• How Tuberculosis Shaped Victorian Fashion | Science | Smithsonian

    By the mid-1800s, tuberculosis had reached epidemic levels in Europe and the United States. The disease, now known to be infectious, attacks the lungs and damages other organs. Before the advent of antibiotics, its victims slowly wasted away, becoming pale and thin before finally dying of what was then known as consumption.

    The Victorians romanticized the disease and the effects it caused in the gradual build to death. For decades, many beauty standards emulated or highlighted these effects. And as scientists gained greater understanding of the disease and how it was spread, the disease continued to keep its hold on fashion.

    “Between 1780 and 1850, there is an increasing aestheticization of tuberculosis that becomes entwined with feminine beauty,” says Carolyn Day, an assistant professor of history at Furman University in South Carolina and author of the forthcoming book Consumptive Chic: A History of Fashion, Beauty and Disease, which explores how tuberculosis impacted early 19th century British fashion and perceptions of beauty.

    During that time, consumption was thought to be caused by hereditary susceptibility and miasmas, or “bad airs,” in the environment. Among the upper class, one of the ways people judged a woman’s predisposition to tuberculosis was by her attractiveness, Days says. “That’s because tuberculosis enhances those things that are already established as beautiful in women,” she explains, such as the thinness and pale skin that result from weight loss and the lack of appetite caused by the disease.

    The 1909 book Tuberculosis: A Treatise by American Authors on Its Etiology, Pathology, Frequency, Semeiology, Diagnosis, Prognosis, Prevention, and Treatment confirms this notion, with the authors noting: “A considerable number of patients have, and have had for years previous to their sickness, a delicate, transparent skin, as well as fine, silky hair.” Sparkling or dilated eyes, rosy cheeks and red lips were also common in tuberculosis patients—characteristics now known to be caused by frequent low-grade fever.

    “We also begin to see elements in fashion that either highlight symptoms of the disease or physically emulate the illness,” Day says. The height of this so-called consumptive chic came in the mid-1800s, when fashionable pointed corsets showed off low, waifish waists and voluminous skirts further emphasized women’s narrow middles. Middle- and upper-class women also attempted to emulate the consumptive appearance by using makeup to lighten their skin, redden their lips and color their cheeks pink.

  • Opinion | We Know How to Conquer Tuberculosis - The New York Times

    And so, tuberculosis remains the world’s leading infectious disease killer, by far. It infects some 10 million people around the world every year, killing roughly 1.5 million. That’s some 4,000 deaths per day. By comparison, Ebola killed four people in 2017. America’s opioid epidemic kills about 115 people a day.

    Still, tuberculosis is rarely the stuff of headlines. It’s ancient. It normally affects only the poorest people in the poorest countries. And when it does spread through wealthier areas, it’s generally curable with antibiotics. But a contingent of doctors, scientists and public health officials have spent the past two decades battling a global epidemic of the disease. And on Wednesday, they got their first hearing at the United Nations General Assembly. In a high-level meeting exclusively about tuberculosis control, those experts called on world leaders to devote more attention and far more resources to the disease. Both are urgently needed. Tuberculosis receives significantly less funding than H.I.V. or malaria, even though TB kills more people each year than both of those diseases combined. The World Health Organization estimates a $3.5 billion funding shortfall for TB control efforts, and says that gap could double in five years.

    But policymakers, industry leaders and doctors on the front lines might also consider a change in strategy: Treat tuberculosis outbreaks in poor countries the same way they are treated in rich ones. That is, don’t just treat those who are sick; find and test their household members, neighbors, classmates and colleagues — and then treat the ones who test positive. Give them medications to kill the bacteria before they develop symptoms and before they pass the bacteria on, through their own coughing, to the next victim.

