• La Haine et le Déni • Avec les Ukrainiens et les Russes dans la guerre
    https://www.obsarm.info/spip.php?article660

    Anne Nivat est docteure en sciences politiques et reporter de guerre. Elle a collaboré à Libération puis au Point et à LCI. Son livre est constitué de rencontres avec des habitants de Russie, à Moscou et dans différentes régions, à nouveau en Tchétchénie, à Kaliningrad, en Bouriatie. Elle échange avec des habitants d’Ukraine, dont des partisans des deux camps dans les territoires annexés par la Russie. Son baptême du feu a eu lieu pendant la guerre en Tchétchénie où elle a été arrêtée (...) #Fiches_de_lecture

    / #La_deux, #Guerres, #Opinion_publique

  • continue à se comporter en sale petite bourgeoise décadente en ajoutant quotidiennement de nouveaux bouquins sur sa pile de livres en attente, quand bien même elle ne dispose plus que de dix à douze minutes « d’espérance » de vie et est désormais quasiment incapable de lire plus d’une demi-page sans s’endormir.

    C’est d’ailleurs cocasse puisqu’elle a remarqué qu’elle roupillait moins rapidement en écoutant des lectures et adaptations littéraires radiophoniques — notamment sur France Cul’ — alors que c’est justement là que ses yeux pourraient se fermer sans que cela porte à conséquence.

    N’empêche que c’est une sacrée révolution pour elle, ça : elle a l’impression qu’en résistant mieux aux ravages de la sénescence son ouïe est en train de devenir son organe de perception principal en prenant tout doucement le dessus sur sa vision.

    Elle qui déteste le changement, la voilà servie.

    #LaVieillesseEstUnNaufrage.

  • Kristin Ross : « La solidarité n’est pas une émotion, mais une stratégie révolutionnaire »
    https://bascules.blog/2024/06/19/kristin-ross-la-solidarite-nest-pas-une-emotion-mais-une-strategie-revolu

    Grand entretien par Clément Quintard pour Socialter, publié le 18 juin 2024 L’autrice Kristin Ross voit dans de nombreuses luttes actuelles la réactivation de l’idéal d’auto-détermination et de participation hérité de la Commune. La répression des ZAD et du mouvement écologiste s’explique alors par la peur de l’État de voir son autorité remise en question, et que la terre, se […]

    #Articles_d'intérêts_et_liens_divers #L'Écologie_Sociale_et_le_Communalisme #La_forme-Commune


    https://2.gravatar.com/avatar/2cef04a2923b4b5ffd87d36fa9b79bc27ee5b22c4478d785c3a3b7ef8ab60424?s=96&d=

  • Profitto contro valore sociale, le proteste delle associazioni di San Lorenzo contro la delibera 104 del Comune di #Roma
    https://irpimedia.irpi.eu/citiesforrent-roma-san-lorenzo-affitti-nuovi-investitori

    Il Comune intende ridisegnare i bandi per le associazioni allo scopo di attrarre canoni più ricchi o riassegnarle a nuovi investitori, anche profit. Una perdita per un quartiere da sempre caratterizzato da una vocazione per attività politiche e sociali L’articolo Profitto contro valore sociale, le proteste delle associazioni di San Lorenzo contro la delibera 104 del Comune di Roma proviene da IrpiMedia.

    #Diritti #Diritto_alla_casa #Lazio

  • Méditerranée : 10 morts retrouvés dans les cales d’un canot de migrants parti de Libye - InfoMigrants
    https://www.infomigrants.net/fr/post/57820/mediterranee--10-morts-retrouves-dans-les-cales-dun-canot-de-migrants-

    Méditerranée : 10 morts retrouvés dans les cales d’un canot de migrants parti de Libye
    Par Charlotte Boitiaux Marlène Panara Publié le : 17/06/2024
    Le Nadir, voilier humanitaire de l’ONG allemande ResQship, a retrouvé, tôt ce lundi matin, les corps de 10 exilés coincés à l’intérieur d’une embarcation en Méditerranée. Cinquante et une autres personnes ont pu être secourues, en majorité des Bangladais. Le canot était parti de Zouara, en Libye.
    « Quand nous avons trouvé le canot, il était trop tard », raconte sobrement Stefen Seyfert, responsable communication de l’ONG ResQship contacté par InfoMigrants. Lundi 17 juin, à l’aube, l’ONG allemande a annoncé sur son compte X que son voilier-humanitaire Nadir avait retrouvé les corps de 10 migrants dans la cale d’un canot en bois, dérivant en mer Méditerranée.
    Quand le Nadir s’est approché, les membres de l’ONG ont compris que le canot était surchargé. « On a porté secours aux personnes sur le pont supérieur et ensuite on a vu qu’il y avait des gens en-dessous », raconte Stefen Seyfert. « La cale était inondée, remplie d’un mélange d’eau et d’essence. A l’intérieur, nous avons vu 12 corps, dont deux inconscients mais encore vivants ».La première personne inconsciente a pu être sortie sans encombre « mais on a dû casser le pont avec une hache pour extirper la seconde ».D’après ResQship, les dix victimes, toutes des hommes, sont mortes d’intoxication aux fumées du moteur. « À force de respirer l’essence, les passagers se sont évanouis. Puis le bateau prenant l’eau, elles se sont noyées de manière inconsciente ».
    Quarante neuf autre personnes, qui étaient aussi à bord sur le pont supérieur, ont été secourues. Elles ont été prises en charge, deux heures plus tard, par les garde-côtes italiens. « Ils ont aussi récupéré les deux blessés inconscients ».Mais les dix cadavres n’ont pas pu être extraits du canot. « Nous n’avons pas d’endroit à bord pour les conserver. Ils sont donc restés dans le canot, qui est attaché à notre voilier. Nous faisons route vers Lampedusa pour les déposer là-bas. Nous prévoyons d’arriver dans la nuit ».Le bateau était parti de Zouara, en Libye, d’après les rescapés. Un premier décompte fait état de plusieurs nationalités à bord : une trentaine de Bangladais, des Pakistanais, des Syriens et des Égyptiens.
    Ce n’est pas la première fois que des navires humanitaires font face à de tels naufrages. Vendredi 7 juin, les corps sans vie de onze migrants qui dérivaient en pleine mer, au large des côtes libyennes ont été récupérés par le Geo Barents, navire de Médecins sans frontières (MSF). Le 28 mai, les sauveteurs de l’ONG allemande SOS Humanity ont retrouvé le corps sans vie d’un bébé de six mois dans un canot de migrants à la dérive.
    La plupart des canots en bois qui s’aventurent en Méditerranée sont constitués d’un pont supérieur et de cales dans lesquelles s’entassent des dizaines de personnes - souvent des femmes et des enfants, piégés près du carburant et de ses vapeurs toxiques. Les places du dessus sont généralement réservées aux hommes.
    S’asseoir à l’intérieur des cales, avec un accès limité à l’air libre, est donc éminemment dangereux. Depuis des années, de nombreuses personnes sont récupérées par les ONG en mer victimes de brûlures aux jambes, aux cuisses, et sur leurs parties génitales à cause du mélange entre le carburant et l’eau de mer.La Méditerranée centrale représente à elle seule 80 % des morts et disparitions en Méditerranée l’an dernier. Elle est très utilisée par les migrants cherchant à entrer dans l’Union européenne depuis la Tunisie et la Libye. Depuis janvier, 923 migrants y sont décédés ou portés disparus.La rédaction tient à rappeler que les navires humanitaires sillonnent une partie très limitée de la mer Méditerranée. La présence de ces ONG est loin d’être une garantie de secours pour les migrants qui veulent tenter la traversée depuis les côtes africaines. Beaucoup d’embarcations passent inaperçues dans l’immensité de la mer. Beaucoup de canots sombrent aussi sans avoir été repérés. La Méditerranée centrale reste aujourd’hui la route maritime la plus meurtrière au monde.

    #Covid-19#migrant#migration#mediterranee#traversee#mortalite#tunisie#libye#italie#lampedusa#mortalite#sante#routemigratoire

  • Rôle prépondérant des armes nucléaires dans un contexte géopolitique qui se détériore – Parution du nouveau SIPRI Yearbook
    https://www.obsarm.info/spip.php?article659

    Le Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) a publié le 17 juin 2024 son évaluation annuelle de l’état des armements, du désarmement et de la sécurité internationale. L’une des principales conclusions du « SIPRI Yearbook 2024 » est que le nombre et les types d’armes nucléaires en cours de développement augmente à mesure que les États s’appuient davantage sur la dissuasion nucléaire. Les arsenaux nucléaires se renforcent dans le monde Les neuf États dotés de l’arme (...) #Armements_nucléaires

    / #La_deux, #Armes_nucléaires, #Prolifération_nucléaire

    https://www.obsarm.info/IMG/pdf/arsenaux_nucle_aires_2024.pdf

  • Ukraine : comment Safran se joue des sanctions sur la Russie
    https://www.obsarm.info/spip.php?article658

    Les entreprises françaises qui contournent l’embargo sur la Russie sont toujours les têtes d’affiche du salon d’armement Eurosatory qui a ouvert ses portes ce lundi 17 jusqu’à vendredi 21 juin au parc des expositions de Paris Nord-Villepinte. Safran, mobilisée sur treize projets du Fonds européen de la défense censés répondre à « l’agression armée de la Russie contre l’Ukraine » a continué à livrer des équipements à Moscou en 2022 et 2023. Suite à nos enquêtes, le groupe reconnaît (...) #Armements

    / Transferts / exportations, #Contrôle_des_exportations, #Biens_à_double_usage, #La_une

    #Transferts_/_exportations

  • Is Slop A.I.’s Answer to Spam? A Phrase Emerges for Bad Search. - The New York Times
    https://www.nytimes.com/2024/06/11/style/ai-search-slop.html

    You may not know exactly what “slop” means in relation to artificial intelligence. But on some level you probably do.

