• ’We Feel We May Go Extinct’ : Orang Asli Starving In Malaysian Jungles | Star2.com
    https://www.star2.com/people/2019/05/05/orang-asli-issues

    Due to rampant deforestation, there is little left of their food bank, the jungle. Traditional hunter-gatherer orang asli have relied for generations on the jungle for food, medicine, clothes, and building materials. Rivers, their only source of water, are also threatened by deforestation, as silt from denuded land ends up in waterways, making them shallower and murkier.

    Once self-sustainable, the orang asli now have no choice but to be reliant on rice purchased from the “outside”.

    Many of the jungle-dwelling tribesmen manage small government-sponsored rubber plantations, but this is no longer a viable economic option. Falling commodity prices means they can’t earn enough to buy the food they need.

    The Temiars we meet tell us they sell their raw rubber for between RM1.60 and RM1.80 a kilogramme; generally, and depending on their collection, they can only take home a meagre RM200 a month.

    PKSP volunteer paediatrician Dr Lee Kim Seng says that while there is a trend of malnutrition, it has yet to reach severe levels – “but if they continue their lifestyle like this, definitely it will compromise their health” in the long term.

    #Malaisie #déforestation #peuples_autochtones #malnutrition

    L’histoire des éléphants qui viennent bouffer leurs cultures, c’est dans une moindre mesure le drame de Kg Peta où des incursions d’éléphants ne permettent pas de cultiver n’importe quoi. Résultat : les fruits sont achetés sur le marché à une heure et demie de là. Mais c’est une communauté qui arrive quand même à dégager des revenus.

  • Chronic #malnutrition stunts Asia’s rising-star economies - Nikkei Asian Review
    https://asia.nikkei.com/Spotlight/Asia-Insight/Chronic-malnutrition-stunts-Asia-s-rising-star-economies

    Nutrition surveys have shown that less than one-fifth of Filipino infants up to 11 months are stunted, but the rate jumps once they turn a year old. This suggests there is a chance for a dramatic turnaround, but only if the government intervenes early, Capanzana said.

    #Asie

  • In an orderly Ethiopian camp, South Sudanese refugees face malnutrition, trauma

    Out of a population of about 12 million, 1.9 million South Sudanese are currently displaced within the country and more than two million are living in camps like these in neighbouring countries.

    #Nguenyyiel, the newest and biggest camp in the Gambella region, is home to more than 75,000 South Sudanese refugees. It was opened in 2016 following flare-ups between opposing South Sudanese factions to accommodate a new influx of refugees to this sparsely populated, low-lying and remote corner in southwest Ethiopia. The region currently hosts more than 360,000 refugees from South Sudan.

    Unlike most refugee camps, Nguenyyiel at first appears calm, clean and orderly. Neat rows of tukuls, the cone-shaped mud huts with thatched roofs common to this region, give the appearance of a genuine local village.

    As we drive through the wide and tidy streets, I watch teenagers playing soccer, goats foraging for food, and youngsters dodging small dust whirls as they wander arm in arm among spotless latrines made of shiny corrugated metal.

    But behind this hygienic order is a tenuousness that continues to threaten those living here. Outside the camp, the crisis has destabilized the region, where clashes between different ethnic groups are common. Women, children and youth make up the majority of residents in the camp — 62 per cent are younger than 18 — because many men remain behind in South Sudan to guard homes and farmland. Several women and children who left the safety of Nguenyyiel to collect firewood in the nearby forests have been sexually assaulted and killed.

    https://www.thestar.com/news/world/2019/03/24/in-an-orderly-ethiopian-camp-south-sudanese-refugees-face-malnutrition-trau
    #camps #camps_de_réfugiés #réfugiés_sud-soudanais #Ethiopie #réfugiés #asile #migrations #malnutrition #alimentation #trauma #traumatisme #Soudan_du_Sud #IDPs #déplacés_internes #viol #meurtres #femmes

  • Sierra Leone : heurts mortels autour des plantations Socfin
    http://www.lequotidien.lu/a-la-une/sierra-leone-deux-morts-et-des-milliers-de-deplaces-autour-des-plantatio

    Deux morts, des villageois battus par les forces de l’ordre et des milliers d’autres fuyant leurs domiciles dans le chefferie de Sahn Malen, dans le sud-est de la #Sierra_Leone : ces événements d’une extrême gravité se sont déroulés le lundi 21 janvier dans les villages riverains d’une plantation de #palmiers_à_huile exploitée par SAC, une filiale de la multinationale luxembourgeoise Socfin dont les deux principaux actionnaires sont l’homme d’affaires belge Hubert #Fabri (50,2% du capital) et le groupe français Bolloré (38,7%), contrôlé par le milliardaire Vincent #Bolloré. Outre l’huile de palme, un marché en pleine expansion, Socfin est également spécialisée dans la culture de l’#hévéa dont est extrait le caoutchouc naturel.