    #Tuberculose #Maladie_des_pauvres

  • The True Story of Medical Books Bound in Human Skin - Facts So Romantic

    Human skin books are the rare artifacts that prove that the practice of making leather goods from human skin is more than just a ghoulish legend.Photograph by voodoo willyIn 1868, on a hot, midsummer day, 28-year-old Mary Lynch was admitted to the Philadelphia Almshouse and Hospital, the city hospital for the poor, better known as “Old Blockley.” Lynch had tuberculosis, which was soon to be compounded by the parasitic infection trichinosis. She didn’t recover, dying in Ward 27 the following year, weighing just 60 pounds. The physician who performed her autopsy, John Stockton Hough, had an interest in rare and obscure books, and he was looking to rebind a trio of anatomical texts on human reproduction. So, he removed a section of skin from Lynch’s thigh, tanned it into leather in the (...)

  • America’s opioid epidemic began more than a century ago – with the civil war | Science | The Guardian

    An estimated two million people abused opiates during the war, after using drugs disseminated by healthcare providers, doctors and nurses to stem pain

    For many Americans, it was the prescription of a well-meaning physician that sent them down the dark road.

    Aggressive marketing and over-prescribing of painkillers touched off a scourge of opiate addiction and Congress, pushed by the destruction it had wrought, introduced a new law to reform painkiller prescribing.

    It was 1915 and Congress was considering what would become the first law to criminalize drug use, the Harrison Narcotic Act. By this time, addiction had already touched middle-class housewives, immigrants, veterans and even physicians hoping to soothe their own aches and pains. Between the 1870s and 1880s, America’s per capita consumption of opiates had tripled.

    More than a century later, Americans are fighting some of the same demons.

    Since 1999, more than half a million Americans have died of drug overdoses. Recent data shows the trend accelerated in 2016, when 63,600 people were killed by overdoses and the rate of Americans dying increased by 21%.

    “There was a massive opioid epidemic after the civil war,” said Robert Heimer, a professor of epidemiology and pharmacology at Yale University School of Public Health. “Except is wasn’t a black market – it was a perfectly legal market filled with patent medicines that contained not just cocaine and opiates, morphine mostly, but also alcohol.”

    Laudanum, Heimer said, “was commonly taken as a relief of colds, coughs, and in stronger form was particularly good for lung diseases such as tuberculosis, which was common at the time, in addition to being widely used in combat situations to facilitate amputations”.

    Where Purdue Pharma marketed Oxycontin to doctors as a “continuous around-the-clock analgesic” formulation of semi-synthetic oxycodone great for chronic pain, Mrs Winslow’s Soothing Syrup marketed morphine and alcohol to parents as a “perfectly harmless and pleasant” way to produce “quiet sleep, by relieving the child from pain”.

    History, Courtwright said, offers some “grounds for optimism”. Beginning in the 1890s, physicians began to criticize colleagues who reached for the prescription pad when patients had aches and pains; pharmacists refused to sell heroin or cocaine (then both legal); and in 1906 muckraking journalists and campaigners successfully argued for reforms to end the sale of patent medicines.

    By 1915, Courtwright argues in the New England Journal of Medicine, “the Harrison Act closed the barn door after the horse was back in”. Problematically, the Harrison Act also became the first law to criminalize drug use and opiate maintenance therapies, such as methadone and buprenorphine.

    #Opioides #Histoire #Addiction #Laudanum

  • India’s Supreme Court says privacy is a fundamental right in blow to government - The Washington Post

    Le gouvernement fasciste indien vient de connaître un retour de bâton sur sa tentative de ficher toute la population. Mais ils essaieront autrement.

    A noter : « c’est pour lutter contre la fraude aux aides sociales » est devenu un leitmotiv pour tous les gouvernements réactionnaires. Le deal « une fiche biométrique contre un crouton de pain » est une insulte à la dignité humaine.

    NEW DELHI — In a blow to the Indian government’s efforts to roll out the world’s biggest biometric database on its billion citizens, India’s Supreme Court ruled Thursday that privacy was a fundamental right for people.

    Over the past few years, the government has aggressively pushed to compile the database, known as Aadhar, by sending officials out to remote villages to take iris scans and fingerprints. To ensure complete enrollment, the government this year put out several notices restricting access to essential government services for those not part of the system.

    The unanimous ruling by the nine-judge bench will have huge implications in a number of ongoing cases involving Aadhar, which means base or foundation in Hindi.