    Slop, at least in the fast-moving world of online message boards, is a broad term that has developed some traction in reference to shoddy or unwanted A.I. content in social media, art, books and, increasingly, in search results.

    Google suggesting that you could add nontoxic glue to make cheese stick to a pizza? That’s slop. So is a low-price digital book that seems like the one you were looking for, but not quite. And those posts in your Facebook feed that seemingly came from nowhere? They’re slop as well.

    The term became more prevalent last month when Google incorporated its Gemini A.I. model into its U.S.-based search results. Rather than pointing users toward links, the service attempts to solve a query directly with an “A.I. Overview” — a chunk of text at the top of a results page that uses Gemini to form its best guess at what the user is looking for.

    The change was a reaction to Microsoft having incorporated A.I. into its search results on Bing, and it had some immediate missteps, leading Google to declare it would roll back some of its A.I. features until problems can be ironed out.

    But with the dominant search engines having made A.I. a priority, it appears that vast quantities of information generated by machines, rather than largely curated by humans, will be served up as a daily part of life on the internet for the foreseeable future.

    Hence the term slop, which conjures images of heaps of unappetizing food being shoveled into troughs for livestock. Like that type of slop, A.I.-assisted search comes together quickly, but not necessarily in a way that critical thinkers can stomach.

    Kristian Hammond, the director of Northwestern University’s Center for Advancing Safety of Machine Intelligence, noted a problem in the current model: the information from A.I. Overview is being presented as a definitive answer, rather than as a place to start an internet user’s research into a given subject.

    “You search for something and you get back what you need in order to think — and it actually encourages you to think,” Mr. Hammond said. “What it’s becoming, in this integration with language models, is something that does not encourage you to think. It encourages you to accept. And that, I think, is dangerous.”
    Editors’ Picks
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    For a problem to be targeted, giving it a name can prove helpful. And while slop is one option, it is still an open question of whether it will catch on with a mainstream audience, or end up in the slang dustbin with cheugy, bae and skibidi.

    Adam Aleksic, a linguist and content creator who uses the handle etymologynerd on social media, believes that slop — which he said has yet to cross over to a broader audience — shows promise.

    “I think this is a great example of an unobtrusive word right now, because it is a word we’re all familiar with,” Mr. Aleksic said. “It’s a word that feels like it’s naturally applicable to this situation. Therefore, it’s less in your face.”

    @etymologynerd More great discussion of this in Alan Metcalf’s book “Predicting New Words” #etymology #linguistics #language #memehistory #rizz #skibidi ♬ original sound - etymologynerd

    The use of slop as a descriptor for low-grade A.I. material seemingly came about in reaction to the release of A.I. art generators in 2022. Some have identified Simon Willison, a developer, as an early adopter of the term — but Mr. Willison, who has pushed for the phrase’s adoption, said it was in use long before he found it.

    “I think I might actually have been quite late to the party!” he said in an email.

    The term has sprung up in 4chan, Hacker News and YouTube comments, where anonymous posters sometimes project their proficiency in complex subject matter by using in-group language.

    “What we always see with any slang is that it starts in a niche community and then spreads from there,” Mr. Aleksic said. “Usually, coolness is a factor that helps it spread, but not necessarily. Like, we’ve had a lot of words spread from a bunch of coding nerds, right? Look at the word ‘spam.’ Usually, the word is created because there is a particular group with shared interests, with a shared need to invent words.”

    In the short term, the effect of A.I. on search engines and the internet in general may be less extreme than some would fear.

    News organizations have worried about shrinking online audiences as people rely more on A.I.-generated answers and data from Chartbeat, a company that researches internet traffic, indicates that there was an immediate drop in referrals from Google Discover to websites in the first days of A.I. overviews. But that dip has since recovered, and in the first three weeks of the overviews, overall search traffic to more than 2,000 major websites in the U.S. actually went up, according to Chartbeat.

    But as people become accustomed to A.I.’s increasing role in how the internet works, Mr. Willison, who identified himself as an optimist for A.I. when it is used correctly, thought that slop could become the go-to term for the lesser forms of machine-generated content.

    “Society needs concise ways to talk about modern A.I. — both the positives and the negatives,” he said. “‘Ignore that email, it’s spam,’ and ‘Ignore that article, it’s slop,’ are both useful lessons.”

    Benjamin Hoffman is a senior editor who writes, assigns and edits stories primarily on the intersection between sports, lifestyle and culture. More about Benjamin Hoffman

    #Spam #Intelligence_artificielle #Slop #Néologisme

  • Législatives 2024 à Montpellier : le conseiller d’opposition Luc Albernhe dénonce l’alliance à gauche et appelle à voter pour la majorité
    https://www.midilibre.fr/2024/06/12/legislatives-2024-a-montpellier-le-conseiller-dopposition-luc-alberne-deno

    « De gauche et social-démocrate, je ne me retrouve pas dans la coalition avec l’extrême gauche », indique l’élu dans un communiqué. « Le parti socialiste est le mien depuis 1973. Je suis aujourd’hui consterné par cette alliance faite pour sauver quelques sièges. »

    Lui qui avait en 2022 soutenu les candidats dissidents PS aux législatives face à la Nupes appelle désormais à voter pour Patricia Mirallès (1er circonscription) et Patrick Vignal (9e circonscription), deux candidats qui devraient obtenir dans les prochains jours le soutien de la majorité présidentielle.

    Ah ah, le type dit être au parti socialiste depuis 1973, donc époque du Programme commun, quand le PS est arrivé au pouvoir avec ses ministres communistes, mais là, la LFI c’est trop à gauche pour lui ?

    #la_vieille_est_un_naufrage

  • Evoluzione e funzionamento della frontiera verticale messicana

    “Laboratorio” nell’applicazione di politiche che bloccano la libertà di movimento.

    Il paradigma diffuso diametralmente in tutto l’occidente vede ormai la deterrenza ed il controllo come unica forma di approccio al fenomeno migratorio e gli sviluppi recenti sul territorio messicano sottolineano questa tendenza.

    Tra gli strumenti repressivi utilizzati dai paesi europei come nordamericani, l’esternalizzazione delle proprie politiche migratorie ed il controllo delle rotte attraverso il rallentamento temporale sono fortemente interconnessi tra di loro.

    Per questo, nel regime di mobilità internazionale alcuni paesi (il Messico come Marocco, Tunisia o Grecia) sono diventati dei “laboratori” nell’applicazione di politiche che bloccano la libertà di movimento.

    La frontiera, qui intesa come spazio di negoziazione della mobilità delle persone, sta affrontando di conseguenza una ristrutturazione anche sul piano spaziale e temporale. Ciò che si osserva è la tendenza ad allargare la funzione della frontiera allo spazio di interi territori nazionali. Tutto questo avviene soprattutto nei paesi di transito che investono cifre enormi per l’utilizzo di dispositivi e tecniche militari che mirano a togliere autonomia alle persone in movimento.

    Il territorio messicano può essere considerato un modello di questo processo. Se da una parte i governi hanno sempre cercato di mantenere un’autonomia narrativa rispetto a Washington, dall’altra il Messico rimane un paese segnato da violenza e corruzione dilaganti.

    Queste caratteristiche ne fanno un laboratorio politico della gestione dei flussi migratori con delle specificità uniche. Il governo messicano negli ultimi vent’anni ha infatti rimodellato il modo di guardare al proprio territorio in funzione delle politiche repressive statunitensi, creando una rete impressionante di controlli volta ad intercettare le persone in movimento verso la frontiera nord.

    Per chi ne risale il territorio, negli anni il paese ha assunto infatti sempre di più le sembianze di una frontiera che si muove anticipando i tuoi passi, stando sempre di fronte a te ogni volta che pensi di averla superata. Nonostante la retorica paternalista e falsamente umanitaria degli ultimi governi messicani ed in particolare di Andrés Manuel López Obrador, conosciuto anche con l’acronimo di AMLO, già da anni la politica migratoria messicana ha connotazioni fortemente repressive.

    Nel 2014, sotto l’amministrazione di Peña Nieto (PRI-centro-destra), si inizia a creare una struttura legislativa volta a sostenere quella che è stata definita la “frontiera verticale messicana”.

    Il Plan frontera sur (2014), oltre a rinnovare e creare nuovi centri di detenzione, (più di 50 al momento) ha fornito una chiara visione di quello che doveva essere la politica di contenimento dei flussi che risalivano il paese. Attraverso l’ampliamento della rete dei centri di detenzione e l’aumento dei posti di blocco dell’INM (Instituto Nacional de Migración), sono stati creati tre anelli di contenimento migratorio tra la frontiera con il Guatemala e l’istmo di Tehuantepec.

    A causa della morfologia della regione e della porosità del confine queste politiche hanno rielaborato la fascia fronteriza come un prolungamento della frontiera sud verso le zone interne del paese. Di fatto si allarga il raggio d’azione delle unità migratorie a cui si aggiunge la presenza ingombrante dell’esercito che dal 2019 ha assunto ufficialmente anche compiti di revisione migratoria.

    In tutto il paese i controlli si stanno espandendo a qualsiasi autostrada, strada e terminal di bus, comportando dall’altro lato un’impennata dei prezzi delle guide informali. Si può notare un tentativo da parte delle autorità di sanzionare e controllare non tanto la presenza irregolare in Messico quanto lo spostamento verso il suo confine nord rendendo chiaro l’obiettivo primario di tale politica.

    Nonostante questo sono ancora moltissime le persone che scelgono di entrare nel paese senza cercare di regolarizzare la propria situazione migratoria. Alcuni lo fanno per la necessità di aspettare il meno possibile in situazioni precarie, altri per la paura che gli venga negato il tramite ed affrontare lo spettro della deportazione. Ancor più banalmente molti non vogliono aspettare mesi per la propria regolarizzazione in un paese che considerano di transito.

