• New Method for Tackling Stroke Restrains an Overactive Immune System - Scientific American

    The pathology of a stroke is deceptively complicated. In the simplest sense, strokes occur when the blood supply to a particular region of the brain is interrupted, cutting off the area to oxygen and nutrients. This deprivation results in injury and death to the local brain cells.

    But for days after the breach in blood flow, the immune system also does its own fair share of damage to the already injured brain through an inflammatory response.

    #immunologie #inflammation #infarctus #cerveau

  • Liquid used in e-cigarettes damages cells crucial for a healthy heart - EHN

    The flavors used in e-cigarettes—especially menthol and cinnamon—damage blood vessel cells and such impacts increase heart disease risk, according to a new study.

    The study, published today in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, is the latest to link e-cigarettes, or vaping — which has been touted as a safer alternative to smoking cigarettes—to heart problems. It is the first study to test how e-liquids affect the endothelial cells that line the interior of blood vessels. These cells are crucial in delivering the blood supply to the bodies’ tissues and sending cells to promote healthy blood vessels, tissue growth and repair.

    E-cigarettes are small devices that heat up liquids (usually propylene glycol or glycerol) to deliver as aerosol (vape) mixture of nicotine and flavors.

    The study comes as e-cigarette use continues to rise. Roughly 1 in 20 U.S. adults now use e-cigarettes but the real growth is happening among youth: use among U.S. high school students went from 11.7 percent in 2017 to 20.8 percent in 2018, according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. In addition, about 4.9 percent of middle school students use e-cigarettes, the FDA found.

    The study was limited in that the e-liquids weren’t heated, which could alter how the exposed cells react. The research, however, is just the latest linking e-cigarettes to heart impacts.

    In March, researchers presented a study of nearly 100,000 Americans that found e-cigarette users are more likely to suffer heart attacks and strokes compared to non-users.

    Another large national study in January of 400,000 Americans reported e-cigarette users have a 70 percent higher risk of stroke and a 60 percent higher risk of heart attack, when compared to non-users.

    With use rising, health groups continue to push for more strict regulation. A judge this month ordered the FDA to review all U.S. e-cigarette products.

    The ruling was a response to a federal lawsuit filed by health groups, including the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, that alleged the FDA hasn’t adequately regulated e-cigarettes and is leaving a generation of U.S kids on the path to nicotine addiction.

    #Tabac #E_cigarettes #Vaping #Santé_publique

  • Harvard Calls for Retraction of Dozens of Studies by Noted Cardiologist - The New York Times

    A prominent cardiologist formerly at Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston fabricated or falsified data in 31 published studies that should be retracted, officials at the institutions have concluded.

    The cardiologist, Dr. Piero Anversa, produced research suggesting that damaged heart muscle could be regenerated with stem cells, a type of cell that can transform itself into a variety of other cells.

    Although other laboratories could not reproduce his findings, the work led to the formation of start-up companies to develop new treatments for heart attacks and stroke, and inspired a clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health.

    “A couple of papers may be alarming, but 31 additional papers in question is almost unheard-of,” said Benoit Bruneau, associate director of cardiovascular research at the Gladstone Institutes in San Francisco. “It is a lab’s almost entire body of work, and therefore almost an entire field of research, put into question.”

    #Fraude_scientifique #Conflits_intérêt #Science

  • Scientists Discover a Bone-Deep Risk for Heart Disease - The New York Times

    L’accumulation d’un clone de cellules souches hématopoïétiques mutées appelées « #CHIP » (pour « Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential »), apparaît tôt ou tard avec l’âge et est un facteur de risque indépendant d’#athérosclérose.

    CHIP [...] increases a person’s risk of dying within a decade, usually from a heart attack or stroke, by 40 or 50 percent.

    The condition becomes more likely with age. Up to 20 percent of people in their 60s have it, and perhaps 50 percent of those in their 80s.

    But how might mutated white blood cells cause heart disease? One clue intrigued scientists.

    Artery-obstructing plaque is filled with white blood cells, smoldering with inflammation and subject to rupture. Perhaps mutated white cells were causing atherosclerosis or accelerating its development.

    In separate studies, Dr. Ebert and Dr. Walsh gave mice a bone-marrow transplant containing stem cells with a CHIP mutation, along with stem cells that were not mutated. Mutated blood cells began proliferating in the mice, and they developed rapidly growing plaques that were burning with inflammation.

    “For decades people have worked on #inflammation as a cause of atherosclerosis,” Dr. Ebert said. “But it was not clear what initiated the inflammation.”

    Now there is a possible explanation — and, Dr. Ebert said, it raises the possibility that CHIP may be involved in other inflammatory diseases, like arthritis.