    Selon une vingtaine d’organisations de la société civile, la répression à Sahn Malen est intervenue après le déclenchement d’une grève pour protester contre les mauvaises #conditions_de_travail et les faibles rémunérations des employés de SAC. Ce mouvement s’inscrit dans un conflit plus large sur l’occupation des terres, soit plus de 18 000 hectares, dont Maloa, une association de défense des riverains, juge qu’elles ont été accaparées par la multinationale. « Avant, nous avions de quoi cultiver et nous pouvions nourrir nos familles, ça allait plutôt bien. Maintenant, nos villages sont dans la #plantation, Socfin a pris nos terres, nous ne pouvons plus cultiver, nous n’avons plus de nourriture. Nous dépendons entièrement de Socfin pour le travail », témoignait en octobre dernier une représentante des riverains, invitée au Luxembourg par un collectif d’ONG (lire ci-dessous). L’élection du président Julius Maada Bio, en mars 2018, leur avait pourtant fait espérer une résolution du conflit foncier.

    #terres #alimentation #meurtres

  • #Yemen death toll ’six times higher’ than estimated
    https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2018/12/12/yemen-death-toll-six-times-higher-estimated

    The figure of 10,000 used by the United Nations is outdated and nowhere near the likely true fatality figure of 60,223, according to UK-based independent research group Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project (ACLED).

    Calculating death tolls in Yemen, which is approaching its fourth year, is complicated by the lack of access.

    The figure offered by ACLED, which looked at open-source data and local news reports, does not include those thought to have died from #malnutrition. Save the Children charity says some 85,000 may have died from starvation since 2016.

    #famine

  • Hunger and survival in Venezuela

    The government continues to deny the existence of a humanitarian crisis, blaming power failures on Venezuela’s proximity to the sun and suggesting people buy gold nuggets and plant medicinal herbs in their gardens to ward off poverty and disease.

    Inflation continues its dizzying ascent. It has reached an eye-watering 800,000 percent and is on target, according to the International Monetary Fund, to surge to 10 million percent next year – driving severe hunger, shortages of basic goods, and accelerating the exodus from the country.

    At least 2.3 million people are estimated to have fled Venezuela since 2015. One in 12 Venezuelans is now thought to have left the country.

    As those abroad build new lives where shelves are laden with food and medicine, many of those IRIN encountered during two weeks of reporting across Venezuela – from the once-thriving fishing and sugar-producing areas of Cumana and Cariaco in the east to once-opulent and wealthy Maracaibo in the west – face a daily battle for survival.

    Residents tell of children starving to death, of forming human chains to block roads to hijack trucks just to get food. They tell of hiding provisions – toilet paper even – in cemeteries, and of concealing their supplies in buckets under layers of trash.​ They tell of being prisoners in their own homes, frightened to leave for fear of looters, who don’t come for their televisions and computers – no one wants those any more – but for basic foodstuffs and medicine.

    While some Venezuelans abroad paper social media with pictures of themselves posing jubilantly in front of powdered milk and shampoo, those who remain grind guava leaves with baking soda to make deodorant, and boil ash from the fire to make soap. It leaves people “itching all day long like gorillas,” says Leidis Vallenilla, explaining how the term violin has become a euphemism for body odour. “We have a whole orchestra here,” she laughs.

    There is pride here, too.

    “The inventive part of us has really been activated,” says Vallenilla.
    The road holds secrets

    Lined with lush foliage and mango trees, dotted with the occasional home, the road from Cumana to Carupano in Venezuela’s eastern state of Sucre winds gently, every now and then rising to give a glimpse of the sea.

    Pilongo – 23-year-old José Gregorio’s nickname, acquired from a cartoon he loved as a baby – leans into the windscreen and squints, staring closely into the verges. He’s looking for vehicles hiding in the bushes, where they wait to ambush cars.

    As the crisis has deepened, so has the threat. This road is a main artery to the east; seemingly bucolic, it is one of the most dangerous in the country.

    Hunger is behind most everything here.

    Hunger was behind the widespread protests that roiled the country in 2015 and precipitated the flight of millions of Venezuelans from the country.

    Then, shortages of essential foodstuffs – milk, butter, sugar, pasta, flour, oil, rice, beef, and chicken – were estimated at 80-90 percent.

    It has only gotten worse since.

    By 2018, according to a report produced by three Venezuelan universities, only one in 10 Venezuelans could afford enough daily food. Hunger has blanketed the country.

    Cumana was once the fourth largest tuna processing town in the world. Nearby, around Caraico and Carupano, was a major sugar-producing area. Not any more. Now, people are starving.

    Government food trucks travel the road carrying President Nicolás Maduro’s signature boxes of subsidised food.

    Named CLAP – after the Spanish acronym for Local Committees for Supply and Production – Maduro rolled them out in 2016 in order, he declared, to circumvent the “economic war” being waged on Venezuela by the United States and his opponents.

    These boxes, the government claims, will feed a family of four for one week. They are supposed to be delivered once a month to all those who have signed up for the “Carnet de la Patria” – a controversial ID card that grants holders access to subsidised food.

    However, according to those who get the CLAP boxes, the food arrives spoiled or past its sell-by date, is nowhere near enough to last even a week, and never comes more than, if you’re lucky, once every six weeks. Around Cumana, seven hours east of the capital Caracas, people say the boxes arrive once every three to four months.

    Pilongo, Vallenilla, and other locals say the trucks still barrel through here daily – in convoys of as many as 40 – laden with precious food and never stopping for angered, hungry people. They recall how people started coating the road with oil so the trucks would skid into a ditch and then everyone would swarm around and loot them.

    “A population which is not well fed become thieves and will steal any food no matter what.”

