• Cédric O : « Expérimenter la reconnaissance faciale est nécessaire pour que nos industriels progressent »
    https://www.lemonde.fr/economie/article/2019/10/14/cedric-o-experimenter-la-reconnaissance-faciale-est-necessaire-pour-que-nos-

    Il ne faut pas avoir une vision exclusivement nihiliste de la reconnaissance faciale : il y a beaucoup d’usages qui, s’ils sont bordés juridiquement et techniquement, ne posent aucun problème et apportent de la simplification – par exemple, pour tout ce qui nécessite aujourd’hui de se présenter à un guichet ou pour valider une formation en ligne. Expérimenter est également nécessaire pour que nos industriels progressent.

    #reconnaissance_faciale #techno_neuneus #saloperie #flicage #fichage #liberté

  • Chef cuisinier soixante-six heures par semaine, payées 1 700 euros. / Cuisiniers, intérimaires, femmes de ménage... Une centaine de travailleurs sans papiers en grève en Ile-de-France, Julia Pascual
    https://www.lemonde.fr/societe/article/2019/10/01/une-centaine-de-travailleurs-sans-papiers-en-greve_6013793_3224.html


    Au KFC de la place d’Italie, à Paris, le 1er octobre. KAMIL ZIHNIOGLU POUR « LE MONDE »

    Ils travaillent pour KFC, Léon de Bruxelles ou dans le bâtiment. Plus d’une centaine de #travailleurs_sans_papiers de Paris et sa banlieue ont entamé une #grève mardi pour réclamer leur régularisation.

    Ils sont stewards chez KFC, plongeurs ou cuisiniers chez Léon de Bruxelles ou dans une brasserie chic du 16e arrondissement de Paris, femmes et hommes de ménage dans un hôtel Campanile, un cinéma UGC ou un foyer pour migrants, intérimaires dans le bâtiment…
    Ils sont plus d’une centaine et, mardi 1er octobre, ils ont entamé une grève dans douze entreprises. Leur point commun : tous sont des travailleurs sans papiers à Paris et dans sa banlieue et réclament leur #régularisation.

    Au moment où la préparation du débat parlementaire sur l’immigration – qui se tiendra lundi 7 octobre à l’Assemblée nationale – cible les risques d’abus du système de protection sociale ou de détournement de la demande d’asile, ces hommes et ces femmes, Maliens, Sénégalais et Mauritaniens, mais aussi Togolais ou Ghanéens, rappellent qu’ils « cotis[ent] et contribu[ent] au système de solidarité nationale et de Sécurité sociale ».

    « Contrairement à ce que dit la stigmatisation qui a cours, ils sont créateurs de richesse et de développement, martèle Marilyne Poulain, membre de la direction confédérale CGT et pilote du collectif immigration CGT, qui soutient le mouvement. Il faut redonner une visibilité à cette réalité-là. ». Contrats à durée déterminée (CDD) à répétition, heures supplémentaires non payées, temps de travail inférieur au minimum légal… Beaucoup de ces travailleurs en grève ont aussi des « conditions [de travail] dégradées, voire indignes du fait de leur situation administrative et de leur vulnérabilité », fait remarquer Mme Poulain.

    Payés de la main à la main
    « Ce sont les intérimaires qui déchargent les camions, constate Jean-Albert Guidou, de la CGT départementale, à propos des salariés de Haudecœur, une entreprise d’importation de produits alimentaires de La Courneuve (Seine-Saint-Denis), où une dizaine de personnes se sont mises en grève. A la fin de la journée, ils doivent avoir porté autour d’une tonne. C’est l’exemple classique d’une entreprise où on met les intérimaires, a fortiori sans-papiers, sur les postes difficiles avec des risques pour la #santé. »

    Au restaurant japonais New Sukiyaki, en plein quartier touristique et festif de la Bastille, à Paris, Abdourahmane Guiro, 27 ans, embauche six jours sur sept, à raison d’une cinquantaine d’heures par semaine. « Je suis payé 1 500 euros, explique ce Sénégalais. Mais sur le bulletin, c’est affiché 1 100 euros. » Le reste, il le touche de la main à la main. Son collègue Yacouba Dia, 27 ans lui aussi, et chef de cuisine, travaille soixante-six heures par semaine, payées 1 700 euros.

    Dans les restaurants #KFC de la place d’Italie ou de Tolbiac (13e arrondissement), de Boulogne-Billancourt (Hauts-de-Seine), de Vitry-sur-Seine ou du Kremlin-Bicêtre (Val-de-Marne), les « employés polyvalents » et sans-papiers aimeraient bien, eux, faire davantage d’heures.
    La durée minimale de travail du salarié à temps partiel est fixée à 24 heures par semaine mais Mahamadou Diakite ne travaille que vingt heures et Mamadou Niakate travaille, lui, quinze heures, tout comme son collègue Boubou Doukoure. « Parfois, on travaille plus, assure ce Malien de 34 ans. Mais on n’est pas payé. Le patron nous dit qu’on a mal compté nos heures. »

    « Les employeurs font écrire une décharge aux salariés pour qu’ils disent que c’est eux qui ne veulent pas travailler au minimum légal », ajoute Kande Traoré qui, lui, culmine à vingt-huit heures par semaine. « Les gens sont dociles alors ils en profitent, s’indigne Boubacar Doucoure, délégué CGT pour l’enseigne KFC. Il y a dix ans de cela, j’étais comme vous, dit-il en s’adressant à ses collègues. J’étais dans la peur. »

    Boubacar Doucoure est aujourd’hui manager et en situation régulière en France, après avoir fait grève en 2008. « Entre 2000 et 2008, j’ai travaillé sans papiers. J’ai cotisé, j’ai payé des impôts. Et pourtant, je n’aurai jamais de retraite », fait-il remarquer. Quand il entend le discours ambiant qui tend à assimiler les migrants à de potentiels resquilleurs, ça le « révolte ».

    « On a peur d’être virés »
    La plupart des salariés en grève ont été embauchés sous alias, c’est-à-dire en présentant des documents d’identité d’une personne en situation régulière. « Un frère m’a fait une photocopie de sa carte de séjour, de sa carte Vitale et d’une attestation d’hébergement et j’ai amené ça au patron qui m’a fait un contrat à durée indéterminée (CDI), explique Mamadou Niakate. Au travail, on m’appelle Diaby. » Son collègue Mahamadou Diakite arbore, lui, un badge au nom de Mantia.
    Quand un travailleur sans papiers veut entamer des démarches de régularisation auprès d’une préfecture, il a besoin – pour remplir les critères d’admission exceptionnelle au séjour – que son employeur établisse un #certificat_de_concordance_d’identités et, dans tous les cas, qu’il remplisse un formulaire Cerfa de demande d’autorisation d’embauche d’un salarié étranger non-européen. « On n’ose pas demander parce qu’on a peur d’être viré », confie Moussa Diakite, un Malien de 44 ans qui travaille dans la démolition via la société d’intérim Cervus, basée à Levallois-Perret (Hauts-de-Seine).

    C’est peu ou prou ce qui est arrivé à Boubou Doukoure. Pendant sept mois, il a travaillé en CDD dans un abattoir de Lorient (Morbihan). Il accrochait des poulets sur une ligne d’abattage. Lorsque son employeur a voulu lui faire un CDI et qu’il s’est rendu compte de sa situation, il l’a congédié sur le champ.

    Moussa Diakite dit avoir « plusieurs fois essayé de demander une régularisation » en déposant un dossier en préfecture. Sans succès.
    « Ces travailleurs sont soumis à un double arbitraire, patronal et préfectoral », souligne Maryline Poulain. Moussa Diakite s’est mis en grève pour la première fois de sa vie. Il craint un « durcissement des conditions » de vie des immigrés, lui qui se sent déjà « limité dans [ses] #libertés » et « réduit dans [ses] déplacements ». En seize ans de présence en France, il n’est retourné qu’une seule fois au Mali, où il a une femme et deux enfants.

    Sollicitées mardi 1er octobre, plusieurs entreprises concernées par le mouvement de grève n’avaient pas souhaité faire de déclaration au Monde. Certaines se sont rapidement engagées à accompagner leurs salariés dans leur démarche de régularisation, conduisant à la levée, mardi soir, de trois des douze piquets de grève.