  • EXCLUSIVE: Senior Saudi royal on hunger strike over purge | Middle East Eye

    Prince Talal bin Abdulaziz, the father of Alwaleed bin Talal and first progressive reformer in the House of Saud, has gone on a hunger strike in protest at the purge being carried out by his nephew Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman and the detention of three of his own sons.

    The 86-year-old prince, who is the half brother of King Salman, stopped eating on 10 November, shortly after his first son, Alwaleed, was arrested on 4 November, and has lost 10 kilos in one month.

    Last week, a feeding tube was inserted into him, but his condition at the King Faisal Hospital in Riyadh remains weak, according to several people who have visited him.

    (...) Prince Talal is known as a liberal. A former finance minister in the government of King Saud (1953-64), he became known as the Red Prince in the 1960s for leading the Free Princes Movement which called for an end to the absolute monarchy.

    But the royal family rejected the movement and Talal was forced into exile in Cairo before his mother was able to engineer a reconciliation with the family.

    Talal campaigned for women’s rights long before the decision in September to allow Saudi women to drive. The prince said in one interview: “Saudi women will take their rights eventually... the march towards that should not stop and we have to accelerate this a bit."

    The prince has continued to campaign for a constitutional monarchy and the instigation of the separation of powers, which he claims is enshrined in the constitution.

    (...) In addition to Alwaleed and his brothers, other princes are still in detention. They include Turki bin Nasser, Turki bin Abdullah, and Fahd bin Abdullah bin Abdulrahman.

    There is no definitive word of the fate of Abdulaziz bin Fahd. There are persistent accounts that he resisted arrest, and during the fight that ensued, he suffered a stroke or a heart attack. He is believed still to be alive, but in a vegetative state, according to several sources.

    Mohammed bin Nayef, the former crown prince, ousted in a palace coup conducted before the November purge, and Prince Miteb bin Abdullah, who was arrested as part of the purge, have reportedly been released.

    Officials close to MbS have staged public appearances for Miteb, including an encounter in which bin Salman publicly kissed the man he imprisoned and had mistreated physically. This piece of theatre was staged at an annual horse race for locally bred and imported horses in Janadriyah.

    #prison_dorée #arabie_saoudite

  • The Secret Correspondence Between Donald Trump Jr. and WikiLeaks

    The transparency organization asked the president’s son for his cooperation—in sharing its work, in contesting the results of the election, and in arranging for Julian Assange to be Australia’s ambassador to the United States.

    Just before the stroke of midnight on September 20, 2016, at the height of last year’s presidential election, the WikiLeaks Twitter account sent a private direct message to Donald Trump Jr., the Republican nominee’s oldest son and campaign surrogate. “A PAC run anti-Trump site is about to launch,” WikiLeaks wrote. “The PAC is a recycled pro-Iraq war PAC. We have guessed the password. It is ‘putintrump.’ See ‘About’ for who is behind it. Any comments?”

    The next morning, about 12 hours later, Trump Jr. responded to WikiLeaks. “Off the record I don’t know who that is, but I’ll ask around,” he wrote on September 21, 2016. “Thanks.”

    The messages, obtained by The Atlantic, were also turned over by Trump Jr.’s lawyers to congressional investigators. They are part of a long—and largely one-sided—correspondence between WikiLeaks and the president’s son that continued until at least July 2017. The messages show WikiLeaks, a radical transparency organization that the American intelligence community believes was chosen by the Russian government to disseminate the information it had hacked, actively soliciting Trump Jr.’s cooperation. WikiLeaks made a series of increasingly bold requests, including asking for Trump’s tax returns, urging the Trump campaign on Election Day to reject the results of the election as rigged, and requesting that the president-elect tell Australia to appoint Julian Assange ambassador to the United States.

  • Global cost of obesity-related illness to hit $1.2tn a year from 2025 | Society | The Guardian

    The cost of treating ill health caused by obesity around the world will top $1.2tn every year from 2025 unless more is done to check the rapidly worsening epidemic, according to new expert estimates.

    Obesity and smoking are the two main drivers behind the soaring numbers of cancers, heart attacks, strokes and diabetes worldwide, grouped together officially as non-communicable diseases. They are the biggest killers of the modern world.
    Supersize us: upselling is fuelling the obesity epidemic, warns report
    Read more

    #santé #obésité

  • Julian Assange, a Man Without a Country | Août 2017

    ...for the ’crime’ of journalism



    For some time, Assange has adopted the media habits of the powerful, restricting his appearances to brief, high-profile television interviews, conversations with friendly interlocutors, managed press events, and Twitter. On November 5th, days before the election, in a TV interview with one of his fiercest defenders, he declared, “We can say that the Russian government is not the source” of the election e-mails—a denial that did nothing to quell a growing suspicion, even among close supporters, that he was not being honest. “He says they’re not Russians,” one of them told me. “Well, he can’t know that. It could be his source was a front for the Russians. I think the truth is important, however it’s acquired, but if he knew it was the Russians, and didn’t declare it, that would be a problem for me.”