    When the truck drivers wised up and took a diversion, people got metal strips with sharp teeth and laid them across the other road. Tires would blow out and trucks would still be looted. When the National Guard came and confiscated the metal strips, the community protested that they belonged to them. After a fight, the mayor agreed and returned the strips.

    As hunger grew around the country so did the number of incidents like these, leading Maduro to issue an edict that armed National Guards must accompany the government food trucks. This has given greater license to the much-feared National Guard, who locals accuse of being behind the bodies they say have been turning up on nearby beaches.

    The threat hasn’t stopped people. They just choose different trucks.

    “Malnutrition is the mother of the whole problem,” says Pilingo’s former teacher, Fernando Battisti Garcia, 64, talking from his home in the town of Muelle de Cariaco. “A population which is not well fed become thieves and will steal any food no matter what.”

    People call it “the Maduro diet”.

    “As soon as people see a big truck coming with supplies,” explains Pilingo, “they go into the street – men, women, even children – and stop the truck and take the supplies.”

    It happened just a few days ago, he says, adding that the National Guard has begun searching people’s houses and if they find anything – food, toilet paper, supplies – they take you to jail.

    So people have started hiding the goods in tombs in cemeteries, or lowering them in buckets into water tanks.

    “Everyone is just so desperate,” Pilingo shrugs.

    With their erratic and infrequent delivery of meagre, often spoiled goods, CLAP boxes have done little to address hunger. What they have done, however, is line the pockets – and secure the loyalty – of military and government officials.

    The US treasury estimates as much as 70 percent of the CLAP programme is victim to corruption, while accusations of military and government officials siphoning off millions of dollars and creating a lucrative food trafficking business and thriving black market have led to sanctions and intensifying international scrutiny.

    The CLAP boxes have also succeeded in creating dependency. As inflation continues to spiral upwards and poverty escalates – jumping from 81.8 to 87 percent between 2016 and 2017 – more and more desperate people have become reliant on them to supplement their impoverished diets. In 2018, one in two Venezuelans say CLAP boxes are an “essential” part of their diet, while 83 percent of pro-Maduro voters say that CLAP is their main source of food.
    Malaria and death

    Vallenilla, 60, sits in a folding chair in her shop on the main road passing through Cerezal, a town of 1,000. Dozens of the colourful fabric dolls she makes and sells bob overhead hung from the ceiling, but she admits it has been a long time since she has had any customers.

    It has been a long time too since anyone around here has been able to get any medicine. And it has been even longer since people had enough food.

    “We have lost a lot of kids here to malaria and hepatitis,” says Vallenilla. “You can see people whose eyes and lips have turned orange. But worst of all is malnutrition. Malnourished children are dying here – yes, in my community they are starving to death.

    “The vice-president (Delcy Rodríguez) says there is enough food to feed three countries the size of Venezuela, but the truth is the malnourished kids, the elderly – that is what is real; that is what is the truth.”

    Vallenilla nods across the street where a rail-thin woman is sitting in her doorway. “That woman used to weigh 230 pounds,” she confides. She gestures down the street. “And a woman lost her three-year-old to malnutrition last week, a few streets down….”

    But those women won’t talk about it, says Vallenilla. No one here speaks out, she says. Everyone is scared; scared of losing their CLAP box; scared of the bodies turning up; scared of the repercussions of being identified through the Carnet de la Patria; scared of being reported to Maduro’s security forces; scared full stop.

    “The vice-president (Delcy Rodríguez) says there is enough food to feed three countries the size of Venezuela, but the truth is the malnourished kids, the elderly – that is what is real; that is what is the truth.”

    But Vallenilla isn’t scared. She is angry.

    “About two months ago, malaria was in fashion here – everyone here was trembling from fever,” she seethes, fury rising in her voice. “We had to block the road for two days. We made a trembling chain of people just to force the government to bring us treatment.”

    But even then, the government didn’t bring the full treatment. They brought only half a dose. Half treatments mean malaria will recur. Half treatments risk mosquitos building immunity. Half treatment is the best anyone can hope for these days across Venezuela. And, if they even get that, they can consider themselves lucky.

    “This is why people die,” Vallenilla bellows. “How can you play with people’s health like that? Kids’ health? It is inhuman!

    ‘‘The most sacred thing is your child. Having to put your child in the ground, having your child die? It is the worst thing. How must a mother feel?”

    Her brown eyes glare under the placid smiles of her handmade dolls overhead.

    “I cannot change my feelings – I will not change my feelings for a bone!’ she says. “No matter how many bones they throw to me, I will not be silenced!’

    Vallenilla’s thin neighbour across the street shrinks into the shadows at the sound of the raised voice.

    “This is like a curse, a spell cast on the population,” Vallenilla sighs.
    Electrocution and amputation

    On a sunny Saturday afternoon, there is not a soul to be seen in Cariaco, a town of supposedly 22,000 souls in the east of Venezuela. It is eerily empty. Shops are shuttered and there is no one visible behind the fences barricading the single-storey pastel houses topped with several rows of electrified wires.

    ‘‘You used to be able to walk anywhere, anytime,’’ Pilingo reminisces.

    No more. People are home. They all say they just don’t dare leave their homes for fear they will get broken into when they go out. Vallenilla says she even slaughtered her 17 ducks as she knew they would be taken otherwise.

    The night before, someone had broken into a local house just to steal some clothes.