    Au KFC de place d’Italie, à Paris, le 1er octobre. KAMIL ZIHNIOGLU POUR « LE MONDE »

    #intérim #travail #économie #luttes_sociales #salaire #conditions_de_travail #xénophobie_d'État #liberté_de_circulation #liberté_d'installation

  • Au Maroc, avant le verdict Raissouni : « nous ne pouvons plus accepter de vivre en marge de l’Histoire »
    https://www.mediapart.fr/journal/international/290919/au-maroc-avant-le-verdict-raissouni-nous-ne-pouvons-plus-accepter-de-vivre

    La jeune journaliste marocaine Hajar Raissouni, emprisonnée pour avortement illégal et relations sexuelles hors mariage, pourrait être fixée sur son sort ce lundi 30 septembre. Pour Othmane Boumaalif, président de l’association politique Anfass qui milite pour la légalisation de l’avortement, elle est « en passe de devenir un symbole d’une lutte qu’elle n’a pas forcément choisie, celle pour l’émancipation ad integrum de la femme marocaine ».

    #LIBERTÉS #atteinte_à_la_vie_privée,_répression,_droit_des_femmes,_Anfass,_affaire_Hajar_Raissouni,_Maroc,_droit_à_l’avortement,_Libertés

  • The New Patriarchy : How Trans Radicalism Hurts Women, Children—and Trans People Themselves - Quillette
    https://quillette.com/2018/12/04/the-new-patriarchy-how-trans-radicalism-hurts-women-children-and-trans-pe

    Important article que j’attire à l’attention de @tradfem. Et dont l’autrice Helen Joyce parle avec respect des femmes trans, ce qui ajoute à sa crédibilité. Il est question de #transidentité, de #détransition, d’un activisme misogyne orienté vers la définition de la #non-mixité aux dépens des femmes cis alors que les violences transphobes viennent d’ailleurs que des féministes radicales. Bref : #backlash post-moderne ?

    A simple declaration—“gender self-identification”—is all it takes to override biology.

    One consequence is a huge increase in the number of people who say they do not identify with their natal sex. In Britain, for example, since the GRA came into force, just 5,000 people have used its provisions. Now the government reckons that approximately 1% of the population is transgender—around 650,000 people.

    Another consequence relates to the question of who is permitted to use single-sex facilities. What Americans call the “bathroom wars”—between liberals, who have embraced gender self-ID, and conservatives, who have largely resisted it—in fact goes far beyond public toilets. Changing rooms, school residential trips, rape and domestic-violence refuges, and prisons are going self-ID. So are electoral shortlists and even sporting competitions.

    Redefining what it means to be a man or woman redefines what it means to be gay. Depending on how they identify, people with male bodies who prefer female sexual partners may regard themselves as either heterosexual men or lesbian women. It also affects women’s political activism, since defining womanhood as based on a feeling rather than anatomy is incompatible with the feminist position that women are oppressed because they are physically weaker than men and bear the entire burden of reproduction. And it affects education: Many schools now tell children that being a boy or girl is not a matter of what it says on their birth certificates, but what they feel like. Since that is a circular definition, lessons quickly degenerate into endorsing sex-stereotypes: If you like trains and trucks, maybe you’re a boy. If you like pink chiffon, a girl.

    This essay will trace the evolution of the notion of gender identity and how it has supplanted biological sex in law and practice. It will examine the consequences for four groups in particular: children, women, gays and lesbians, and trans people themselves.

    By the 1960s, male-to-female “sex changes” were available in many countries, including the United States. Surgeons generally required would-be patients to live as a member of the opposite sex for some time, and sought to screen out anyone likely to change their mind, or who was depressed, or psychotic, or had perverse reasons to transition—for example a man’s voyeuristic desire to gain access to women’s spaces or a pedophile’s to gain access to children.

    Some specialists thought the desire to transition had external causes, such as childhood abuse, which might lead someone to reject the body that had been violated. Others posited internal causes, such as a disorder of body image akin to anorexia, or autogynephilia, a paraphilia by which a heterosexual man finds the idea of himself as a woman erotic and seeks to give flesh to that notion.

    But alongside these varied theories ran two lines of thinking that originated in America in the 1950s and fused into a single, dominant narrative half a century later.

    By twists and turns, a dominant theory about cross-sex identities had emerged. It held that humans come equipped with an innate, gendered sense of who they are—not just those who wished to transition from one sex to another, but also “cis” people (those content with their natal sex) and people who are non-binary, genderqueer or dozens of similar terms. In 2007, Julia Serano, a trans woman (natal male), called this sense “subconscious sex”: a “profound, inexplicable, intrinsic self-knowing”—much like a spirit. Since then, in a borrowing of Stoller’s term, it has come to be known as “gender identity.”

    Though entirely at odds with the way most people live their lives and regard the society around them, this esoteric concept caught on—in part because it aligned with ideological trends on campus, and in part because those who disagreed with it didn’t see it as anything except harmless theorizing. “If the entire faculty believes something, and you never hear anyone discussing an alternative point of view, you come away believing it too,” says Michael Biggs of Oxford University, who studies social movements.

    Everything trans people had sought for decades, such as better treatment, more research into gender dysphoria and greater protection from harassment and discrimination, became absorbed into a single demand: instant, unfettered gender self-identification. The demand bears a superficial resemblance to a civil-rights movement, says Chetan Bhatt, a sociologist at the London School of Economics. But unlike grass-roots human-rights movements, its development has been top-down: It originated in elite institutions, including governments, universities, gender clinics and large charities, rather than community-based groups.

    The movement has been shockingly successful. In many American states, access to designated single-sex facilities is now governed by self-ID. New Zealand is planning to allow people to change the sex on their birth certificates by making a statutory declaration; some Australian states are considering removing sex from birth certificates altogether. In Britain, all the main political parties support gender self-ID.

    GIDS may prescribe drugs to delay puberty from around age 12, in order to give children time to reconsider without puberty changing their bodies irreversibly. It will not prescribe cross-sex hormones until age 16, or offer surgery until age 18.

    In America, by contrast, an increasing number of clinics take a “gender-affirmative” approach, quickly acquiescing to a child’s professed cross-sex identity. Therapists at UCSF’s Child and Adolescent Gender Centre in San Francisco have supported social transition (change of name, pronouns and clothing) for children as young as three.

    Privately, some experienced clinicians admit they are worried. One says she hears of people leaving the field more often than she used to, and sometimes fears that she is doing more harm than good. She thinks the wave of transitioning teenagers may be followed in a decade or two by another of “de-transitioners” reverting to their natal sex. Their bodies will have been irreversibly marked by cross-sex hormones and perhaps surgery. Some may sue, arguing that the adults around them should have known they could not fully comprehend what they were consenting to.

    Those who missed puberty in their own sex will probably be sterile—indeed, sexually functionless.

    Bish, a British website aimed at teenagers, encourages them to work out their “gender identities” by placing themselves on several “gender spectrums” with words like rational, tough, active and independent under “looks masculine,” and emotional, soft, passive and sharer under “looks feminine.”

    The stereotyping has even made it as far as materials intended for adults. The British Association for Counselling Practitioners, which licenses marriage counsellors and so on, recently produced a guide to “Gender, Sexual and Relationship Diversity” for its members. It defines a woman thus: “It is important not to assume…that being a woman necessarily involves being able to bear children, or having XX sex chromosomes, or breasts. Being a woman in a British cultural context often means adhering to social norms of femininity, such as being nurturing, caring, social, emotional, vulnerable, and concerned with appearance.”

    Eileen Fairweather (...) recalls “anguished, earnest” discussions with feminist friends about what they should write about it. “I did draft something, arguing that the existing age of consent was not ‘patriarchal’, but protected children,” she says. “But I never even dared show it to anyone.” No-one back then realized the extent and brutality of child-abuse. And the pedophile movement had so thoroughly hijacked the gay movement that, if you said you were against “child sexual liberation”—as, outrageously, they put it—you were branded “anti-gay.” She says she sees “the same intimidation and paralysis of intelligence” with the transgender debate, with people terrified to express legitimate concerns about infiltration and safeguarding.

