?

    La faute aux #bobos et à leur goût pour les quartiers « typiques » bien entendu. C’est en tout cas ce qu’on lit beaucoup ça et là. Pour lever le voile sur tous les autres facteurs qui expliquent la gentrification parfois brutale de certains endroits, Usul et Cotentin ont dégoté un quartier de #Lyon en cours de gentrification, la #Guillotière. Qui gentrifie ? Pourquoi ? Comment ? Trois urbanistes essayent de répondre à ces questions auxquelles on apporte parfois des réponses un peu courtes.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_2tZliXY0AA


    #France #Lyon

    –---------

    #GOOD_WHITE_PEOPLE : A Short Film About Gentrification

    In the Spring of 2001, the African-American community of #Over-the-Rhine in downtown #Cincinnati arose in protest after unarmed 19-year-old, Timothy Thomas, was killed by a white officer named Steven Roach. In the years following, in order to allure prospective residents, Over-the-Rhine was swept into a new narrative of safety and whiteness by the creation of an arts and brewery district for the creative class. While it’s “dangerous and inconvenient” Black history is revitalized from existence, property values rise with presence of police, tax abatements, and zoning amendments to serve and protect those properties.

    Filmed during the peak of Over-the-Rhine’s urban renewal, GOOD WHITE PEOPLE follows the story of Reginald Stroud who runs a karate school and candy store in the storefronts beneath the apartment he and his family have called home for over 10 years. When a for-profit developer purchases the building they rent, Reginald and his family are told they must vacate the building and are given only 45 days to find a new home and relocate their businesses while their neighborhood makes way for start-up incubators, yoga studios, and luxury condominiums.

    Formerly a target of the policies created by the War On Drugs, Cincinnati’s inner-city is now the target of urban development corporations as its black population declines. GOOD WHITE PEOPLE hopes to start a conversation about the use of coded terminology like urban renewal, revitalization, and urban renaissance, and explore how these words help to trivialize and disguise the commercial practice of white supremacy, neocolonialism, and the economic othering of low-income residents.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xdUsZaJ80zI


    #court-métrage #USA

    –---------

    There Goes the Neighbourhood : Gentrification as Class Warfare

    In cities across the world, established urban environments are being transformed according to the dictates of capital. Gentrification is destroying the social fabric of working-class and racialized districts, displacing long-standing residents in order to make way for a new class of upwardly-mobile, and often white professionals – who often view the rich local histories of the spaces they move into as nothing more than kitschy branding appeal. The culture clash that emerges between established community members and these new arrivals is often viewed as the front-line of struggles around gentrification; a quarrel between patrons of a locally-owned roti shop, and those of a new craft beer pub; or a battle between #NIMBY condo-dwellers and the beneficiaries of a local social service agency.

    But while this tension is certainly real, it is only the tip of the iceberg. Gentrification is a systematic process, facilitated by state, regional and local governments and bankrolled by massive financial institutions managing multi-billion dollar portfolios. It is class war playing out in physical space, with all the complexities and contradictions that entails.

    In this month’s episode of Trouble, the first in a two-part series, sub.Media examines gentrification as a process of capitalist urban development, by taking a closer look at how it is playing out in three mega-cities: #Toronto, #New_Orleans and #Istanbul.

    Le trailer : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EW-P-dRmt4s

    #documentaire

  • For Syrians in #Istanbul, fears rise as deportations begin

    Turkey is deporting Syrians from Istanbul to Syria, including to the volatile northwest province of #Idlib, according to people who have been the target of a campaign launched last week against migrants who lack residency papers.

    The crackdown comes at a time of rising rhetoric and political pressure on the country’s 3.6 million registered Syrian refugees to return home. Estimates place hundreds of thousands of unregistered Syrians in Turkey, many living in urban areas such as Istanbul.

    Refugee rights advocates say deportations to Syria violate customary international law, which prohibits forcing people to return to a country where they are still likely to face persecution or risk to their lives.

    Arrests reportedly began as early as 13 July, with police officers conducting spot-checks in public spaces, factories, and metro stations around Istanbul and raiding apartments by 16 July. As word spread quickly in Istanbul’s Syrian community, many people shut themselves up at home rather than risk being caught outside.

    It is not clear how many people have been deported so far, with reported numbers ranging from hundreds to a thousand.

    “Deportation of Syrians to their country, which is still in the midst of armed conflict, is a clear violation of both Turkish and international law.”

    Turkey’s Ministry of Interior has said the arrests are aimed at people living without legal status in the country’s most populous city. Istanbul authorities said in a Monday statement that only “irregular migrants entering our country illegally [will be] arrested and deported.” It added that Syrians registered outside Istanbul would be obliged to return to the provinces where they were first issued residency.

    Mayser Hadid, a Syrian lawyer who runs a law practice catering to Syrians in Istanbul, said that the “deportation of Syrians to their country, which is still in the midst of armed conflict, is a clear violation of both Turkish and international law,” including the “return of Syrians without temporary protection cards.”

    Istanbul authorities maintain that the recent detentions and deportations are within the law.

    Starting in 2014, Syrian refugees in Turkey have been registered under “temporary protection” status, which grants the equivalency of legal residency and lets holders apply for a work permit. Those with temporary protection need special permission to work or travel outside of the area where they first applied for protection.

    But last year, several cities across the country – including Istanbul – stopped registering newly-arrived Syrians.

    In the Monday statement, Istanbul authorities said that Syrians registered outside of the city must return to their original city of registration by 20 August. They did not specify the penalty for those who do not.

    Barely 24 hours after the beginning of raids last week, Muhammad, a 21-year-old from Eastern Ghouta in Syria, was arrested at home along with his Syrian flatmates in the Istanbul suburb of Esenler.

    Muhammad, who spoke by phone on the condition of anonymity for security reasons – as did all Syrian deportees and their relatives interviewed for this article – said that Turkish police officers had forced their way into the building. “They beat me,” he said. “I wasn’t even allowed to take anything with me.”

    Muhammad said that as a relatively recent arrival, he couldn’t register for temporary protection and had opted to live and work in Istanbul without papers.

    After his arrest, Muhammad said, he was handcuffed and bundled into a police van, and transferred to a detention facility on the eastern outskirts of the city.

    There, he said, he was forced to sign a document written in Turkish that he couldn’t understand and on Friday was deported to Syria’s Idlib province, via the Bab al-Hawa border crossing.
    Deportation to Idlib

    Government supporters say that Syrians have been deported only to the rebel-held areas of northern Aleppo, where the Turkish army maintains a presence alongside groups that it backs.

    A representative from Istanbul’s provincial government office did not respond to a request for comment, but Youssef Kataboglu, a pro-government commentator who is regarded as close to the government, said that “Turkey only deports Syrians to safe areas according to the law.”

    He denied that Syrians had been returned to Idlib, where a Syrian government offensive that began in late April kicked off an upsurge in fighting, killing more than 400 civilians and forcing more than 330,000 people to flee their homes. The UN said on Monday alone, 59 civilians were killed, including 39 when a market was hit by airstrikes.

    Kataboglu said that deportation to Idlib would “be impossible.”

    Mazen Alloush, a representative of the border authorities on the Syrian side of the Bab al-Hawa crossing that links Turkey with Idlib, said that more than 3,800 Syrians had entered the country via Bab al-Hawa in the past fortnight, a number he said was not a significant change from how many people usually cross the border each month.

    The crossing is controlled by rebel authorities affiliated to Tahrir a-Sham, the hardline Islamist faction that controls most of Idlib.

    “A large number of them were Syrians trying to enter Turkish territory illegally,” who were caught and forced back across, Alloush said, but also “those who committed offences in Turkey or requested to return voluntarily.”

    “We later found out that he’d been deported to Idlib.”

    He added that “if the Turkish authorities are deporting [Syrians] through informal crossings or crossings other than Bab al-Hawa, I don’t have information about it.”

    Other Syrians caught up in the crackdown, including those who did have the proper papers to live and work in Istanbul, confirmed that they had been sent to Idlib or elsewhere.

    On July 19, Umm Khaled’s son left the family’s home without taking the documents that confirm his temporary protection status, she said. He was stopped in the street by police officers.

    “They [the police] took him,” Umm Khaled, a refugee in her 50s originally from the southern Damascus suburbs, said by phone. “We later found out that he’d been deported to Idlib.”

    Rami, a 23-year-old originally from eastern Syria’s Deir Ezzor province, said he was deported from Istanbul last week. He was carrying his temporary protection status card at the time of his arrest, he added.

    "I was in the street in Esenler when the police stopped me and asked for my identity card,” he recalled in a phone conversation from inside Syria. “They checked it, and then asked me to get on a bus.”

    Several young Syrian men already on board the bus were also carrying protection documents with them, Rami said.

    “The police tied our hands together with plastic cords,” he added, describing how the men were then driven to a nearby police station and forced to give fingerprints and sign return documents.

    Rami said he was later sent to northern Aleppo province.
    Rising anti-Syrian sentiment

    The country has deported Syrians before, and Human Rights Watch and other organisations have reported that Turkish security forces regularly intercept and return Syrian refugees attempting to enter the country. As conflict rages in and around Idlib, an increasing number of people are still trying to get into Turkey.

    Turkey said late last year that more than 300,000 Syrians have returned to their home country voluntarily.

    A failed coup attempt against President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan in July 2016 led to an emergency decree that human rights groups say was used to arrest individuals whom the government perceived as opponents. Parts of that decree were later passed into law, making it easier for authorities to deport foreigners on the grounds that they are either linked to terrorist groups or pose a threat to public order.

    The newest wave of deportations after months of growing anti-Syrian sentiment in political debate and on the streets has raised more questions about how this law might be used, as well as the future of Syrian refugees in Turkey.

    In two rounds of mayoral elections that ended last month with a defeat for Erdoğan’s ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP), the winning candidate, Ekrem İmamoğlu of the Republican People’s Party (CHP), repeatedly used anti-Syrian rhetoric in his campaign, capitalising on discontent towards the faltering economy and the increasingly contentious presence of millions of Syrian refugees.

    Shortly after the elections, several incidents of mob violence against Syrian-owned businesses took place. Widespread anti-Syrian sentiment has also been evident across social media; after the mayoral election trending hashtags on Twitter reportedly included “Syrians get out”.

    As the deportations continue, the families of those sent back are wondering what they can do.

    “By God, what did he do [wrong]?” asked Umm Khaled, speaking of her son, now in war-torn Idlib.

    “His mother, father, and all his sisters are living here legally in Turkey,” she said. “What are we supposed to do now?”

    https://www.thenewhumanitarian.org/news/2019/07/23/syrians-istanbul-fears-rise-deportations-begin
    #Turquie #asile #migrations #réfugiés_syriens #réfugiés #Syrie #renvois #expulsions #peur

    • Des milliers de migrants arrêtés à Istanbul en deux semaines

      Mardi, le ministre de l’intérieur a indiqué que l’objectif de son gouvernement était d’expulser 80 000 migrants en situation irrégulière en Turquie, contre 56 000 l’an dernier.