    Negli anni una quota sempre maggiore di persone si è trovata però costretta a fare richiesta per il permesso di transito o di rifugio in Messico a causa dell’aumento esponenziale dei controlli e posti di blocco militari lungo le rotte e non più solamente alla frontiera.

    Le stime riguardo al sud del paese parlano di un dispiegamento militare che si aggira tra i 15.000 e i 20.000 effettivi tra esercito, guardia nazionale e INM nella sola zona fronteriza. Ovviamente questo ha comportato fenomeni come la saturazione (voluta si potrebbe sostenere), di alcuni punti di ingresso nel paese.

    Soprattutto a Tapachula ma anche in altre parti del paese le persone migranti si trovano obbligati a dover chiedere la regolarizzazione attraverso la Comar (Comision mexicana de ayuda a refugiados). Dove non sono presenti albergues, rifugi spesso connessi alla rete locale di parrocchie, l’attesa del tramite migratorio impone alle persone di vivere in situazioni estremamente precarie ed esposte al pericolo di sequestri o aggressioni violente come purtroppo succede quotidianamente in Messico.

    Il ricatto in cui si trovano le persone costrette tra l’attesa e il fare ricorso a reti di coyotes con tariffe folli conduce spesso a sequestri e omicidi scellerati dei narcos verso chi non riesce a pagare o non ha nessuno su cui contare.

    Sulla rotta del golfo ad esempio, come vicino a Salto de Agua tra il Chiapas e Tabasco, chi non ha le risorse per pagare un coyote è comunque obbligato con la forza a pagare una “tassa di transito” ai gruppi narcotrafficanti. Il pagamento è testimoniato da un braccialetto colorato che si può vedere al polso delle tante persone che attraversano questa zona.

    Il coinvolgimento di questi gruppi si sta facendo più capillare e le rotte sono ormai al centro del conflitto tra il cartello di Sinaloa ed il Cartello di Jalisco Nueva Generacion (CJNG) che sta insanguinando molte aree del paese.
    La morsa di questi gruppi sulla frontiera sud è testimoniata, per citare solo l’episodio più mediatizzato, dalle immagini della sfilata drammatica del cartel de Sinaloa a Frontera Comalapa, un municipio di confine, nel settembre 2023 in una zona che da sempre è attraversata dai flussi migratori 2.

    Nonostante tutto, la spirale di violenza in cui si trova il Messico non ferma il flusso incessante di persone che attraversano il paese. Ciò è dovuto in parte anche dalla differenziazione delle rotte che ha comportato lo “sblocco” del Tapon del Darien tra il 2022 ed il 2023. L’apertura quindi di questo tratto di rotta ha spalancato le porte del centro America a chi proviene, ma soprattutto per chi transita dalla Colombia.

    La strategia del governo messicano, definita ulteriormente sul piano legislativo dal “plan integral de desarrollo” (2019), in evidente coordinazione con gli intenti statunitensi, è quella di rallentare il flusso e immobilizzarlo (dove possibile), per far rientrare le persone in percorsi di regolarizzazione.

    I dati della Comar 3 mostrano che nel 2013 le persone a far richiesta per lo status di rifugiato sono state 1.296 mentre nel 2022 le statistiche parlano di 118.478 persone.
    Al contempo stanno aumentando gli sforzi nel raggiungere accordi bilaterali con i paesi di provenienza per far salire il numero di persone deportate e deportabili direttamente dal Messico.

    Se già gli accordi di riammissione con Guatemala e Honduras sono un fatto assodato, AMLO nel sessennio appena trascorso ha lavorato incessantemente per coinvolgere sempre più paesi nella gestione repressiva del fenomeno.

    A inizio 2024 si è offerto di lanciare un programma di reinserimento nei paesi di provenienza finanziato dal Messico stesso per le persone migranti interessate a tornare di propria spontanea volontà. Ovviamente a questi accordi vanno aggiunte le numerosissime deportazioni “lampo” di migranti delle più svariate nazionalità intercettati in prossimità della frontiera sud e risputati illegalmente al di là del rio Suchiate in Guatemala.

    Il tentativo di delegare al Messico il “lavoro sporco” è davanti agli occhi di tutti ormai da decenni ed è un tema bipartisan in ogni campagna elettorale a nord del muro. Come conseguenza prevedibile, la migra messicana ha finito per crearsi una fama paragonabile a quella dei propri omologhi statunitensi con sfumature di preoccupante e comprovata compromissione con i gruppi di narcos e le reti di coyotes.

    L’ultimo caso eclatante riguarda la corruzione di alti funzionari dell’INM di Tijuana che partecipavano attivamente alla rete locale 4.

    Dinamica centrale nel funzionamento della frontiera verticale sono le deportazioni interne. In modo sempre più sistematico l’INM con l’aiuto dell’apparato militare effettua deportazioni via terra e per via aerea dal nord del paese verso il sud con il tentativo di rallentare il percorso delle persone in movimento.

    Dall’inizio del 2024 sono ripresi in maniera drastica i voli dalle città di frontiera al nord verso Tapachula dove le persone vengono spesso rilasciate in città dopo qualche ora di detenzione. Tijuana dista da Tapachula 3.900 chilometri, una distanza enorme, maggiore di quella percorsa da molte persone prima di entrare in Messico 5.

    Stancare fisicamente e psicologicamente oltre che fiaccare economicamente. Sono fin troppo comuni i casi in cui i risparmi delle persone vengono derubati direttamente dall’INM durante la detenzione. Ma le deportazioni interne non vengono effettuate solo attraverso voli dal nord verso il sud del paese.

    Vicino la città di Arriaga nella zona che separa lo stato fronterizo del Chiapas da Oaxaca, le testimonianze raccontano di essere stati riportati in città più volte dopo aver attraversato il confine amministrativo che separa i due stati.

    Anche solo il percorrere quindici chilometri in Messico può richiedere settimane e spesso questo meccanismo avviene indipendentemente dal possesso del tramite migratorio o dello status di rifugiato.

    Questa politica informale dell’INM affetta enormemente il percorso migratorio e la stabilità psicologica delle persone che si trovano a risalire il paese. Sfiancate, private dei propri risparmi, le persone si trovano al punto di partenza più di una volta e sono costrette a far uso della rete di polleros anche per tratte irrisorie.

    Storie simili si possono ascoltare in tutto il centro ed il sud del paese dove le persone in movimento sono riportate in centri di detenzione di città che avevano attraversato settimane, giorni o volte anche solo qualche ora prima. Le deportazioni dal nord al sud sono tra gli strumenti più efficaci e subdoli della frontiera verticale. In contrasto con quello che sostiene l’INM questa politica non fa che alimentare la disperazione delle persone e la loro propensione a servirsi delle reti di polleros, le stesse che l’INM, López Obradorr e gli Stati Uniti dicono di voler combattere.

    La possibilità che si sta concretizzando sempre di più, è che il Messico finisca per suddividere il proprio paese in zone di contenimento dove relegare le persone in transito. Durante le prime carovane nell’autunno del 2018 il governo di Enrique Peña Nieto ha addirittura proposto a chi stava risalendo collettivamente il paese un percorso di regolarizzazione immediato, chiamato ironicamente plan “Estás en tu Casa” (Sei a casa tua) a condizione che restassero confinati negli stati del sud.

    La morfologia del territorio messicano e la dimensione dei flussi in transito non rende semplice la formazione di zone-hotspot come aree cuscinetto interne paragonabili al caso europeo. È innegabile però che si stiano delineando delle somiglianze tra i due modelli ai fini del rallentamento dei flussi e dell’ostruzione all’autonomia delle persone in movimento.

    Regolarizzazioni lampo sono proposte ciclicamente ai partecipanti delle nuove carovane che riescono a rompere il blocco imposto su Tapachula grazie a una forza numerica e comunicativa sorprendente. Questi fenomeni semi-spontanei dimostrano l’ipocrisia dietro la presunta saturazione degli uffici nella gestione delle richieste, che sotto pressioni politiche sono riusciti a sbrigare rapidamente migliaia di pratiche di regolarizzazione.

    Il governo messicano sfrutta infatti zone come Tapachula, Arriaga o Tenosique e tanti altri punti e città strategiche come zone di contenimento di un flusso migratorio che nella maggior parte dei casi sarebbe solo di transito. Questo approccio nel caso di molte città ha creato una saturazione della capacità degli albergues e condizioni di vita estremamente precarie per la popolazione migrante in attesa della regolarizzazione o appena deportata. Che lo vogliano ammettere o che le varie amministrazioni si nascondano dietro a una retorica umanitaria, ciò rientra perfettamente nel funzionamento della “frontiera verticale” 6.