    “Hunger is taking over in most towns,” Garcia, the former teacher, observes. ‘‘If people have the possibility of one or two meals in a day, they consider it like providence.”

    “People go too long without food,” Leidis concurs. “You can’t blame them looting and hijacking.”

    The consequences are showing up in unexpected ways.

    Music blares from speakers mounted on a flatbed truck as it drives slowly through the small village of Pantonó, leading a young crowd surrounding a wooden coffin hoisted high by the cluster of men carrying it.

    This is the funeral of a 13-year-old boy, a member of the local baseball team who was electrocuted when he tried to go through an electrified fence in the rain – it is thought, to find food.

    There were virtually no cases of electrocution before the crisis, says Dr. Dora Colomenares, a surgeon at University Hospital in Maracaibo. Now it is a common occurrence as people breach electric fences hunting for food, medicine, and electricity sources to wire off to their homes.

    An unprecedented number of children are also arriving at hospital with broken bones. Doctors told IRIN many injuries were hungry children left alone by parents to go out searching day in and day out for food and medicine, even children who had fallen out of fruit trees they had scaled ever higher searching for something to eat.

    This desperation is also reflected in the thriving business of herb selling, as people across the country turn to traditional remedies in the absence of standard medicine.

    Louisa Lopez, 54, the lone vendor in her row, is packing up the medicinal herbs and leaves she sells. Slits of light coming through the corrugated roof dapple the darkness, bouncing off empty stalls in nearby Cariaco market hall.

    Lopez didn’t have this business before the crisis, but when medicine became scarce she anticipated that people would turn to traditional and homemade remedies. After doing her research on the internet, she set up a stall.

    Her instinct has proven spot on. “Business,” she smiles, “is booming.”

    But so is death.

    Needless, pointless, avoidable. Deaths that would have been unimaginable even five years ago.

    One man in Cumana is eager to talk but fearful of losing his job and CLAP box for speaking out. He asks that his real name not be used and steps inside his pastel-coloured home, where a framed photo of a middle-aged man is sat shrine-like under a vase of lilies atop a decorative lace tablecloth on a round table.

    This, he explains, was his uncle “Alberto M” – a chef. He had died two weeks earlier of hypertension and diabetes, a failure of herbal medicine. The man picks up the photo and studies it in silence. His uncle’s warm smile and kind eyes beam back, blissfully unaware of the fate that would needlessly, avoidably befall him.

    “There is a death daily around here,” says the man, placing the photo back on the table before reeling off a list of recent deaths in the neighbourhood: children from malnutrition; a mother and her unborn baby – more failures of herbal medicine – dead from a urine infection; a brother-in-law, shot, his family charges, by the police and whose body washed up on a nearby shore.

    “But,” he says after a long pause, “we don’t even have coffins. The morgue is stacked high with dead bodies as people can’t find coffins.”

    He explains how people have taken to bringing the body home and praying it doesn’t explode – as happened the week before just down the street – before they find a way to bury it.
    Depression and anger

    This endless struggle just to survive exacts a huge emotional toll.

    “You see people who walk around feeling betrayed, with low spirits, sad – many who don’t want to live, because of the issue of food,” says Garcia, shaking this head, his eyes sad.

    “The biggest psychiatric problem in the world is in Venezuela,” says Colomenares, the surgeon in Maracaibo. “Why? Because there are many depressed people, people who have lost hope. Melancholy and all these things mix with the problems the people are already going through, and they don’t know how to cope with it.”

    Yet, as more and more people are driven to the brink, psychiatric wards are closing. The number of people attended to in public psychiatric facilities has dropped from 23,000 to 3,500 and those that are still working have neither food nor medicines, according to a report published by the Cuatro Por Venezuela Foundation in September.

    Suicide has surged throughout the country.

    Official statistics are hard to come by, but a psychiatric nurse at a large eastern hospital whispers in confidence, scared of losing his job for speaking out, that in his ward alone there were 10 suicides between January and July this year. By comparison, in 2017, there were only three or four. Before then, there were virtually none, he says.

    Venezuelan children’s rights group CECODAP released a study that reported an 18 percent rise from 2017 in adolescents committing suicide in 2018, while Bloomberg found there were 131 suicides in Caracas alone in June and July, a large increase on the normal monthly rate.

    Anger is growing at the seeming indifference of Maduro and his government – a government that refuses to acknowledge the scale of death and sickness of its own citizens.

    "How can you not curse the government straight out? This damn government! This damn government!”

    "I insist here there is no humanitarian crisis; there is a war on the country,” Diosdado Cabello, president of the National Constituent Assembly, said last month, before claiming: “Those who speak of humanitarian crisis are the ones who have created war against our country.”

    Over a lunch of thin soup at his mission in the west of Venezuela, Friar Nelson Sandoval describes the scene in the summer when his whole village was overcome by malaria and there was no medicine. “It was like an apocalyptic film where people were so desperate; they were literally in the street having convulsions.”

    He pounds his fist on the table. “How can you not curse the government straight out? How terrible it is when the electricity is out; when you’re hungry and yet food gets spoiled; when you’re tired as you couldn’t sleep as it was too hot? How do you give Mass? How can you not curse the government straight out? This damn government! This damn government!”