      C’est un vaste #coup_de_filet mené sur fond de fort sentiment antimigrants. Les autorités turques ont annoncé, mercredi 24 juillet, avoir arrêté plus de 6 000 migrants en deux semaines, dont des Syriens, vivant de manière « irrégulière » à Istanbul.

      « Nous menons une opération depuis le 12 juillet (…). Nous avons attrapé 6 122 personnes à Istanbul, dont 2 600 Afghans. Une partie de ces personnes sont des Syriens », a déclaré le ministre de l’intérieur, Suleyman Soylu, dans une interview donnée à la chaîne turque NTV. Mardi, ce dernier a indiqué que l’objectif de son gouvernement était d’expulser 80 000 migrants en situation irrégulière en Turquie, contre 56 000 l’an dernier.

      M. Soylu a démenti que des Syriens étaient expulsés vers leur pays, déchiré par une guerre civile meurtrière depuis 2011, après que des ONG ont affirmé avoir recensé des cas de personnes renvoyées en Syrie. « Ces personnes, nous ne pouvons pas les expulser. (…) Lorsque nous attrapons des Syriens qui ne sont pas enregistrés, nous les envoyons dans des camps de réfugiés », a-t-il affirmé, mentionnant un camp dans la province turque de Hatay, frontalière de la Syrie. Il a toutefois assuré que certains Syriens choisissaient de rentrer de leur propre gré en Syrie.

      La Turquie accueille sur son sol plus de 3,5 millions de Syriens ayant fui la guerre, dont 547 000 sont enregistrés à Istanbul. Les autorités affirment n’avoir aucun problème avec les personnes dûment enregistrées auprès des autorités à Istanbul, mais disent lutter contre les migrants vivant dans cette ville alors qu’ils sont enregistrés dans d’autres provinces, voire dans aucune province.

      Le gouvernorat d’Istanbul a lancé lundi un ultimatum, qui expire le 20 août, enjoignant les Syriens y vivant illégalement à quitter la ville. Un groupement d’ONG syriennes a toutefois indiqué, lundi, que « plus de 600 Syriens », pour la plupart titulaires de « cartes de protection temporaires » délivrées par d’autres provinces turques, avaient été arrêtés la semaine dernière à Istanbul et renvoyés en Syrie.

      La Coalition nationale de l’opposition syrienne, basée à Istanbul, a déclaré mardi qu’elle était entrée en contact avec les autorités turques pour discuter des dernières mesures prises contre les Syriens, appelant à stopper les « expulsions ». Son président, Anas al-Abda, a appelé le gouvernement turc à accorder un délai de trois mois aux Syriens concernés pour régulariser leur situation auprès des autorités.

      Ce tour de vis contre les migrants survient après la défaite du parti du président Recep Tayyip Erdogan lors des élections municipales à Istanbul, en juin, lors desquelles l’accueil des Syriens s’était imposé comme un sujet majeur de préoccupation les électeurs.

      Pendant la campagne, le discours hostile aux Syriens s’était déchaîné sur les réseaux sociaux, avec le mot-dièse #LesSyriensDehors. D’après une étude publiée début juillet par l’université Kadir Has, située à Istanbul, la part des Turcs mécontents de la présence des Syriens est passée de 54,5 % en 2017 à 67,7 % en 2019.

      https://www.lemonde.fr/international/article/2019/07/24/des-milliers-de-migrants-arretes-a-istanbul-en-deux-semaines_5492944_3210.ht
      #arrestation #arrestations

    • Turkey Forcibly Returning Syrians to Danger. Authorities Detain, Coerce Syrians to Sign “Voluntary Return” Forms

      Turkish authorities are detaining and coercing Syrians into signing forms saying they want to return to Syria and then forcibly returning them there, Human Rights Watch said today. On July 24, 2019, Interior Minister Süleyman Soylu denied that Turkey had “deported” Syrians but said that Syrians “who voluntarily want to go back to Syria” can benefit from procedures allowing them to return to “safe areas.”

      Almost 10 days after the first reports of increased police spot-checks of Syrians’ registration documents in Istanbul and forced returns of Syrians from the city, the office of the provincial governor released a July 22 statement saying that Syrians registered in one of the country’s other provinces must return there by August 20, and that the Interior Ministry would send unregistered Syrians to provinces other than Istanbul for registration. The statement comes amid rising xenophobic sentiment across the political spectrum against Syrian and other refugees in Turkey.

      “Turkey claims it helps Syrians voluntarily return to their country, but threatening to lock them up until they agree to return, forcing them to sign forms, and dumping them in a war zone is neither voluntary nor legal,” said Gerry Simpson, associate Emergencies director. “Turkey should be commended for hosting record numbers of Syrian refugees, but unlawful deportations are not the way forward.”

      Turkey shelters a little over 3.6 million Syrian Refugees countrywide who have been given temporary protection, half a million of them in Istanbul. This is more refugees than any other country in the world and almost four times as many as the whole European Union (EU).

      The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) says that “the vast majority of Syrian asylum-seekers continue to … need international refugee protection” and that it “calls on states not to forcibly return Syrian nationals and former habitual residents of Syria.”

      Human Rights Watch spoke by phone with four Syrians who are in Syria after being detained and forcibly returned there.

      One of the men, who was from Ghouta, in the Damascus countryside, was detained on July 17 in Istanbul, where he had been living unregistered for over three years. He said police coerced him and other Syrian detainees into signing a form, transferred them to another detention center, and then put them on one of about 20 buses headed to Syria. They are now in northern Syria.

      Another man, from Aleppo, who had been living in Gaziantep in southeast Turkey since 2013, said he was detained there after he and his brother went to the police to complain about an attack on a shop that they ran in the city. He said the police transferred them from the Gaziantep Karşıyaka police station to the foreigners’ deportation center at Oğuzeli, holding them there for six days and forcing them to sign a deportation form without telling them what it was. On July 9, the authorities forcibly returned the men to Azaz in Syria via the Öncüpınar/Bab al Salama border gate near the Turkish town of Kilis, Human Rights Watch also spoke by phone with two men who said the Turkish coast guard and police intercepted them at checkpoints near the coast as they tried to reach Greece, detained them, and coerced them into signing and fingerprinting voluntary repatriation forms. The authorities then deported them to Idlib and northern Aleppo governorate.

      One of the men, a Syrian from Atmeh in Idlib governorate who registered in the Turkish city of Gaziantep in 2017, said the Turkish coast guard intercepted him on July 9. He said [“Guvenlik”] “security” held him with other Syrians for six days in a detention facility in the town of Aydın, in western Turkey. He said the guards verbally abused him and other detainees, punched him in the chest, and coerced him into signing voluntary repatriation papers. Verbally abusive members of Turkey’s rural gendarmerie police forces [jandarma] deported him on July 15 to Syria with about 35 other Syrians through the Öncüpınar/Bab al-Salameh border crossing.

      He said that there were others in the Aydin detention center who had been there for up to four months because they had refused to sign these forms.

      The second man said he fled Maarat al-Numan in 2014 and registered in the Turkish city of Iskenderun. On July 4, police stopped him at a checkpoint as he tried to reach the coast to take a boat to Greece and took him to the Aydin detention facility, where he said the guards beat some of the other detainees and shouted and cursed at them.

      He said the detention authorities confiscated his belongings, including his Turkish registration card, and told him to sign forms. When he refused, the official said they were not deportation forms but just “routine procedure.” When he refused again, he was told he would be detained indefinitely until he agreed to sign and provided his fingerprints. He said that the guards beat another man who had also refused, so he felt he had no choice but to sign. He was then put on a bus for 27 hours with dozens of other Syrians and deported through the Öncüpınar/Bab al-Salameh border crossing.

      In addition, journalists have spoken with a number of registered and unregistered Syrians who told them by phone from Syria that Turkish authorities detained them in the third week of July, coerced them into signing and providing a fingerprint on return documents. The authorities then deported them with dozens, and in some cases as many as 100, other Syrians to Idlib and northern Aleppo governorate through the Cilvegözü/Bab al-Hawa border crossing.

      More than 400,000 people have died because of the Syrian conflict since 2011, according to the World Bank. While the nature of the fighting in Syria has changed, with the Syrian government retaking areas previously held by anti-government groups and the battle against the Islamic State (ISIS) winding down, profound civilian suffering and loss of life persists.

      In Idlib governorate, the Syrian-Russian military alliance continues to indiscriminately bomb civilians and to use prohibited weapons, resulting in the death of at least 400 people since April, including 90 children, according to Save the Children. In other areas under the control of the Syrian government and anti-government groups, arbitrary arrests, mistreatment, and harassment are still the status quo.

      The forcible returns from Turkey indicate that the government is ready to double down on other policies that deny many Syrian asylum seekers protection. Over the past four years, Turkey has sealed off its border with Syria, while Turkish border guards have carried out mass summary pushbacks and killed and injured Syrians as they try to cross. In late 2017 and early 2018, Istanbul and nine provinces on the border with Syria suspended registration of newly arriving asylum seekers. Turkey’s travel permit system for registered Syrians prohibits unregistered Syrians from traveling from border provinces they enter to register elsewhere in the country.

      Turkey is bound by the international customary law of nonrefoulement, which prohibits the return of anyone to a place where they would face a real risk of persecution, torture or other ill-treatment, or a threat to life. This includes asylum seekers, who are entitled to have their claims fairly adjudicated and not be summarily returned to places where they fear harm. Turkey may not coerce people into returning to places where they face harm by threatening to detain them.

      Turkey should protect the basic rights of all Syrians, regardless of registration status, and register those denied registration since late 2017, in line with the Istanbul governor’s July 22 statement.

      On July 19, the European Commission announced the adoption of 1.41 billion euros in additional assistance to support refugees and local communities in Turkey, including for their protection. The European Commission, EU member states with embassies in Turkey, and the UNHCR should support Turkey in any way needed to register and protect Syrians, and should publicly call on Turkey to end its mass deportations of Syrians at the border and from cities further inland.

      “As Turkey continues to shelter more than half of registered Syrian refugees globally, the EU should be resettling Syrians from Turkey to the EU but also ensuring that its financial support protects all Syrians seeking refuge in Turkey,” Simpson said.

      https://www.hrw.org/news/2019/07/26/turkey-forcibly-returning-syrians-danger
      #retour_volontaire

    • Turquie : à Istanbul, les réfugiés vivent dans la peur du racisme et de la police

      Depuis quelques semaines, le hashtag #StopDeportationsToSyria (#SuriyeyeSınırdışınaSon) circule sur les réseaux sociaux. Il s’accompagne de témoignages de Syriens qui racontent s’être fait arrêter par la police turque à Istanbul et renvoyer en Syrie. Les autorités turques ont décidé de faire la chasse aux réfugiés alors que les agressions se multiplient.

      Le 21 juillet, alors qu’il fait ses courses, le jeune Amjad Tablieh se fait arrêter par la police turque à Istanbul. Il n’a pas sa carte de protection temporaire – kimlik – sur lui et la police turque refuse d’attendre que sa famille la lui apporte : « J’ai été mis dans un bus avec d’autres syriens. On nous a emmenés au poste de police de Tuzla et les policiers on dit que nous serions envoyés à Hatay [province turque à la frontière syrienne] ». La destination finale sera finalement la Syrie.