    It could put an end to the government’s efforts of making enrollment mandatory. It also guarantees privacy for Indian citizens as an intrinsic right — removing it could have had far reaching implications beyond biometric IDs for the daily lives of Indians such as the possible decriminalization of homosexuality.

    In recent months, government notices said that as part of the Aadhar program, Indians would have to use a 12-digit unique identification number (known as the UID) to participate in almost every aspect of civic life — filing income tax returns, applying for railway job s or opening bank accounts.

    Government rules especially targeted the poorest and most vulnerable sections of society, Ramanathan said, by restricting access to services such as free midday meals and allowances for tuberculosis patients.

    Unlike social security numbers, UIDs would be accessible to various government agencies and private organizations. In recent months, government websites have mistakenly leaked thousands of UIDs.

    #Vie_privée #Inde #Surveillance

  • New report says completing a course of antibiotics even after symptoms abate is overrated

    Vers une remise en cause de la stratégie d’utilisation des antibiotiques ?

    Scientists have explained the mechanism of development of antibiotic resistance.

    • Target selected resistance - When a microbe multiplies within the host it leads to infection. These microbes may undergo genetic mutations that may make them deadlier and resistant to antibiotics. These genetic mutations are seen to be accelerated in case of inadequate dosing of the antibiotics or when a single drug is used to kill the microbe. Tuberculosis, HIV, typhoid, malaria and gonorrhoea are notable infections that develop resistance in this manner.

    • Collateral selection – There are several bacteria types that live harmlessly within the gut or other mucus membranes. During antibiotic treatment for other infections, these harmless bacteria genetically mutate to become resistant and cause infections. Their mutations are passed on to other strains of the bacteria leading to antibiotic resistance. Organisms that show this type of resistance include Methicillin Resistant Staph aureus (MRSA).

    Researchers have seen that most of the antibiotic resistance now does not come from the first type of resistance selection or target selection. This means the second type is more common. This also means that longer the duration of the antibiotic use, longer the time the harmless bacteria in the gut gets to develop resistance and pass it on to the other strains and species of bacteria. These harmless bacteria are called “opportunistic pathogens” which means they become dangerous only at certain times i.e. antibiotic use, immunosuppression etc.

    In this new work, researchers have suggested optimum usage of antibiotics as the key to prevent resistance.

    • L’article original (accessible)

      The antibiotic course has had its day | The BMJ

      Key messages
      • Patients are put at unnecessary risk from antibiotic resistance when treatment is given for longer than necessary, not when it is stopped early
      • For common bacterial infections no evidence exists that stopping antibiotic treatment early increases a patient’s risk of resistant infection
      • Antibiotics are a precious and finite natural resource which should be conserved by tailoring treatment duration for individual patients
      • Clinical trials are required to determine the most effective strategies for optimising duration of antibiotic treatment

    • Why you really should take your full course of antibiotics

      Feeling better doesn’t mean you’re past the worst.
      Jonathan Cox, Author provided

      An article in the BMJ argues that contrary to long-given advice, it is unnecessary to make sure you finish all the antibiotics you’re prescribed. The article sparked debate among experts and more worryingly widespread confusion among the general public, who are still getting to grips with what they need to do to stem antibiotic resistance. Even my colleagues at the university this morning were asking me whether or not to finish their course of antibiotics.

      As an active campaigner for action to halt the progression of antibiotic resistance and a firm promoter of the “finish the course” message, the article and that the scale of coverage concerns me greatly.
      Only time will tell as to what the impact of suggesting people stop taking antibiotics when they feel better will be. I believe this has undone a lot of the hard work scientists like myself have invested in improving antibiotic awareness and personal responsibility surrounding antibiotic administration. Nevertheless, we all need to follow the advice of our clinicians who will no doubt hold out for some more conclusive scientific evidence before changing their advice surrounding antibiotics.