    L’immobilizzazione delle persone in movimento si è dimostrata infatti – in Messico come in Europa – uno strumento di deterrenza fin troppo efficace ed una strategia che negli anni è riuscita a plasmare nel profondo l’immaginario migratorio di tutti quelli che stanno per mettersi in cammino o che lo sono già.

    https://www.meltingpot.org/2024/06/evoluzione-e-funzionamento-della-frontiera-verticale-messicana
    #frontières #Mexique #USA #Etats-Unis #espace_frontalier #zone_frontalière #pays_de_transit #frontière_verticale #laboratoire #externalisation #Plan_frontera #Tehuantepec #détention_adminitrative #rétention #Tapachula #Salto_de_Agua #Colombie #Tijuana

    –-

    #métaliste autour de la Création de zones frontalières (au lieu de lignes de frontière) en vue de refoulements
    https://seenthis.net/messages/795053

  • Méditerranée : 11 corps de migrants retrouvés au large de la Libye - InfoMigrants
    https://www.infomigrants.net/fr/post/57641/mediterranee--11-corps-de-migrants-retrouves-au-large-de-la-libye

    Méditerranée : 11 corps de migrants retrouvés au large de la Libye
    Par La rédaction Publié le : 10/06/2024
    Onze cadavres ont été récupérés par le navire de Médecins sans frontières (MSF), vendredi, au large des côtes libyennes. Ils avaient été repérés la veille par le Seabird, l’avion de surveillance de l’ONG allemande Sea-Watch.
    « Les équipes de MSF [Médecins sans frontières] ont été une nouvelle fois témoins du résultat des politiques européennes dévastatrices et sanglantes sur la migration et de la non-assistance aux personnes en Méditerranée ». Vendredi 7 juin, les corps sans vie de onze migrants qui étaient en pleine mer, à la dérive au large des côtes libyennes ont été récupérés par le Geo Barents, navire de l’ONG.
    Ces cadavres avaient été repérés plus tôt dans la soirée par le Seabird, l’avion de surveillance de l’ONG allemande Sea-Watch. « On ne sait pas si les corps découverts au large des côtes libyennes sont les victimes d’un naufrage inconnu jusqu’alors. Ce qui est sûr, c’est que nous survolons un charnier voulu par l’Europe », a déploré l’association sur X (ex-Twitter).
    Sea-Watch n’a eu d’autre choix que de demander l’aide du Geo Barents, les garde-côtes libyens ayant « ignoré » leur appel « demandant que les corps soient récupérés ». Proche de la zone, le Geo Barents s’est rendu sur place, « après une opération de recherche qui a duré plus de neuf heures ». Les humanitaires ont emballé les corps dans des housses mortuaires, avant de le transporter sur son zodiac qui sert d’ordinaire aux sauvetages.
    Le lendemain, les 11 corps, qui reposaient dans une chambre froide sur le pont du bateau, ont été transférés sur un navire des garde-côtes italiens, près de Lampedusa. Le Geo Barents, lui, continue sa route vers Gênes, port qui lui a été attribué par les autorités, avec des rescapés à bord. Ces deux derniers jours, l’équipage a en effet porté secours, lors de trois opérations, à 165 personnes en détresse en mer.
    (...)"Nous ne pouvons pas déterminer la raison de cette tragédie, mais nous savons que les gens continueront à emprunter des itinéraires dangereux dans une tentative désespérée de se mettre en sécurité, et l’Europe doivent trouver des voies sûres et légales pour eux, s’est insurgé de son côté MSF. Cette catastrophe doit cesser !".
    Plus de 900 morts depuis le début de l’année Ce week-end, un « corps flottant en mer » a également été « repéré et récupéré » par l’Ocean Viking de SOS Méditerranée. Le 28 mai, les sauveteurs de l’ONG allemande SOS Humanity avaient retrouvé le corps sans vie d’un bébé de six mois dans un canot de migrants à la dérive.
    L’année dernière, 3 155 migrants sont décédés ou ont été portés disparus après avoir tenté de traverser la Méditerranée pour rejoindre l’Europe, selon les derniers chiffres de l’Organisation internationale pour les migrations (OIM). Depuis janvier, 923 migrants sont décédés ou portés disparus.
    Selon les chiffres du ministère italien de l’Intérieur, les arrivées par la mer sur le territoire national ont considérablement baissé depuis le début de l’année : 21 792 personnes sont arrivées en Italie entre le 1er janvier et le 7 juin, contre 53 270 lors de la même période de 2023. La rédaction tient à rappeler que les navires humanitaires sillonnent une partie très limitée de la mer Méditerranée. La présence de ces ONG est loin d’être une garantie de secours pour les migrants qui veulent tenter la traversée depuis les côtes africaines. Beaucoup d’embarcations passent inaperçues dans l’immensité de la mer. Beaucoup de canots sombrent aussi sans avoir été repérés. La Méditerranée centrale reste aujourd’hui la route maritime la plus meurtrière au monde.

    #Covid-19#migrant#migration#mediterranee#italie#OIM#ONG#mortalite#traversee#sante#routemigratoire#lampedusa#libye

  • The key ingredients of Shanghai’s unique haipai culture
    https://www.shine.cn/opinion/foreign-views/1806025684

    2.6.2018 by Dahvida Falanitule - As a foreigner living and working in this marvelous city — while observing the culture of Shanghai at work on a daily basis — I often wonder as to the source of this radiant culture.

    Historically, Shanghai culture was influenced and shaped by the region of Jiangnan (areas south of the Yangtze River), which is recognized today as Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces, which were previously known as the ancient kingdoms of Wu and Yue.

    Wuyue culture (吴越文化) is a major part of the Han Chinese group that has historically been demographic in the southern half of Jiangsu Province, the entire Zhejiang Province, some regions in Jiangxi Province, some parts of Fujian Province and the city of Shanghai.

    The culture is known for being delicate and refined, having preserved many unique cultural traditions not existing in other regions of China.

    Wuyue culture contributed to and had a significant impact on the civilization of Shanghai culture in many aspects.

    Language

    The Shanghai dialect, or huyu (沪语, literally “Shanghainese language”), is a variety of Wu Chinese. Like other Wu variants, Shanghainese is unintelligible with other varieties of Chinese, such as Mandarin.

    Shanghainese belongs to the Taihu Wu subgroup and contains words and expressions from the area of southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang provinces. With nearly 14 million speakers, Shanghainese is a lingua franca of the Yangtze River Delta.

    Music

    Jiangnan sizhu (江南丝竹) is a style of traditional Chinese instrumental music from the regions south of the Yangtze River.

    Sizhu, literally “silk and bamboo,” refers to string and wind instruments ─ string traditionally made of silk and flutes such as the dizi and xiao made of bamboo.

    The term sizhu by extension also came to refer to instrumental music in general, especially that played indoors.

    Cuisine

    Food in Shanghai is widely said to be influenced by cuisines from Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces.

    Zhejiang cuisine (浙菜) is one of the “Eight Culinary Styles of China.” It derives from the traditional ways of cooking in Zhejiang, which is south of Shanghai. In general, Zhejiang cuisine is not greasy but has a fresh and soft flavor with a mellow fragrance.

    Zhejiang cuisine consists of at least three styles, each originating from a major city in the province.

    Hangzhou style — characterized by rich variations and the use of bamboo shoots.

    Shaoxing style — specializing in poultry and freshwater fish.

    Ningbo style — known for seafood, with emphasis on freshness and salty dishes.

    Some sources also include the Wenzhou style as a separate subdivision due to its proximity to Fujian Province. Wenzhou style is characterized as the greatest source of seafood as well as poultry and livestock.

    Longjing tea, sometimes called by its literal translated name Dragon Well tea, is a variety of pan-roasted green tea from the area of Longjing Village near Hangzhou. It is produced mostly by hand and renowned for its high quality.

    Shaoxing wine is one of the most famous varieties of huangjiu, or traditional Chinese wine fermented from rice. It originates from the region of Shaoxing in Zhejiang Province.

    It is widely used as both a beverage and a cooking wine in Chinese cuisine. It is internationally well known and renowned throughout Chinese mainland, as well as in Taiwan and Southeast Asia.

    Jiangsu cuisine (苏菜) is also part of the eight culinary traditions. In general, Jiangsu cuisine’s texture is characterized as soft, but not to the point of mushy or falling apart.

    For example, the meat tastes quite soft but would not separate from the bone when picked up. As the style of Jiangsu cuisine is typically practiced near the sea, fish is a very common ingredient in cooking.

    East-meets-West culture

    Another source that influenced and shaped Shanghai as experienced by foreigners visiting, or indeed those based here, is haipai (海派, literally “Shanghai style”) culture, which refers to the avant-garde and unique “East-meets-West” culture from Shanghai in the 20th and 21st centuries.

    The term was coined by a group of Beijing writers in 1920s to describe some Shanghai scholars and their style of embracing Western culture.

    The name haipai originally came from painting and drama. According to “History of Chinese Painting,” published in 1937, during Emperors Tongzhi’s and Guangxu’s reigns in the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), most Chinese painters lived in Shanghai and made a living by selling paintings. In order to make profits, painters catered to public taste, thus their paintings gradually demonstrated haipai style.

    Haipai culture came from the 1920s and 1930s. Before the city opened its port in 1843, Shanghai culture was mainly influenced by the ancient kingdoms of Wu and Yue.

    The idea of haipai has gradually changed and the culture has become one of the most charming styles in China. Usually haipai is seen as “all-embracing” while jingpai (literally “Beijing style”) is “traditional.” They represent two kinds of Chinese cultures and still have profound influence.

    In contemporary China, haipai hasn’t lose its attraction. On the contrary, its influence continues.

    In modern terms, it is seen as a symbol of diversity and inclusiveness, a special style which boasts both Eastern and Western cultures.

    Red culture

    Shanghai is where aspiring revolutionaries first met and put their ideas to the test. To be more specific, it was where the Communist Party of China was founded.

    This focuses on the city as the birthplace of the Party and the impact that has on its culture today.

    It is about the stimulation, innovation and creation of Shanghai as an open and inclusive international metropolis under the guidance of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

    The red culture continues to influence the Shanghai spirit today. The core of it, as we can see, is concern about the people’s happiness, national rejuvenation, and building a community with a shared future for mankind.