    Far more women will be affected by the trend towards self-ID for single-sex spaces. For public toilets, gym changing rooms, women-only swimming sessions and the like, women who do not want to disrobe in mixed company may decide to opt out. Some have a strong preference for privacy; others have religious reasons. Rosa Freedman, a human-rights lawyer and Orthodox Jew, points out that her beliefs, and those of many Muslim women, mean she cannot use such spaces if the sexes mix.

    Others are fearful for their safety. Though no reasonable person thinks most trans women (or men for that matter) are violent or rapists, most violent crimes are committed by males. There is no evidence that simply identifying as a woman means a male should be regarded as lower-risk. Women therefore have reason to be wary of biological males, including trans women, in situations where they are vulnerable. Many women also worry that predatory men will profess to identify as women in order to gain access to spaces where women are exposed.

    Earlier this year Karen White, a self-identified trans woman with a record of sexual offences against women, was placed in a women’s prison in Britain—and promptly assaulted several other prisoners. In October, White was given a life sentence for these assaults and two previous rapes. The prosecution argued that White had used a “transgender persona” to gain access to vulnerable women to abuse.

    Most British rape-crisis centres and domestic-violence refuges admit self-identified trans women, even though the Equality Act of 2010 permits them to restrict their services to biological females. According to someone who has worked in the women’s sector for more than 20 years, those running such services sometimes truly believe that is reasonable. But far more have gone self-ID because they fear becoming targets of trans-activist campaigns and losing funding.

    Without single-sex services, vulnerable women will suffer, says Judith Green. In the 1980s, as a teenager, she suffered repeated sexual abuse, and eventually received help from a survivors’ group in Brighton that arranged self-help sessions and therapy. Participants had been traumatised at men’s hands and their recovery required them to rebuild trust, she says. For her, and many other women, that would have been impossible in a mixed-sex group, no matter how well-meaning or sympathetic the males.

    Since it is impossible to tell why someone might wish to use facilities designated for the opposite sex, such cases may mean service-providers in places where self-ID is mandatory end up designating all facilities mixed-sex. That would be a bad outcome for women. Figures gathered by the Times, a British newspaper, under freedom-of-information laws found that the minority of changing-rooms in sports centres that are mixed-sex were the site of 90% of reported sexual assaults in changing-rooms of all kinds.

    https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/unisex-changing-rooms-put-women-in-danger-8lwbp8kgk

    JY, who uses a man’s name and whose profile picture is clearly male, asked if Ms Poyer did Brazilians (removal of pubic hair). “Not for men, sorry,” she replied. “I’m a woman, I transitioned last year,” JY replied. JY then made a complaint to British Columbia’s human-rights tribunal, alleging discrimination on the grounds of gender identity, seeking an apology and damages of C$2,500. (The tribunal has asked that JY be referred to only by those initials, rather than the full name, as would be usual for cases it hears.)

    The Justice Centre for Constitutional Freedoms, a Canadian non-profit libertarian group, offered to represent Ms. Poyer. It prepared two defences: that waxing male genitalia requires different training and equipment, which she does not possess, and that, as a woman, she, too, has protected rights, namely to privacy and safety.

    “This is a philosophy that agrees with the drunks on the Tube that I’m not a ‘real woman,’ ” says a young lesbian in London who gets her hair cut by a barber and wears suits from a men’s tailor. “We used to fight to smash open the pink and blue boxes of gender,” says a veteran of the fight to decriminalize homosexual relations. “Now they’re telling kids that if they don’t fit into one of those boxes, they must belong in the other one.” Both are among the growing number who think the doctrine of gender self-ID is a retrograde philosophy that relies on obsolete gender stereotypes and harms gay people.

    Some gay people think that organizations set up to fight for gay rights made a mistake in throwing their weight behind trans activism. In an open letter in the Times in October, some prominent gays and lesbians accuse Stonewall, Britain’s biggest LGBT charity, of “uncritically adopting a form of transgender politics which undermines…the concept of homosexuality itself.”

    https://www.ipetitions.com/petition/dear-stonewall-please-reconsider-your-approach

    Get the L Out, a small group of lesbians who insist that opposite-sex-attracted males cannot be lesbians whatever their gender identity, forced its way to the front of the Pride march in London this year, with banners reading “Transactivism erases lesbians” and “lesbian equals female homosexual.” Ms. Hunt called the group “transphobic” and said it was spreading “myths and lies.”

    Whether people are attracted to sexes or gender identities is an empirical question. A study published in the Journal of Personal and Social Relationships in the Spring suggests it is usually the former (though the authors have a different interpretation, namely endemic transphobia).

    https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0265407518779139

    Riley J. Dennis, a trans woman, attributes “preferences for women with vaginas over women with penises” to “cis-sexism”—anti-trans prejudice. “Look, it’s not like I require the women I date to be cool with having my dick inside them,” writes another trans woman, Avery Edison. “But being shut off from the very idea of it, not even considering that having my penis inside you is different from having a man’s penis inside you? That hurts.”

    But according to Charlie Montague, a young lesbian in Dunedin, New Zealand, both online dating sites and real-world meet-ups for lesbians now contain a fair share of males who have been through no sort of physical transition but describe themselves as lesbians. Some are predatory men who fantasize about sex with lesbians, she says; others genuinely regard themselves as same-sex attracted women. She and a few other “female lesbians” have set up a group, the Lesbian Rights Alliance Aotearoa. They have faced a barrage of abuse, both on- and offline. “When we say ‘no means no’, they regard that as transphobic,” she says. “They don’t like lesbians asserting firm boundaries.”

    The main social-media platforms are making it very hard for women to discuss these issues. Meghan Murphy, a Canadian feminist who runs a website, Feminist Current, has been kicked off Twitter for “hateful conduct”—that is, tweeting that “Men aren’t women” and “How are transwomen not men? What is the difference between a man and a transwoman?” Twitter also temporarily locked various women’s accounts for, inter alia, quoting remarks made by British parliamentarians in the debate over the Gender Recognition Act of 2004; for stating the British definition of rape (which can be committed only by a male, since it involves penetration by a penis); and for referring to JY of Brazilian-waxing fame as “he.” It even locked a trans woman’s account for self-describing as “male.”

    Women seeking to organize in person are being silenced, too. (...) WPUK has scheduled nearly 20 meetings around Britain to date, every one of them disrupted. Some venues cancelled bookings after trans activists claimed it was a far-right hate group.

    In Canada, even complaining can get a woman into trouble. In July, Kristi Hanna, a former resident at Palmerston House, a women’s shelter in Ontario, left after being assigned a transgender room-mate, who stomped around in combat boots, had facial and chest hair, and talked about a pregnant fiancée. All the residents found the situation intimidating, she says, and after two sleepless nights she complained and was told to “deal with it or leave.” But when she phoned Ontario’s human-rights legal helpline, she referred to the individual as a “man,” at which point the adviser said that her words and behaviour were potentially discriminatory and ended the call.

    “I can’t think of any genuine human-rights activism that demands attacks on the rights and protections of other civil-society groups, or advocates hateful language against them,” says Professor Bhatt. Trans activism is also unusual in that it gives men a chance to claim they are oppressed compared with women, and plenty of opportunity to tell women to shut up, says Ms. Gerlich. “It’s a postmodern patriarchal backlash.”

    The code of omertà extends to academia. After lobbying by trans activists, Brown University in Rhode Island withdrew a press release about Prof. Littman’s paper on ROGD, citing concerns that it might be used to “discredit efforts to support transgender youth and invalidate the perspectives of members of the transgender community.” Last year, Bath Spa University, in southwest England, rejected a proposal by James Caspian, a psychotherapist who specializes in transgender clients, to write a thesis on de-transitioning, explaining that the research might be criticised on social media and it would be “better not to offend people.” Kathleen Stock, a philosopher at Sussex University, wrote a Medium post in May about the lack of discussion of gender self-ID within academic philosophy. Trans-activists called for her to be sacked—and she received dozens of supportive emails from other academics, most saying they dared not speak out publicly.