      Étudiant et disposant d’un kimlik à Istanbul, Amjad ajoute que comme les autres syriens arrêtés ce jour-là, il a été obligé de signer un document reconnaissant qu’il rentrait volontairement en Syrie. Il tient à ajouter qu’il a « vu des personnes se faire frapper pour avoir refusé de signer ce document ». Étudiant en architecture, Hama est arrivé à Istanbul il y a quatre mois pour s’inscrire à l’université. Il a été arrêté et déporté car son kimlik a été délivré à Gaziantep, près de la frontière avec la Syrie. Amr Dabool, également enregistré dans la ville de Gaziantep, a quant à lui été expulsé en Syrie alors qu’il tentait de se rendre en Grèce.
      Pas de statut de réfugié pour les Syriens en Turquie

      Alors que des récits similaires se multiplient sur les réseaux sociaux, le 22 juillet, les autorités d’Istanbul ont annoncé que les Syriens disposant de la protection temporaire mais n’étant pas enregistrés à Istanbul avaient jusqu’au 20 août pour retourner dans les provinces où ils sont enregistrés, faute de quoi ils seront renvoyés de force dans des villes choisies par le ministère de l’Intérieur. Invité quelques jours plus tard à la télévision turque, le ministre de l’intérieur Süleyman Soylu a nié toute expulsion, précisant que certains Syriens choisissaient « de rentrer de leur propre gré en Syrie ».

      Sur les 3,5 millions de Syriens réfugiés en Turquie, ils sont plus de 500 000 à vivre à Istanbul. La grande majorité d’entre eux ont été enregistrés dans les provinces limitrophes avec la Syrie (Gaziantep ou Urfa) où ils sont d’abord passés avant d’arriver à Istanbul pour travailler, étudier ou rejoindre leur famille. Depuis quelques jours, les contrôles se renforcent pour les renvoyer là où ils sont enregistrés.

      Pour Diane al Mehdi, anthropologue et membre du Syrian Refugees Protection Network, ces refoulements existent depuis longtemps, mais ils sont aujourd’hui plus massifs. Le 24 juillet, le ministre de l’intérieur a ainsi affirmé qu’une opération visant les réfugiés et des migrants non enregistrés à Istanbul avait menée à l’arrestation, depuis le 12 juillet, de 1000 Syriens. Chaque jour, environ 200 personnes ont été expulsées vers le nord de la Syrie via le poste frontière de Bab al-Hawa, précise la chercheuse. « Ces chiffres concernent principalement des Syriens vivant à Istanbul », explique-t-elle.

      Le statut d’« invité » dont disposent les Syriens en Turquie est peu clair et extrêmement précarisant, poursuit Diane al Mehdi. « Il n’y a pas d’antécédents légaux pour un tel statut, cela participe à ce flou et permet au gouvernement de faire un peu ce qu’il veut. » Créé en 2013, ce statut s’inscrivait à l’époque dans une logique de faveur et de charité envers les Syriens, le gouvernement ne pensant alors pas que la guerre en Syrie durerait. « À l’époque, les frontières étaient complètement ouvertes, les Syriens avaient le droit d’être enregistrés en Turquie et surtout ce statut comprenait le principe de non-refoulement. Ces trois principes ont depuis longtemps été bafouées par le gouvernement turc. »

      Aujourd’hui, les 3,5 millions de Syriens réfugiés en Turquie ne disposent pas du statut de réfugié en tant que tel. Bien que signataire de la Convention de Genève, Ankara n’octroie le statut de réfugié qu’aux ressortissants des 47 pays membres du Conseil de l’Europe. La Syrie n’en faisant pas partie, les Syriens ont en Turquie un statut moins protecteur encore que la protection subsidiaire : il est temporaire et révocable.
      #LesSyriensDehors : « Ici, c’est la Turquie, c’est Istanbul »

      Si le Président Erdoğan a longtemps prôné une politique d’accueil des Syriens, le vent semble aujourd’hui avoir tourné. En février 2018, il déclarait déjà : « Nous ne sommes pas en mesure de continuer d’accueillir 3,5 millions de réfugiés pour toujours ». Et alors qu’à Istanbul la possibilité d’obtenir le kimlik a toujours été compliquée, depuis le 6 juillet 2019, Istanbul n’en délivre officiellement plus aucun selon Diane al Mehdi.

      Même si le kimlik n’offre pas aux Syriens la possibilité de travailler, depuis quelques années, les commerces aux devantures en arabe sont de plus en plus nombreux dans rues d’Istanbul et beaucoup de Syriens ont trouvé du travail dans l’économie informelle, fournissant une main-d’œuvre bon marché. Or, dans un contexte économique difficile, avec une inflation et un chômage en hausse, les travailleurs syriens entrent en concurrence avec les ressortissants turcs et cela accroît les tensions sociales.

      Au printemps dernier, alors que la campagne pour les élections municipales battait son plein, des propos hostiles accompagnés des hashtags #SuriyelilerDefoluyor (« Les Syriens dehors ») ou #UlkemdeSuriyeliIstemiyorum (« Je ne veux pas de Syriens dans mon pays ») se sont multipliés sur les réseaux sociaux. Le candidat d’opposition et aujourd’hui maire d’Istanbul Ekrem Imamoglu, étonné du nombre d’enseignes en arabe dans certains quartiers, avait lancé : « Ici, c’est la Turquie, c’est Istanbul ».

      Après la banalisation des propos anti-syriens, ce sont les actes de violence qui se sont multipliés dans les rues d’Istanbul. Fin juin, dans le quartier de Küçükçekmece, une foule d’hommes a attaqué des magasins tenus par des Syriens. Quelques jours plus tard, les autorités d’Istanbul sommaient plus de 700 commerçants syriens de turciser leurs enseignes en arabe. Publié dans la foulée, un sondage de l’université Kadir Has à Istanbul a confirmé que la part des Turcs mécontents de la présence des Syriens est passée de 54,5 % en 2017 à 67,7 % en 2019.
      Climat de peur

      Même s’ils ont un kimlik, ceux qui ne disposent pas d’un permis de travail - difficile à obtenir - risquent une amende d’environs 550 euros et leur expulsion vers la Syrie s’ils sont pris en flagrant délit. Or, la police a renforcé les contrôles d’identités dans les stations de métro, les gares routières, les quartiers à forte concentration de Syriens mais aussi sur les lieux de travail. Cette nouvelle vague d’arrestations et d’expulsions suscite un climat de peur permanente chez les Syriens d’Istanbul. Aucune des personne contactée n’a souhaité témoigner, même sous couvert d’anonymat.

      « Pas protégés par les lois internationales, les Syriens titulaires du kimlik deviennent otages de la politique turque », dénonce Syrian Refugees Protection Network. Et l’[accord signé entre l’Union européenne et Ankara au printemps 2016 pour fermer la route des Balkans n’a fait que détériorer leur situation en Turquie. Pour Diane al-Mehdi, il aurait fallu accorder un statut qui permette aux Syriens d’avoir un avenir. « Tant qu’ils n’auront pas un statut fixe qui leur permettra de travailler, d’aller à l’école, à l’université, ils partiront en Europe. » Selon elle, donner de l’argent - dont on ne sait pas clairement comment il bénéficie aux Syriens - à la Turquie pour que le pays garde les Syriens n’était pas la solution. « Évidemment, l’Europe aurait aussi dû accepter d’accueillir plus de Syriens. »

      https://www.courrierdesbalkans.fr/Turquie-a-Istanbul-les-refugies-vivent-dans-la-peur-du-racisme-et

    • En Turquie, les réfugiés syriens sont devenus #indésirables

      Après avoir accueilli les réfugiés syriens à bras ouverts, la Turquie change de ton. Une façon pour le gouvernement Erdogan de réagir aux crispations qu’engendrent leur présence dans un contexte économique morose.

      Les autorités avaient donné jusqu’à mardi soir aux migrants sans statut légal pour régulariser leur situation, sous peine d’être expulsés. Mais selon plusieurs ONG, ces expulsions ont déjà commencé et plus d’un millier de réfugiés ont déjà été arrêtés. Quelque 600 personnes auraient même déjà été reconduites en Syrie.

      « Les policiers font des descentes dans les quartiers, dans les commerces, dans les maisons. Ils font des contrôles d’identité dans les transports en commun et quand ils attrapent des Syriens, ils les emmènent au bureau de l’immigration puis les expulsent », décrit Eyup Ozer, membre du collectif « We want to live together initiative ».

      Le gouvernement turc dément pour sa part ces renvois forcés. Mais cette vague d’arrestations intervient dans un climat hostile envers les 3,6 millions de réfugiés syriens installés en Turquie.

      Solidarité islamique

      Bien accueillis au début de la guerre, au nom de la solidarité islamique défendue par le président turc Recep Tayyip Erdogan dans l’idée de combattre Bachar al-Assad, ces réfugiés syriens sont aujourd’hui devenus un enjeu politique.

      Retenus à leur arrivée dans des camps, parfois dans des conditions difficiles, nombre d’entre eux ont quitté leur point de chute pour tenter leur chance dans le reste du pays et en particulier dans les villes. A Istanbul, le poumon économique de la Turquie, la présence de ces nouveaux-venus est bien visible. La plupart ont ouvert des commerces et des restaurants, et leurs devantures, en arabe, agacent, voire suscitent des jalousies.

      « L’économie turque va mal, c’est pour cette raison qu’on ressent davantage les effets de la crise syrienne », explique Lami Bertan Tokuzlu, professeur de droit à l’Université Bilgi d’Istanbul. « Les Turcs n’approuvent plus les dépenses du gouvernement en faveur des Syriens », relève ce spécialiste des migrations.
      Ressentiment croissant

      Après l’euphorie économique des années 2010, la Turquie est confrontée depuis plus d’un an à la dévaluation de sa monnaie et à un taux de chômage en hausse, à 10,9% en 2018.

      Dans ce contexte peu favorable et alors que les inégalités se creusent, la contestation s’est cristallisée autour de la question des migrants. Celle-ci expliquerait, selon certains experts, la déroute du candidat de Recep Tayyip Erdogan à la mairie d’Istanbul.

      Conscient de ce ressentiment dans la population et des conséquences potentielles pour sa popularité, le président a commencé à adapter son discours dès 2018. L’ultimatum lancé à ceux qui ont quitté une province turque où ils étaient enregistrés pour s’installer à Istanbul illustre une tension croissante.

      https://www.rts.ch/info/monde/10649380-en-turquie-les-refugies-syriens-sont-devenus-indesirables.html

    • Europe’s Complicity in Turkey’s Syrian-Refugee Crackdown

      Ankara is moving against Syrians in the country—and the European Union bears responsibility.

      Under the cover of night, Turkish police officers pushed Ahmed onto a large bus parked in central Istanbul. In the darkness, the Syrian man from Damascus could discern dozens of other handcuffed refugees being crammed into the vehicle. Many of them would not see the Turkish city again.

      Ahmed, who asked that his last name not be used to protect his safety, was arrested after police discovered that he was registered with the authorities not in Istanbul, but in a different district. Turkish law obliges Syrian refugees with a temporary protection status to remain in their locale of initial registration or obtain separate permission to travel, and the officers reassured him he would simply be transferred back to the right district.