    #Chine #Shanghai. #Jiangsu #Zhejiang #languw #cuisine #culture

  • Les #Voix_croisées - #Xaraasi_Xanne



    Using rare cinematic, photographic and sound archives, Xaraasi Xanne (Crossing Voices) recounts the exemplary adventure of #Somankidi_Coura, an agricultural #cooperative created in #Mali in 1977 by western African immigrant workers living in workers’ residences in France. The story of this improbable, utopic return to the Sahel region follows a winding path that travels through the ecological and decolonial challenges and conflicts of agriculture practices and sensing from the 1970s to the present day. One of the major actors of the movement, #Bouba_Touré, tells this story by plunging into the heart of his personal archives, which document the fights of farmers in France and in Mali, as well as those of immigrant workers, over a period of decades. The film is also a story about dialogues and transmission, friendships and cinematic geographies. Over the course of the film, different voices, enter the sound-scape to accompany Bouba Touré’s telling; they bring the tale of a forgotten memory toward a possible future sung by a polyphonic griot.

    https://www.film-documentaire.fr/4DACTION/w_fiche_film/64570
    #film #documentaire #film_documentaire #travailleurs_immigrés #coopérative_agricole #Somankidi #agriculture #retour_au_pays #fleuve_Sénégal #régularisation #sans-papiers #travailleurs_sans-papiers #travail #exploitation #logement #racisme #mal-logement #foyer #marchands_de_sommeil #conditions_de_vie #taudis #tuberculeuse #Fode_Sylla #lutte #grève_des_loyers #université_libre_de_Vincennes #L'Archer #Djiali_Ben_Ali #Association_culturelle_des_travailleurs_africains_en_France (#ACTAF) #manoeuvres #main_d'oeuvre_non_qualifiée #grève #Sahel #famine #1971 #sécheresse #Haute-Volta #aide_humanitaire #exode_rural #Larzac #récupération_des_sols #charité #luttes_de_libération #termites #Samé #aide_au_retour #luttes #arachide #travail_forcé #modernisation #mécanisation #graines #semences #endettement #Kayes #autonomie #femmes #genre #irrigation #radio #radio_rurale_Kayes #radio_rurale #permaculture #intelligence_collective

    –—

    A partir de 1h07’14, où l’on explique que les lois restrictives contre les migrations fixent les gens... alors qu’avant il y avait de la #migration_circulaire : beaucoup de personnes venaient en France 1-2 ans, repartaient au pays et ne revenaient plus jamais en France...
    #fermeture_des_frontières #sédentarisation #agroécologie

  • Más de 650 migrantes rescatados y decenas de víctimas mortales en aguas de Canarias en las últimas 24 horas

    El relato de los supervientes afirma que al menos 50 personas fueron arrojadas al mar tras fallecer en un cayuco que quedó a la deriva a cientos de kilómetros de tierra


    Seis cayucos y una lancha neumática con 677 inmigrantes a bordo en total, entre ellos 26 menores, fueron socorridos por Salvamento Marítimo a lo largo de este jueves en la Ruta Canaria, de los cuales uno falleció ya en tierra, tras ser trasladado al Hospital de El Hierro, y varias decenas podrían haber muerto en la travesía. Además, otros cinco, entre ellos un recién nacido que fue alumbrado en alta mar, tuvieron que ser evacuados en helicóptero.

    Ha sido una jornada frenética para las tripulaciones de Salvamento Marítimo en Canarias, que ha obligado a movilizar seis barcos de rescate en cuatro islas (las guardamares Urania y Talía y las salvamares Adhara, Mízar, Menkalinan y Al Nair), además del helicóptero Helimer 201, según ha destacado el director de la sociedad estatal, José Luis García Lena.

    Esta serie de rescates comenzó en la tarde del miércoles, cuando el buque noruego Ramform Atlas/Lart8 avistó un cayuco a la deriva a unos 200 kilómetros al sur de La Gomera y El Hierro, cerca del cual se localizaron después dos embarcaciones más.

    El Centro de Salvamento Marítimo de Tenerife movilizó la Guardamar Urania, la Salvamar Adhara, la Guardamar Talía y el helicóptero Helimer 201.

    La tripulación de la Guardamar Urania rescató a 190 personas (de ellas 15 mujeres y seis niños) que fueron desembarcadas en La Restinga (El Hierro) a las 08.00 horas de este jueves, desde donde una de ellas fue derivada al hospital insular, si bien el Helimer 201 evacuó primero a una mujer y a un bebé, que había nacido en el cayuco.

    Según el relato de los ocupantes de la embarcación, estos habrían realizado una travesía de nueve días desde Nuakchot, en Mauritania. A bordo viajaban personas de Guinea-Conakry, Senegal, Marruecos, Mauritania, Comoro, Gambia, Malí y Pakistán.

    Antes de dirigirse al aeropuerto de Tenerife Sur, el helicóptero, con la mujer y el bebé a bordo, recogió a otras tres personas en mal estado de salud de un segundo cayuco.

    En este iban 70 ocupantes (65 hombres y 5 mujeres, naturales de Ghana, Senegal, Guinea Bissau y Mali) que se encontraba en situación desesperada. Según relataron sus ocupantes, habían muerto entre diez y doce personas durante la travesía desde Nuakchot, de donde zarparon hace trece días. En las últimas horas, tras comenzar a relatar los supervivientes lo ocurrido, se ha sabido que partieron de Nuakchot, en Mauritania, a finales de mayo, pero a los pocos días quedaron a la deriva. Algunos comenzaron a morir durante la travesía y sus cuerpos, incluidos los de mujeres y niños, fueron arrojados al mar. La cifra de muertos se ha elevado hasta, al menos, 50 personas.

    Tres de ellos fueron evacuados en helicóptero con la madre y el bebé de la otra embarcación. Las restantes personas de ese segundo cayuco fueron llevadas por la Salvamar Adhara también a La Restinga, en donde desembarcaron a las 03.50 horas.

    Los servicios sanitarios derivaron a ocho de ellos desde el muelle directamente al hospital de la isla, uno de los cuales falleció en el centro sanitario y fue enterrado horas después en el cementerio de Valverde sin identificación, bajo el código Inmigrante Nº 119 R3.

    La Guardamar Talía acudió al rescate de la tercera embarcación, con 159 personas (149 hombres, 8 mujeres y dos niños), que desembarcaron por la mañana en Arguineguín, Gran Canaria.

    Antes, a las 23.00 horas, el centro de emergencias 112 había informado a Salvamento Marítimo de que se había recibido una llamada desde un cayuco con 44 personas (de ellas 3 mujeres y 2 menores) que decían estar a la deriva entre Tenerife y La Gomera, según deducían por las luces que veían.

    Salvamento Marítimo movilizó la Salvamar Mizar, que a las 01.10 horas localizó el cayuco, rescató a sus 44 ocupantes y los trasladó hasta el puerto de Los Cristianos, en Tenerife, en donde desembarcaron a las 03.57 horas.

    Por la mañana, llegó a Tenerife por sus propios medios la quinta a embarcación del día, un cayuco localizado por un radar a 16 kilómetros al sureste de la punta de Rasca, cuyos 55 ocupantes, todos hombres, llegaron por sus medios a Los Cristianos acompañados por la Salvamar Menkalinan.

    Le han seguido otro cayuco socorrido a pocos kilómetros de El Hierro con 108 personas a bordo, entre ellas 21 mujeres y 15 menores, y una neumática con 51 personas de origen subsahariano rescatada esta tarde a 68 kilómetros al este de Lanzarote por la Salvamar Al Nair, con siete mujeres y un niño.

    Este viernes, la Guardamar Concepción Arenal ha rescatado a 64 migrantes subsaharianos, entre ellos seis mujeres y un menor, que han sido localizados en una neumática a unos 79 kilómetros al este de Arrecife (Lanzarote). Según han informado las fuentes del citado organismo estatal, todos ellos se encuentran en aparente buen estado de salud.

    Salvamento acudió al rescate de estas personas tras recibir un aviso de la Guardia Civil de la neumática, que fue avistada por un buque mercante, el Bochem Casablanca, que ha permanecido en la zona hasta que ha sido auxiliada.

    https://www.eldiario.es/canariasahora/migraciones/jueves-frenetico-salvamento-canarias-677-rescatados-muerto-numerosos-desapa

    #mourir_en_mer #morts_en_mer #mourir_aux_frontières #Canaries #route_atlantique #décès #El_Hierro #Valverde #identification #Arrecife #Lanzarote

    • À 100 ans, André conduit sa voiture tous les jours et sans lunettes
      https://actu.fr/hauts-de-france/rue_80688/a-100-ans-andre-conduit-sa-voiture-tous-les-jours-et-sans-lunettes_60360862.htm

      Vain dieu ! moi à 59 ans avec des lunettes, au bout d’une heure de route au volant, j’ai qu’une envie c’est de descendre de mon cercueil à roulettes. J’ai le souvenir de mon vieux qui a abandonné la conduite à 70 ans passé suite à un accident heureusement sans victimes ; à la fin il faisait que quelques kilomètres pour aller boire des coups dans les bleds alentour. Du fait qu’il était unijambiste, il avait oublié de mettre sa boite automatique en marche avant et sûrement aussi avec en plus un coup dans les carreaux. Son copain à la place du mort à côté de lui a eu la peur de sa vie quand la voiture à défoncé la vitrine du bar qu’ils venaient de quitter. Son pote en avait pissé dans son froc en pleurant dans l’airbag. Ce n’était pourtant pas par manque de tentative de mon frère et de mes sœurs d’essayer de le convaincre d’arrêter de conduire. Comme il avait longtemps été chauffeur de bus, entre autres, sa réponse était buttée jusqu’à cet accident : « non de dieu de bordel de merde ! C’est pas vous qui allez m’apprendre à conduire ». Maintenant que mes parents sont décédés tous les deux, il paraît qu’il a accueilli ma mère, au ciel, en lui disant que c’était lui le champion à la marelle. Forcément, avec une jambe de bois, à ce jeu là c’est plus facile.

    • Je sais que je ne conduirai pas toute ma vie. J’ai 69 ans cette année, j’envisage d’arrêter de conduire bien avant mes 80 ans . Se posera la question de mes déplacements. Mon médecin est à 15 km. Je n’en ai pas trouvé un plus près. Je ferai livrer mes courses je le sais déjà. Ce ne sera pas facile mais je ne veux pas tuer quelqu’un en conduisant.

    • Ma fille a décrété qu’elle était trop distraite pour envisager de conduire un jour. Pour ma part, je pense qu’il faut pousser fort pour qu’on arrête de consacrer autant de pognon à la bagnole, qu’il faut faire de la place aux vélos et aux piétons, aux moyens de transports autres et ça va se faire tout seul.

      Ce qui tue, c’est la bagnole partout et donc de la sécurité nulle part.