    The problem was obvious. WikiLeaks, like many journalistic organizations, has long insisted on keeping its sources secret. However, Assange was not merely maintaining silence; he was actively pushing a narrative about his sourcing, in which Russia was not involved. He once told me, “WikiLeaks is providing a reference set to undeniably true information about the world.” But what if, in the interest of source protection, he was advancing a falsehood that was more significant than the reference set itself? Arguably, his election publications only underscored what was known about the Democratic National Committee and Hillary Clinton. His denials, meanwhile, potentially obfuscated an act of information warfare between two nuclear-armed powers.

    That the stakes were so high was a potent indication of the immense power that WikiLeaks has acquired since it was founded, in 2006. Assange projects an image of his organization as small and embattled—as if it had not changed much since the days when he and a few friends were the only people involved. But today, he told me, the WikiLeaks annual budget runs in the millions of dollars, supplied partly by donations that are funnelled through N.G.O.s. In 2016 alone, WikiLeaks raised hundreds of thousands of dollars from donors in the United States. “He has money in tax havens,” one colleague told me. “They have so much money in bitcoin it’s ridiculous—meanwhile, there are all these poor people who are chipping in money who feel like he is not getting enough support to eat.” In Assange’s view, the donations provide a level of editorial independence that few mainstream competitors have.

    Assange has increasingly used the money to offer rewards for information: fifty thousand dollars for footage of a hospital bombed in Afghanistan; a hundred and twenty thousand for documents about international trade negotiations. When Trump implied that he had taped his White House meetings with James Comey, Assange tweeted, “WikiLeaks offers US $100K for the Trump-Comey tapes.” At one stroke, he appeared to endorse Trump’s bogus claim about the tapes and also implied that WikiLeaks was politically agnostic by seeking them. More significantly, he used the occasion to encourage supporters to donate, so that he could purchase the tapes—which, unsurprisingly, proved not to exist.

    The idea that WikiLeaks has problems with accountability sends Assange into angry fits. “Look at all the accountability that is thrown at us!” he told me in the Embassy one evening, nodding at the walls to indicate hidden surveillance devices. “Every second of every day!” He cited the government scrutiny, and relentless journalists, always ready to pounce when he makes a misstep. Raising his voice, he said, “WikiLeaks is probably the most held-to-account organization on earth!”



    #Assange #journalisme #Wikileaks #London #surveillance #bitcoin #Russie #Équateur #Suède

  • Édulcorants artificiels : leurs dangers enfin prouvés ?
    Une nouvelle étude a découvert un lien entre les édulcorants artificiels et plusieurs problèmes de santé, parmi lesquels la prise de poids à long terme, le risque accru d’obésité, le diabète, l’hypertension et les maladies cardiaques.

    « Il convient de rester prudent tant que les effets des édulcorants artificiels à long terme sur la santé ne sont pas complètement connus », explique Meghan Azad, auteure principale de l’étude, dont l’équipe au Children’s Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba est également en train d’étudier les effets de la consommation d’édulcorants artificiels pendant la grossesse sur la prise de poids, le métabolisme et la flore intestinale de l’enfant.

    Artificial sweeteners linked with weight gain, little health benefit

    Two-thirds of Americans are overweight, and those who diet sometimes turn to alternative sweeteners — including aspartame, sucralose and stevioside — to cut calories.

    Now, a new review of many studies suggests that doing so might not be the best idea.

    The scientists took a comprehensive look at more than 11,000 studies and found that, for overweight individuals or those with high blood pressure (hypertension) or diabetes, the benefits of consuming zero-calorie, “non-nutritive sweeteners” were modest to nil. For other people, there was an increased risk of weight gain, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, stroke and heart disease. [7 Biggest Diet Myths]

    “Overall, the evidence does not support the intended purpose of weight loss and suggests that there might be adverse effects in the long term,” said Meghan Azad, lead author of the review and an assistant professor at the University of Manitoba.

    Previous research had suggested that non-nutritive sweeteners were not the healthiest choice, but those studies were smaller in scope than the new review, and tended to focus on one outcome at a time, said Azad, who researches the development of chronic diseases.

    Regular Consumption of Artificial Sweeteners Linked to Increased Risk of Obesity, Diabetes, Other Health Issues
    A literature review of 37 studies has found that regular consumption of artificial sweeteners is associated with long-term weight gain and an increased risk of obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease.

    dossier #edulcorants (nb : je suit hyper intolerante aux edulcorants de synthèse, qui sont parfois cachés dans certains produits d’où le suivi de ce sujet.) #alimentation #bombe_a_retardement

  • Is fat bad for you ? — Quartz

    In all the studies they could find, lowering fat levels in diets failed to reduce heart attacks, strokes, or other kinds of heart disease. Although cholesterol from fats is bad, it’s been overly vilified.

