• World inequality database

    The World Inequality Database (WID.world) aims to provide open and convenient access to the most extensive available database on the historical evolution of the world distribution of income and wealth, both within countries and between countries.

    HISTORY OF WID.world

    During the past fifteen years, the renewed interest for the long-run evolution of income and wealth inequality gave rise to a flourishing literature. In particular, a succession of studies has constructed top income share series for a large number of countries (see Thomas Piketty 2001, 2003, T. Piketty and Emmanuel Saez 2003, and the two multi-country volumes on top incomes edited by Anthony B. Atkinson and T. Piketty 2007, 2010; see also A. B. Atkinson et al. 2011 and Facundo Alvaredo et al. 2013 for surveys of this literature). These projects generated a large volume of data, intended as a research resource for further analysis, as well as a source to inform the public debate on income inequality. To a large extent, this literature follows the pioneering work of Simon Kuznets 1953, and A. B. Atkinson and Alan Harrison 1978, and extends it to many more countries and years.

    THE WORLD TOP INCOMES DATABASE (2011)

    The World Inequality Database was initially created as the The World Top Incomes Database (WTID) in January 2011 with the aim of providing convenient and free access to all the existing series. Thanks to the contribution of over a hundred researchers, the WTID expanded to include series on income inequality for more than thirty countries, spanning over most of the 20th and early 21st centuries, with over forty additional countries now under study.

    The key novelty has been to combine fiscal, survey and national accounts data in a systematic manner. This allowed us to compute longer and more reliable top income shares series than previous inequality databases (which generally rely on self-reported survey data, with large under-reporting problems at the top, and limited time span). These series had a large impact on the global inequality debate. In particular, by making it possible to compare over long periods of time and across countries the income shares captured by top income groups (e.g. the top 1%), they contributed to reveal new facts and refocus the discussion on rising inequality.

    In principle, all the top income share series respond to the same general methods: following the pioneering work of S. Kuznets (1953), they use income tax data, national accounts, and Pareto interpolation techniques to estimate the share of total income going to top income groups (typically the top decile and the top percentile). However, despite researchers’ best efforts, the units of observation, the income concepts, and also the Pareto interpolation techniques were never made fully homogeneous over time and across countries. Moreover, for the most part attention has been restricted to the top decile, rather than the entire distribution of income and wealth. These elements pointed to the need for a methodological re-examination and clarification.

    FROM THE WTID TO THE WID (2015)

    In December 2015, the WTID was subsumed into the WID, The World Wealth and Income Database. In addition to the WTID top income shares series, this first version of WID included an extended version of the historical database on the long-run evolution of aggregate wealth-income ratios and the changing structure of national wealth and national income first developed by T. Piketty and G. Zucman 2013, 2014 (see also T. Piketty, 2014, for an attempt to propose an interpretative historical synthesis on the basis of this new material and of the top income shares series). We changed the name of the database from WTID to WID in order to express the extension in scope and ambition of the database, as well as the new emphasis on both wealth and income.

    At the same time, over the last years the distribution of personal wealth has been receiving increasing attention after having been neglected for decades. The work on top income shares was recently extended to study the long run evolution of top wealth shares (see E. Saez and G. Zucman 2016, F. Alvaredo, A. Atkinson and S. Morelli 2017, and B. Garbinti, J. Goupille and T. Piketty 2016).

    FROM INCOME INEQUALITY TO WEALTH INEQUALITY

    One reason is the growing recognition that, in seeking explanations for rising income inequality, we need to look not only at wages and earned income but also at income from capital. Income from interest, from dividends, and from rents represents a minority of total personal income, but it is nonetheless significant, especially at the top of the distribution. The ratio of total personal wealth to total personal income has been rising. One consequence is that the role of inherited wealth – which declined for much of the twentieth century – has, in a number of countries, begun to acquire greater significance. In addition, there is extensive evidence – e.g. from billionaire rankings – suggesting that top global wealth holders have grown much faster than average and have therefore benefited from a substantial increase in their share.

    In order to produce reliable estimates of wealth inequality, it is becoming increasingly critical to combine different sources in a consistent manner, including income tax data (using the capitalization method) and inheritance tax data (using the mortality multiplier method), following the pioneering work of A. B. Atkinson and A. Harrison (1978). One also needs to introduce new sources such as global billionaire rankings, and to address novel issues such as cross-border assets and offshore wealth (G. Zucman, 2013, 2014). More generally, it is becoming more and more critical to measure the inequality of income and wealth from a global perspective, and not simply at the country level.