      Instead, as dawn broke, the bus arrived at a detention facility in the Istanbul suburb of Pendik, where Ahmed said he was jostled into a crowded cell with 10 others and no beds, and received only one meal a day, which was always rotten. “The guards told us we Syrians are just as rotten inside,” he told me. “They kept shouting that Turkey will no longer accept us, and that we will all go back to Syria.”

      Ahmed would spend more than six weeks in the hidden world of Turkey’s so-called removal centers. His account, as well as those of more than half a dozen other Syrians I spoke to, point to the systemic abuse, the forced deportations, and, in some cases, the death of refugees caught in a recent crackdown here.
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      Yet Turkey is not the only actor implicated. In a deeper sense, the backlash also exposes the long-term consequences of the European Union’s outsourcing of its refugee problem. In March 2016, the EU entered into a controversial deal with Turkey that halted much of the refugee influx to Europe in return for an aid package worth €6 billion ($6.7 billion) and various political sweeteners for Ankara. Preoccupied with its own border security, EU decision makers at the time were quick to reassure their critics that Turkey constituted a “safe third country” that respected refugee rights and was committed to the principle of non-refoulement.

      As Europe closed its doors, Turkey was left with a staggering 3.6 million registered Syrian refugees—the largest number hosted by any country in the world and nearly four times as many as all EU-member states combined. While Turkish society initially responded with impressive resilience, its long-lauded hospitality is rapidly wearing thin, prompting President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan’s government to take measures that violate the very premise of the EU-Turkey deal.

      Last month, Turkish police launched operations targeting undocumented migrants and refugees in Istanbul. Syrian refugees holding temporary protection status registered in other Turkish districts now have until October 30 to leave Istanbul, whereas those without any papers are to be transferred to temporary refugee camps in order to be registered.

      Both international and Turkish advocates of refugee rights say, however, that the operation sparked a wave of random arrests and even forced deportations. The Istanbul Bar Association, too, reported its Legal Aid Bureau dealt with 3.5 times as many deportation cases as in June, just before the operation was launched. UNHCR, the UN’s refugee agency, and the European Commission have not said whether they believe Turkey is deporting Syrians. But one senior EU official, who asked for anonymity to discuss the issue, estimated that about 2,200 people were sent to the Syrian province of Idlib, though he said it was unclear whether they were forcibly deported or chose to return. The official added that, were Turkey forcibly deporting Syrians, this would be in explicit violation of the principle of non-refoulement, on which the EU-Turkey deal is conditioned.

      The Turkish interior ministry’s migration department did not respond to questions about the allegations. In a recent interview on Turkish television, Interior Minister Süleyman Soylu said that “it is not possible for us to deport any unregistered Syrian” and insisted that returns to Syria were entirely voluntary.

      Ahmed and several other Syrian refugees I spoke to, however, experienced firsthand what voluntary can look like in practice.

      After being transferred from the facility in Pendik to a removal center in Binkılıç, northwest of Istanbul, Ahmed said he was pressured into signing a set of forms upon arrival. The female official in charge refused to explain the papers’ contents, he said. As Ahmed was about to sign and fingerprint the last document, he noticed she was deliberately using her fingers to cover the Arabic translation of the words voluntary return. When he retracted his finger, she called in the guards, who took Ahmed to a nearby bathroom with another Syrian who had refused to sign. There, he said, the two were intimidated for several hours, and he was shown images of a man who had been badly beaten and tied to a chair with plastic tape. According to Ahmed, an official told him, “If you don’t sign, you’ll end up like that.”

      The other Syrian present at the time, Hussein, offered a similar account. In a phone interview from Dubai, where he escaped to after negotiating deportation to Malaysia instead of Syria, Hussein, who asked to be identified by only his first name to protect relatives still in Turkey, detailed the abuse in the same terms as Ahmed, and added that he was personally beaten by one of the guards. When the ordeal was over, both men said, the other Syrians who had arrived with them were being taken to a bus, apparently to be deported.

      Ahmed was detained in Binkılıç for a month before being taken to another removal center in nearby Kırklareli, where he said he was made to sleep outside in a courtyard together with more than 100 other detainees. The guards kept the toilets locked throughout the day, he said, so inmates had to either wait for a single 30-minute toilet break at night or relieve themselves where they were sleeping. When Ahmed fell seriously ill, he told me, he was repeatedly denied access to a doctor.

      After nine days in Kırklareli, the nightmare suddenly ended. Ahmed was called in by the facility’s management, asked who he was, and released when it became clear he did in fact hold temporary protection status, albeit for a district other than Istanbul. The Atlantic has seen a photo of Ahmed’s identity card, as well as his release note from the removal center.

      The EU has funded many of the removal centers in which refugees like Ahmed are held. As stated in budgets from 2010 and 2015, the EU financed at least 12 such facilities as part of its pre-accession funding to Turkey. And according to a 2016 report by an EU parliamentary delegation, the removal center in Kırklareli in which Ahmed was held received 85 percent of its funding from the EU. The Binkılıç facility, where Syrians were forced to sign return papers, also received furniture and other equipment funded by Britain and, according to Ahmed, featured signs displaying the EU and Turkish flags.

      It is hard to determine the extent to which the $6.7 billion allocated to Ankara under the 2016 EU-Turkey deal has funded similar projects. While the bulk of it went to education, health care, and direct cash support for refugees, a 2018 annual report also refers to funding for “a removal center for 750 people”—language conspicuously replaced with the more neutral “facility for 750 people” in this year’s report.

      According to Kati Piri, the European Parliament’s former Turkey rapporteur, even lawmakers like her struggle to scrutinize the precise implementation of EU-brokered deals on migration, which include agreements not just with Turkey, but also with Libya, Niger, and Sudan.

      “In this way, the EU becomes co-responsible for human-rights violations,” Piri said in a telephone interview. “Violations against refugees may have decreased on European soil, but that’s because we outsourced them. It’s a sign of Europe’s moral deficit, which deprives us from our credibility in holding Turkey to account.” According to the original agreement, the EU pledged to resettle 72,000 Syrian refugees from Turkey. Three years later, it has taken in less than a third of that number.

      Many within Turkish society feel their country has simply done enough. With an economy only recently out of recession and many Turks struggling to make a living, hostility toward Syrians is on the rise. A recent poll found that those who expressed unhappiness with Syrian refugees rose to 67.7 percent this year, from 54.5 percent in 2017.

      Just as in Europe, opposition parties in Turkey are now cashing in on anti-refugee sentiment. In municipal elections this year, politicians belonging to the secularist CHP ran an explicitly anti-Syrian campaign, and have cut municipal aid for refugees or even banned Syrians’ access to beaches since being elected. In Istanbul, on the very evening the CHP candidate Ekrem İmamoğlu was elected mayor, a jubilantly racist hashtag began trending on Twitter: “Syrians are fucking off” (#SuriyelilerDefoluyor).

      In a statement to The Atlantic, a Turkish foreign-ministry spokesperson said, “Turkey has done its part” when it came to the deal with the EU. “The funds received amount to a fraction of what has been spent by Turkey,” the text noted, adding that Ankara expects “more robust support from the EU” both financially and in the form of increased resettlements of Syrian refugees from Turkey to Europe.

      Though international organizations say that more evidence of Turkey’s actions is needed, Nour al-Deen al-Showaishi argues the proof is all around him. “The bombs are falling not far from here,” he told me in a telephone interview from a village on the outskirts of Idlib, the Syrian region where he said he was sent. Showaishi said he was deported from Turkey in mid-July after being arrested in the Istanbul neighborhood of Esenyurt while having coffee with friends. Fida al-Deen, who was with him at the time, confirmed to me that Showaishi was arrested and called him from Syria two days later.

      Having arrived in Turkey in early 2018, when the governorate of Istanbul had stopped giving out identity cards to Syrians, Showaishi did not have any papers to show the police. Taken to a nearby police station, officers assured him that he would receive an identity card if he signed a couple of forms. When he asked for more detail about the forms, however, they changed tactics and forced him to comply.

      Showaishi was then sent to a removal center in Tuzla and, he said, deported to Syria the same day. He sent me videos to show he was in Idlib, the last major enclave of armed resistance against Syrian President Bashar al-Assad. According to the United Nations, the region contains 3 million people, half of them internally displaced, and faces a humanitarian disaster now that Russia and the Assad regime are stepping up an offensive to retake the territory.

      The only way out leads back into Turkey, and, determined to prevent yet another influx of refugees, Ankara has buttressed its border.

      Still, Hisham al-Steyf al-Mohammed saw no other option. The 21-year-old was deported from Turkey in mid-July despite possessing valid papers from the governorate of Istanbul, a photo of which I have seen. Desperate to return to his wife and two young children, he paid a smuggler to guide him back to Turkey, according to Mohammed Khedr Hammoud, another refugee who joined the perilous journey.

      Shortly before sunset on August 4, Hammoud said, a group of 13 refugees set off from the village of Dirriyah, a mile from the border, pausing in the mountains for the opportune moment to cross into Turkey. While they waited, Mohammed knelt down to pray, but moments later, a cloud of sand jumped up next to him. Realizing it was a bullet, the smuggler called for the group to get moving, but Mohammed lay still. “I crawled up to him and put my ear on his heart,” Hammoud told me, “but it wasn’t beating.” For more than an hour, he said, the group was targeted by bullets from Turkish territory, and only at midnight was it able to carry Mohammed’s body away.

      I obtained a photo of Mohammed’s death certificate issued by the Al-Rahma hospital in the Darkoush village in Idlib. The document, dated August 5, notes, “A bullet went through the patient’s right ear, and came out at the level of the left neck.”

      The Turkish interior ministry sent me a statement that largely reiterated an article published in Foreign Policy last week, in which an Erdoğan spokesman said Mohammed was a terror suspect who voluntarily requested his return to Syria. He offered no details on the case, though.

      Mohammed’s father, Mustafa, dismissed the spokesman’s argument, telling me in an interview in Istanbul, “If he really did something wrong, then why didn’t they send him to court?” Since Mohammed had been the household’s main breadwinner, Mustafa said he now struggled to feed his family, including Mohammed’s 3-month-old baby.

      Yet he is not the only one struck by Mohammed’s death. In an interview in his friend’s apartment in Istanbul, where he has returned but is in hiding from the authorities, Ahmed had just finished detailing his week’s long detention in Turkey’s removal centers when his phone started to buzz—photos of Mohammed’s corpse were being shared on Facebook.

      “I know him!” Ahmed screamed, clasping his friend’s arm. Mohammed, he said, had been with him in the removal center in Binkılıç. “He was so hopeful to be released, because he had a valid ID for Istanbul. But when he told me that he had been made to sign some forms, I knew it was already too late.”

      “If I signed that piece of paper,” Ahmed said, “I could have been dead next to him.”

      It is this thought that pushes Ahmed, and many young Syrians like him, to continue on to Europe. He and his friend showed me videos a smuggler had sent them of successful boat journeys, and told me they planned to leave soon.