    #censure #liberté_académique pour @cdb_77

    And the feisty British tabloid press has not shied away from covering rapists self-identifying themselves into women’s jails, boys allowed into Girlguiding and the like. The Daily Mail fought an injunction to be able to report on Jess Bradley, a trans woman suspended in July from the post of trans-rights officer at the National Union of Students because of allegations that she ran a blog named Exhibitionizm, where she posted pictures of her exposed penis, taken in public places and in her office.

    https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-6003331/Britains-official-transgender-student-officer-suspended.html

    The singular focus on gender self-ID, along with the shutting down of academic work on trans issues, harms not only women, but trans people. Although trans activists’ ire is focused on women who object to self-ID, it is overwhelmingly men who commit violence against trans people, a problem that by comparison is ignored. And other causes that are important to trans people, such as more research on the causes and treatment of gender dysphoria and its links with other mental-health issues, not to mention the long-term effects of puberty blockers and cross-sex hormones, have become taboo.

    Overall, the push for gender self-ID does more harm than good to the interests of gender-dysphoric people whose main concern is to be accepted by members of the sex they wish they had been born into. And as we see more cases of people claiming transgender status in bad faith, we may see a backlash.

  • Obstacles to Excellence: Academic Freedom & China’s Quest for World Class Universities

    Obstacles to Excellence is a new report from Scholars at Risk mapping threats to academic freedom that jeopardize China’s higher education ambitions.

    “For decades now, the Chinese government has invested heavily in academic institutions and programs designed to compete with the world’s finest,” says SAR executive director Robert Quinn. “This positive ambition is undermined, however, by state policies and practices that fail to protect academic freedom. This poses grave personal and professional risks for Chinese scholars and students,” as documented in the report, “and serious academic, reputational, and financial risks for foreign academic institutions with partnerships with Chinese counterparts, in China or abroad.”

    Drawing on academic literature, legislative and regulatory texts, media, human rights reports, interviews with Chinese and foreign experts, and data from SAR’s Academic Freedom Monitoring Project, Obstacles to Excellence identifies pressures and threats to academic freedom in China and where China has extraterritorial academic connections, including:

    Systematic and targeted tactics employed by state and university authorities in mainland China to constrict academic activity and to intimidate, silence, and punish outspoken academics and students;
    Heightened pressures on scholars and students in the Tibet, Inner Mongolia, and Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Regions including language policies that limit equitable access to higher education, heightened surveillance, and the imprisonment of a growing number of minority scholars and students at so-called “re-education camps;”
    Erosion of university autonomy in Hong Kong and Macau under Beijing’s growing influence over China’s Special Administrative Regions;
    Academic freedom and autonomy challenges facing foreign higher education institutions operating joint ventures with Chinese universities on the mainland;
    Extra-territorial pressures by the Chinese Party-state and supporters, through Confucius Institutes and other activities, to restrict academic inquiry and expression at universities outside China; and
    Vague, unsubstantiated, and overbroad foreign government rhetoric and policies that impede academic inquiry and risk stigmatizing innocent overseas Chinese academics and students.

    As noted in the report, a small but growing number of international universities have responded to academic freedom concerns by scaling back or terminating partnerships with institutions in mainland China and with China-supported institutes on their own campuses. Others have stayed out of the public dialogue. Obstacles to Excellence urges nuanced, public discussion of the issues, with the goal of identifying practices which recognize China’s legitimate higher education ambitions while fully protecting academic freedom.

    “Pressures on academic freedom in China mirror those we see around the world, as documented in our annual Free to Think reports,” says SAR’s advocacy director Clare Robinson. “But given the size of its higher education sector, and China’s important and growing position on the global academic stage, it is more important than ever to discuss the issues raised publicly and to work together to institutionalize policies and practices that safeguard academic freedom and recognize its central role in world-class universities and scholarship.”

    Obstacles to Excellence, available in English and simplified Chinese versions, invites readers to consider these important issues and to discuss them publicly, including at conferences, annual association meetings, and in international partnerships. It includes recommendations for Chinese state authorities, university leadership, and civil society in China aimed at strengthening understanding of and respect for academic freedom. It also urges state authorities, higher education leaders, and civil society outside of China to demonstrate their commitment to academic freedom by supporting at-risk Chinese scholars and students, wherever they may be, and by ensuring that their international partnerships—with Chinese and non-Chinese partners alike—respect academic freedom and other core university values.

    https://www.scholarsatrisk.org/resources/obstacles-to-excellence-academic-freedom-chinas-quest-for-world-clas
    #liberté_académique #Chine #université #rapport #scholars_at_risk #éducation #Tibet #Mongolie #Xinjiang_Uyghur #Macau #Hong_Kong #Confucius_Institutes

    Ce mot d’#excellence qui me dérange beaucoup...

  • La Grande Mue. Un site dédié à la pensée de #Bernard_Charbonneau (1910-1996).


    https://lagrandemue.wordpress.com

    Bernard Charbonneau

    Bernard Charbonneau, né le 28 novembre 1910 à Bordeaux et mort le 28 avril 1996 à Saint-Palais, est un penseur français, auteur d’une vingtaine de livres et de nombreux articles, parus notamment dans La Gueule ouverte, Foi et vie, La République des Pyrénées et Combat Nature.

    Toute son œuvre est marquée par l’idée que « le lien qui attache l’individu à la société est tellement puissant que, même dans la soi-disant “société des individus”, ces derniers sont si peu capables de prendre leurs distances avec les entraînements collectifs que, spontanément, ils consentent à l’anéantissement de ce à quoi ils tiennent le plus : la #liberté. »1

    Durant les années 1930, il dénonce ce qu’il considère être la dictature de l’#économie et du #développement et s’impose comme pionnier de l’#écologie_politique. Se méfiant toutefois de l’écologie partidaire, il propose de concevoir une forme d’organisation de la société, radicalement différente des idéologies du XXe siècle, solidement ancrée sur l’expérience personnelle. En cela, il affirme sa dette intellectuelle envers le #personnalisme. De même, il voit dans le #progrès_technique la source de toujours plus d’organisation, donc de plus de #conformisme, donc de moins de liberté. Ses travaux le rapprochent de #Jacques_Ellul, dont il est l’ami intime durant six décennies.

    https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernard_Charbonneau

    #Charbonneau #blog #citations #livres

  • Nouveau cap répressif franchi, cette fois sur la liberté d’informer : 5 mois de prison avec sursis pour une video de manif
    Article de Dijoncter et commentaires du conseil juridique de @lundimatin

    https://dijoncter.info/5-mois-de-prison-avec-sursis-pour-une-video-de-manif-1324

    Un gilet jaune dijonnais a été condamné à 5 mois de prison avec sursis pour avoir filmé et diffusé sur le web une vidéo des affrontements qui avaient eu lieux devant la caserne Deflandre pendant l’acte 8 des gilets jaunes, le samedi 5 janvier 2019.

    Commentaires de « Juriste lundimatin » sur twitter :
    https://twitter.com/Juristematin/status/1175874777745170434

    Voici encore une nouveauté dans la répression, qu’il va falloir prendre au sérieux (signalé par @DijonDTR, merci à elle/lui).
    Voici le texte sur la base duquel la personne a été condamnée.
    https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichCodeArticle.do?cidTexte=LEGITEXT000006070719&idArticle=LEGIART
    Est considéré comme complice de violences et encourt donc la même peine celui oo celle qui les filme.
    Encourt 5 ans celui où celle qui diffuse.
    Une immunité pénale est néanmoins prévue :
    – lorsque cela rentre dans l’exercice de la profession de journaliste
    – lorsqu’il s’agit de recueillir un élément de preuve en justice.
    Compte tenu de la difficulté pour certain.e.s journalistes de se voir reconnaître cette qualité, l’immunité journalistique ne paraît pas les mettre complètement à l’abri de poursuites.
    Quant aux simples manifestant.e.s ou passant.e.s qui filment : sur quelle base determine-t-on le motif pour lequel ça a été filmé, exactement ?
    Rappelons que cette infraction a été créée par la loi du 5 mars 2007 prévention de la délinquance (grande époque), en réaction au phénomène du « happy slapping », qui consiste dans le fait de filmer une agression ciblée par un groupe.
    Ce texte est donc évidemment dévoyé, et n’a absolument aucun sens appliqué aux cas de personnes filmant des évènements en manif’, si ce n’est vouloir dissuader les gens de filmer.
    Nous avons vu légion de scènes d’intimidation physique par des policiers pour faire cesser les actions de vidéo de manifestant.e.s. Voici désormais l’utilisation du droit pénal.