    (…) The authors of the review don’t specifically say why there’s been a reporting bias around the risk of cholesterol, fats, and heart health. But they do make a point to say there’s “no business model or market” for promoting good diet and exercise.
    The global market for statins, the drugs that lower LDL cholesterol, was $20.5 billion in 2011.

    #pharma #gras #cœur #santé

  • Evolocumab and Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

    Pratiquement toujours en prévention secondaire et presque toujours associé à une #statine,

    Il ressort que la réduction du risque cardio-vasculaire est loin d’être à la hauteur de la réduction du taux de LDL et ... du prix de ce médicament (14.000 USD/an)

    • An End to Heart Disease? Not Quite

      On Friday, investigators reported the results of a highly anticipated trial of a PCSK9 inhibitor called evolocumab (brand name Repatha). This medication reduced LDL levels to an almost unfathomable 30 mg/dl from about 90 mg/dl on average, which is typically considered low.

      Over about two years of study, the researchers found that the new drug, when added to statin therapy, further reduced the risk of heart attack or stroke by about 15 percent. For about every 70 people treated with the drug, one person benefited in this way. This is not far off the size of the benefit that statins provide.

      So the drug works, which is good news for patients. And no safety concerns emerged. But the applause from heart experts has been muted, because expectations were so much higher. Their hope had been that drastically low LDL cholesterol levels would make it difficult — or even impossible — to have a heart attack.

  • Ulaanbaatar’s silent killer | The UB Post

    At a small medical clinic on the outskirts of Ulaanbaatar’s ger district, the waiting room is full of mothers and fathers cradling their sick children.

    One baby vomits in the hallway, while another tiny boy struggles to breathe, wheezing and gasping for air.

    The three-room Orkhon Tushee Murun medical center in the 17th Khoroo of Bayanzurkh District sees 115 patients a day. Around 30 to 40 patients are children who have symptoms of pneumonia.
    Pneumonia is the second most common cause of infant and under-five mortality in Mongolia, accounting for 15 percent of infant deaths. For adults, air pollution-related diseases – Ischemic heart disease, stroke and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – were the top three causes of premature death in 2013.

  • On average, people born in the U.S. in 2015 will live 36.5 days fewer than those born in 2014

    The main reason for this decline is that eight of the nation’s 10 leading causes of death were deadlier in 2015 than in years past, according to a new report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Heart disease, chronic lower respiratory diseases, unintentional injuries, stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, kidney disease and suicide all claimed more lives last year.

    #espérance_de_vie #démographie #USA #Etats-Unis #régression #it_has_begun #mortalité

    Le #rapport:
    Mortality in the United States, 2015
    #statistiques #chiffres

  • #Shimon_Peres: Israeli war criminal whose victims the West ignored – Middle East Monitor

    Shimon Peres, who passed away Wednesday aged 93 after suffering a stroke on 13 September, epitomised the disparity between Israel’s image in the West and the reality of its bloody, colonial policies in Palestine and the wider region.

    Peres was born in modern day Belarus in 1923, and his family moved to Palestine in the 1930s. As a young man, Peres joined the Haganah, the militia primarily responsible for the ethnic cleansing of Palestinian villages in 1947-49, during the Nakba.

    #israel #palestine #colonisation #oppression

  • Reports of a military coup in Turkey caused a spike in lookups for ’#coup'

    Coup is short for coup d’état, which is the French expression that literally means “stroke of state,” with “stroke” meaning “knock” or “blow.” It means “the violent overthrow or alteration of an existing government by a small group.” Because coup suggests something being struck or hit, it is used in other expressions that refer to sudden events, such as coup de théâtre, which means “a sudden dramatic effect or turn of events.” Coup when used by itself can also mean “an impressive victory or achievement that usually is difficult or unexpected,” as in “winning that big contract was a real coup.”


  • Stanford researchers ‘stunned’ by stem cell experiment that helped stroke patient walk

    Des #cellules_souches de la moelle osseuse dont le mode d’action ne se fait pas via leur transformation en tissu nerveux.

    While the research involved only 18 patients and was designed primarily to look at the safety of such a procedure and not its effectiveness, it is creating significant buzz in the neuroscience community because the results appear to contradict a core belief about brain damage — that it is permanent and irreversible.

    The results, published in the journal Stroke, could have implications for our understanding of an array of disorders including traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury and Alzheimer’s if confirmed in larger-scale testing.

    The work involved patients who had passed the critical six-month mark when recoveries generally plateau and there are rarely further improvements. [...]