      On accuse l’âge, la gnôle, la testostérone, mais ce qui tue, c’est la bagnole partout.

  • L’ēssençiēl ē-t invizible pour lē-z yeu

    En introduction, Mario Périard aborde la passion francophone de l’orthographe, les habitudes réglementées de la langue écrite, la disqualification des langues « régionales » et la véritable « campagne d’éradication des parlers populaires » menée dans l’histoire proche par les institutions, les formes langagières des élites, la masculinisation de la langue, la confusion entre langue et orthographe, « En fait, on en est venu à confondre langue et orthographe, comme si l’orthographe était indissociable de la langue, ou pire, comme si l’orthographe était essentiellement la langue », le système codifié de sons à des fins de communication, la naissance du français, la guerre de l’orthographe, « Le temps où chacune écrivait comme iel voulait est définitivement révolu et une orthographe bureaucratisée à l’uniformité toute militaire était imposée partout », le rôle de l’Académie française, la glaciation de l’orthographe français contrairement aux évolutions d’autres langues…

    Mario Périard : L’orthographe, un carcan ?
    Une déconstruction du mythe orthographique de A à Z

    https://entreleslignesentrelesmots.wordpress.com/2018/10/22/lessenciel-e-t-invizible-pour-le-z-yeu

    #langue

  • Chinese Number Slang : The Essential Guide to Mandarin Numerical Speak
    https://www.fluentu.com/blog/chinese/chinese-number-slang

    L’éthymologie du 250 est une histoire charmante qui témoigne de l’humour populare chinois. L’argot berlinois connaît sa fausse pièce de monnaie de cinquante centimes « falscher Fuffziger » qui est une expression pour désigner un menteur, un traitre, un personnage douteux ou louche. Le code numérique pour « idiot » est typiquement chinois et bien plus abstrait qu’une métaphore. D’abord on remarque que sa prononciation omet le dix (shi), alors sa signification exacte serait « 205 », mais tout le monde entend et comprend « 250 ».

    Le numéro le plus dangereux et agressif est le 4 四 . Sa prononciation « sì » ent fait un homonyme de 死 sǐ qui signifie mourir ou la mort. . Alors si vous trouvez dans votre boîte de réception SMS le message 444 vous savez que vous devez courir vite pour échapper à ce qu’on vous a destiné.

    Le chinois est concis et a tendence omettre tout élément linguistique inutile. Les homophonies omniprésentes permettent de « numériser » phonétiquement n’importe quel mot ou expression à la manière des LOL, RTFM, AFK etc.
    C’est aussi drôle et difficile à mémoriser pour les débutants que les 成语 chéngyǔ , les expressions idiomatiques qui sont la clé d’une véritable maîtrise de la langue chinoise.

    Aujourd’hui les listes de codes sont des documents historiques. Dans les années 1980 la vie à Hongkong, Taiwan et Singapour s’organisait autour des pagers prédécesseurs des SMS aux capacités encore plus limitées. Tout le monde portait avec soi son petit bipbip. La limitation radicale du nombre de signes transmis et la difficulté de les entrer sur un minuscule clavier qui n’avait parfois que deux ou trois touches encourageait l’utilisation de code numériques á la place de mots.

    5.10.2023 ny Nathan Thomas Facebook may be blocked in China, but that doesn’t stop young people from wasting away their lives online just like we do in the West!

    Inside this online universe, an interesting phenomenon occurs: Chinese internet slang, and specifically number slang.

    It allows people to form sentences, exchange insults and even declare their undying love, simply by typing out a few carefully chosen digits.

    Read on for a look at the concept of number slang in more detail and some popular examples.
    Contents

    250 / 二百五 (èr bǎi wǔ) — Idiot
    886 / 爸爸六 (bā bā liù) — Goodbye
    520 / 五二零 (wǔ èr líng) — I love you
    1314 / 一三一四 (yī sān yī sì) — Forever
    2013 / 二零一三 (èr líng yī sān) — I’ll love you forever
    555 / 五五五 (wǔ wǔ wǔ) — Crying noise
    514 / 五一四 (wǔ yī sì) — I want to die
    7465 / 七四五六 (qī sì wǔ liù) — You’re making me angry
    How Chinese Number Slang Works
    Resources for Exploring More of Chinese Number Slang
    And One More Thing...

    250 / 二百五 (èr bǎi wǔ) — Idiot

    We begin with a special case. While you’ve probably noticed that China is pretty big on homophones, similar sounds aren’t the only tools used to create Chinese number slang.

    Occasionally, half-forgotten myths from Chinese history have lent significance to certain numbers, and that’s the case with the pretty common insult “250.”

    Basically, in ancient China, coins were strung together in stacks of 1000. It was considered modest and politely self-deprecating for scholars to refer to themselves as “half a stack”—in other words, “500.” Half of 500, of course, is 250, so 二百五 came to refer to someone who’s so dumb they aren’t even half a stack!

    Most people who use this term probably aren’t aware of the origin story, so don’t worry if it’s a bit confusing or difficult to remember.
    886 / 爸爸六 (bā bā liù) — Goodbye

    An example of Hong Kong Cantonese internet slang, this one actually seems to make make more sense in Mandarin. While most Chinese number slang terms sound like other Chinese words, this one is used because it sounds like English words… sorta.

    “Bā bā liù” sounds close enough to “bye-bye le.” The le refers to the Chinese grammar particle 了, which is used at the end of verbs to indicate past tense or a change in status. A (very) rough approximation of the English meaning would be “Bye-bye then!”
    520 / 五二零 (wǔ èr líng) — I love you

    Now we get into more examples using Chinese words that sound similar to numbers. Let’s break this one down:

    五 (wǔ) — 5 = 我 (wǒ) — I

    二 (èr) — 2 = 爱 (ài) — love

    零 (líng) — 0 = 你 (nǐ) — you

    Put it all together, and you get 我爱你 (wǒ ài nǐ) — “I love you!”
    1314 / 一三一四 (yī sān yī sì) — Forever

    When read in Chinese, 1314 sounds similar to 一生一世 (yī shēng yī shì) — “one life, one world,” meaning “for the rest of my life” or “forever.”

    And, if you put the last two examples together, we get what has to be the quickest way to declare undying love in any language: 520 1314, or 我爱你一生一世 (wǒ ài nǐ yī shēng yī shì) — I love you forever!
    2013 / 二零一三 (èr líng yī sān) — I’ll love you forever

    OK, so I guess I was wrong. If typing the numbers “520 1314” takes too much time, there is in fact an even quicker way to tell someone that you’ll love them forever: 2013.

    When read in Chinese, these numbers sound reasonably close to 爱你一生 (ài nǐ yī shēng) — “love you one life!”
    555 / 五五五 (wǔ wǔ wǔ) — Crying noise

    If your numeric declaration of undying love was met with deafening silence and you were feeling a bit upset about it, you could express your emotions by writing 555.

    Read in Chinese as “wǔwǔwǔ,” this is an onomatopoeia for crying. Not exactly high literature, but hey, it makes sense!
    514 / 五一四 (wǔ yī sì) — I want to die

    You may have noticed by now that Chinese number slang tends towards hyperbole.

    In a world where lifelong dedication to someone can be expressed with a small string of numbers, even the mildest disappointment can call for something that would otherwise be considered extreme.

    When the number “1” is read as “yao” (more on this below), then 514 sounds like 我要死 (wǒ yào sǐ) — “I want to die.”
    7465 / 七四五六 (qī sì wǔ liù) — You’re making me angry

    So you’re going through the stages of grief and have passed from tears to fury. Got to be a quick number slang way of expressing this, right?

    7456 sounds close enough to 气死我了 (qì sǐ wǒ le) — “you’re angering me to death!”
    How Chinese Number Slang Works

    Here are the digits 0-9, and some of their possible word equivalents:

    零 (líng) — zero. This can be used to mean 你 (nǐ) — you. Now, to me, they really don’t sound that similar, but in some Chinese dialects the n and l sounds are pretty interchangeable.
    一 (yī) — one. Another one that’s a bit tricky. The number one is generally pronounced yī in Chinese, but in some contexts, such as in addresses or phone numbers, it’s pronounced yao to make it more distinct from other similar-sounding numbers. Yao sounds the same as 要 (yào) — to want.
    二 (èr) — two. This one’s a bit easier! It sounds similar to 饿 (è) — hungry, and similar enough to 爱 (ài) — love.
    三 (sān) — three. “Three” is used in particularly sappy examples of internet slang, often as a stand-in for 生 (shēng) — life.
    四 (sì) — four. The most unlucky number in Chinese, 四 sounds like 死 (sǐ) — death.
    五 (wǔ) — five. This one sounds similar to 我 (wǒ) — I. It’s also an onomatopoeia for crying.
    六 (liù) — six. “Six” is used in an example that borrows from Cantonese, and also as the grammar particle 了(le).
    七 (qī) — seven. This sounds the same as 气 (qì) — air, and is used in words such as 生气 (shēng qì) — to be angry.
    八 (bā) — eight. It sounds like 爸爸 (bà ba) — dad, or a transliteration of the English “bye-bye.”
    九 (jiǔ) — nine. This is the only digit without a use in the examples above. Congratulations, number nine!

    Resources for Exploring More of Chinese Number Slang

    For more ammunition for your ever-growing arsenal of Chinese slang, check out this great video from YouTube channel Off The Great Wall:

    Here are a few other resources to check out:

    Wikipedia. This Chinese Internet Slang Wikipedia page dives into even more number slang—if you’re ready for it! Also worth checking out are the Latin and Chinese character abbreviations, if you don’t want to just stop at numbers.

    You may be realizing that Chinese internet slang is a wild and crazy world! There are practically unlimited possibilities out there for combining numbers to make words and sentences like the examples above.

    Some are more commonly used than others, of course, and because pop culture is ever changing, I’d strongly recommend you check with a Chinese friend or teacher before you actually use any of these examples.