      “As long as we are in Turkey, the Europeans can pretend that they don’t see us,” Ahmed concluded. “But once I go there, once I stand in front of them, I am sure that they will care about me.”

      https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2019/08/europe-turkey-syria-refugee-crackdown/597013
      #responsabilité

  • A Istanbul, Erdogan connaît son plus grand échec en dix-sept ans de pouvoir
    https://www.mediapart.fr/journal/international/240619/istanbul-erdogan-connait-son-plus-grand-echec-en-dix-sept-ans-de-pouvoir

    Le président turc n’avait pas admis l’élection, fin mars, d’un maire d’opposition à la tête de la plus grande municipalité de Turquie et avait obtenu l’annulation du scrutin. Trois mois plus tard, son candidat essuie une cuisante défaite, lourde de conséquences pour le « reis ».

    #Analyse #Istanbul,_turquie,_A_la_Une

  • A Istanbul, l’AKP est en grande difficulté face au candidat d’opposition
    https://www.mediapart.fr/journal/international/210619/istanbul-l-akp-est-en-grande-difficulte-face-au-candidat-d-opposition

    Annulée après la victoire du candidat de l’opposition, l’élection du maire d’Istanbul se rejoue dimanche. Le leader social-démocrate Ekrem Imamoglu semble avoir creusé l’écart avec son adversaire, un ancien bras droit d’Erdogan, contraint à infléchir sa campagne. Le scrutin s’avère décisif pour l’avenir du pays.

    #MOYEN-ORIENT #Istanbul,_Recep_Tayyip_Erdogan,_Binali_Yildirim,_Ekrem_Imamoglu,_turquie

  • Das gab es seit Jahren nicht mehr - dass ein Kandidat der türkische...
    https://diasp.eu/p/9218682

    Das gab es seit Jahren nicht mehr - dass ein Kandidat der türkischen Regierungspartei AKP sich im Fernsehen einem Streitgespräch stellt. Die Wiederholung der Bürgermeisterwahl in Istanbul wird zum Medienereignis. Höfliche Attacken bei TV-Duell in Istanbul | DW | 16.06.2019 #Istanbul #TV-Duell #Türkei #Bürgermeisterwahl #BinaliYildirim #EkremImamoglu #AKP #CHP #RecepTayyipErdogan

  • Is Erdogan’s airport dream turning into nightmare ?
    https://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2019/03/turkey-erdogan-third-airport-project-may-be-stillborn.html

    An engineer from the Ministry of Transportation who spoke to Al-Monitor on condition of anonymity said, “I would not want any of my family members to even set foot in this airport. The project was started against all warnings and continued without meeting proper standards. For example, initially the recommendation was to [build] at least 105 meters [344 feet] above sea level. Then they reduced it to 90 meters, and finally it ended up at 60 meters. The ground is not stable; it’s built on underground wetlands. There is not enough soil in the world to fill it safely.”

    #Aéroport #Istanbul

  • After #Ara_Güler: Capturing the Feeling of Loss in Modernizing #Istanbul

    Ara Güler, the world famous photographer born in 1928 in Istanbul passed away on the October 17, 2018. His remarkable career encompassed photographs from around the world, portraits and interviews of politicians and celebrities such as Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dali, Winston Churchill, Alfred Hitchcock, John Berger, Bertrand Russell, James Baldwin and many more. Güler was an example of a cosmopolitan artist who was integrated into transnational networks of artists, while being simultaneously rooted in his hometown of Istanbul. He had a site-specific presence in “his” district of the city, Beyoğlu, one of Istanbul’s most cosmopolitan neighborhoods that for centuries has been a diverse melting pot of the different communities that lived across the Ottoman Empire, including Armenians like Güler.

    Historian Edhem Eldem defines the “embedded cosmopolitanism” in Beyoğlu in the 19th century as consisting not only of the mere juxtaposition of diverse actors, but by a cosmopolitan cultural milieu that in turn transformed them as well. Besides visually documenting the district, Güler also was an integral component of its cosmopolitan culture, with his studio and archive, situated in the heart of Beyoğlu, on Istiklal Street. Next to it, there is Ara Café named after him, a café frequented by artists, students, expats, and intellectuals where you could see Ara Güler himself very often before his passing.

    Among the variety of his photographic work, Güler is mostly associated with his city Istanbul, and was even given the nickname “The Eye of Istanbul”. Meticulously documenting this city marked by mind blowing transformation, he left a heritage of visual urban memory. This article aims to explore Ara Güler’s photographic work as a visual guide to comprehending Istanbul’s journey of modernization and urbanization in the 20th century.

    Our focus is Güler’s portrayal of Istanbul in black and white in 1950s and 1960s, where Istanbul appears as a metropole “in progress”, or under construction. As described by the sociologist Nilüfer Göle, in the context of non-Western countries modernization, involves a cultural shift, a process of changing habitus, aesthetic norms, values, and lifestyles in the public sphere. The economic development of the country goes along with this social and cultural transformation. In 1950s and 60s Turkey, the construction of highways and railways connected the national periphery to the center. Istanbul received a mass wave of migration and expanded with slums during this improvised, unplanned urbanization process. The city became the scene where center and periphery, modern and traditional lifestyles encountered, confronted, and transformed one another and found ways to coexist. Urban poverty became an issue with this contrast becoming more and more visible in the city.

    My Prostitute Love (Vesikalı Yarim (1968)), the cult movie directed by Ömer Lütfi Akad, depicts the emerging social issues of 1960s Istanbul through the lens of a poetic and impossible love story between a greengrocer and an escort. In this movie influenced by French and Italian new wave, Istanbul is not a simple background, but the protagonist of the movie, a transforming urban space making Halil and Sabiha’s encounter possible. Halil is a simple man, married to a traditionally veiled “village” woman subordinate to him and the mother of his children. He is dragged out of his neighbourhood to a casino in Beyoğlu by his friends and discovers the neighborhood’s emerging nocturnal scene, where women drink with men, a new type of socialization. There he sees Sabiha, a blond escort with heavy makeup, smoking and drinking. He falls immediately in love with this feminine and modern looking woman from beyond his world. He starts to drink, frequenting the nocturnal scene of Beyoğlu and detaching himself from his family. The impossibility of their love not only comes from their different moral values, but also them living in different spatialities and temporalities in the same city. These different temporalities are powerfully exposed by Güler in his photography.

    Güler starts from the micro level, photographing people in their small routines: working, smoking, having a cup of tea, coffee, or an alcoholic drink. These people can be defined as the urban poor, not synchronized with the rapid urban growth and the modern ideal of progress. They are portrayed in the public sphere rather than in the intimacy of their private sphere. Their eyes, facial expressions, hands, and postures incarnates their poverty, highlighting modes of being that contrast sharply with the Westernizing public sphere they have entered. An emotional relation is established between people and the space they inhabit by enacting the space in the body and the body in the public sphere, hence humanizing the city and spatially contextualizing the people. As Jacques Lecoq announces in his pedagogy of movement in theater, only the body engaged in the work can feel, and thus reflect the evidence of the space. Güler’s urban poor portrayed in their work express the social reality with their bodies.

    The relation between human body and urban space is particularly staged in work and places of leisure. Güler often portrayed professionals; workers, repair men, shopkeepers, fishermen, bargemen, boatmen, etc. as they worked. These are craftsmen, working with their hands and heads before these two were separated by modernity and the mechanization of labor. Craftsmanship is based on the impulse of doing a work well, developing a skill through training and practice. Physical acts of repetition and practice develop skill from within and reconfigure the material world through a slow process of metamorphosis.

    Richard Sennett distinguishes the singularity of craftsmen’s work places, workshops, as productive and autonomous spaces reproducing a hands-on transmission of knowledge from generation to generation. These spaces are not products of spontaneous, mindless occurrence. Craftsmen observe and experiment with tools in relation to their own bodies. Workshops have always glued people together through work rituals consisting on transmission of knowledge by personal contact. Most of these professions don’t exist anymore or were transformed with machines replacing handwork. The work loses its centrality on the organization of daily life and public time. Güler thus becomes a pioneer by constituting a visual source of modernization process.

    People are also photographed in coffee shops and old fashioned bars where they socialize. Coffee shops have a particular significance in Istanbul’s urban culture, as they emerged as alternative public spheres to mosques in the 16th century. Coffee houses became popular by offering a venue for social occasions including leisure and political dialogue between men in the Ottoman world, thus creating a public culture, as noted by the historian Cemal Kafadar. As gender-mixed modern coffee houses gained popularity, traditional kahvehane became considered places of unproductive time pass activity. These alternative spaces, in turn, become a shelter for men alienated from the emerging modern public sphere and lifestyles. Güler’s men in coffee houses are “waiting”, as the opposite of circulating or producing that increasingly characterized the fast rhythm of the modern city.

    In the absence of plans in the present and for the deferred future, a temporal slowing manifests itself. Hence, it points out to a suspension referring to the interruption of social ties, the feeling of being cut-off, a sense of disbelonging, being removed from the context, being out of place, a sense of invisibility, immobility and arbitrariness. These traits resonate with people waiting in the photographs, who seem slightly erased, detached from the space and time surrounding them. Güler’s choice of décor, the Ottoman ruins, emphasizes this detachment by fixing our regard on the remains of the past embodied in the present and the obsolete corners of the city, not “illuminated” yet by the city lights.

    Perhaps this is the very reason why Güler’s Istanbul appears as the visual reflection of the Nobel winning author Orhan Pamuk‘s description of the grayscale Istanbul, marked by the feeling of hüzün. Comparable to Baudelaire’s description of Paris Spleen, hüzün is a feeling of melancholia, nostalgia and loss in a multilayered city where multiple spatialities and temporalities are superposed. Guler’s photography reflects this singularity of Istanbul, its vibe and the ambiance experienced when wandering in the city. Given that urban heritage is never patrimonialized and the events of the imperial and republican past haven’t been confronted, they haunt city’s present.

    An incarnation of this feeling can be traced in Pamuk’s novel A Strangeness in My Mind. Mevlüt, the protagonist, could perfectly fit in one of Güler’s photographs as a craftsman, selling boza (a wheat based traditional drink) and wandering the streets of Istanbul. While Mevlüt strolls in the city, the layers of past and the transforming present unfold before him. We observe the development of Istanbul from 1950s from the eyes of Mevlüt, who migrates to Istanbul and becomes a slum dweller, gradually alienated from the city and becoming rapidly outdated. Another person who shares the same fate is the lottery seller in a documentary on Narmanlı Han. He sits in the courtyard of the building that had been one of Istiklal Street’s key buildings until its unfaithful restoration, talking about the past: “We would sit here, we would walk around, we would come back to sit again…” The expression otururduk (we would sit) is repeated many times, showing the repetitive rhythm of the now out-of-time sociability.