    THE WORLD INEQUALITY DATABASE (WID.WORLD) : A NEW WEBSITE, A NEW AMBITION (2017)

    In January 2017, with the objective of reaching yet a wider audience of researchers and general public, we released the first version of the more user-friendly website, WID.world, hosting the World Inequality Database.

    These changes come along with a new ambition. Thanks to the continuous cooperation of the WID.world Fellows, we pursue our efforts to expand the database into three major directions.

    First, we keep expanding the time coverage and the geographical coverage of the database, in particular to the countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America. We also keep updating the database with new observations, as official bodies release the necessary information each year. Additionally, we will progressively include inequality series at the sub-national level whenever possible (series of top income shares for each state in the United States are already available, as well as for urban and rural China).

    Next, we plan to provide more series on wealth-income ratios and the distribution of wealth, and not only on income. Third, we aim to offer series on the entire distribution of income and wealth, from the bottom to the top, and not only for top shares.

    The overall long-run objective is to be able to produce Distributional National Accounts (DINA), that is, to provide annual estimates of the distribution of income and wealth using concepts of income and wealth that are consistent with the macroeconomic national accounts. This also includes the production of synthetic income and wealth micro-files, which will also be made available online.

    A LONG-TERM, CUMULATIVE, COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS

    We should stress at the onset that our methods and series are and will always be imperfect, and subject to revision. We attempt to combine the different data sources available (in particular fiscal data, survey data and national accounts) in a more systematic way than what was done to date, but more progress is yet to come. We provide a detailed and explicit description of our methodology and sources, so that other users can contribute to their improvement. Our series and methods should be viewed from the perspective of a long-term, cumulative, collaborative research process.

    In this spirit, we also provide a new set of research tools for scholars, journalists, or any interested user in the production of their own inequality datasets. Our programs allow for the estimation of income and wealth distributions based on raw tabulated data, such as those provided by statisical agencies and tax administrations. They can also be used to combine distributions from different countries and produce representative synthetic files. The programs are based on generalized, non-parametric Pareto interpolation techniques. They can be run directly from our website with no prior technical knowledge. Users can also download and install our open-access R-language codes on their computers.


    https://wid.world
    #inégalités #données #base_de_données #statistiques #chiffres #monde #cartographie #visualisation
    signalé par @mobileborders

    #rapport 2018 :
    https://wir2018.wid.world/files/download/wir2018-full-report-english.pdf
    ping @simplicissimus @reka @fil

    • Just 10 per cent of workers receive nearly half of global pay

      An ILO assessment gives the first global estimates of the distribution of labour income, and shows that pay inequality remains pervasive in the world of work. The findings are drawn from a new database which includes national, regional and global data.

      Ten per cent of workers receive 48.9 per cent of total global pay, while the lowest-paid 50 per cent of workers receive just 6.4 per cent, a new ILO dataset reveals.

      What’s more, the lowest 20 per cent of income earners – around 650 million workers – earn less than 1 per cent of global labour income, a figure that has hardly changed in 13 years.

      The new dataset shows that overall global labour income inequality has fallen since 2004. However, this is not due to reductions in inequality within countries – at the national level, pay inequality is actually increasing. Rather, it is because of increasing prosperity in large emerging economies, namely China and India. Overall, the findings say, income inequality remains pervasive in the world of work.

      The Key Findings show that, globally, the share of national income going to workers is falling, from 53.7 per cent in 2004 to 51.4 per cent in 2017.

      Looking at the average pay distribution across countries, it finds that the share going to the middle class (the middle 60 per cent of workers) declined between 2004 and 2017, from 44.8 per cent to 43 per cent. At the same time, the share earned by the top 20 per cent of earners increased, from 51.3 per cent to 53.5 per cent. Countries where these top earners saw their share of national pay rise by at least one percentage point include Germany, Indonesia, Italy, Pakistan, the United Kingdom and the United States.

      “The data show that in relative terms, increases in the top labour incomes are associated with losses for everyone else, with both middle class and lower-income workers seeing their share of income decline,” said Steven Kapsos, Head of the ILO’s Data Production and Analysis Unit. “However, when the labour income shares of the middle or lower income workers increase, the gains tend to be widespread, favouring everyone except the top earners.”