    Emails to the government media department and the Minister of Information for comment on the widespread hunger, the hijacking of food trucks, and the lack of medicines were unanswered at time of publication.

    https://www.irinnews.org/special-report/2018/11/21/hunger-and-survival-venezuela
    #survie #crise #Venezuela #faim #alimentation #malnutrition

  • SOFI 2018 - The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World
    http://www.fao.org/state-of-food-security-nutrition/en
    /fileadmin/templates/SOFI/2018/src/images/share-flood.jpg

    For the third year in a row, there has been a rise in world hunger. The absolute number of undernourished people, i.e. those facing chronic food deprivation, has increased to nearly 821 million in 2017, from around 804 million in 2016. These are levels from almost a decade ago.

    #alimentation #faim #malnutrition #sous-alimentation

  • Le scorbut, maladie mortelle du 18ème siècle, fait sa réapparition dans les pays développés
    https://www.maxisciences.com/maladie/une-maladie-mortelle-du-18eme-siecle-fait-son-retour-dans-les-pays-dev

    La cause première de ce retour de la maladie réside dans les conditions de vie précaire des personnes qu’elle touche. (…) « De nombreuses personnes en difficulté financière tendent à opter pour des nourritures riches en graisses, en calories, et coupe-faim. » Source : Maxisciences

  • France/Monde | Attention, le scorbut est de retour
    https://www.ledauphine.com/france-monde/2018/08/20/attention-le-scorbut-est-de-retour

    Des cas comme celui-ci montrent que consommer suffisamment de vitamines n’est pas la même chose que de simplement manger suffisamment. En fait, beaucoup de patients atteints de scorbut suivis par le docteur Churchill sont en surpoids ou même obèses. La #malnutrition est un apport alimentaire anormal, qui correspond aux carences, aux excès ou aux déséquilibres dans l’apport énergétique ou nutritionnel d’une personne.

    #it_has_begun #pauvreté

  • 400 000 enfants, en état de malnutrition aigüe sévère
    Collecte de fonds organisée par KONBINI pour Action Contre la Faim : URGENCE KASAÏ
    https://www.gofundme.com/urgence-kasai

    Plus d’un tiers de la population du #Kasai, soit près de 1,7 million de personnes est aujourd’hui en situation de grave #insécurité_alimentaire et 750 000 enfants souffrent de #malnutrition aiguë. Dans les centres ACF, nous avons rencontré des enfants de 3 ans qui ne pèsent pas plus de 6 kilos. Des enfants décharnés, incapables de bouger, que la mort approche. Une infirmière nous a raconté en avoir déjà perdu 8.

    Au total, 400 000 enfants, en état de malnutrition aigüe sévère, vont mourir de #faim si rien n’est fait.

    #RDC #conflit

  • Comment nourrir 10 milliards de bouches | Alternatives Economiques
    https://www.alternatives-economiques.fr/nourrir-10-milliards-de-bouches/00083687

    Hors situations de crise humanitaire, la #malnutrition est pour l’essentiel un problème de #pauvreté au Sud et elle se concentre en milieu rural. Les trois quarts de ceux qui souffrent de la #faim appartiennent à des familles paysannes dont la production est à la fois très faible et très peu rémunérée, car concurrencée par des agriculteurs « modernes », incomparablement plus productifs. La lutte contre la faim nécessite ainsi de rendre le travail agricole plus attractif, dans un contexte où le développement des activités dans les services et l’industrie n’est pas suffisant pour absorber une main-d’oeuvre rurale sous-employée.[...]

    Au final, le potentiel d’accroissement de la production mondiale est réel, mais limité. Il est surtout incompatible avec une généralisation à l’ensemble de la planète du modèle alimentaire occidental, où un adulte consomme près de 80 kilos de viande par an : les surfaces que mobilise l’alimentation animale et les émissions de gaz à effet de serre associées à cet #élevage ne sont pas soutenables. Un système #agroalimentaire durable passe par une modération de la part de la #viande dans les assiettes, ce qui est aussi un enjeu de #santé publique, dans un monde qui pourrait compter bientôt autant d’obèses que de sous-alimentés.

    #démographie (l’éducation des filles, la formation des femmes font partie de la solution) #alimentation #agrochimie

  • Rapport mondial sur les crises alimentaires 2018 - World | ReliefWeb
    https://reliefweb.int/report/world/rapport-mondial-sur-les-crises-alimentaires-2018

    Environ 124 millions de personnes vivant dans 51 pays sont en situation d’#insécurité_alimentaire de Crise ou pire (Phase 3 ou pire de l’IPC ou du CH ou équivalent) et requièrent une action humanitaire urgente afin de sauver des vies, protéger les moyens d’existence et réduire les déficits de consommation alimentaire et la #malnutrition aiguë.

    #conflit #sécheresse #climat #famine

  • Les documents ci-dessous permettent d’illustrer la mise en perspective des questions de la #sous-alimentation et de la #malnutrition à l’échelle mondiale. La première #cartographie insiste en particulier sur la multiplicité des facteurs qui peuvent aggraver la situation de sous-alimentation

    http://www.cartolycee.net/spip.php?article111


    #ressources_pédagogiques

  • Des OGM pour l’Afrique ? - RFI
    http://www.rfi.fr/afrique/20171217-bill-gates-genereux-donateur-climat-fondation-afrique-rechauffement-ogm

    L’autre grande annonce faite par Bill Gates à l’occasion du « One Planet Summit », est que « la #Bill_&_Melinda_Gates_Foundation va investir 300 millions de dollars au cours des trois prochaines années pour financer la #recherche agricole qui aidera les fermiers les plus pauvres à s’adapter au changement des conditions climatiques. Cela concerne notamment la gestion, la protection et l’amélioration des cultures. » Une initiative reçue avec enthousiasme par ceux qui estiment qu’ils en seront les principaux bénéficiaires comme les pays africains, mais qui soulève aussi de nombreuses interrogations chez certains observateurs.