    The one-time therapy involved surgeons drilling a hole into the study participants’ skulls and injecting stem cells in several locations around the area damaged by the stroke. These stem cells were harvested from the bone marrow of adult donors. While the procedure sounds dramatic, it is considered relatively simple as far as brain surgery goes. The patients were conscious the whole time and went home the same day.


    “Their recovery was not just a minimal recovery like someone who couldn’t move a thumb now being able to wiggle it. It was much more meaningful. One 71-year-old wheelchair-bound patient was walking again,” said [Gary] Steinberg [the study’s lead author and chair of neurosurgery at Stanford] who personally performed most of the surgeries.


    Steinberg said that the study does not support the idea that the injected stem cells become neurons, as has been previously thought. Instead, it suggests that they seem to trigger some kind of biochemical process that enhances the brain’s ability to repair itself.

    “A theory is that they turn the adult brain into the neonatal brain that recovers well,” he explained.


    Nicholas Boulis, a neurosurgeon and researcher at Emory University, said the study appears to support the idea that there may be latent pathways in the brain that can be reactivated — a theory that has been “working its way to the surface” over the past few years.


  • Les troupes d’élite muselmanes de la dernière impératrice de Chine

    Pourquoi cette histoire de 1900 ? Je m’intéresse au comportement du diplomate allemand von Ketteler. C’est est un exemple pour la pire manière de gérer une crise. Ce fait divers tiré de l’histoire de la rébellion des boxeurs nous montre que l’appartenance religieuse des protagonistes ne joue un rôle qu’une fois l’escalation d’un conflit est assez avancée.

    Kansu Braves
    During the Battle of Peking (1900) at Zhengyang Gate the Muslim troops engaged in a fierce battle against the Alliance forces.

    The role the Muslim troops played in the war incurred anger from the westerners towards them.

    As the Imperial court evacuated to Xi’an in Shaanxi province after Beijing fell to the Alliance, the court gave signals that it would continue the war with Dong Fuxiang “opposing Court von Waldersee tooth and nail”, and the court promoted Dong to Commander-in-chief.

    The Muslim troops were described as “the bravest of the brave, the most fanatical of fanatics : and that is why the defence of the Emperor’s city had been entrusted to them.”

    Clemens von Ketteler

    On June 17 the Chinese Muslim Kansu Braves attacked Ketteler and his German Marines at the Legations. After stones were hurled at the Germans by the Chinese Muslims, Ketteler told his men to shoot back at the Muslim troops.

    The Muslim troops were feared by the westerners, so the British minister Sir Claude Macdonald warned that “When our own troops arrive we may with safety assume a different tone, but it is hardly wise now.” He thus warned Ketteler about his shooting incident with the Muslim army.

    Ketteler brutally attacked a Chinese civilian for no known reason, and beat a boy who was with him after taking him to the Legations. Ketteler then murdered the boy by shooting him. In response, thousands of Chinese Muslim Kansu Braves under General Dong Fuxiang of the Imperial Army and Boxers went on a violent riot against the westerners. The Kansu braves and Boxers then attacked and killed Chinese Christians around the legations in revenge for foreign attacks on Chinese. Angry at the Chinese Christians for collaborating with foreigners who were murdering Chinese, the Boxers burned some of them alive and attacked and ransacked their property.

    55 days at Peking

    12:12 Charlton Heston : _We’re almost in Pekin, capital city of China. This is a nation and a highly cultivated civilisation. Don’t get the idea that you are any better than these people simply because they can’t speak english. Your words of chinese will go a long way. Repeat after me : The word for yes is shit !
    Troopers :
    Shit !_
    C.H. : _The word for no is bullshit !
    Troopers :
    Bullshit !
    C.H. : _Remember, it’s just the same as anywhere else inthe world.

    The Muslim troops led by Dong Fuxiang defeated the hastily assembled Seymour Expedition of the 8 nation alliance at the Battle of Langfang on 18 June. The Chinese won a major victory, and forced Seymour to retreat back to Tianjin with heavy casualties by 26 June. Langfang was the only battle the Muslim troops did outside of Beijing. After Langfang, Dong Fuxiang’s troops only participated in battles inside of Beijing.

    Summary of battles of General Dong Fuxiang: Ts’ai Ts’un, 24 July; Ho Hsi Wu, 25 July; An P’ing, 26 July; Ma T’ou, 27 July.

    6,000 of the Muslim troops under Dong Fuxiang and 20,000 Boxers repulsed a relief column, driving them to Huang Ts’un. The Muslims camped outside the temples of Heaven and Agriculture.,116.38629,3a,75y,90t/data=!3m8!1e2!3m6!1s67830578!2e1!3e10!