  • The True Story of Medical Books Bound in Human Skin - Facts So Romantic

    In 1868, on a hot, midsummer day, 28-year-old Mary Lynch was admitted to the Philadelphia Almshouse and Hospital, the city hospital for the poor, better known as “Old Blockley.” Lynch had tuberculosis, which was soon to be compounded by the parasitic infection trichinosis. She didn’t recover, dying in Ward 27 the following year, weighing just 60 pounds. The physician who performed her autopsy, John Stockton Hough, had an interest in rare and obscure books, and he was looking to rebind a trio of anatomical texts on human reproduction. So, he removed a section of skin from Lynch’s thigh, tanned it into leather in the hospital’s basement, and repurposed it as the books’ covers. Lynch lives on in these three volumes, now housed at the Mutter Museum of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia. (...)

  • No antibiotics without a test, says report on rising antimicrobial resistance | Society | The Guardian

    A blueprint to end the scourge of antimicrobial resistance proposes that drug companies should foot the bill for the development of new antibiotics and that patients should not be able to get them without a test to ensure they are needed.

    Economist Jim O’Neill, charged two years ago by David Cameron with finding answers to one of the most pressing problems in the world today, says the global financial cost of no action would be the loss of 10 million lives a year by 2050 and £69tn ($100tn) a year.

    One million people have died while we have been doing this review,” said Lord O’Neill, who became a minister while completing the report. Without action, he said, there would be more people dying in the future than are dying of cancer.

    Many antibiotics that were once thought to have put an end to infectious disease are no longer working because the bugs have become resistant to them. Tuberculosis was thought to be no longer a killer because of antibiotics, but multi-drug resistant forms are exacting a death toll around the globe.

    The two most eye-catching proposals advanced by O’Neill are:
    • To force the pharmaceutical industry to “pay or play”. Drug companies must either research and develop new antibiotics or be prepared to fund other companies to do so. “We think there is a credible case for the pharmaceutical industry itself to pay, given how important antibiotics are for 7 billion people around the world,” he said.
    • To ban doctors from prescribing antibiotics until they have carried out rapid tests to prove the infection is bacterial. “We must stop treating antibiotics like sweets, which is what we are doing around the world today,” he said. However, there must be incentives to develop such tests which do not yet exist.

  • PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases: Diseases Neglected by the Media in Espírito Santo, Brazil in 2011–2012


    The aims of the present study were to identify and analyse the Diseases Neglected by the Media (DNMs) via a comparison between the most important health issues to the population of Espírito Santo, Brazil, from the epidemiological perspective (health value) and their effective coverage by the print media, and to analyse the DNMs considering the perspective of key journalists involved in the dissemination of health topics in the state media.

    Morbidity and mortality data were collected from official documents and from Health Information Systems. In parallel, the diseases reported in the two major newspapers of Espírito Santo in 2011–2012 were identified from 10,771 news articles. Concomitantly, eight interviews were conducted with reporters from the two newspapers to understand the journalists’ reasons for the coverage or neglect of certain health/disease topics.

    Principal Findings
    Quantitatively, the DNMs identified diseases associated with poverty, including tuberculosis, leprosy, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and trachoma. Apart from these, diseases with outbreaks in the period evaluated, including whooping cough and meningitis, some cancers, respiratory diseases, ischaemic heart disease, and stroke, were also seldom addressed by the media. In contrast, dengue fever, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), diabetes, breast cancer, prostate cancer, tracheal cancer, and bronchial and lung cancers were broadly covered in the period analysed, corroborating the tradition of media disclosure of these diseases. Qualitatively, the DNMs included rare diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), leishmaniasis, Down syndrome, and verminoses. The reasons for the neglect of these topics by the media included the political and economic interests of the newspapers, their editorial line, and the organizational routine of the newsrooms.

    Media visibility acts as a strategy for legitimising priorities and contextualizing various realities. Therefore, we propose that the health problems identified should enter the public agenda and begin to be recognized as legitimate demands.

  • Poroshenko simplifies registration of medicines for tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and other serious diseases

    Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko has signed the law of Ukraine No. 1637-VII “On medicinal products,” which improves the procedure for providing people with medicinal products intended for the treatment of socially dangerous and serious diseases.