    La Fondation considère que les agriculteurs les plus pauvres qui subissent les conséquences de ces #changements_climatiques n’y sont pour rien. Ce sont les pays industrialisés qui ont émis ces #gaz_à_effet_de_serre, qui sont responsables de cette dégradation. Et comme l’a dit Bill Gates, au micro de RTL, à propos des paysans, « quand il y a de mauvaises récoltes, ils n’ont pas à manger et cela crée des problèmes de #malnutrition et de #famine… ». Une des solutions préconisées par la Fondation consiste à fournir de meilleures #semences aux agriculteurs des pays en développement, ajoutant : « Il faut leur donner de meilleures graines, des graines plus productives qui peuvent résister à la #chaleur à la #sécheresse. C’est ce que nous devons faire et c’est une très belle manière de leur éviter cette souffrance ». Une grande partie de cet argent va donc aller directement à la recherche pour obtenir des graines capables de répondre à tous ces critères.

    ...

    seulement 5% des subventions sont allées directement au continent africain. La moitié des #subventions sont allées à des organisations internationales et la plus grande partie des budgets de recherche ont financé des laboratoires américains . La Fondation a annoncé vouloir obtenir la mise au point de 400 variétés améliorées pour sortir de la famine 30 millions de personnes en Afrique.

    #ogm #agrochimie

  • La malnutrition n’épargne plus aucun pays dans le monde
    http://www.lemonde.fr/planete/article/2017/11/04/la-malnutrition-n-epargne-plus-aucun-pays-dans-le-monde_5210018_3244.html

    Pour la première fois, la planète entière est confrontée à une crise de la malnutrition. Selon le rapport sur la nutrition mondiale 2017, publié samedi 4 novembre, la totalité des 140 pays étudiés est confrontée à au moins une des principales formes de ce fléau : le retard de croissance chez l’enfant, l’anémie chez la femme en âge de procréer et le surpoids chez l’adulte. Et 88 % sont lourdement touchés par deux ou trois de ces troubles.

    Si rien n’est fait pour enrayer la tendance, aucun des dix-sept Objectifs de développement durable, adoptés fin 2015 par les Nations unies afin d’« éradiquer la pauvreté, protéger la planète et garantir la prospérité pour tous », ne sera atteint d’ici à 2030. En découlerait une menace pour le développement humain mondial. Voilà le constat très inquiétant livré par un panel d’experts internationaux indépendants dans la quatrième édition de cet état des lieux annuel, le plus complet sur le sujet.

    #malnutrition #faim #alimentation #santé #obésité

  • [Témoignage] Contre la #malnutrition, a-t-on tout essayé ?
    http://www.socialter.fr/fr/module/99999672/509/tmoignage_contre_la_malnutrition_a_t_on_tout_essay

    Avec seulement trois écoles publiques, une quarantaine d’écoles communautaires ont vu le jour. Kangemi Ressource Center, qui existe depuis 2008, est un centre éducatif qui permet aux écoles locales d’avoir accès à une bibliothèque, une salle d’ordinateur et de bénéficier de programmes d’éducation, y compris d’éducation à la santé et à l’hygiène (notamment hygiène dentaire et lavage de mains).

    Le centre distribue également de l’eau potable pour les habitants des bidonvilles grâce à un système de filtration. Il s’agit d’un lieu de vie inspirant, animé par de gens passionnés par l’éducation et créé par une femme franco-belge qui a passé une dizaine d’années sur place pour tisser des liens avec les populations locales, des bénévoles et des mécènes.

    Ayant été particulièrement marquée par le succès du programme Nutrissimo Junior en France, je cherchais un support adapté pour les pays en développement afin d’effectuer des formations nutrition/hygiène de façon ludique. Ainsi ai-je identifié le jeu Nutricartes, conçu par des pédiatres français pour apprendre à classer les aliments entre différentes catégories : aliments de construction (protéines animales et végétales), aliments d’énergie (glucides, lipides), aliments de protection (légumes verts, fruits) et les boissons. Avec un plateau de jeu et 150 cartes photos d’aliments, le but est de faire comprendre l’utilité d’une alimentation variée pour grandir et rester en bonne santé. Rien d’autre que du bon sens, mais qui s’avère fort utile dans ce contexte.

    Les futures mères devraient également être sensibilisées à l’importance de l’alimentation des « 1.000 premiers jours »*. C’est durant cette période cruciale que se construit la santé du futur adulte et que la consommation de protéines revêt une importance particulière. Si certaines protéines animales (viande, poisson) sont souvent jugées trop chères pour les populations locales, les œufs sont plus abordables et les protéines végétales (lentilles, pois chiches, haricots…) semblent plus ancrées dans les habitudes alimentaires.