    Now, 886 from me!

    Chat Codes
    https://www.yellowbridge.com/chinese/pagercodes.php

    Chat Codes, YellowBridge Chinese Language & Culture
    https://www.yellowbridge.com/chinese/pagercodes.php

    Liste très longue de codes.

    The proliferation of pager, chat rooms, instant messaging, and phone text messaging has created a whole new set of acronyms and codes designed to minimize the amount of typing. First it was fairly simple acronyms like IMHO (“in my humble opinion“) or AFAIK (“as far as I know’). Telephone and pagers, lacking a full keyboard required more inventive approaches such as using 07734 for “hello“ (read upside down) or “10“ for “you are perfect“ (as in a perfect 10). Modern communications technologies, especially the cell phones, are if anything, more popular in Asia than in the West. So what do the Chinese use for codes? The Chinese language, not being alphabetic, does not lend itself to the use of acronyms. However, a few acronyms based on pinyin spellings do exist. Examples include GG for older brother (哥哥, gege) or MM for younger sister (妹妹, meimei).

    Fortunately, long before the invention of the telephone, the Chinese already had a tradition of associating certain words with numbers or things based on the similarities of sound. For example, the number eight (八) is considered a lucky number because it is pronounced “ba“, which sounds like the Chinese word for prosperity (發, fa). Similarly, the number four (四) is associated with bad luck because it is pronounced “si“, which sounds like the Chinese word for death (死,si). Given this tradition, it should be no surprise that there is in fact a large number of numeric codes in existence. Most of the words are represented with numbers having a similar sound or a least a similar leading consonant. One notable exception is the number used to represent the word “you“, the number 0. Although the Chinese word for zero does not sound much like like the word for “you“, the choice may have resulted from the fact that there is no close-sounding candidate while the same number is used in English codes to represent the same meaning.

    Code 繁體 ↔ 简体 English
    026 你来啦 You are here
    028 你来吧 Come here
    0358 你想我吧 You miss me
    04551 你是我唯一 You are the one and only for me
    04592 你是我最爱 You are my beloved
    0564335 你无聊时想想我 You think of me when you are bored
    0594184 你我就是一辈子 You and me for a lifetime
    0654335 你若无事想想我 If you have nothing to do, think of me
    08056 你不理我啦 You ignore me now?
    08358 你不想我吧 Don’t think of me
    08376 你别生气了 Don’t be angry
    086 你发了 You made a fortune
    0896 你不走了 You are not leaving
    095 你找我 You’re looking for me
    096 你走了 You are leaving
    1299 一来就走 Leave as soon as you arrive
    12937 一来就想吃 Thinking of eating as soon as you got here
    12945 要爱就是我 I’m the one who wants love
    130926 一想你就来啦 Just one thought of you and you arrived
    1314921 一生一世就爱你 Love you for a lifetime
    1372 一厢情愿 One-sided willingness
    1392010 一生就爱你一人 You are the person I’ll love for a lifetime
    1573 一往情深 Long-lasting, focused love (Chinese idiom)
    1698 一路走吧 Let’s go together
    1799 一起走走 Let’s stroll around
    20863 爱你到来生 Love you till the next life
    234 爱相随 Follow you with love
    246 饿死了 Starving to death
    246437 爱是如此神奇 Love is so magical
    25184 爱我一辈子 Love me for a lifetime
    258 爱我吧 Love me
    25873 爱我到今生 Love me till death
    259695 爱我就了解我 To love me is to know me
    3207778 想和你去吹吹风 Want to go out with you
    3344 生生世世 For generations
    338 想想吧 Let’s think about it a bit
    3399 长长久久 For a long time
    35925 想我就爱我 To think of me is to love me
    360 想念你 Miss you
    3726 想起来啦 Thinking of getting up
    38726 想不起来啦 I can’t think of it
    409 罚你走 Punish you by your leaving
    456 是我啦 It’s me
    476 死机了 Dead phone
    510 我已来 I’m already here
    51020 我依然爱你 I still love you
    511314 20 我要一生一世 爱你 Love you for a lifetime
    51396 我要睡觉了 I want to go to sleep now
    51476 我也死机了 My phone is dead too
    516 我要溜 I have to go
    517 我要吃 I want to eat
    5179 我要吃酒 I want to drink wine
    5196 我要走喽 I must leave now
    520 我爱你 I love you
    5201314 我爱你一生一世 I want you for a lifetime
    52033 44587 我爱你生生 世世不变心 I love for a lifetime with an unchanging heart
    521 我愿意 I’m willing
    5240 我爱是你 You are my love
    526 我饿啰 I’m hungry
    530 我想你 I’m thinking of you
    5366 我想聊聊 I want to chat for awhile
    53719 我深情依旧 I still have deep love for you
    5376 我生气了 I’m upset
    53770 我想亲亲你 I’m thinking of kissing you
    53880 我想抱抱你 I’m thinking of hugging you
    546 我输了 I lost
    548 无事吧 Are you OK?
    555 呜呜呜 Wu wu wu (sobbing sound)
    558 午午安 Good afternoon
    564335 无聊时想想我 Think of me when you are bored
    5689 我溜不走 I can’t sneak out
    57520 吾妻我爱你 My wife, I love you
    5776 我出去了 I’m going out now
    58 晚安 Good night
    5810 我不依你 I won’t listen to you
    584520 我发誓我爱你 I swear I love you
    586 我不来 I’m not coming
    587 我抱歉 I am sorry
    5871 我不介意 I don’t mind
    52667 我俩遛遛去 Let’s leave slowly
    594230 我就是爱想你 I’m thinking of you
    596 我走了 I’m leaving
    667 遛遛去 Let’s stroll around
    6785753 老地方不见不散 Meet at the same old place and don’t leave until we meet
    6868 溜吧!溜吧! Sneak out! Sneak out!
    70345 请你相信我 Please believe me
    71817 请你干要气 Please don’t get upset
    721 亲爱的 Dear
    7456 气死我啦 Angers me to death
    745839 其实我不想走 Actually, I don’t want to leave
    748 去死吧 Go to hell
    74839 其实不想走 Actually, not thinking of leaving
    765 去跳舞 Go dancing
    768 吃了吧 Let’s eat
    770 亲亲你 Kiss you
    770880 亲亲你抱抱你 Kiss you, hug you
    775 亲亲我 Kiss me
    775885 亲亲我抱抱我 Kiss me, hug me
    786 吃饱了 Done eating already
    7998 去走走吧 Go for a walk
    8006 不理你了 Not paying attention to you anymore
    801314 伴你一生一世 Your companion forever
    8074 把你气死 Upset you to death
    809 保龄球 Bowling
    810 不要脸 Shameless
    812 不要来 Don’t want to come
    8170 不要瞎动 Don’t move recklessly
    8172 不要瞎来 Don’t act recklessly
    82475 被爱是幸福 Being loved is happiness
    825 别爱我 Don’t love me
    837 别生气 Don’t be angry
    865 别惹我 Don’t annoy me
    885 抱抱我 Hug me
    886 拜拜了 Bye Bye
    898 分手吧 Let’s split
    910 就要你 Just want you
    918 加油吧 Cheer up
    940 就是你 It’s you
    9482 就是不来 Just don’t come
    98 早安 Good morning
    987 对不起 Excuse me
    99013 148875 求求你一生 一世别抛弃我 Beg you for a lifetime not to leave me
    9958 救救我吧 Save me

    Chengyu
    https://fr.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chengyu

    #Chine #langue #SMS #cryptographie #acronymes #homophonie

  • More Than Just Kiaochow Bay: A (Nearly) Forgotten Story
    https://www.goethe.de/prj/zei/en/art/21750527.html


    Kiautschou, German colony China: Beheaded Chinese (allegedly bandits) at the roadside, behind them Europeans have lined up for a group photo. Photo around 1900 Photo: F. A. Fischer, Genova

    Zhu Yijie , Mechthild Leutner - Iltisstraße, Berlin-Dahlem: In German, the word “Iltis” means “polecat”, evoking that little native carnivore from the marten family after which the road must surely have been named. But actually it wasn’t at all – to this day the street name commemorates a chapter in the history of German colonialism.

    Along with neighbouring streets Lansstraße and Takustraße, it was originally supposed to honour the successful attack on the Taku Forts (Dagu Forts) carried out by the Iltis, a German torpedo boat commanded by Captain Lans; the forts were meant to prevent access to the large port of Tianjin – and therefore bar the way to Peking. The attack was the start of the Colonial War in 1900/1901, the first of many bloody battles fought by German and Allied troops against the Chinese Empire, and a climax in the aggression practised by the imperial forces.

    By concluding the Sino-German Unequal Treaty of 1861, Prussia as vanguard of the German nations had also joined the phalanx of imperial forces that had served to massively restrict China’s territorial, political, financial and economic sovereignty since the First Opium War in 1840-42, rendering the country an informal colony. In the Second Opium War from 1858-60 these semi-colonial structures were reinforced and extended. The most profitable trading commodity was opium. The fact that it was a drug with catastrophic consequences for individuals and for the whole country was played down. According to the new treaties, it was now possible to import opium – the same as all the other goods – at giveaway prices.

    The country’s economic and financial structure was destroyed, and China was forced to borrow large sums on credit in order to pay off the huge reparations to the imperial powers. Large swathes of the population sank into poverty, resulting in uprisings – against the foreign aggressors and their representatives as well as against the Qing regime, which was unable to stop the country from being exploited and bled dry financially. Prussia, from 1871 the German Empire, had been profiting from the economic advantages of the semi-colonial system since 1865, and was already lining up its naval ships that were patrolling the coast ready to be deployed locally in the ports, or threatening to.