    Ara Güler might be referred as a Proustian in search of lost time, however his madeleine would be persons; the urban poor in the streets of Istanbul. His quest to seize what is being lost is not an interior process of romanticization, but comes from the external world. He always insisted that he is not an artist who proposes an interpretation of reality, but a visual archivist who documents life as it exists. In his photographs, it is the people who craft the urban sphere by sitting, waiting, settling, investing, appropriating it. Güler composes the cityscape of Istanbul by parting from the margins to join the center, the core of the city. This composition identifies the singularity of Istanbul, hüzün, a feeling of loss of firm ground, a loss of an emotional root, which opens up a wide range of emotions and experiences.

    https://ajammc.com/2018/11/26/after-ara-guler-modernizing-istanbul

    #Turquie #photographie #histoire
    ping @philippe_de_jonckheere

  • Mort d’ouvriers, déforestation... la face cachée du nouveau « méga-aéroport » d’Istanbul - France 24

    https://www.france24.com/fr/20181029-turquie-aeroport-istanbul-face-cachee-ouvriers-morts-deforestatio

    Le président turc, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, a inauguré, lundi, le nouvel aéroport d’Istanbul. Ce mégaprojet suscite de vives polémiques sur les conditions de travail des ouvriers et sur la destruction de la biodiversité.

    À tout point de vue, le nouvel aéroport turc, qui doit être finalisé d’ici 2028, a de quoi donner le vertige : une surface de 7 600 hectares sur les rives de la mer Noire, un transit à terme de 200 millions de passagers par an – soit près du double des 103,9 millions passant par l’aéroport américain d’Atlanta, le plus fréquenté au monde, et un coût total de 10,5 milliards d’euros.

    #turquie #istanbul #grands_projets #grands_projets_de_développement

  • #Traugott_Fuchs (1906-1997) : A German Exile in İstanbul

    Traugott Fuchs, a professor of German and French literature, painter and writer, left Nazi Germany in 1934 due to his political opposition to the regime and came to İstanbul, where he spent the rest of his life. He is one of the lesser-known intellectuals who emigrated from Nazi Germany to Turkey, but nonetheless, he has left a distinctive imprint on countless generations of Turkish students and academics.


    http://bogaziciarsivleri.boun.edu.tr/en/exhibition/fuchs.php
    #exil #chercheurs #asile #réfugiés #université #histoire #Istanbul #science

    Quand la #Turquie accueillait les chercheurs en exil...

    voici le commentaire d’une chercheuse de Turquie, actuellement accueillie en France avec le programme PAUSE :

    While I was working at the Boğazici University Archives, I and my colleagues worked on a special collection belong to Traugott Fuchs, a scholar, painter, translator and musician who ran away from the Nazi Germany and found his way in Istanbul. I never thought that one day, many scholars from Turkey will be experiencing something similar…

    ping @reka

  • #métaliste sur des cas d’exilés détenus pendant des mois dans un #aéroport... impossible pour eux de sortir, retourner en arrière ou repartir ailleurs (manque de #visa).

    Il s’agit évidemment uniquement de cas recensé sur seenthis, il y en a hélas probablement beaucoup plus...

    Père et fils bloqués à #Dubai :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/371015

    Migrants bloqués à #Istanbul, #Turquie :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/457085
    dont #Fadi_Mansour bloqué à Istanbul :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/471203

    Bloqués en #Corée_du_sud :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/506578

    Bloqué à #Kuala_Lumpur, #Malaisie :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/720487

    #Paris, la #ZAPI de l’aéroport Charles de Gaulle :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/732684

    A #Malpensa, Milan, les effets du #Decreto_Salvini :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/740377#message740589

    Des réflexions plus générales/théoriques sur les zones de transit et la #détention dans les aéroports :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/732101

    #limbe #terminal #attente #no-solution #migrations #asile #réfugiés #aéroports #transit #zone-tampon #limbo #rétention #captivité #migrerrance

    cc @aude_v (merci de m’avoir inspiré pour créer une métaliste !) @reka

    • Témoignage de #Lisa_Bosia sur FB suite à l’annonce des 13 demandeurs d’asile bloqués à Zurich :

      Era successo anche a mio marito e ai suoi famigliari. Kurdi in fuga dalla 1a Guerra del Golfo. A Kloten, le famiglie furono separate, uomini da una parte e donne dall’altra. Gli uomini furono caricati in aereo e rispediti a Bucarest, da dove l’aereo era partito. (All’epoca, la Romania era l’unico paese che dava il visto agli Irakeni in fuga dal Kuwait). E niente, la Romania non li ha voluti, rimandati a Zurigo sono stati un giorno è una notte sotto l’aereo, poi una settimana nella zona di transito. Alla fine, non sapendo cosa farne li hanno ammessi alla procedura alla SEM. All’epoca la domanda di asilo di mio marito e di suo fratello furono rigettate perché “disertare il servizio militare sotto Saddam Hussein non era motivo di asilo sufficiente”. Gli diedero in ammissione provvisoria.

      E adesso di nuovo, e ogni giorno. Capita continuamente è che il più delle volte non si viene a sapere. Penso invece che l’opinione pubblica dovrebbe essere informata di ogni singolo caso.

      https://www.facebook.com/lisa.bosia/posts/10217444505928800

  • Arabic signs removed in İstanbul district densely populated by Syrian refugees

    Officials from the Esenyurt Municipality in İstanbul on Friday removed signs in Arabic from district shops, in a neighborhood densely populated by Syrian refugees, in line with a recently adopted #Turkish_Standards_Institute (#TSE) rule that says the Turkish language should be a priority in signs.


    https://www.turkishminute.com/2018/06/29/arabic-signs-removed-in-istanbul-district-densely-populated-by-syrian
    #langue #arabe #Turquie #Istanbul #réfugiés_syriens #réfugiés #asile #migrations #racisme #xénophobie
    cc @tchaala_la @isskein

  • Et ailleurs qu’en #France quelques infos sur des #violences_policières qui répriment les mouvements estudiantins...

    A Amsterdam :

    https://www.folia.nl/actueel/122022/politie-ontruimt-roeterseiland-na-protestmars
    la feuille de chou de l’universite


    Het Parool (se croit un quotidien national mais est surtout local )
    https://www.parool.nl/amsterdam/kamervragen-over-politieactie-tegen-studenten~a4599642

    et vendredi
    avant
    https://www.parool.nl/amsterdam/studenten-slaan-tenten-op-uit-protest-tegen-bezuinigingen~a4599607
    (cet article mentionne que l uni avait fermer les portes pendant la demo et que l’on ne pouvait ni entrer ni sortir pendant ce temps.)

    Et apres
    https://www.parool.nl/amsterdam/tentenprotest-roeterseiland-ontruimd-door-politie~a4599650

    et la tele locale
    http://www.at5.nl/artikelen/183049/studenten-willen-overnachten-bij-roeterseiland-uva-vraagt-politie-in-te-grijpen
    rien dans les medias nationaux

    Reçu d’une amie-collègue avec ce commentaire :

    vendredi soir, notre CEO envoyé la police pour déloger les étudiants qui campaient sur la pelouse de la fac (premier soir, à la fin d’une marche contre les économies budgétaires..). Consternation !
    Sur la pelouse entre le Nieuwe Achtergracht et le Nieuwe Prinsengracht en face de CREA)

    #Pays-Bas

    A #Istanbul :

    Naz Oke « Hier à #Kadıköy, (Istanbul) des lycéen.ne.s manifestaient contre la #sélection et pour leur avenir. La #police a attaqué leur manifestation et arrêté 50 lycéen.ne.s. Ils et elles ont été torturé.e.s dans le bus de garde à vue au vu et au su de tous alors que des personnes protestaient à coté du bus. Ils et elles ont été relâchés après plusieurs heures de #garde_à_vue et de tortures. »

    https://www.facebook.com/selocanavrupasevdalilari/videos/918777334969073
    #torture #GAV #Turquie

    #répression #résistance #université #fac #parcours_sup #parcoursup #it_has_begun

    cc @sinehebdo @isskein

    • Message reçu via email concernant l’évacuation à Amsterdam, j’anonymise le message :

      After the video images and my own experience of Saturday’s protests and comments by Geert ten Dam have sinked in, I would like to give my personal impression of what all of this means.

      Unfortunately there is now a pattern indicating that the CvB has a conscious policy of criminalizing any student protest that enters the terrain of civil disobedience and that trespasses any “normal” rule of conduct for the sake of protest.

      1) There was Ten Dam’s statement, after De Decentralen and Humanities Rally had ended their commitment to the student councils.
      They had written in their letter about their disappointment with the given power structures and indicated their assessment that another occupation could become possible in the future. Ten Dam’s then said in an interview for AT5 that the students had “called for violence” ("oproep tot geweld"). This was an astonishing radicalization of language based on two falsehoods: 1. an occupation in itself cannot be labelled violence, 2. the students did not actually “call for” any occupation in their letter.

      2) After a demonstration organized by the students in order to bring to the streets a number of demands backed by the CvB, they intended to playfully extend their protest for a night by installing a small number of little tents on the Roeterseilandcampus. They were asked to leave by the dean of the Social Sciences, but did not want to. Then the riot police came and did what they unfortunately do (remember Bungehuis and especially Maagdenhuis “eviction”), they used physical force to not only evict the students but even people sitting on the terrace of CREA, because they appeared as sympathizing with the protest (according to Folia’s photographer’s Daniël Rommens blog (http://www.danielrommens.nl/2018/06/10/studentenprotest-en-hardhandige-ontruiming-op-uva-campus ) This amounts to a tactic of “purging” the campus of anybody who looked critical.

      The two reasons why it was so urgent that the students had to leave are both not convincing.
      It was said it was too loud while the clients on the terrace café Crea were arguably generating more noise than the student.
      It was said that the terrain was needed the next day to install an alumni-day program for kids. The students had already promised to leave 9h the next day. Yet, the next day at 11.30 h the place was still completely empty, at around 12 h a very small part of the place was prepared for a play.

      3) On Saturday, two policement were on campus. I am not quite sure what they were supposed to do, but at the very least, they sent one student away at the entrance of the campus. The student then found another way in at the back of CREA (I will not comment further on the fact that this was a Dutch student of colour).

      4) Apparently there had been discussions to not let any assumed “protesters” in the “Room of Discussion” venue. During the event, I couldn’t help but think that we were meant to be grateful for this apparent tolerance.

      Personally, the two policement who “welcomed” me on the Roeterseiland campus on Saturday were the most shocking experience. Is THIS going to be the new normal? And what happens next? What kind of message is this for critical students? What kind of message for critical academics?

      Ten Dam said in the discussion that the University of Amsterdam was “the most democratic university in the Netherlands”.
      If this is true, I really fear not only for the future of Dutch universities, but also for the future of democracy in this country.

      Errata corrige :

      It was not the dean of the Social Sciences who asked the students to leave, but Hans Brug, the dean of the economy faculty. (This information gives a certain neoliberal securatization flavour to the whole situation.)

  • Thousands hold #sit-in protest in İstanbul against ongoing state of emergency

    Thousands of people affiliated with the main opposition Republican People’s Party (CHP) held a sit-in in İstanbul’s Taksim area on Monday protesting government plans to extend a state of emergency, known as OHAL, which was declared following a failed coup attempt in July 2016.

    Police teams prevented the crowd from entering Taksim Square, forcing the group to gather on İstiklal Street.

    Emergency rule was declared for three months on July 20, 2016. It was extended for another three months on Oct. 19, 2016, Jan.19, 2017, April 19, 2017, July 21, 2017, Oct.16 2017 and Jan.18, 2018.