    L’ugali, farine de maïs cuite à l’eau est aussi très répandue dans l’alimentation kényane car elle est peu chère et nourrissante, mais elle a une faible densité nutritionnelle. Aussi convient-il d’expliquer que l’alimentation sert avant tout à apporter des nutriments destinés à donner de la force, des vitamines et de l’énergie, et pas uniquement à assouvir sa faim. Les aliments issus de notre mode de vie occidental ont également fait largement leur apparition, notamment bonbons, gâteaux sucrés et Coca Cola… qui est moins cher que l’eau !

  • Forests, farming and food | CIFOR Forests News
    https://forestsnews.cifor.org/51201/forests-farming-and-food?fnl=en

    At 2,000 meters above sea level, the climate is temperate, soils are fertile, and unlike many parts of the country, there’s plenty of space for people to grow the crops they need to feed their families and make a living.

    “From an agricultural point of view, you would say that this is a very blessed area,” says agronomist Frédéric Baudron, one of the lead scientists in a new study on forests and dietary diversity from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) and the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR).

    But each time Amina weans a child, around the age of two, the child’s hair begins to turn yellow and fall out — signs of acute malnutrition. “It’s quite shocking to see such things,” says Baudron. “You feel like, wow, this place should not be experiencing this kind of problem.”

    So what’s going on? Food security is high here. Most people are getting all the calories they need from the wheat and maize that grow easily and abundantly in the region. But many suffer from the “hidden hunger” of vitamin and mineral deficiency, which is estimated to affect around two billion people worldwide.

    ...

    How is this happening? Baudron says the forest is “acting as a site of nutrient accumulation, and then livestock vector these nutrients from the forest to the farms through manure,” increasing the fertility of these farms and allowing the production of a range of crops, including nutrient-dense ones.

    As he explains, the forest provides a ready supply of fodder for livestock, allowing people living close by to keep bigger herds producing more manure; and the availability of firewood also means they are less likely to burn their stock’s manure as fuel.

    So, people who live closer to the forest have more nutrient-rich manure available to use in their farm, and tend to concentrate it in home gardens, where they grow a wide range of foods, creating “real hotspots of dietary diversity,” says Baudron. They also have access to more animal products such as milk, eggs and meat from the larger herds they are able to maintain.

    #malnutrition #alimentation #diversité #agriculture #symbiose #forêt #nutriments #agriculture

  • #Floriculture : l’Ethiopie alloue 3.000 hectares aux investisseurs
    http://afrique.latribune.fr/finances/investissement/2017-07-29/floriculture-l-ethiopie-alloue-3-000-hectares-de-terres-aux-invest


    Quand la population éthiopienne meurt de faim !

    L’#Ethiopie multiplie les initiatives pour attirer un grand nombre d’investisseurs notamment étrangers dans le secteur de l’horticulture afin de diversifier son économie. Le pays vient d’allouer 3.000 hectares de terres aux investisseurs dans la floriculture.

    ...

    Le revenu des #exportations des fleurs devrait atteindre 550 millions de dollars en Ethiopie en 2016. De plus, le pays est l’un des plus grands producteurs et exportateurs de fleurs du continent africain. L’Ethiopie a vu son secteur industriel floral se développer au cours de la dernière décennie. Cependant, le potentiel du secteur est jusque-là sous exploité . Le pays est doté de conditions météorologiques appropriées pour les produits forestiers et autres produits horticoles mais les investissements privés notamment étrangers font défaut.

    #alimentation (ou pas) #agriculture #faim #malnutrition

  • YEMEN : THE INVISIBLE CRISIS

    After two years of relentless conflict, Yemen faces a humanitarian crisis quickly engulfing the majority of its population. According to latest United Nations reports published in April 2017, an alarming 18.8 million people - almost two thirds of the population - need humanitarian assistance or protection support. Since mid-2015, when Houthi rebel forces took over the capital city of Sana’a, at least three million people have fled their homes from regions now embroiled in a prolonged ground war. As a result of the fighting, public services have broken down. Less than half of the health centers function with medical supplies at a critically low supply. As of May 2017, the 1.3 million plus civil servants were entering an eighth month of not having been paid. This statistic includes the thousands of doctors, nurses and paramedics who continue to work despite the increasingly bleak future.

    http://www.gilesnclarke.com/yemen-the-invisible-crisis
    #Yémen #photographie #malnutrition #faim #famine #guerre #conflit #GILES_CLARK #santé #maladie #hôpitaux #destruction #choléra
    cc @albertocampiphoto @philippe_de_jonckheere

    • Famine in Yemen: A primer

      Warnings of famine in Yemen are coming hard and fast these days, with UN Relief Chief Mark Lowcock telling the Security Council on Tuesday that “there is now a clear and present danger of an imminent and great big famine engulfing” the country.

      The truth is that Yemen has been teetering on the edge of famine for much of its more than three and a half years of war, and while food prices have recently shot up thanks to a collapsing currency, this is not the first time humanitarians have rung the alarm bells.

      Back in November 2017, the Saudi-led coalition fighting Houthi rebels and their allies temporarily closed Yemen’s air, land, and sea borders in response to a rocket sent by the Houthis towards Riyadh. Eighteen NGOs issued a statement then expressing concern that “the humanitarian situation is extremely fragile and any disruption in the pipeline of critical supplies such as food, fuel, and medicines has the potential to bring millions of people closer to starvation and death”.
      The blockade was later eased and some aid was allowed in, but as we pointed out at the time, when it comes to averting famine, commercial imports are more important than relief supplies.