    #information #droit #image #video #justice #liberté_de_la_presse #journalisme #repression

  • Un avocat face aux lois scélérates d’hier et d’aujourd’hui
    https://www.mediapart.fr/journal/france/210919/un-avocat-face-aux-lois-scelerates-d-hier-et-d-aujourd-hui

    Dans son livre « Ennemis d’État. Les lois scélérates, des anarchistes aux terroristes », l’avocat Raphaël Kempf retrace l’histoire des textes adoptés en 1893 et 1894 pour réprimer le mouvement anarchiste. Et propose un parallèle avec la dérive sécuritaire de ces dernières années.

    #LIBERTÉS_PUBLIQUES #Droits_de_l'homme,_antiterrorisme,_anarchisme,_lois_scélérates,_Liberté_de_la_presse

  • Twitter won’t autoban neo-Nazis because the filters may ban GOP politicians
    https://www.yahoo.com/entertainment/twitter-won-t-autoban-neo-193850606.html?guccounter=1&guce_referrer=aHR0cHM6L
    https://s.yimg.com/uu/api/res/1.2/SyZwkt2MtT1N0h_jktcK7A--~B/aD04MjE7dz0xMjAwO3NtPTE7YXBwaWQ9eXRhY2h5b24-/http://media.zenfs.com/en-US/homerun/consequence_of_sound_458/14ca129c3a55abc8d9131c7b9e9c5b26

    Is booting neo-Nazis from Twitter a simple process? Probably not. Can steps be taken at the very least to punish racist tweets? Probably, but not everyone will be happy with whose hate speech gets scrubbed as a result.

  • Les « Mémoires vives » d’Edward Snowden : la genèse d’un lanceur d’alerte
    https://www.mediapart.fr/journal/international/190919/les-memoires-vives-d-edward-snowden-la-genese-d-un-lanceur-d-alerte

    Avant de devenir un héros de l’hacktivisme, Edward Snowden était un patriote, qui s’est volontairement engagé dans la guerre contre le terrorisme de George W. Bush. Dans son autobiographie, il explique pour la première fois comment il a pris conscience des dérives de son gouvernement et pourquoi il a pris la décision de sacrifier son avenir pour les dénoncer.

    #LIBERTÉS_PUBLIQUES #NSA,_Edward_Snowden

  • A Nantes, 48 heures de garde à vue pour un homard de carnaval
    https://www.mediapart.fr/journal/france/170919/nantes-48-heures-de-garde-vue-pour-un-homard-de-carnaval

    Samedi dernier, lors de la manifestation de convergence des luttes à Nantes, trois militants ont été interpellés alors qu’ils chargeaient un homard géant en papier mâché, destiné à rejoindre le cortège. Le procureur demandait l’ouverture d’une information judiciaire pour « association de malfaiteurs ». Le juge d’instruction n’a pas suivi.

    #LIBERTÉS_PUBLIQUES #François_de_Rugy,_homard,_Nantes

    • HALLUCINANT : GUET-APENS POLICIER POUR CAPTURER UN HOMARD GÉANT !
      Nantes révoltées le 14/09/2019
      https://www.anti-k.org/2019/09/15/hallucinant-guet-apens-policier-pour-capturer-un-homard-geant
      C’est un événement à peine croyable qui a eu lieu aujourd’hui à Nantes. Une information à la fois drôle, pathétique, et effrayante. Mais bien réelle. Un énorme piège organisé par la police pour voler un homard en papier.Pour la grande manifestation de ce samedi 14 septembre à Nantes, les organisateurs annonçaient un défilé festif, dynamique, et populaire, dans un esprit de convergence des luttes. Tout l’inverse du discours anxiogène des autorités. Ainsi, pendant plusieurs semaines, un « homard » en papier mâché, à la façon des chars de carnaval, était préparé patiemment. La figure en carton de deux mètres d’envergure devait s’installer en tête du défilé, comme un pied de nez à François De Rugy et aux puissants.

      Ce midi, alors que le « homard » en papier était transporté en direction de la manifestation, un véritable guet-apens policier a eu lieu. Pas moins de 15 agents de la BAC, cagoulés et très énervés ont encerclé le camion et ses occupants. Et en renfort, une compagnie de policiers en tenue anti-émeute. Une véritable armée pour capturer un homard.

      Après avoir détruit la sculpture en papier, les agents ont fouillé, molesté et arrêté les personnes présentes. Clefs de bras, brimades, et menaces du genre : « on va te faire fermer ta gueule ». 3 personnes ont été enlevées , sans motif, et emmenées en cellule. Le véhicule a été saisi, en dehors de toute procédure, par les autorités. Des juristes, peuvent-ils dire sur quelles bases juridiques peut-on saisir un véhicule et enfermer 3 personnes pour une grosse tête de carnaval en papier mâché ?

    • La répression légale est quand à elle déjà en cours contre les manifestant.e.s : la Préfecture annonce 33 interpellations et Ouest-France prétend savoir qu’il y aura 5 comparutions immédiates ainsi que des poursuites pour « associations de malfaiteurs » - une qualification destinée au grand banditisme que la Justice étend de plus en plus souvent aux militant.e.s.

      https://expansive.info/Compte-rendu-acte-44-a-Nantes-Bastion-policier-et-rentree-reussie-1735

    • Suite : Nantes. « Affaire du homard » : les protagonistes épinglent « le vide du dossier »

      https://media.ouest-france.fr/v1/pictures/MjAxOTEwOTZiZjE4YzFmMWI5OTFkMjc5NzhkMDFjN2EwOGFlNjc?width=1260&fo
      https://www.ouest-france.fr/pays-de-la-loire/nantes-44000/nantes-affaire-du-homard-les-protagonistes-epinglent-le-vide-du-dossier

      En l’état, les deux "suspects" appréhendés place Mellinet sont tout de même poursuivis pour " « participation à un regroupement établi en vue de la préparation de violences ou de destructions » ". "Le dossier auquel on a accédé grâce au statut de témoin assisté est complètement vide et incohérent", affirme Émilie, 22 ans, interpellée pour le homard. "Tout repose sur un témoignage anonyme parvenu le 26 août aux policiers selon lequel l’ultra-gauche nantaise préparait des actions violentes pour le 14 septembre", reprend Romain, 29 ans. "À partir de ces éléments, un récit fantasmatique a été produit, faisant le lien avec les black blocs et la révolution des parapluies à Hong Kong", fustige Mathilde.

  • Snowden demande l’asile, l’Elysée fait la sourde oreille
    https://www.mediapart.fr/journal/international/160919/snowden-demande-l-asile-l-elysee-fait-la-sourde-oreille

    Le lanceur d’alerte, qui a révélé l’espionnage massif et mondial conduit par les services américains, sort un livre et demande l’asile à la France. La ministre de la justice, qui se dit favorable à une telle mesure, a été recadrée. À l’Élysée comme à Matignon, on explique qu’il n’est pas question de rouvrir un débat fermé par Valls en 2013. Dans son livre, Snowden raconte ce qu’est sa vie en Russie depuis six ans.

    #LIBERTÉS #asile,_Russie,_demande_d’asile_à_la_France,_europe,_Edward_Snowden,_A_la_Une

  • Le collectif Technopolice appelle à la mobilisation contre les « safe cities »
    https://www.mediapart.fr/journal/france/160919/le-collectif-technopolice-appelle-la-mobilisation-contre-les-safe-cities

    Un collectif d’associations et de syndicats, dont la Quadrature du Net, la CGT, la LDH et la FCPE, lance une campagne de mobilisation contre les nouveaux outils de surveillance urbains tels que la vidéosurveillance intelligente, la reconnaissance faciale, l’analyse du big data ou encore les capteurs sonores.

    #LIBERTÉS_PUBLIQUES #Surveillance,_safe_city,_Technopolice

  • Is NSO Group’s infamous Pegasus spyware being traded through the EU ?
    https://www.accessnow.org/is-nso-groups-infamous-pegasus-spyware-being-traded-through-the-eu

    When sophisticated surveillance systems are sold and used effectively without constraint, it puts civil society, free expression, and our democracies in the crosshairs. The brutal murder of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi remains a grim reminder of the vulnerability of those speaking out for human rights. In the European Union, there are export controls designed to prevent sales of these kinds of systems to certain countries with troubling human rights records. The question is, how well (...)

    #NSO #Pegasus #spyware #exportation #activisme #sécuritaire #hacking #surveillance #journalisme #web (...)