    The German Kaiser Wilhelm II was so alarmed by the Chinese Muslim troops that he requested the Caliph Abdul Hamid II of the Ottoman Empire to find a way to stop the Muslim troops from fighting. The Caliph agreed to the Kaiser’s request and sent Enver Pasha (not the future Young Turk leader) to China in 1901, but the rebellion was over by that time. Because the Ottomans were not in a position to create a rift with the European nations, and to assist ties with Germany, an order imploring Chinese Muslims to avoid assisting the Boxers was issued by the Ottoman Khalifa and reprinted in Egyptian and Indian Muslim newspapers in spite of the fact that the predicament the British found themselves in the Boxer Rebellion was gratifying to Indian Muslims and Egyptians.

    Les articles dans Wikipedia en anglais sont très complets et contiennent une grande quantité de notes bibliographiques et références.

    Sources supplémentaires :

    Digital Resources for Sinologists 1.0, Part I : An Introduction to Chinese Electronic Dictionaries and Criteria for Their Evaluation

    Lookup Chinese, Pinyin or English


    Han Yu Da Ci Dian 漢語大詞典
    disponible en CD-ROM

    The electronic version of the 12-volume printed Han yu da ci dian, a comprehensive Chinese language dictionary. It contains over 18,000 Chinese characters with pronunciation in Mandarin, 336,000 compound words, 23,000 idioms, 500,000 definitions and 861,000 citations. About 20 different searching methods are available in the database. Each entry includes phonetic notation, radicals, stroke count, and stroke order. Sentence examples of previous usage go back through all eras of Chinese texts, providing a great tool for studying both modern and classical Chinese.


    #Chine #Allemagne #impérialisme #histoire

  • Mobile phones DON’T increase the risk of brain cancer, University of Sydney study concludes | Daily Mail Online

    There is no link between mobile phones and brain cancer, a landmark study has revealed.

    Researchers found no increase in tumours over the last 29 years, despite an enormous increase in the use of the devices.

    In Australia, where the study was conducted, 9 per cent of people had a mobile phone in 1993 - a number which has shot up to 90 per cent today.

    But in the same period, cancer rates in people aged 20 - 84 rose only slightly in men and remained stable in women.

    There were ’significant’ rises in tumours in the elderly, but the increase began five years before mobile phones arrived in Australia in 1987, the researchers said. 

    The study’s author, Professor Simon Chapman, of the University of Sydney, said phones emit non-ionising radiation that is not currently thought to damage DNA - and his findings make him even more confident the devices are not li[n]ked to cancer.
    We examined the link between age and incidence rates of 19,858 men and 14,222 women diagnosed with brain cancer in Australia between 1982-2012, and national mobile phone usage data from 1987-2012.
    Extremely high proportions of the population have used mobile phones across some 20-plus years -from about 9 per cent in 1993 to about 90 per cent today.
    We found age-adjusted brain cancer incidence rates (in those aged 20-84 years, per 100,000 people) had risen only slightly in males but were stable over 30 years in females.
    There were significant increases in brain cancer incidence only in those aged 70 years or more.
    But the increase in incidence in this age group began from 1982, before the introduction of mobile phones in 1987 and so could not be explained by it.

    Here, the most likely explanation of the rise in this older age group was improved diagnosis.
    Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and related techniques, were introduced in Australia in the late 1970s.
    They are able to discern brain tumours which could have otherwise remained undiagnosed without this equipment.
    It has long been recognised that brain tumours mimic several seemingly unrelated symptoms in the elderly - including stroke and dementia - and so it is likely that their diagnosis had been previously overlooked.
    Next, we also compared the actual incidence of brain cancer over this time with the numbers of new cases of brain cancer that would be expected if the ’mobile phones cause brain cancer’ hypothesis was true.
    Here, our testing model assumed a ten-year lag period from the start of mobile phone usage to evidence of a rise in brain cancer cases.
    Our model assumed that mobile phones would cause a 50 per cent increase in incidence of brain cancer.
    This was a conservative estimate that we took from a study by Lennart Hardell and colleagues (who reported even higher rates from two studies).
    The expected number of cases in 2012 (had the phone hypothesis been true) was 1,866 cases, while the number recorded was 1,435.

    • Ce qui est accessible de l’étude

      Has the incidence of brain cancer risen in Australia since the introduction of mobile phones 29 years ago? - Cancer Epidemiology

      Mobile phone use in Australia has increased rapidly since its introduction in 1987 with whole population usage being 94% by 2014. We explored the popularly hypothesised association between brain cancer incidence and mobile phone use.

      Study methods
      Using national cancer registration data, we examined age and gender specific incidence rates of 19,858 male and 14,222 females diagnosed with brain cancer in Australia between 1982 and 2012, and mobile phone usage data from 1987 to 2012. We modelled expected age specific rates (20–39, 40–59, 60–69, 70–84 years), based on published reports of relative risks (RR) of 1.5 in ever-users of mobile phones, and RR of 2.5 in a proportion of ‘heavy users’ (19% of all users), assuming a 10-year lag period between use and incidence.