      In most of Yemen, shops and markets still sell food. But many people simply don’t have the money to buy it. Yemen’s currency has been in freefall since September, causing a spike in food and fuel prices and even further impacting the average Yemeni’s ability to purchase what they need to survive.

      Millions of hungry people live in Yemen. The UN now estimates that 14 million Yemenis, half the country, could soon be in what it calls “pre-famine” conditions; that means they will rely on aid to survive. That number may rise even more if Yemen’s Red Sea port of Hodeidah is closed by fighting; the coalition is currently intensifying an offensive on Houthis in the city.

      But declaring a famine is a technically complicated process, as this account from South Sudan illustrates:

      We don’t yet know if and when famine will be declared. Analysts are reviewing market, health, and nutrition surveys from across Yemen to determine if the situation crosses the technical threshold of “famine”. In order to avoid false alarms and crying wolf, strict requirements must be met before a situation can be designated a famine. And even that declaration can still be held up or delayed by political concerns – governments and warring parties typically don’t want to admit to a famine on their watch.

      In 2011, the UN declared the first famine of the 21st century in Somalia, caused by war, drought, and restricted relief access. The announcement was met by a wave of new funding, international media and diplomatic attention, and more determined efforts to work through blockages. The declaration, based on the same Integrated Phase Classification methodology that Yemen analysts are using, had no automatic effect but galvanised an international response, including $1.25 billion in 2011. Any famine declaration is an admission of failure: later studies showed that about half of an estimated 260,000 Somali deaths took place before the pronouncement.

      For now, just when an official declaration of famine will come, if it comes at all, is still unclear. What we know for sure: malnutrition can be deadly, and right now it’s making some Yemenis more susceptible to diseases like cholera and diphtheria.

      https://www.irinnews.org/news/2018/10/24/famine-yemen-primer
      #alimentation #nourriture #prix #blé

  • Over 14,000 Children Die After Colombian Gov’t Sells Indigenous Peoples’ Drinking Water To Western Mining Corporations – Carib Flame
    http://www.caribflame.com/2017/05/over-14000-children-die-after-colombian-govt-sells-indigenous-peoples-dr

    On Colombia’s arid Guajira Peninsula a quiet effort to eradicate the Wayuú people, Colombia’s largest indigenous group, has entered its sixth year. The Colombian government and Western mining corporations are complicit in this attempt to wipe the group off of Colombia’s map. Apparently President Trump does not care at all that these “beautiful babies” are dying from an easily preventable situation.

    Victims of a devastating, manufactured drought, the Wayuú are fighting for their very survival, as thousands of children die every year. The deaths of nearly 5,000 children due to thirst or malnutrition have been documented since 2011, though the Wayuú themselves claim that the figure tops 14,000, according to Mint Press News.

    The Colombian government, as well as the Western media, blame the drought on climate change and weather patterns like El Niño. What they have tried to avoid acknowledging is the 2011 construction of the Cercado Dam, which diverted the Ranchería River from its natural course. The government claimed that building the dam would improve the lives of everyone in the region by supplying nine towns with a second source of drinking water, employing 1,000 workers and providing irrigation for 18,500 hectares of farmland.

    But the Ranchería is the only river on the Guajira Peninsula, as well as the only source of drinking water for the Wayuú people. The consequences of the river’s disappearance have been catastrophic. Now, the Wayuú must walk more than three hours to draw drinking water from wells, with each person living off of less than 0.7 liters a day. What little water they do obtain is contaminated with bacteria and salt, which has caused severe diarrhea and cholera to run rampant among their quickly dwindling population.

    #Colombie #sécheresse #climat #extraction #malnutrition #soif #eau #mort

  • L’OIM découvre des « marchés aux esclaves » qui mettent en péril la vie des migrants en Afrique du Nord
    http://asile.ch/2017/05/15/loim-decouvre-marches-aux-esclaves-mettent-peril-vie-migrants-afrique-nord

    Le week-end dernier, le personnel de l’OIM au Niger et en Libye a relaté des événements choquants sur les itinéraires migratoires d’Afrique du Nord, qu’il a décrit comme des « marchés aux esclaves » qui touchent des centaines de jeunes Africains en route vers la Libye.

  • 108 millions de personnes dans le monde sont confrontées à une insécurité alimentaire grave, la situation s’aggrave
    http://www.fao.org/news/story/fr/item/876606/icode

    Selon un nouveau rapport mondial sur les crises alimentaires publié aujourd’hui à Bruxelles, malgré les efforts internationaux entrepris pour lutter contre l’#insécurité_alimentaire, près de 108 millions de personnes à travers le monde étaient confrontées à une situation d’insécurité alimentaire grave en 2016, soit une hausse spectaculaire par rapport aux 80 millions de personnes enregistrées en 2015.

    #faim #famine #alimentation #malnutrition

  • Famine. Alerte, la malnutrition tue encore

    Le Soudan du Sud, la Corne de l’Afrique, le nord du Nigéria et le Yémen, sont confrontés à une grave crise humanitaire. Dans des contextes de #conflits armés, leurs populations sont affamées et luttent pour survivre.


    http://www.courrierinternational.com/article/famine-alerte-la-malnutrition-tue-encore
    #cartographie #visualisation #malnutrition #famine #faim #conflits