    ##NovalpinaCapital

  • Wir alle sind #Bern

    Wir alle sind Bern ist eine Plattform, eine Bewegung, ein Netzwerk – Menschen, welche sich gemeinsam einsetzen für eine Solidarische Stadt Bern, in der Vielfalt und Migration als gesellschaftliche Realität anerkannt werden. Nicht die Herkunft, sondern der Lebensmittelpunkt und die gemeinsame Zukunft sollen im Zentrum stehen, wenn es darum geht, das Leben in der Stadt zu gestalten.

    Wir beziehen uns dabei auf «#Urban_Citizenship» oder «Stadtbürger*innenschaft»: Uns geht es um eine rechtliche, politische, soziale und kulturelle Teilhabe aller Bewohner*innen der Stadt. Die Gegenwart und Zukunft in Bern soll von allen Menschen, die hier leben, gleichberechtigt mitbestimmt und auf Augenhöhe mitgestaltet werden können – ohne Ausgrenzung und Diskriminierung.

    https://wirallesindbern.ch/about

    Manifeste (en français) :

    Pour une ville de Berne solidaire

    Nous nous engageons pour une ville de Berne solidaire, dans laquelle migration et diversité sont reconnues comme des réalités sociales et priment, non pas l’origine, mais le point d’attache et l’avenir commun.
    Pour tout.e.s celles.eux qui sont ici et celles.eux qui arrivent encore.

    Nous considérons que la décision d’une personne pour s’établir à Berne relève de son libre choix et prenons ce point de départ pour nos réflexions sur un vivre ensemble solidaire. La criminalisation du franchissement des frontières, ainsi que la distinction entre des groupes qui sont inclus et ceux qui sont exlus, sont des obstacles à ce but. Nous nous engageons pour une ville solidaire, qui fait activement abstraction du statut de séjour de ses habitant.e.s et qui s’oppose aux expulsions.

    Dépassement de la culture dominante et droit à la #participation pour tout.e.s

    En plus de la sécurité du #droit_de_séjour, une ville solidaire comprend selon nous un accès au #logement, un #travail et une #formation, ainsi que la garantie de tous les #droits_fondamentaux pour tout.e.s – indépendamment de tout statut de séjour. Nous revendiquons également la reconnaissance de la migration en tant que réalité sociale, ainsi que le démantèlement de la culture dominante existante, qui nous divise au moyen d’un racisme structurel entre « locaux » et « étrangers ». Les structures du pouvoir, qui empêchent les membres de notre société de vivre une vie autonome, se révèlent non seulement à travers le #racisme, mais également dans la #marginalisation par la #pauvreté et par la #discrimination genrée ou sexuelle. Afin de surpasser ces structures du #pouvoir, nous devons tout d’abord les rendre visible, afin de les remplacer finalement par une #participation_égalitaire pour tout.e.s.

    #Démocratisation de la #démocratie et un « Nous » solidaire

    Une participation égalitaire signifie en premier lieu qu’il n’existe pas de déséquilibre structurel du pouvoir entre les habitant.e.s de la ville. Cette égalité se réfère aux rapports interpersonnels et, ainsi, à quelque chose de commun. La nature de cette chose commune, à laquelle nous prenons tout.e.s. part, se traduit par un processus constant de négociation. Afin que cette dernière aboutisse, nous avons besoin d’une démocratisation de la démocratie afin de remplacer un modèle dépassé, dans lequel les privilégiés et les puissants décident du destin des exclu.e.s. Une démocratie égalitaire demande des espaces de rencontres, un #droit_de_vote pour tout.e.s les habitant.e.s de la ville et un réel droit de participation, au lieu de processus participatifs, qui se contentent de mettre en scène cette participation. De plus, nous devons concevoir la solidarité comme un « #Nous », qui va au-delà de notre propre famille, notre origine, notre classe, notre orientation sexuelle ou notre genre. Cette solidarité relève d’un « Nous » commun, qui défend la #liberté, l’#égalité et la #justice pour tout.e.s et qui ne s’arrête pas aux frontières de la ville, car : nous sommes tout.e.s Berne.

    https://wirallesindbern.ch/manifeste

    La question d’une #carte_citoyenne qu’ils appelle #city_card :
    https://wirallesindbern.ch/city-card

    #ville-refuge #asile #migrations #réfugiés #Suisse #solidarité #accueil #citoyenneté #citoyenneté_urbaine

    Ajouté à cette métaliste sur les #villes-refuge :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/759145#message801886

    ping @karine4 @isskein @cede

    • Et à #Zurich, projet de #Züri_city_card

      In unserer Stadt sollen alle in Sicherheit leben. Dafür braucht es eine städtische Identitätskarte für alle Zürcherinnen und Zürcher, ob mit oder ohne geregelten Aufenthaltsstatus.

      Stadtbürgerschaft für alle

      In Zürich leben geschätzte 14’000 Menschen ohne Aufenthaltsstatus, sogenannte Sans-Papiers. Sie gehören zu den Schutzlosesten unserer Gesellschaft, weil sie ihre Grundrechte nicht wahrnehmen können. Sans-Papiers können – wenn sie Opfer von Gewalt oder Ausbeutung werden – keine Anzeige erstatten, sie können sich nur unter dem Risiko einer Ausschaffung ärztlich behandeln lassen, keine Versicherung abschliessen, keinen Handyvertrag lösen, keine eigene Wohnung mieten und keine staatliche Hilfe annehmen. Sie leben im Schatten unserer Stadt.

      https://www.zuericitycard.ch

  • Remembering the day the Eritrean press died

    Eritrea’s transformation into a police state started with a ban on independent media 16 years ago today.

    Exactly 16 years ago, on September 18, 2001, Eritrean President Isaias Afwerki and his clique banned seven independent newspapers and imprisoned 11 of the most senior government officials.

    That “#Black_Tuesday” was the start of Eritrea’s transformation into the police state that it is today. Before this happened, despite various challenges, Eritrean independent media briefly had created space for open discussion, even providing a forum for dissident political leaders.

    https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/remembering-day-eritrean-press-died-170918074330130.html
    #Erythrée #liberté_de_la_presse #presse #journalisme #histoire #totalitarisme #dictature #2001 #Etat_policier

  • Internet : face à « l’utopie déchue », « débrancher les machines »
    https://www.mediapart.fr/journal/culture-idees/140919/internet-face-l-utopie-dechue-debrancher-les-machines

    Dans "L’Utopie déchue. Une contre-histoire d’Internet", le sociologue et hacktiviste Félix Tréguer tire les conséquences de l’échec des mouvements nés des contre-cultures numériques et propose de renouveler la technocritique. « Ce qu’il nous faut d’abord et avant tout, c’est débrancher la machine », affirme-t-il.

    #LIBERTÉS_PUBLIQUES #société_de_contrôle,_informatique,_vie_privée,_Internet,_Numérique,_Surveillance

  • Ce que les « révélations #Snowden » ont changé depuis 2013
    https://www.lemonde.fr/pixels/article/2019/09/13/ce-que-les-revelations-snowden-ont-change-depuis-2013_5509864_4408996.html

    Dans la nuit du 5 au 6 juin 2013, le quotidien britannique The Guardian publie sur son site Internet un document secret inédit, le premier d’une invraisemblable archive soustraite à la National Security Agency (NSA). Derrière cette fuite, la plus importante de l’histoire des services de renseignement américains, un ancien agent de la CIA et sous-traitant de la NSA : l’Américain Edward Snowden.

    Devenu le lanceur d’alerte le plus célèbre de la planète, il publie, jeudi 19 septembre, une autobiographie, Mémoires vives (Seuil). Il y détaille les raisons de son passage à l’acte : l’occasion d’un #bilan de ce que l’on appelle désormais les « révélations Snowden ».

    #internet #sécurité #cryptographie #libertés #surveillance

  • « Les inculpations contre Julian #Assange sont sans précédent, effrayantes, et un coup porté à la #liberté de la #presse »
    https://www.lemonde.fr/pixels/article/2019/05/24/assange-des-accusations-sans-precedent-effrayantes-et-un-coup-porte-a-la-lib

    Associations de défense des libertés et juristes sont scandalisés par les accusations d’espionnage de la #justice américaine.