    On Wednesday, the Turkish government is expected to extend the emergency rule for the seventh time.

    The CHP supporters chanted slogans saying, “Don’t be silent, scream ‘no to OHAL’,” “Shoulder to shoulder against fascism” and “Everywhere is Taksim, everywhere is resistance.”

    CHP İstanbul deputy Mahmut Tanal, who was among the participants of the protest, said the independent judiciary and media in Turkey have been destroyed during the state of emergency.

    “During the Nazi era in Germany, the press didn’t write anything other than what the government said. There are now innocent students who are in jail. There are teachers who have been removed from their posts. OHAL is the enemy of democracy. OHAL brings injustice,” said Tanal.

    Under emergency rule, the government has pressed ahead with many controversial decrees that have the force of the law and are not required to be approved by Parliament. In line with these decrees, more than 150,000 people have been purged from state bodies on coup charges.


    http://turkeypurge.com/thousands-hold-sit-in-protest-in-taksim-against-ongoing-state-of-emerge
    #résistance #Istanbul #Etat_d'urgence #Turquie

  • Canal (Kanal) Istanbul May Displace Thousands, Impact Ocean and Water Quality
    https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2018/03/istanbul-canal-project-bosporus-environmental-impacts

    On a bluff overlooking the Sazlıdere Dam just west of Istanbul, a bust of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, modern Turkey’s founder, is accompanied by a quote: “The villager is the true master of the nation.” But the villagers here know little of what the government plans for them, except that they will not be around to see it.

    The farmers, fishermen, and shepherds here have watched the forests covering the hilltops surrounding their hamlet rapidly replaced by skyscrapers and sprawling housing developments. Now, the largest infrastructure project Turkey has ever undertaken will displace them altogether.

    “Whoever cuts a branch from my forest, I will cut his head,” Sultan Mehmed II, who led the Ottomans into Istanbul, is said to have ordered in the 1400s. Today, thousands of trucks carrying soil and construction materials kick up dust along the roads north of Istanbul, depleting those forests that had been protected by sultans for five centuries.


    #Istanbul #Turquie #infrastructure #canal #déplacements_forcés #eau #environnement

  • The human cost of Istanbul’s 3rd airport | Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung Türkei
    https://tr.boell.org/de/2018/02/26/human-cost-istanbuls-3rd-airport

    In the recent days, Turkey’s third airport project has been mentioned in various news for different reasons. Two weeks ago, Ahmet Arslan, Minister of Transport visited the site and proudly announced that construction workers were busy night and day to complete the airport till the scheduled opening on 29th October, the national republic holiday. The airport project is already one of the biggest in the history of the country. Once the 80 million square meter project will be completed, it will contain 120 buildings, 143 boarding bridges and 114 aircrafts will be able to dock at these bridges simultaneously. It is expected that the first test flights will be made on February 26, on the occasion of President Erdoğan’s birthday/

    Following the visit of the minister, several testimonies appeared in oppositional media, that illustrated the fatal working conditions and the high death toll among the workers, which seem to be the price for the speedy construction. In an interview with the daily Cumhuriyet, a truck driver reported that since the beginning of the construction in May 2015, about 400 workers had been killed. In order to keep the situation from becoming public, according to the truck driver, families of the deceased had been paid off to keep quiet. On the same days, almost 300 workers in the Akpınar worker’s camp organized a protest against the camp’s director demanding that he solves the problems with poor food, overcrowded accommodation, bedbugs and poor hygiene conditions.

    #Istanbul #Transfo_urbaine #Exploitation

  • La #Mondialisation des pauvres. Loin de Wall Street et de Davos

    La mondialisation ne se résume pas au succès de quelques multinationales et à la richesse d’une minorité de nantis. Les acteurs les plus engagés dans la mondialisation demeurent discrets, souvent invisibles. Depuis une trentaine d’années, les routes de l’échange transnational ont connu de profondes mutations. Elles relient aujourd’hui la Chine, l’atelier du monde, à un « marché des pauvres » fort de quatre milliards de consommateurs, en Algérie, au Nigeria ou en Côte d’Ivoire. Pour apercevoir ces nouvelles « Routes de la Soie », il faut se détacher d’une vision occidentalo-centrée et déplacer le regard vers des espaces jugés marginaux, où s’inventent des pratiques globales qui bouleversent l’économie du monde. On découvre alors une « autre mondialisation », vue d’en bas, du point de vue des acteurs qui la font.


    http://www.seuil.com/ouvrage/la-mondialisation-des-pauvres-armelle-choplin/9782021366525
    #livre #globalisation #marginalité #économie #marges #géographie_de_la_mondialisation #ressources_pédagogiques #post-modernisme #pauvreté #économie #marginalité #géographie #géographie_économique
    #inégalités #mondialisation_des_pauvres

    • Olivier Pliez : « Avec le #bas_de_gamme et la #contrefaçon, la mondialisation s’installe au plus près des pauvres »

      Les géographes #Armelle_Choplin et #Olivier_Pliez ont suivi à travers le monde les #vêtements, #jouets et autres extensions de cheveux de leur lieu de fabrication jusqu’au marché où ils sont vendus. Ces objets sont les indices d’une « mondialisation des pauvres » qui s’étend jusque dans les pays occidentaux.
      Peut-on parler de mondialisation sans passer par Wall Street, Davos, et tous les hauts lieux qui en sont habituellement les symboles ? Oui, répondent les géographes Armelle Choplin et Olivier Pliez dans la Mondialisation des pauvres (Seuil, La République des idées, 2018). Délaissant Manhattan ou la City de Londres, ils se sont rendus en #Afrique_du_Nord et dans le #golfe_de_Guinée, mais aussi en #Turquie et en #Chine, pour montrer que des espaces pauvres, que nous croyons exclus de la globalisation économique, ont aussi leurs réseaux internationaux. A défaut d’actions et de flux financiers, ces circuits voient transiter des produits bas de gamme : vêtements, électroménager, tongs, extensions de cheveux ou encore parpaings et ciment.
      En retraçant les parcours de ces #objets, ils dessinent les #réseaux d’une « #mondialisation_par_le_bas », de plus en plus sophistiqués et de plus en plus étendus. Né au cours des années 90 dans les marchés installés dans de nombreuses villes méditerranéennes comme Marseille, ce commerce à bas prix explose dans des métropoles chinoises d’envergure mondiale, où les produits bas de gamme s’exportent par conteneurs entiers. Olivier Pliez revient sur les logiques d’organisation de ce #commerce.

      Vous présentez cette « mondialisation par le bas » en suivant des objets à travers le monde. Comment les avez-vous choisis ?

      Nous avons sélectionné ceux qui révélaient l’étendue des réseaux à travers le monde. Nous racontons ainsi comment un homme d’affaires a fait fortune grâce aux extensions de cheveux artificiels : simple revendeur de mèches à Barbès dans les années 80, il est ensuite devenu le principal revendeur pour l’Europe, avant d’installer ses propres usines au Bénin puis au Nigeria, où il emploie 7 000 personnes ! Cet exemple de réussite économique, où des produits fabriqués en Afrique se vendent en Europe, nous pousse à sortir de nos schémas habituels : l’Afrique n’est pas seulement un continent pris au piège de la Françafrique ou de la Chinafrique. Certes, la mondialisation est avant tout un rapport de dominant-dominé, avec des riches qui exploitent des pauvres, des Nord qui profitent des Sud. Mais ces espaces pauvres et dominés intéressent le marché car ce sont des lieux de #consommation - je pense à des produits neufs mais aussi, par exemple, aux voitures de seconde main en provenance d’Europe - et parfois même des lieux de production d’objets que l’on ne trouve pas ailleurs. Nous essayons donc de montrer comment des marchands, des fabricants, qui ne sont pas les plus armés face à la mondialisation, arrivent tout de même à tirer parti de ces #réseaux_d’échanges.

      Comment a évolué ce commerce au fil du temps ?

      Tout a commencé dans les années 80 avec le « #commerce_au_cabas » : des gens se rendaient dans des marchés tel celui de #Belsunce à #Marseille. Ils achetaient des produits bas de gamme comme des vêtements, des objets électroniques ou du petit électroménager, qu’ils ramenaient à la main au Maghreb pour les rerevendre. Ce commerce est un succès, et la demande se fait de plus en plus forte, à tel point que les marchands augmentent les volumes et achètent les marchandises par conteneurs entiers. Ils vont alors se fournir vers des villes plus grandes : d’abord #Istanbul, puis #Dubaï, et enfin, des villes chinoises comme #Yiwu : véritable #ville-marché à deux heures de train au sud de Shanghai, on y trouve des magasins d’usines ouverts 364 jours par an, où l’on peut se fournir en « menus articles », c’est-à-dire des #appareils_ménagers, des #jouets, de la #papeterie, des #vêtements ou encore des #objets_religieux. Dans les cafés, des marchands parlent « affaires », dans toutes les langues.

      Marseille, Istanbul, Dubaï, et maintenant Yiwu : pourquoi ce commerce se déplace-t-il à l’Est ?

      Chaque changement de ville correspond à un élargissement des lieux de consommation, et donc à une augmentation de la demande. A Marseille dans les années 90, le marché alimente surtout le #Maghreb. Puis les marchands maghrébins sont partis se fournir à Istanbul, au moment où la chute de l’URSS fait exploser la demande de consommation dans l’aire ex-soviétique. Cette ville offre alors des prix plus intéressants que Marseille. Lorsque Dubaï émerge à son tour, ce sont l’#Iran et toute la #corne_de_l’Afrique qui s’ajoutent à la liste des lieux de consommation. Enfin, en Chine, Yiwu est une #ville_globale, qui vend des produits dans le monde entier. En plus des affiches en arabe ou en russe, on voit aussi des panneaux en espagnol, preuve de la présence de marchands latino-américains.

      Les villes qui se font doubler perdent-elles leur rôle commercial ?

      A Marseille, le #marché_de_Belsunce a disparu et le quartier est en cours de #gentrification. A Istanbul ou Dubaï, villes très internationales, le commerce reste très actif mais répond à des besoins plus spécifiques : par exemple, Dubaï assure des livraisons plus rapides que Yiwu. Plus largement, pour rester en compétition, de nombreuses villes se spécialisent : celles de #Malaisie vendent des #meubles_en_bois, celles du #Vietnam du #textile, etc.

      Qu’est-ce qui explique en Chine le succès de Yiwu, bien moins connue qu’Istanbul ou Dubaï ?

      Yiwu est connue des grossistes, pas des touristes. Contrairement à ses concurrentes, elle s’est développée pour le marché, alors qu’ailleurs, le marché naissait dans la ville préexistante. A la fin des années 90, Yiwu a fait le choix d’installer des magasins ouverts toute l’année, alors que ses concurrentes chinoises proposaient des foires ouvertes dans un temps limité, ce qui était plus contraignant pour les acheteurs. De plus, elle permet l’exportation sur de petits volumes - l’équivalent d’un demi-conteneur -, ce qui attire des marchands moins fortunés. Et puis, Yiwu a aussi élargi ses gammes de produits, en continuant à vendre du bas de gamme, mais en ajoutant des éléments de meilleure qualité, toujours dans le domaine du vêtement, des jouets, du papier. Il y a quelques années, on y trouvait jusqu’à 90 % de produits de contrefaçon. Ce n’est plus le cas. Cela permet d’atteindre de nouveaux marchés de consommation, jusque dans les pays du Nord ! En France, certaines grandes surfaces discount ou de petites boutiques proposent des produits venus de villes comme Yiwu.