      Poorer countries tend to have much higher levels of pay inequality, something that exacerbates the hardships of vulnerable populations. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the bottom 50 per cent of workers earn only 3.3 per cent of labour income, compared to the European Union, where the same group receives 22.9 per cent of the total income paid to workers.

      Roger Gomis, Economist in the ILO Department of Statistics, said: “The majority of the global workforce endures strikingly low pay and for many having a job does not mean having enough to live on. The average pay of the bottom half of the world’s workers is just 198 dollars per month and the poorest 10 per cent would need to work more than three centuries to earn the same as the richest 10 per cent do in one year.”

      https://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/newsroom/news/WCMS_712234/lang--en/index.htm

    • In un anno i ricchi guadagnano quanto i più poveri in tre secoli

      La maggior parte della forza lavoro globale sopporta salari bassi e le occupazioni dove è impiegata non bastano per sopravvivere. Il 10 per cento dei lavoratori più poveri dovrebbe lavorare per più di tre secoli per guadagnare lo stesso reddito del 10 per cento che guadagna di più. Lo sostiene la ricerca dell’Organizzazione internazionale del lavoro (Ilo) intitolata «The global labour income share and distribution» che analizza la più grande raccolta mondiale di dati armonizzati per l’indagine sulla forza lavoro in 189 paesi.

      TRA IL 2004 E IL 2017 il reddito della cosiddetta «classe media» è diminuita, mentre è aumentato il salario della parte meglio retribuita dei lavoratori collocati nella parte alta della gerarchia sociale e produttiva. L’immagine scelta per rappresentare l’evoluzione della distribuzione del reddito da lavoro è un «bastone da hockey»: i redditi della classe media e medio-bassa – con queste nozioni di solito si allude a coloro che per vivere devono lavorare, indipendentemente dalle classi e dai ceti di riferimento – si assottigliano mentre si allargano i guadagni di chi è collocato in corrispondenza del termine del bastone chiamato «spatola» o «paletta». Questo significa che la quota destinata alla classe media (il 60 per cento medio dei lavoratori) è diminuita tra il 2004 e il 2017, passando dal 44,8 per cento al 43 per cento. Allo stesso tempo, la quota guadagnata dal 20 per cento dei lavoratori più pagati è aumentata, passando dal 51,3 per cento al 53,5 per cento. Su scala mondiale la disuguaglianza globale del reddito da lavoro è diminuita dal 2004. Ciò non è dovuto a una maggiore giustizia sociale. A livello nazionale, infatti, le disuguaglianze salariali sono aumentate. Questo calo è dovuto all’aumento della prosperità nelle grandi economie emergenti: Cina e India. Nel complesso, invece, la disuguaglianza di reddito rimane pervasiva nel mondo del lavoro. La ricerca conferma che l’Italia è uno dei paesi dove gli alti salari sono aumentati di almeno un punto percentuale insieme a Germania, Indonesia, Pakistan, Regno Unito e Stati Uniti, mentre tutti gli altri continuano a diminuire. I paesi più poveri tendono invece ad avere livelli molto più elevati di disuguaglianza retributiva, elemento che aggrava le difficoltà delle popolazioni vulnerabili. Nell’Africa subsahariana, ad esempio, il 50 per cento dei lavoratori guadagna solo il 3,3 per cento del reddito da lavoro, rispetto all’Unione Europea, dove lo stesso gruppo riceve il 22,9 per cento del reddito totale pagato ai lavoratori. «La maggior parte della forza lavoro globale sopporta salari sorprendentemente bassi e per molti avere un lavoro non significa avere abbastanza per vivere – sostiene Roger Gomis, economista del dipartimento di statistica dell’Ilo – La retribuzione media della metà inferiore dei lavoratori del mondo è di appena 198 dollari al mese e il 10 per cento più povero dovrebbe lavorare più di tre secoli per guadagnare la stessa cosa che il 10 per cento più ricco fa in un anno».