  • It’s the (Democracy-Poisoning) Golden Age of Free Speech | WIRED
    https://www.wired.com/story/free-speech-issue-tech-turmoil-new-censorship

    Par Zeynep Tufekci

    In today’s networked environment, when anyone can broadcast live or post their thoughts to a social network, it would seem that censorship ought to be impossible. This should be the golden age of free speech.

    And sure, it is a golden age of free speech—if you can believe your lying eyes. Is that footage you’re watching real? Was it really filmed where and when it says it was? Is it being shared by alt-right trolls or a swarm of Russian bots? Was it maybe even generated with the help of artificial intelligence? (Yes, there are systems that can create increasingly convincing fake videos.)

    Or let’s say you were the one who posted that video. If so, is anyone even watching it? Or has it been lost in a sea of posts from hundreds of millions of content pro­ducers? Does it play well with Facebook’s algorithm? Is YouTube recommending it?

    Maybe you’re lucky and you’ve hit a jackpot in today’s algorithmic public sphere: an audience that either loves you or hates you. Is your post racking up the likes and shares? Or is it raking in a different kind of “engagement”: Have you received thousands of messages, mentions, notifications, and emails threatening and mocking you? Have you been doxed for your trouble? Have invisible, angry hordes ordered 100 pizzas to your house? Did they call in a SWAT team—men in black arriving, guns drawn, in the middle of dinner?

    These companies—which love to hold themselves up as monuments of free expression—have attained a scale unlike anything the world has ever seen; they’ve come to dominate media distribution, and they increasingly stand in for the public sphere itself. But at their core, their business is mundane: They’re ad brokers. To virtually anyone who wants to pay them, they sell the capacity to precisely target our eyeballs. They use massive surveillance of our behavior, online and off, to generate increasingly accurate, automated predictions of what advertisements we are most susceptible to and what content will keep us clicking, tapping, and scrolling down a bottomless feed.

    So what does this algorithmic public sphere tend to feed us? In tech parlance, Facebook and YouTube are “optimized for engagement,” which their defenders will tell you means that they’re just giving us what we want. But there’s nothing natural or inevitable about the specific ways that Facebook and YouTube corral our attention. The patterns, by now, are well known. As Buzzfeed famously reported in November 2016, “top fake election news stories generated more total engagement on Facebook than top election stories from 19 major news outlets combined.”

    For Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter, all speech —whether it’s a breaking news story, a saccharine animal video, an anti-Semitic meme, or a clever advertisement for razors— is but “content,” each post just another slice of pie on the carousel. A personal post looks almost the same as an ad, which looks very similar to a New York Times article, which has much the same visual feel as a fake newspaper created in an afternoon.

    What’s more, all this online speech is no longer public in any traditional sense. Sure, Facebook and Twitter sometimes feel like places where masses of people experience things together simultaneously. But in reality, posts are targeted and delivered privately, screen by screen by screen. Today’s phantom public sphere has been fragmented and submerged into billions of individual capillaries. Yes, mass discourse has become far easier for everyone to participate in—but it has simultaneously become a set of private conversations happening behind your back. Behind everyone’s backs.

    The most effective forms of censorship today involve meddling with trust and attention, not muzzling speech itself. As a result, they don’t look much like the old forms of censorship at all. They look like viral or coordinated harassment campaigns, which harness the dynamics of viral outrage to impose an unbearable and disproportionate cost on the act of speaking out. They look like epidemics of disinformation, meant to undercut the credibility of valid information sources. They look like bot-fueled campaigns of trolling and distraction, or piecemeal leaks of hacked materials, meant to swamp the attention of traditional media.

    This idea that more speech—more participation, more connection—constitutes the highest, most unalloyed good is a common refrain in the tech industry. But a historian would recognize this belief as a fallacy on its face. Connectivity is not a pony. Facebook doesn’t just connect democracy-­loving Egyptian dissidents and fans of the videogame Civilization; it brings together white supremacists, who can now assemble far more effectively. It helps connect the efforts of radical Buddhist monks in Myanmar, who now have much more potent tools for spreading incitement to ethnic cleansing—fueling the fastest- growing refugee crisis in the world.

    The freedom of speech is an important democratic value, but it’s not the only one. In the liberal tradition, free speech is usually understood as a vehicle—a necessary condition for achieving certain other societal ideals: for creating a knowledgeable public; for engendering healthy, rational, and informed debate; for holding powerful people and institutions accountable; for keeping communities lively and vibrant. What we are seeing now is that when free speech is treated as an end and not a means, it is all too possible to thwart and distort everything it is supposed to deliver.

    By this point, we’ve already seen enough to recognize that the core business model underlying the Big Tech platforms—harvesting attention with a massive surveillance infrastructure to allow for targeted, mostly automated advertising at very large scale—is far too compatible with authoritarianism, propaganda, misinformation, and polarization.

    #Zeynep_Tufekci #Médias_sociaux #Liberté_expression #Espace_public #Désinformation #Attention

  • How making politicians unblock trolls could hurt speech online - The Verge
    https://www.theverge.com/2019/9/6/20847366/politicians-twitter-trolls-blocking-legal-ruling-trump-ocasio-cortez-free-

    Last week, the Knight First Amendment Institute urged Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (D-NY) to unblock critics on Twitter. The Knight Institute has led a push to treat politicians’ social media accounts as public forums, filing a successful lawsuit against President Donald Trump for his Twitter-blocking habits. Ocasio-Cortez argued that the issue was more nuanced, though: she said she was blocking “less than 20 accounts” and that it was for harassment, not political viewpoints.

    Social media poses some unique problems that physical spaces don’t, however. It can operate at a scale that wouldn’t be possible offline, and it’s easy to hijack a conversation or amplify a point of view with automated posts or a handful of dedicated people acting in bad faith. Trolls can attack anyone who participates in a conversation, not just politicians, and they can do it across all of social media, not just in a single thread or post. This can turn supposedly open spaces into deeply hostile or unnavigable ones — not just for public figures like Trump or Ocasio-Cortez, but for anybody who wants to engage with them.

    As writer and law professor Tim Wu, journalist Zeynep Tufekci, and many others have pointed out, new tactics like troll armies and spammed responses have made traditional First Amendment protections less effective at promoting free speech online. “It is no longer speech or information that is scarce, but the attention of listeners,” explained Wu in a 2017 Knight Institute blog post. “No one quite anticipated that speech itself might become a censorial weapon, or that scarcity of attention would become such a target of flooding and similar tactics.”

    #Politique #Twitter #Liberté_expression #Trolls

    • On trouve chez Václav Havel, dans L’angoisse de la liberté, 1992, p. 67 : « la mesure du respect envers les citoyens non-conformistes est toujours l’indicateur du respect envers l’opinion publique en tant que telle ».

  • UN Human Rights Council Should Address Human Rights Crisis in Cambodia at its 42nd Session

    Dear Excellency,

    The undersigned civil society organizations, representing groups working within and outside Cambodia to advance human rights, rule of law, and democracy, are writing to alert your government to an ongoing human rights crisis in Cambodia and to request your support for a resolution ensuring strengthened scrutiny of the human rights situation in the country at the upcoming 42nd session of the UN Human Rights Council (the “Council”).

    National elections in July 2018 were conducted after the Supreme Court, which lacks independence, dissolved the major opposition party, the Cambodia National Rescue Party (CNRP). Many believe that this allowed the ruling Cambodian People’s Party (CPP) under Prime Minister Hun Sen to secure all 125 seats in the National Assembly and effectively establish one-party rule. Since the election, respect for human rights in Cambodia has further declined. Key opposition figures remain either in detention – such as CNRP leader Kem Sokha, who is under de facto house arrest – or in self-imposed exile out of fear of being arrested. The CNRP is considered illegal and 111 senior CNRP politicians remain banned from engaging in politics. Many others have continued to flee the country to avoid arbitrary arrest and persecution.

    Government authorities have increasingly harassed opposition party members still in the country, with more than 147 former CNRP members summoned to court or police stations. Local authorities have continued to arrest opposition members and activists on spurious charges. The number of prisoners facing politically motivated charges in the country has remained steady since the election. The government has shuttered almost all independent media outlets, and totally controls national TV and radio stations. Repressive laws – including the amendments to the Law on Political Parties, the Law on Non-Governmental Organizations, and the Law on Trade Unions – have resulted in severe restrictions on the rights to freedom of expression, peaceful assembly and association.