      Donc, la « mondialisation des pauvres » concerne aussi les pays riches ?

      Oui. On le voit par exemple à #El_Eulma, le plus grand marché d’#Algérie, connu dans tout le Maghreb. On y trouve notamment des vêtements et des #fournitures_scolaires que tout le monde vient acheter, y compris des personnes qui vivent en Europe mais qui y viennent pendant leurs vacances. Les mêmes types de produits sont ainsi présents en #Afrique, en #Amérique_latine, en #Asie_du_Sud-Est, mais aussi ainsi dans les pays occidentaux : à Yiwu, les Etats-Unis et l’UE figurent en bonne place dans les listes de clients importants. C’est en quelque sorte l’illustration concrète des nouvelles routes de la soie que la Chine étend dans le monde entier. Aujourd’hui, des trains relient Yiwu à Téhéran, mais aussi à Madrid et à Londres ou Budapest. Economiquement, le #transport_maritime reste moins coûteux, mais c’est un symbole important de l’étendue de sa puissance commerciale.

      Ces réseaux commerciaux pourront-ils satisfaire les futurs besoins de l’Afrique, en forte croissance démographique ?

      En ce qui concerne le besoin de consommation, oui. Ce sera notamment le cas du golfe de Guinée : cette région portuaire de 30 millions d’habitants, anglophones ou francophones, a de bons atouts pour s’intégrer aux réseaux mondiaux. Pour d’autres zones, comme pour la bordure méridionale du Sahel, ce sera plus dur, même si les grandes capitales de cette zone affichent des publicités pour le port le plus proche, ce qui montre l’existence de lien avec le commerce international. En revanche, les activités économiques ne fourniront pas d’emploi à tout le monde, loin de là.

      Votre livre montre des commerçants qui circulent dans le monde entier. Comment analyser les contraintes que leur impose la politique migratoire européenne ?

      Tous les spécialistes des migrations disent depuis trente ans : laissez-les circuler ! Les conséquences de la fermeture des frontières européennes sont faciles à mesurer. Dans les années 90 et 2000, Istanbul a attiré de nombreux commerçants qui ne pouvaient pas se rendre en France faute de #visa. Aux Etats-Unis, des travaux ont montré la même chose dans les relations avec l’Amérique latine : les personnes avec un double visa circulaient et créaient cette mondialisation. Quand les contraintes de circulation s’accroissent, le commerce ne s’arrête pas, il se reporte. C’est bien ce qu’ont compris les Chinois en créant Yiwu et en y garantissant un bon accueil des marchands maghrébins, et plus largement, arabes.

      Avec cette image d’hommes et de produits circulant pour le plus grand bien de tous, ne glisse-t-on pas vers une « mondialisation heureuse » qui néglige la question des inégalités ?

      Nous dénonçons cette mondialisation qui est source d’inégalités. Mais nous essayons de comprendre comment elle s’installe au plus près des pauvres pour les inclure dans le #marché. Ce n’est pas une mondialisation plus angélique que l’autre, mais on n’en parle pas ou peu, notamment parce qu’il est difficile de quantifier les #flux qui circulent, comme on le fait pour les autres lieux de la mondialisation. Il manquait aussi une géographie à ce champ très marqué par les sociologues et les anthropologues, c’est ce que nous avons voulu faire.

      http://www.liberation.fr/debats/2018/04/06/olivier-pliez-avec-le-bas-de-gamme-et-la-contrefacon-la-mondialisation-s-
      #frontières #ouverture_des_frontières #fermeture_des_frontières #circulation #route_de_la_soie (les nouvelles "routes de la soie")

  • Migrant Hostages : A Lucrative Business in Turkey

    Last week’s discovery of 96 Pakistani and Afghan migrants who had spent a month chained in an Istanbul basement was met with reactions of shock and horror. The men had paid traffickers between four and five thousand lira to cross into Turkey with the intention of eventually reaching Europe. Upon arriving in Istanbul, they were locked in a basement, with their captors demanding that the men call their families to inform them they had arrived in Europe, and ask for money. Those who refused were tortured. Fortunately, one of the men was able to get a hold of a key. After he released the others, they banded together to attack their captors and then summoned help.

    http://www.bmigration.com/migrants-hostage-turkey
    #Turquie #otages #business #asile #migrations #réfugiés #torture #chaînes #Istanbul #sous-terrain #sous-sol #esclavage #esclavage_moderne

  • #Une_autre_montagne

    Sur les terres de Turquie, un dicton dit « Si un de tes yeux pleure, l’autre ne peut rire ».

    A l’est, le #Bakur, le Kurdistan de Turquie. A l’est, ce sont les couvre-feux, les blocus, les occupations de l’armée turque. C’est une #paix qu’on espère et qui n’arrive jamais. Ce sont des femmes dans les #montagnes, qui se lèvent, qui font face, quitte a prendre les armes.

    Burcu et Sinem vivent a #Istanbul avec cet oeil qui pleure. Elles vont rencontrer Ergül dans un petit village de la région de la Mer Noire, qui a participé aux luttes révolutionnaires de la fin des années 70 étouffées par le coup d’état militaire de 80.

    Le temps d’échanger leurs expériences d’organisation de femmes et du çay. Les époques se mêlent et c’est toujours la #guerre, la #répression et une #violence au quotidien contre laquelle elles se soulèvent. Kurdes, mères, féministes. Il y a de la résistance et de la solidarité dans leurs mots, dans leurs pas, dans leurs cris, dans les rythmes qu’elles tapent sur leurs « erbane » (percussions) contre le #nationalisme, la guerre, le #patriarcat.


    http://www.kedistan.net/2017/03/26/documentaire-une-autre-montagne
    Ici la bande annonce :
    https://vimeo.com/209661727

    #femmes #résistance #Kurdistan #Turquie #histoire #film #documentaire #témoignage #montagne #féminisme #luttes

  • Architecture of Commons – Archifutures
    http://archifutures.futurearchitectureplatform.org/volum-2-the-studio/architecture-of-commons

    The demonstrations against Turkish government action to demolish Gezi Park in Istanbul in 2013 prompted the self-organisation of its citizens and a new grassroots understanding of the notion of the “public”. Urbanist, writer and curator Merve Bedir, took part in the protests. Here she analyses what happened back then and how the seeds of a new type of urbanism were sown.

    The ambiguity surrounding the future of the park kept people guessing for a long time, until the day an excavator entered the park and ripped up a tree from its roots.

    The ensuing protests on the streets continued uninterrupted for 20 days; with crowds gathering in Gezi Park, Taksim Square and the surrounding areas. Despite all their differences, the citizens of Istanbul were united in claiming what they commonly understood to be theirs: the tree, the park and more. This event marked a threshold moment in which the people remembered the notion of “common(s)” – one that they have been re-discovering and exploring ever since, through all the possible spatial and political meanings of the word.

    The forums were held for people to discuss further collective action. As spaces for exercising direct democracy, the parks in the city became forums, agoras and common(s). The results of the various discussions were shared around the city and a daily report on each forum disseminated via a newsletter and blogs. These forums made people remember their public parks again, and their relationships to one another. Local inhabitants started maintaining the parks in their neighbourhood, using and programming them in ways that had never been experienced before.

    Without doubt, the understanding of common(s) is as a new kind of (urban) space that is outside the dichotomy of public and private; a space that is created by collective action, by people; not trying to be permanent but looking for the transforming capacity of the temporary. Learning from the dynamism of the temporary is certainly inspiring for designers and other creative disciplines.

    The most important thing is creating new common(s), by the people, particularly in the cities. We know we all have a thousand virtual friends, but we only have a small number of real friends. Ivan Illich talked about his polyphilia, the need to be with friends. He elevated friendship as the main category for the reorganisation of our society, for reconstructing it in a different way, as the starting point of hope.

    Friendship as common(s) is a working methodology bringing people together towards collective imaginaries that also acknowledge the individual within them. This working methodology could be an inspiration for designers to position themselves, as well.

    #Communs_urbains #Mouvement_des_places #Parc_Gezi #Istanbul

  • Un an après le putsch raté, Erdogan veut « arracher les têtes des traîtres »
    https://www.mediapart.fr/journal/international/160717/un-apres-le-putsch-rate-erdogan-veut-arracher-les-tetes-des-traitres

    La foule rassemblée pour le premier anniversaire du coup d’État raté © N.C. La #turquie a commémoré dans la nuit de samedi à dimanche l’échec d’une tentative sanglante de coup d’État, qui a coûté la vie à 250 personnes. À l’entrée du pont du Bosphore, un haut lieu de la résistance civile contre les putschistes, le président #Recep_Tayyip_Erdogan a prononcé un discours revanchard et accusateur devant une foule moins survoltée que son « Reis ».

    #International #coup_d'Etat_raté #Istanbul #Kemal_Kiliçdaroglu

  • Bonjour !

    Fraîchement inscrit sur le site, je n’en connais pas encore les us et coutumes et n’en maîtrise donc pas les usages. J’ose croire cependant qu’une rapide #présentation ne sera pas malvenue :-)

    Encouragé par @monolecte à m’inscrire (depuis #Mastodon), je suis impressionné − et quelque peu intimidé − par la richesse du contenu que l’on trouve ici, et par l’efficacité de ce qui semble être une gigantesque entreprise de veille collective !

    Ayant un passé de chercheur en #sociologie de la #santé (thèse sur la #transplantation, post-doc sur le #cancer), je travaille aujourd’hui dans une de ces agences de soutien à la #recherche et me situe à l’interface entre les sphères académiques, associatives, de finance publique et, de manière moins marquée, industrielle. Je n’ai donc pas quitté le champ des #SHS et de la santé, qui constitue d’ailleurs mes domaines d’intérêt principaux.

    Par ailleurs intéressé par l’#informatique au sens large, #linux en particulier, et un tout petit peu #python que je bidouille.

    Ah, et oui : j’ai deux chats. La femelle paie les vacances du véto, et l’autre m’empêche de dormir.

    À plus tard !

  • Continental Rift - Roads & Kingdoms
    http://roadsandkingdoms.com/2017/continental-rift

    The idea that Istanbul is a transcontinental city—the literal bridge between Europe and Asia that represents a metaphorical bridge between East and West—has become an integral part of the city’s, and Turkey’s, identity. Turkey is a modern, secular (i.e., “Western”) country with Islamic (i.e., “Eastern”) roots. The issues that vex Turkey today—its increasing authoritarianism and Islamization, its strained ties with the European Union and NATO—are all interpreted, both inside and outside of the country, as factors nudging Turkey one way or another along a spectrum marked “East” on one end and “West” on the other.

    #frontières #asie #europe #turquie #photographie