      «I DATI MOSTRANO che, in termini relativi, gli aumenti dei redditi da lavoro più alti sono accompagnati da perdite per tutti gli altri – ha detto Steven Kapsos, capo dell’unità di produzione e analisi dei dati dell’Ilo- Tuttavia, quando aumenta la quota di reddito da lavoro dei lavoratori a reddito medio o basso, i guadagni tendono ad essere ampiamente distribuiti, a vantaggio di tutti i lavoratori, eccetto per gli alti salari». Questo significa che un aumento generalizzato della parte bassa o mediana della forza lavoro comporterebbe una maggiore redistribuzione della ricchezza prodotta. Ciò non avviene perché la piramide è rovesciata: il progressivo calo del reddito da lavoro comporta un aumento per chi già guadagna di più. È una vecchia legge del capitalismo, sempre più attuale: avrà di più chi ha già di più. Chi ha di meno oggi, ne avrà ancora meno domani.

      https://ilmanifesto.it/ilo

  • Coca-Cola Named Most Polluting Brand in Plastic Waste Audit
    https://theintercept.com/2019/10/23/coca-cola-plastic-waste-pollution

    Coca-Cola was found for the second year in a row to be the most polluting brand in a global audit of plastic trash conducted by the Break Free From Plastic global movement. The giant soda company was responsible for more plastic litter than the next top three polluters combined.

    More than 72,000 volunteers fanned out onto beaches, paddled along waterways, and walked along streets near their offices and homes picking up plastic bottles, cups, wrappers, bags, and scraps for the one-day cleanup in September that was the basis for the audit. Sorting through the mounds of garbage, they found that the plastic represented 50 different types and could be traced back to almost 8,000 brands. Coke was responsible for 11,732 pieces of plastic litter found in 37 countries on four continents. After #Coca-Cola, the next biggest contributors to the plastic pollution in the audit were #Nestle, #PepsiCo, #Mondelez International — purveyor of snack brands like #Oreo, #Ritz, #Nabisco, and #Nutter_Butter — and Unilever. More than half of the plastic had eroded to the point where it was impossible to discern who had produced it.

    #plastique #pollution

  • Seenthis cité dans cet article : "Mastodon, Diaspora, PeerTube... : des alternatives « libres » face aux géants du Net et à leur monde orwellien"

    Réseau social original, Seenthis (« Vu ça » en français) a été lancé en France en 2011. Il s’apparente par certains aspects à Twitter, mais propose bien d’autres fonctionnalités. L’utilisateur peut y tenir un blog personnel constitué de billets courts, dans lesquels il recommande à ceux qui le suivent la lecture d’articles (comme ceux de Bastamag, par exemple).

    https://www.bastamag.net/Mastodon-Diaspora-PeerTube-Qwant-framasoft-logiciels-libres-open-street-ma

    #LogicielsLibres #Logiciels_Libres #MondeDuLibre #SeenThis

  • Par le sol et par le sang. Le droit de la nationalité dans le monde

    Quels pays facilitent, quels pays entravent l’acquisition de la nationalité pour les enfants d’immigrés ? Cet essai dresse un état des lieux contrasté, selon l’application du droit du sol ou du sang, avec des conditions ou discriminations particulières.


    https://laviedesidees.fr/Par-le-sol-et-par-le-sang.html
    #ius_soli #jus_sanguinis #nationalité #monde #droit #citoyenneté #droit_du_sang #droit_du_sol #cartographie #visualisation

    ping @karine4

  • Mapping All of Earth’s Roads and Buildings from Space
    https://www.planet.com/pulse/mapping-all-of-earths-roads-and-buildings-from-space

    Above is a map of all the roads and buildings on Earth. To our knowledge, it is the most complete and up to date map of these features ever created. It reveals details not available in popular mapping tools, in both industrialized cities and rural settlements. Built from a diversely sampled training set, the model produces quality results across a wide variety of terrains, densities, and land cover types. // Credit: Leanne Abraham, Planet

  • Journée sans voiture #2019
    http://carfree.fr/index.php/2019/09/16/journee-sans-voiture-2019

    Une journée sans voiture vise à expérimenter dans le #monde ce que peut être la #Vie_sans_voiture. Cette journée est pour les piétons, les cyclistes et les transports en Lire la suite...