    It is expected that a resolution will be presented at the 42nd session of the Human Rights Council in September to renew the mandate of the UN Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Cambodia for another two years. We strongly urge your delegation to ensure that the resolution reflects the gravity of the situation in the country and requests additional monitoring and reporting by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR). Mandated OHCHR monitoring of the situation and reporting to the Council, in consultation with the Special Rapporteur, would enable a comprehensive assessment of the human rights situation in Cambodia, identification of concrete actions that the government needs to take to comply with Cambodia’s international human rights obligations, and would allow the Council further opportunities to address the situation.

    Since the last Council resolution was adopted in September 2017, the situation of human rights in Cambodia, including for the political opposition, human rights defenders, and the media, has drastically worsened. Developments since the 2018 election include:

    Crackdown on Political Opposition

    On March 12, 2019, the Phnom Penh Municipal Court issued arrest warrants for eight leading members of the opposition Cambodia National Rescue Party who had left Cambodia ahead of the July 2018 election – Sam Rainsy, Mu Sochua, Ou Chanrith, Eng Chhai Eang, Men Sothavarin, Long Ry, Tob Van Chan, and Ho Vann. The charges were based on baseless allegations of conspiring to commit treason and incitement to commit felony. In September 2018, authorities transferred CNRP head Kem Sokha after more than a year of pre-trial detention in a remote prison to his Phnom Penh residence under highly restrictive “judicial supervision” that amounts to house arrest. Cambodian law has no provision for house arrest and there is no evidence that Sokha has committed any internationally recognizable offense.

    During 2019, at least 147 arbitrary summonses were issued by the courts and police against CNRP members or supporters. Summonses seen by human rights groups lack legal specifics, containing only vague references to allegations that the person summoned may have violated the Supreme Court ruling that dissolved the CNRP in November 2017.

    Human Rights Defenders and Peaceful Protesters

    In November 2018, Prime Minister Hun Sen stated that criminal charges would be dropped against all trade union leaders related to the government’s January 2014 crackdown on trade unions and garment workers in which security forces killed five people. However, the following month, a court convicted six union leaders – Ath Thorn, Chea Mony, Yang Sophorn, Pav Sina, Rong Chhun, and Mam Nhim – on baseless charges and fined them. An appeals court overturned the convictions in May 2019, but in July 2019 the court announced its verdict in absentia convicting Kong Atith, newly elected president of the Coalition of Cambodian Apparel Workers Democratic Union (CCAWDU), of intentional acts of violence in relation to a 2016 protest between drivers and the Capitol Bus Company. The court imposed a three-year suspended sentence, which will create legal implications under Article 20 of the Law on Trade Unions, which sets out among others that a leader of a worker union cannot have a felony or misdemeanor conviction.

    In December 2018, Thai authorities forcibly returned Cambodian dissident Rath Rott Mony to Cambodia. Cambodian authorities then prosecuted him for his role in a Russia Times documentary “My Mother Sold Me,” which describes the failure of Cambodian police to protect girls sold into sex work. He was convicted of “incitement to discriminate” and in July 2019 sentenced to two years in prison.

    In March 2018, the government enacted a lese majeste (insulting the king) clause into the Penal Code, and within a year four people had been jailed under the law and three convicted. All the lese majeste cases involved people expressing critical opinions on Facebook or sharing other people’s Facebook posts. The government has used the new law, along with a judiciary that lacks independence, as a political tool to silence independent and critical voices in the country.

    In July 2019, authorities detained two youth activists, Kong Raya and Soung Neakpoan, who participated in a commemoration ceremony on the third anniversary of the murder of prominent political commentator Kem Ley in Phnom Penh. The authorities charged both with incitement to commit a felony, a provision commonly used to silence activists and human rights defenders. Authorities arrested seven people in total for commemorating the anniversary; monitored, disrupted, or canceled commemorations around the country; and blocked approximately 20 members of the Grassroots Democracy Party on their way to Takeo province – Kem Ley’s home province.

    Attacks on Journalists and Control of the Media

    Prior to the July 2018 election, the Cambodian government significantly curtailed media freedom, online and offline. In 2017, authorities ordered the closure of 32 FM radio frequencies that aired independent news programs by Radio Free Asia (RFA) and Voice of America. RFA closed its offices in September 2017, citing government harassment as the reason for its closure. The local Voice of Democracy radio was also forced to go off the air.

    Since 2017, two major independent newspapers, the Phnom Penh Post and The Cambodia Daily, were subjected to dubious multi-million-dollar tax bills, leading the Phnom Penh Post to be sold to a businessman with ties to Hun Sen and The Cambodia Daily to close.

    Social media networks have come under attack from increased government surveillance and interventions. In May 2018, the government adopted a decree on Publication Controls of Website and Social Media Processing via Internet and the Law on Telecommunications, which allow for arbitrary interference and surveillance of online media and unfettered government censorship. Just two days before the July 2018 elections, authorities blocked the websites of independent media outlets – including RFA and VOA – which human rights groups considered an immediate enforcement of the new decree.

    Since then, Cambodian authorities have proceeded with the politically motivated prosecution of two RFA journalists, Yeang Sothearin and Uon Chhin. They were arrested in November 2017 on fabricated espionage charges connected to allegations that the two men continued to report for RFA after RFA’s forced closure of its Cambodia office. They were held in pre-trial detention until August 2018. Their trial began in July 2019 and a verdict on the espionage charges is expected late August. They face up to 16 years in prison.

    *

    The Cambodian government’s actions before and since the July 2018 election demonstrate a comprehensive campaign by the ruling CPP government to use violence, intimidation and courts that lack judicial independence to silence or eliminate the political opposition, independent media, and civil society groups critical of the government.

    We strongly urge your government to acknowledge the severity of the human rights situation and the risks it poses to Cambodia’s fulfillment of its commitments to respect human rights and rule of law as set out in the Paris Peace Accords 1991. It is crucial that concerned states explicitly condemn the Cambodian government’s attacks on human rights norms and take steps to address them.

    For these reasons, we call on the Human Rights Council to adopt a resolution requesting the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights to monitor and report on the situation of human rights in Cambodia and outline actions the government should take to comply with its international human rights obligations. The High Commissioner should report to the Council at its 45th session followed by an Enhanced Interactive Dialogue with participation of the Special Rapporteur on Cambodia, other relevant UN Special Procedures, and members of local and international civil society.

    We further recommend that your government, during the Council’s September session, speaks out clearly and jointly with other governments against ongoing violations in Cambodia.

    We remain at your disposal for any further information.

    With assurances of our highest consideration,

    Amnesty International
    ARTICLE 19
    ASEAN Parliamentarians for Human Rights (APHR)
    Asian Forum for Human Rights and Development (FORUM-ASIA)
    Asian Legal Resource Centre (ALRC)
    Cambodian Alliance of Trade Unions (CATU)
    Cambodian Center for Human Rights (CCHR)
    Cambodian Food and Service Workers’ Federation (CFSWF)
    Cambodian Human Rights and Development Association (ADHOC)
    Cambodian League for the Promotion & Defense of Human Rights (LICADHO)
    Cambodian Youth Network (CYN)
    Cambodia’s Independent Civil Servants Association (CICA)
    Center for Alliance of Labor and Human Rights (CENTRAL)
    CIVICUS: World Alliance for Citizen Participation
    Civil Rights Defenders (CRD)
    Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ)
    Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative (CHRI)
    FIDH – International Federation for Human Rights
    Fortify Rights
    Human Rights Now
    Human Rights Watch (HRW)
    International Commission of Jurists (ICJ)
    Independent Democracy of Informal Economy Association (IDEA)
    International Service for Human Rights (ISHR)
    Lawyers’ Rights Watch Canada (LRWC)
    National Democratic Institute (NDI)
    Reporters Without Borders (Reporters Sans Frontières - RSF)
    World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT)

    https://www.hrw.org/news/2019/08/30/un-human-rights-council-should-address-human-rights-crisis-cambodia-its-42nd-se
    #Cambodge #droits_humains #arrestations #opposition #liberté_d'expression #censure #presse #médias #lese_majeste #Kem_Ley #Rath_Rott_Mony #Kong_Raya #Soung_Neakpoan #réseaux_sociaux