    (intégralité de la brève)
    Pas d’autres précisions. #Big_Pharma à la manœuvre ?

  • The global road death toll has already reached 1.24 million
    Roads kill map

    The global road death toll has already reached 1.24 million per year and is on course to triple to 3.6 million per year by 2030.

    In the developing world, where this pandemic has hit hardest, it will become the fifth leading cause of death, leapfrogging past HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis and other familiar killers, according to the World Health Organization’s (WHO) most recent Global Burden of Disease study.

    #carte #cartographie #visualisation #route #accident_routier #décès

  • Another Cost of War: Spread Of Tuberculosis

    DONETSK, Ukraine – While Russia’s war against Ukraine has claimed more than 1,000 lives since April, in addition to at least 363 servicemen, there are other casualties that aren’t getting as much attention.

    One of them is worsening public health, specifically a tuberculosis epidemic because of dislocation and stress, interrupted medical treatment and the outdated approach that health officials take to curing the potentially deadly disease.

    “We will definitely have an outbreak in prevalence of all forms of TB after all this ends,” predicts Natalia Chursina, deputy head of the Donetsk Regional Tuberculosis Hospital.

    #ukraine #santé #tuberculose

  • Another Cost of War : Spread Of Tuberculosis

    While Russia’s war against Ukraine has claimed more than 1,000 lives since April, in addition to at least 363 servicemen, there are other casualties that aren’t getting as much attention.

    One of them is worsening public health, specifically a tuberculosis epidemic because of dislocation and stress, interrupted medical treatment and the outdated approach that health officials take to curing the potentially deadly disease.

    “We will definitely have an outbreak in prevalence of all forms of TB after all this ends,” predicts Natalia Chursina, deputy head of the Donetsk Regional Tuberculosis Hospital.

    “We see all the factors that contribute to an increase in the TB epidemic,” added Andrej Slavuckij, a medical officer for TB with the World Health Organization.

    Ever since Russian-backed insurgents seized control of Donetsk in April, the main tuberculosis treatment center in the provincial capital of 1 million people has had TB patients coming and going: Some have arrived there from other war-torn cities in the oblast, such as Kramatorsk. Others have left to safer places such as Kharkiv, Dnipropetrovsk and other cities. Some have abandoned treatment altogether, or had it interrupted.

    And still more wonder how long their life-saving medicines will keep coming in a war zone.
    Oksana Serduik, another physician in the Donetsk clinic, says that the hospital has enough reserves of medication to last several months, but could face a shortage by the end of the year. Its supply comes from the non-profit International HIV-AIDS Alliance, but with the fighting, it has been too dangerous for suppliers to travel between Kharkiv and Donetsk.

    Any interruption of treatment promotes resistance to antibiotics in patients and could trigger multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, or #MDR_TB, from which only half of patents recover, compared to a recovery rate of 98 percent with treatment for normal bacteria strains.

    Why TB surge is expected

    By the age of 30, most Ukrainians are infected with mycobacterium tuberculosis, which becomes TB if the immune system falters. Stress, like the kind Ukrainians have been under amid revolution and war, can contribute to the weakening of immune systems.

    Even before the conflicts, Ukraine had Europe’s worst rate of TB after Russia, with almost 48,000 people suffering from this disease now and 6,390 who died from it last year, according to official statistics. When the deaths of those who suffered from HIV and TB are taken into account, the death toll goes up by 2,500 people. TB, in fact, is the main cause of death of people with HIV in Ukraine. Still, the World Health Organization estimates that one in four TB patients are not officially registered.


    Prisons with TB

    Serhiy Petruk, 30, quietly sits with IV on a couch in Zhdanivska prison hospital No. 3 in Donetsk Oblast watching other patients swallow their pills for treatment. The medication that he receives helps his liver, which was damaged by treatment of his MDR TB. Petruk, who worked as a miner before being sentenced to prison for stealing a cell phone, was infected with the dangerous strain in prison and then sent to this hospital six months ago.