      Summary answers
      Age adjusted brain cancer incidence rates (20–84 years, per 100,000) have risen slightly in males (p < 0.05) but were stable over 30 years in females (p > 0.05) and are higher in males 8.7 (CI = 8.1–9.3) than in females, 5.8 (CI = 5.3–6.3). Assuming a causal RR of 1.5 and 10-year lag period, the expected incidence rate in males in 2012 would be 11.7 (11–12.4) and in females 7.7 (CI = 7.2–8.3), both p < 0.01; 1434 cases observed in 2012, vs. 1867 expected. Significant increases in brain cancer incidence were observed (in keeping with modelled rates) only in those aged ≥70 years (both sexes), but the increase in incidence in this age group began from 1982, before the introduction of mobile phones. Modelled expected incidence rates were higher in all age groups in comparison to what was observed. Assuming a causal RR of 2.5 among ‘heavy users’ gave 2038 expected cases in all age groups.

      This is an ecological trends analysis, with no data on individual mobile phone use and outcome.

      What this study adds
      The observed stability of brain cancer incidence in Australia between 1982 and 2012 in all age groups except in those over 70 years compared to increasing modelled expected estimates, suggests that the observed increases in brain cancer incidence in the older age group are unlikely to be related to mobile phone use. Rather, we hypothesize that the observed increases in brain cancer incidence in Australia are related to the advent of improved diagnostic procedures when computed tomography and related imaging technologies were introduced in the early 1980s.

  • PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases: Diseases Neglected by the Media in Espírito Santo, Brazil in 2011–2012


    The aims of the present study were to identify and analyse the Diseases Neglected by the Media (DNMs) via a comparison between the most important health issues to the population of Espírito Santo, Brazil, from the epidemiological perspective (health value) and their effective coverage by the print media, and to analyse the DNMs considering the perspective of key journalists involved in the dissemination of health topics in the state media.

    Morbidity and mortality data were collected from official documents and from Health Information Systems. In parallel, the diseases reported in the two major newspapers of Espírito Santo in 2011–2012 were identified from 10,771 news articles. Concomitantly, eight interviews were conducted with reporters from the two newspapers to understand the journalists’ reasons for the coverage or neglect of certain health/disease topics.

    Principal Findings
    Quantitatively, the DNMs identified diseases associated with poverty, including tuberculosis, leprosy, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and trachoma. Apart from these, diseases with outbreaks in the period evaluated, including whooping cough and meningitis, some cancers, respiratory diseases, ischaemic heart disease, and stroke, were also seldom addressed by the media. In contrast, dengue fever, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), diabetes, breast cancer, prostate cancer, tracheal cancer, and bronchial and lung cancers were broadly covered in the period analysed, corroborating the tradition of media disclosure of these diseases. Qualitatively, the DNMs included rare diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), leishmaniasis, Down syndrome, and verminoses. The reasons for the neglect of these topics by the media included the political and economic interests of the newspapers, their editorial line, and the organizational routine of the newsrooms.

    Media visibility acts as a strategy for legitimising priorities and contextualizing various realities. Therefore, we propose that the health problems identified should enter the public agenda and begin to be recognized as legitimate demands.

  • Sweet drug clears #cholesterol, reverses heart disease—and was found by parents

    Des parents de jumelles atteintes d’une maladie héréditaire grave ont fait des recherches tellement intenses sur la molécule qui a fini par être utilisée (avec un certain succès) pour combattre ladite maladie, qu’ils ont fini par trouver une autre indication thérapeutique à la molécule en question,

    Two parents’ quest to save their twin daughters’ lives from a rare, degenerative genetic disorder may end up saving and improving the lives of millions.

    After digging through medical literature and fitting pieces of data together, the non-medically trained couple contacted German researchers and suggested that a chemical called cyclodextrin may be able to treat atherosclerosis—the hardening of arteries with cholesterol-rich plaques, which is a precursor to heart attack, stroke, and other cardiovascular diseases.

    The researchers, Eicke Latz at the University of Bonn and colleagues, followed up on the parents’ hypothesis and found that in mice, cyclodextrin indeed blocked plaque formation, melted away plaques that had already formed in arteries, reduced atherosclerosis-associated inflammation, and revved up cholesterol metabolism—even in rodents fed cholesterol-rich diets. In petri dish-based tests, the researchers found that the drug seemed to have the same effects on human cells and plaques.

    Cyclodextrin promotes atherosclerosis regression via macrophage reprogramming

    La maman, Chris Hempel, fait partie des auteurs de l’étude.