    #Alternatives_à_la_voiture #Fin_de_l'automobile #Marche_à_pied #Quartiers_sans_voitures #Transports_publics #Vélo #Ville_sans_voitures #2000 #Belgique #carfree #france #journée_sans_voitures #Québec #Suisse

  • US and Iran, short memories, by Serge Halimi & Pierre Rimbert (Le Monde diplomatique - English edition, August 2019)
    https://mondediplo.com/2019/08/02us-iran

    On 1 September 1983 a Soviet Sukhoi Su-15 interceptor downed a Korean Air Lines Boeing 747 carrying 269 passengers from New York to Seoul. KAL 007 had accidentally deviated from its planned route and entered Soviet airspace by night, flying over sensitive military installations. The Kremlin said it had mistaken the civilian aircraft for a spy plane. These incidents, extensively documented, provide an opportunity for a scientific experiment: the difference in treatment of the KAL 007 and Iran Air 655 stories gives an accurate measure of the ideological bias of western media, especially the US press which is hailed around the world for its professionalism.

    On 2 September 1983 a #New_York_Times editorial, ‘Murder in the Air’, declared, ‘There is no conceivable excuse for any nation shooting down a harmless airliner.’ Five years later, when a US jet did the shooting, all sorts of excuses seemed conceivable. The NYT emphasised that ‘while horrifying, it was nonetheless an accident. On present evidence, it’s hard to see what the Navy could have done to avoid it’ (5 July 1988). Itinvited its readers to ‘put yourself in Captain Rogers’s shoes [William C Rogers III, who ordered the firing of the missile] ... it is hard to fault his decision to attack the suspect plane.’ The NYT also claimed there was blame on both sides: ‘Iran, too, may bear responsibility for failing to warn civilian planes away from the combat zone of an action it had initiated’ (2).

    #médias #monde_libre #démocraties

  • Panne temporaire des terminaux fixes de paiement par carte dans tous les magasins Ikea 3 Aout 2019 - RTBF

    Aux environs de 13h15, l’ensemble des magasins de la chaîne de meubles « Ikea », présents dans le monde, ont connu une panne de leurs terminaux de paiement par carte. A 15h tout était rentré dans l’ordre.
    . . . .
    Ikea ne connaît pour l’instant pas l’origine de cette panne interne. « Les responsables mettent tout en œuvre pour trouver la cause du problème, » renseigne-t-on auprès de l’enseigne.

    Source : https://www.rtbf.be/info/societe/detail_les-terminaux-de-paiement-de-chez-ikea-victimes-de-dysfonctionnements-ce

    #ikéa #mdr #monde #multinationale

  • Chômage : la réforme est aussi dure qu’annoncée, voire plus
    https://www.mediapart.fr/journal/economie/290719/chomage-la-reforme-est-aussi-dure-qu-annoncee-voire-plus

    Durcissement des conditions d’accès et des règles de calcul, « bonus-malus » peu ambitieux pour limiter les contrats courts : les nouvelles règles de l’assurance-chômage, publiées au "Journal officiel", sont conformes à ce qui avait été annoncé. Mais le décret recèle aussi deux surprises, peu réjouissantes pour les chômeurs.

    #SOCIAL #réforme,_social,_chômage,_assurance-chômage,_UNEDIC,_demandeurs_d’emploi,_Pôle_Emploi,_gouvernement,_formation_professionnelle,_A_la_Une

    • Chômage : la réforme est aussi dure qu’annoncée, voire plus
      29 JUILLET 2019 PAR DAN ISRAEL

      Durcissement des conditions d’accès et des règles de calcul, « bonus-malus » peu ambitieux pour limiter les contrats courts : les nouvelles règles de l’assurance-chômage, publiées au Journal officiel, sont conformes à ce qui avait été annoncé. Mais le décret recèle aussi deux surprises, peu réjouissantes pour les chômeurs.

      Cette fois, la réforme est bien lancée. Dimanche 28 juillet, le décret réformant les règles d’accès à l’assurance-chômage a été publié au Journal officiel. En six articles et 190 pages d’annexe, le texte décrit dans tous ses détails la vaste réforme, dont la majeure partie entrera en vigueur le 1er novembre.

      Comme nous l’avions indiqué lors de leurs présentations par le gouvernement le 18 juin, les nouvelles règles vont imposer presque tous les efforts aux chômeurs les plus fragiles, qui devront supporter la quasi-intégralité des 3,4 milliards d’euros d’économies imposées par le gouvernement.

      Dans une première approximation, l’Unédic, qui gère le budget de l’assurance-chômage, a estimé que la réforme impactera négativement 1,2 million de personnes, soit presque la moitié des 2,6 millions qui touchent chaque mois une somme de Pôle emploi (1 010 euros en moyenne). Le ministère du travail conteste ce chiffrage, estimant que les comportements des salariés et des employeurs vont évoluer sous l’effet de la réforme. L’exécutif estime que 700 000 personnes seront concernées.