    Zhdanivska prison is the only one in the oblast designated for treatment of convicts with TB. It is equipped with the newest equipment for diagnostics and treatment, courtesy of Doctors Without Borders, an international health organization.

    Petruk has two years left in his prison sentence, during which time he hopes to be cured of TB when he returns to his wife in Donetsk Oblast’s Krasnoarmiysk, the scene of fierce fighting between Ukraine forces and Kremlin-backed forces.

    Out of 540 convicts who are receiving treatment at this colony, more than half have MDR TB and 102 people suffer from TB and HIV. About 10 people have such a chronic form that they are just receiving palliative care until they die.

    Despite the availability of treatment, many convicts with TB refuse to take the pills. “They say that we are conducting experiments on them,” said Ihor Hrytsun, deputy head of the prison on medical issues. “I hear these accusations for about 20 years of my work here.” Others interrupt treatment after their release.


    Archaic treatment patterns

    Experts also say Soviet-style treatment, with an emphasis on expensive and inefficient hospitalization, is exacerbating Ukraine’s TB problem.

    Ukraine spends billions of hryvnias every year to finance some 20,000 hospital beds for TB patients, medical personnel, equipment and medication. Yet government money is still not enough to treat thousands of people with MDR TB, which is financed by the international Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.

    Perhaps aside from prisons, TB dispensaries “are the best place to catch tuberculosis, because TB is there, the windows are closed and people are coughing,” said Nicolas Cantau, Global Fund’s regional manager on Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    Only an estimated 10 to 15 percent of TB patients truly need hospitalization, the WHO’s Slavuckij believes.

    “But the system clings to hospital beds,” he said. Because state budgets are tied to numbers of beds, hospital administrators have no incentive to adopt other, more effective forms of treatment.

    On remarquera que la guerre ne fait qu’aggraver une situation déjà désastreuse.

    • Je pense qu’il faut être prudent en écrivant que la Russie mène une guerre en Ukraine.
      Il faut aussi mentionner, dans ce cas-là, le demi-million de civils russophones qui se sont réfugiés en Russie.

      Ce qui n’enlève rien au côté dramatique de cette épidémie.

  • The Global Cancer Burden -

    Cancer is on the rise around the world and poses a particular threat in many low- and middle-income countries. Death tolls globally far exceed those from such devastating infectious diseases like AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. According to recent reports from international health agencies, global mortality from those three diseases has, in fact, been cut substantially — by nearly half in the case of malaria — over the past decade.

    #santé #cancer

  • Rapid health transition in China, 1990–2010: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 : The Lancet

    ...levels of premature mortality in China relative to other members of the G20 in 2010.

    For men in China in 2010, age-standardised rates of years of life lost due to ischaemic heart disease, lower respiratory infections, cirrhosis, diabetes, preterm birth complications, chronic kidney diseases, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis were significantly better than the G20 mean. China had significantly worse ranks than the mean for stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, liver cancer, stomach cancer, oesophageal cancer, leukaemia, drowning, and falls. The YLL rates of road injury and lung cancer for 2010 are indistinguishable from the mean but the absolute increase in YLLs from these causes is concerning. For women in China, we noted better than G20 average performance on ischaemic heart disease, lower respiratory infections, diabetes, breast cancer, preterm birth complications, chronic kidney diseases, cervical cancer, cirrhosis, and cardiovascular and circulatory diseases. We noted worse than G20 average outcomes for stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, road injury, self-harm, liver cancer, stomach cancer, oesophageal cancer, falls, drowning, and rheumatic heart disease.

    Even for conditions such as ischaemic heart disease, lung cancer, and diabetes (for which China was better than average in the G20 in 2010), rising rates suggest that this status might change in the near future.

  • Deny the British empire’s crimes? No, we ignore them | George Monbiot

    Last week’s revelations, that the British government systematically destroyed the documents detailing mistreatment of its colonial subjects, and that the Foreign Office then lied about a secret cache of files containing lesser revelations, is by any standards a big story. But it was either ignored or consigned to a footnote by most of the British press.