    However Germany was by no means in a position to enforce the acquisition of a territorial colony similar to Britain’s Hong Kong, as had been their ambition since the 1870s, because of the determined resistance put up by the Chinese government. However the experts furnished themselves with the necessary diplomatic, linguistic and cultural knowledge necessary for further expansion, and with the foundation of the Seminar for Oriental Languages in Berlin in 1887 the systematic generation of knowledge required for colonial expansion began for China too.

    “Coal station and naval base” – those are two further misleading terms that were used in 1897-98 by German diplomats in negotiation with the Chinese government, after German troops had occupied an area in Jiaozhou Bay and its port Qingdao. After long negotiations and with the threat of further military aggression, the Empire obtained a 99-year lease on the region through extortion, and it was known as the “Kiaochow Bay Leased Territory”. Identifying the colony as a “leased territory” was the sole achievement of the Chinese negotiators. But whatever the area was called in the following decades and sometimes even still, a “protectorate” or “model colony”, it was a de facto German colony from 1897 to 1914 as well as part of Shandong Province, as a fortification of that same direct German “sphere of influence” with economic and military privileges.

    “Model colony” – another misleading term: it was developed for propaganda purposes as an antithesis to British Hong Kong and was an expression of German-British rivalries on the international markets. At the same time it served as legitimation and as a cover-up of the colonial character of the German occupation. The thing is, similar issues were at stake in China too – domination, a military base, developing sales markets and exploiting the abundant coal deposits in Shandong for the German navy in Eastern Asia, as well as some profitable investment opportunities for German capital. Kiaochow Bay was under the command of the German Imperial Naval Office, a governor ruled over its conquered people.

    As with all territorial colonies they implemented a spatial and socio-cultural segregation for the rulers and the ruled, inequality was reproduced and the specifically colonial instruments of government became established: first of all the complete suspension of the sovereign rights of the Chinese state, the aggressive military attitude of the troops, and quashing of the slightest resistance, including what was known as penal expeditions, particularly in the early days. Subsequently they imposed expropriation and dispossession measures on the rural and urban population, restricted Chinese trading activities, abrogated the Chinese social and legal systems and developed a new two-part legal system, as well as banning the Chinese from settling in what was termed the “European Quarter”.

    Racism, coupled with a Eurocentric air of superiority and social discipline, were everyday practices that were most notably expressed at an individual level through the routine violence towards Chinese people because they were considered inferior, as well as through the rape of Chinese women by German soldiers. Marriages between Germans and Chinese although not prohibited in law were socially sanctioned – as a result German men belonging to the lower colonial class lived in an ambiguous legal position with their Chinese wives and children.

    Of course there was resistance against the colonial rulers as well: while mainly the social stratum comprising public servants and academics went all-out to demand political reforms albeit without success, and the merchant classes were increasingly managing to assert their economic interests, the uneducated rural population, anticipating their cultural order to be primarily under threat from foreign missionaries, also put up resistance through campaigns of violence – culminating in the Boxer Rebellion and the Colonial War that followed it in 1900-01. The German Reich played a part in this war as well as profiting from it: they had military command over the troops dispatched by the eight Allied nations, they pocketed most of the reparation money China had to pay, and finally they were responsible for a series of violent acts and so-called penal campaigns against the rebellious boxers and the population.

    The fact that from around 1904 the Germans were very committed to what they called Germany’s Cultural Mission and less focused on the military was because of the realisation that that was the only way the German Reich could profit from China in the long term. And the fact that a modern urban infrastructure and traffic system with medical and educational facilities (military hospitals, clinics, schools, an observatory, the Sino-German University) had been developed in the European Quarter in Kiaochow Bay, which were also used by some of the Chinese population, also had a propaganda effect: the colonial project was supposed to demonstrate civilisation, progress and modernity for the benefit of the Chinese people as well as the international British rivals. That offers points of connection right up to the present day with regard to the origins and perpetuation of the narratives of modernisation, in German as well as to some extent Chinese historiography.

    When the First World War began in 1914, Kiaochow Bay was occupied by Japanese troops. That was the final straw for colonial rule. And when the German Empire came to an end in 1918 as well, all colonial claims were formally renounced – the other imperial powers didn’t do this until 1942. In China’s cultural memory, of political leadership as well as intelligence, the colonial era from 1840 to 1942 is still considered to be present today and is known as the Century of Humiliation, even serving as a basis for the formulation of strategic foreign policy.

    In the triangle formed between Iltisstraße, Takustraße and Lansstraße in Berlin-Dahlem, after much campaigning by residents, they put up an information board in 2011 detailing their colonial origins. Kiautschou-Straße in Berlin-Wedding on the other hand still bears no reference to its historical background. The German colonial project in China has no place in the cultural memory of most Germans, or it’s associated with the concept of “model colony” and modernisation.

    #Allemagne #Chine #Quingdao #Berlin #Iltisstraße #Takustraße #Lansstraße #Dahlem

    #Kiautschou

    #histoire #colonialisme #impérialisme

  • 我们已经老了,无所谓
    Wǒmén yǐjīng lǎole , wúsuǒwèi .
    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zhao_Ziyang


    赵紫阳 Zhao Ziyang , 17.10.1919 – 17.1.2005
    C’était un homme droit qui en 1989 a failli provoquer comme secrétaire général du Parti communiste chinois la même catastrophe en Chine comme Gorbatchev en URSS.

    The phrase “We are already old, and do not matter” (我们已经老了,无所谓) and Zhao’s speech, have since become a well known part of the protests.

    #Chine #1989

    • Je crois que les états unis s’en foutent que la Chine soit démocratique. Je dis ca parce qu’on nous parle sans cesse de ça quand les dirigeants étrangers leur rendent visite. Un petit chuchotage à l’oreille de Xi Jinping sur les droits humains quand les journalistes n’écoutent pas.
      Foutaises.
      Ce que Regan et tous les autres ont toujours voulu, c’est d’un pays docile qui permette l’investissement, l’installation d’usines pour profiter de la main d’oeuvre (pas chère à l’époque), le tout sans trop faire de bénéfices ou d’espionnage industriel au passage.

      En gros, ca me ferait chier que des libéraux croient en la démocratie (dans leur pays oui, mais pas à la concurrence).

    • La Chine, qu’est-ce que c’est comme genre d’état et type de société ?
      D’abord il est évident qu’en matière de droits de l’homme la Chine peut se montrer de manières différentes, suivant des raisons qui sont difficiles à comprendre de l’extérieur. Une chose est sûre c’est qu’aucune intervention de l’extérieur qui risquait de faire perdre face au pays n’a jamais eu le moindre résultat souhaité.

      Ensuite il y a l’éternel débat si c’est un état socialiste ou capitaliste, et ce dernier temps on entend des qualifications risibles comme « impérial ».

      Démocratique ou non c’est encore une discussion qui mène nulle part si on la pose du point de vue occidental. C’est une société qui pratique les décisions collectives à tous les niveaux en prenant en compte des choses qui n’intéressent pas nos dirigeants ou leurs sbires.

      La Chine est loin d’être parfaite et se montre parfois comme choquante simplement à cause des dimensions qui dépassent notre expérience d’habitants de petits pays d’Europe.

      Bref, il faut dire byebye aux mythes sur la #Chine qu’on nous raconte et écouter les Chinois à la place. Quand je dis « Chinois » je ne parle pas des gens qui ont réussi une carrière d’ennemi professionnel du gouvernement chinois au solde des #USA.

      Voilà une sinologue qui le fait très bien :
      Mechthild Leutner (罗梅君, Luó Méijūn)
      https://de.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mechthild_Leutner

      Commençon donc en écoutant notre dictateur de prédilection « Mao Tse Tung » : « Si le chat est noir ou blanc n’a pas d’importance tant qu’il attrappe les souris. » Je ne sais même pas s’il l’a vraiment dit mais c’est un si joli Chéngyǔ (成语) , alors on s’en fout ...

      #langue #culture #proverbes

    • @sandburg La catastrophe que les Chinois ont observé en URSS et prévenu dans leur pays après 1989 est le résultat de la libération des pires traits du caractère humain par l’introduction du marché libre sans freins. L’URSS a été détruite par un putsch. Ensuite la prise en mains du processus de transformation économique inspirée par des conseillers libéraux états-uniens a produit une démocratie relative sous domination de voyous sans scrupules. En Chine l’introduction de l’économie du marché a également fait des dégâts mais jamais le fondement de l’état n’a été mis en danger et sa politique a pu contrebalancer et parfois éliminer ses pires dérapages.

      Le gouvernement chinois pose des limites au pouvoir des capitaines de l’industrie et de la finance alors que dans les démocraties de l’Ouest c’est l’inverse. La disparition temporaire de Jack Ma a servi d’exemple salutaire pour ses semblables qui n’agissent en général que dans les limites qu’impose le parti communiste.
      https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_Ma#During_tech_crackdown

      Les droits du peuple et les abus causés par la transformation capitaliste sont des sujets de discussion permanents dans le pays où ils sont traités dans des films à grand budget. Après tout les processus politiques et sujets de discussions ne sont pas si loin de ce que nous connaissons en Europe.

      Exemples

      Qiu Ju, une femme chinoise (1992)
      https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qiu_Ju,_une_femme_chinoise
      A Touch of Sin (2013)
      https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Touch_of_Sin

      Il y a une question essentielle qui n’est que rarement posée à propos de la politique internationale chinoise :

      Est-ce que le pays suivra sa tradition vielle de deux millénaires de n’entrer en guerre que sous des contraintes extrêmes ou est-ce que les forces innées du capitalisme feront agir ses dirigeants suivant le même besoin d’expansion et de conquête de marchés par les armes comme les pays impérialistes occidentaux ?

      Pour le moment j’ai l’impression que le primat de la politique sur le militaire et l’économie permet au pays de poursuivre son ascension à la place dans le monde qui lui est dû sans se laisser perturber par les impulsions impérialistes de ses grands groupes capitalistes.
      J’avoue que ce n’est qu’une impression. Je n’ai toujours pas retrouvé cette boule de cristal prophétique ;-)