    #cyclodextrine #hypercholestérolémie #athérosclérose #infarctus #santé

  • New research shows global warming’s effect on the quality of food available could kill more than 500,000 people a year around the world by 2050

    The research is the first to assess how the impacts of global warming could affect the quality of the diets available to people and found fewer fruit and vegetables would be available as a result of climatic changes. These are vital in curbing heart disease, strokes and diet-related cancers, leading the study to conclude that the health risks of climate change are far greater than thought.

    Climate change is already judged by doctors as the greatest threat to health in the 21st century, due to floods, droughts and increased infectious diseases, with the potential to roll back 50 years of progress.

    #climat #aliments #maladies_infectieuses #santé

  • Scientists: #air #pollution led to more than 5.5 million premature deaths in 2013 | Environment | The Guardian

    “Air pollution is the fourth-highest risk factor for death globally and by far the leading environmental risk factor for disease,” said Michael Brauer, a researcher from the University of British Columbia.

    Brauer said air pollution contributed to heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, bronchitis, emphysema and acute infections.

    He and his colleagues compared the problem in Asia to the conditions under centuries of industrial revolution in the US and Europe: massive economic growth smothered by clouds of toxic matter in the air.

    #santé #Asie #Chine #Inde

  • Feeling like a Grinch ? At least it won’t shorten your life | Fox News

    Previous studies have linked happiness to longevity but researchers now say there’s no such scientific connection. So while being sick makes you unhappy, just being grouchy isn’t enough to make you ill or shorten your life.

    The results are based on questionnaires from more than 715,000 British women aged 50 to 69 who were enrolled in a national breast cancer screening program in the late 1990s.

    The women were asked things like how often they felt happy and how healthy they were. Nearly 40 percent of the women said they were happy most of the time while 17 percent said they were unhappy. After a decade of tracking the women, 4 percent had died.

    Scientists found the death rate among unhappy women was the same as those who were happy. The research was published online Wednesday in the medical journal Lancet.

    • Étude accessible, ici

      Does happiness itself directly affect mortality?
      The prospective UK Million Women Study

      Poor health can cause unhappiness and poor health increases mortality. Previous reports of reduced mortality associated with happiness could be due to the increased mortality of people who are unhappy because of their poor health. Also, unhappiness might be associated with lifestyle factors that can affect mortality. We aimed to establish whether, after allowing for the poor health and lifestyle of people who are unhappy, any robust evidence remains that happiness or related subjective measures of wellbeing directly reduce mortality.

      The Million Women Study is a prospective study of UK women recruited between 1996 and 2001 and followed electronically for cause-specific mortality. 3 years after recruitment, the baseline questionnaire for the present report asked women to self-rate their health, happiness, stress, feelings of control, and whether they felt relaxed. The main analyses were of mortality before Jan 1, 2012, from all causes, from ischaemic heart disease, and from cancer in women who did not have heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive lung disease, or cancer at the time they answered this baseline questionnaire. We used Cox regression, adjusted for baseline self-rated health and lifestyle factors, to calculate mortality rate ratios (RRs) comparing mortality in women who reported being unhappy (ie, happy sometimes, rarely, or never) with those who reported being happy most of the time.

      Of 719 671 women in the main analyses (median age 59 years [IQR 55–63]), 39% (282 619) reported being happy most of the time, 44% (315 874) usually happy, and 17% (121 178) unhappy. During 10 years (SD 2) follow-up, 4% (31 531) of participants died. Self-rated poor health at baseline was strongly associated with unhappiness. But after adjustment for self-rated health, treatment for hypertension, diabetes, asthma, arthritis, depression, or anxiety, and several sociodemographic and lifestyle factors (including smoking, deprivation, and body-mass index), unhappiness was not associated with mortality from all causes (adjusted RR for unhappy vs happy most of the time 0·98, 95% CI 0·94–1·01), from ischaemic heart disease (0·97, 0·87–1·10), or from cancer (0·98, 0·93–1·02). Findings were similarly null for related measures such as stress or lack of control.

      In middle-aged women, poor health can cause unhappiness. After allowing for this association and adjusting for potential confounders, happiness and related measures of wellbeing do not appear to have any direct effect on mortality.

  • Inside the $100 Million Scheme to Send the Middle East’s Most Unwanted People to Africa | VICE News

    Since the Arab Spring uprisings of 2011, three of the Gulf states have revoked the citizenships of hundreds of people, the majority of them advocates for political reform or democratization. Bahrain has revoked the citizenship of 159 people since 2012; Kuwait made about 100 of its citizens non-Kuwaitis with the stroke of a pen in 2014 and 2015. The UAE stripped seven of its citizens of their nationality in 2011; in July 2014, the regional Al Sharq newspaper claimed that hundreds more had been secretly rendered stateless. Amnesty International has independently made a similar claim — that Emerati authorities planned to revoke the citizenship of "scores" of nationals.