    Elkins reveals that the British detained not 80,000 Kikuyu, as the official histories maintain, but almost the entire population of one and a half million people, in camps and fortified villages. There, thousands were beaten to death or died from malnutrition, typhoid, tuberculosis and dysentery. In some camps almost all the children died.

    The inmates were used as slave labour. Above the gates were edifying slogans, such as “Labour and freedom” and “He who helps himself will also be helped”. Loudspeakers broadcast the national anthem and patriotic exhortations. People deemed to have disobeyed the rules were killed in front of the others. The survivors were forced to dig mass graves, which were quickly filled. Unless you have a strong stomach I advise you to skip the next paragraph.

    Interrogation under torture was widespread. Many of the men were anally raped, using knives, broken bottles, rifle barrels, snakes and scorpions. A favourite technique was to hold a man upside down, his head in a bucket of water, while sand was rammed into his rectum with a stick. Women were gang-raped by the guards. People were mauled by dogs and electrocuted. The British devised a special tool which they used for first crushing and then ripping off testicles. They used pliers to mutilate women’s breasts. They cut off inmates’ ears and fingers and gouged out their eyes. They dragged people behind Land Rovers until their bodies disintegrated. Men were rolled up in barbed wire and kicked around the compound.

  • les pauvres du monde ne mendient pas la charité des riches, ils veulent juste plus de justice et d’équité.
    contrairement à ce que pense Bill Gates et ses potes de Davos.

    The world’s poor are not begging for charity from the rich – they’re asking for justice and fairness

    Philanthropy is the enemy of justice | Robert Newman | Comment is free | The Guardian

    It’s strange that at this week’s World Economic Forum the designated voice of the world’s poor has been Bill Gates, who has pledged £478m to the Global Fund to fight Aids, Tuberculosis and Malaria, telling Davos that the world economic crisis was no excuse for cutting aid.

    It reminds me of that dark hour when Al Gore, despite being a shareholder in Occidental Petroleum, was the voice of climate change action – because Gates does not speak with the voice of the world’s poor, of course, but with the voice of its rich. It’s a loud voice, but the model of development it proclaims is the wrong one because philanthropy is the enemy of justice.

    Am I saying that philanthropy has never done good? No, it has achieved many wonderful things. Would I rather people didn’t have polio vaccines than get them from a plutocrat? No, give them the vaccines. But beware the havoc that power without oversight and democratic control can wreak.

  • Why #Tuberculosis Is So Hard to Cure - ScienceNOW

    When microbes divide, you usually get more of the same: A cell splits up and creates two identical copies of itself. But a new study shows that’s not true for mycobacteria, which cause tuberculosis (#TB) in humans—and that may explain why the disease is so difficult to treat. (...)
    “It is incredible that we are finding such basic things out only now,” says immunologist Sarah Fortune of at the Harvard School of Public Health in Boston, the paper’s lead author. “But it reflects the fact that mycobacteria are relatively understudied.”

    #santé #recherche

  • #Tuberculosis detector would ferret out disease faster - The Globe and Mail

    Grand Challenges Canada, a government-funded development agency, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation are injecting $950,000 to support the development of this potentially ground-breaking technology. If it can successfully detect tuberculosis from biomarkers in breath, the electronic nose would drastically reduce the cost and wait for diagnosis, hasten treatment and lower transmission of the lethal disease.

    #test #diagnostic #santé #tuberculose

  • Ici, Obama fait certainement allusion à la lutte systématique de l’administration contre les médicaments génériques et pour la protection des droits de propriété intellectuelle des firmes pharmaceutiques américaines. Ou pas.

    Full transcript of Obama’s speech at UN General Assembly - Haaretz Daily Newspaper | Israel News

    To stop disease that spreads across borders, we must strengthen our system of public health. We will continue the fight against HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. We will focus on the health of mothers and of children.

  • Drug-resistant #TB threat grows in #Europe (non-stop for decades!) | World Care Council

    According to a new European surveillance report, the threat posed by multi-drug resistant forms of tuberculosis is growing in Europe - and the numbers of children diagnosed with the disease

    #mdr #xdr #médicaments #tuberculose #santé