      L’Unédic anticipe trois effets à la réforme, qui pourront d’ailleurs toucher plusieurs fois les mêmes personnes : « moins de demandeurs d’emploi ouvriront un droit » ; « pour certains allocataires la durée du droit sera plus courte » ; « l’allocation journalière sera plus faible pour les personnes ayant travaillé de manière discontinue ».

      Le gouvernement avait par ailleurs omis de présenter deux mesures contenues dans le décret. Avec la première, ce sont les chômeurs eux-mêmes qui financeront, au moins en partie, « l’accompagnement renforcé » vanté par le gouvernement en direction des demandeurs d’emploi. Avec la seconde, l’exécutif affirme encore plus sa reprise en main du système, et le déclin de la notion de paritarisme, qui voulait que depuis sa création en 1946, le régime soit géré conjointement par les représentants des salariés et du patronat.

      Les partenaires sociaux ont pu prendre connaissance du texte en projet le 10 juillet, et ont donné leur avis, purement consultatif, à son propos le 16 juillet. Sans surprise, tous les syndicats s’y sont opposés, tout comme le patronat, qui rejette le « bonus-malus » qui visera certaines entreprises ayant trop fréquemment recours aux contrats courts.

      « Ce décret confirme toutes nos craintes », a indiqué la CGT. « Le décret contient des mesures réductrices de droit, en particulier, pour les demandeurs d’emploi les plus précaires », a confirmé FO, dénonçant des « mesures particulièrement injustes ». La CFDT n’est pas en reste, jugeant que ce sont les « fondamentaux » même du régime qui sont ébranlés, et critiquant « une réforme purement budgétaire qui va faire beaucoup d’économies et sans doute beaucoup plus qu’annoncées, tellement les règles sont dures ».

      Au passage, les syndicats contredisent le gouvernement, qui explique que les économies demandées aux demandeurs d’emploi sont pensées pour assurer la survie globale du régime. Le 19 juin sur BFMTV, la ministre du travail Muriel Pénicaud assurait que « si on ne fait pas d’économies, dans dix ans on n’aura plus de quoi indemniser les chômeurs ». Mais le 12 juillet, l’Unédic a livré ses projections financières, et indiqué que si les règles n’avaient pas été touchées, le régime de l’assurance-chômage serait revenu à l’équilibre fin 2020, pour un excédent de 1,2 milliard en 2021 et de 3,3 milliards en 2022.

      Conditions d’entrée et règles de calcul durcies

      La CFDT, elle, insiste sur la présentation erronée de la principale mesure contenue dans la réforme, le durcissement des conditions d’entrée dans le régime : pour être indemnisé par Pôle emploi, il faudra dès le 1er novembre avoir travaillé l’équivalent de 6 mois durant les 24 mois précédents, alors qu’aujourd’hui, seuls 4 mois travaillés sur 28 (et sur 36 mois pour les plus de 53 ans) sont nécessaires.

      Ce changement profond, qui devrait toucher environ 500 000 personnes, permettra d’économiser 80 % des 3,4 milliards d’euros d’économies programmées d’ici à la fin 2021. Il a été justifié par le gouvernement par le fait que lorsque la période de référence de 4 mois a été instituée, en 2008, il s’agissait de répondre à la crise économique brutale qui déferlait sur le monde, à la suite de la crise américaine des subprimes.

      En revenant à une période de 6 mois, il s’agirait simplement, assure le ministère du travail, de revenir à ce qui prévalait avant 2008, la crise économique étant passée. Or, la CFDT, qui préside l’Unédic, rappelle que le passage de 6 à 4 mois n’était lié à aucune crise, dont les conséquences ont plutôt commencé à se faire sentir en France en 2009. Il s’agissait surtout de toucher plus de jeunes, qui accumulent des périodes courtes de travail. Ce qui est toujours le cas aujourd’hui.

      Ce durcissement des conditions d’accès au chômage vaudra aussi pour tous ceux qui alternent emploi et périodes d’inactivité : depuis 2014, il est prévu que si un demandeur d’emploi retravaille, il allonge la période pendant laquelle il peut toucher de l’argent de Pôle emploi. Un mécanisme qui peut durer indéfiniment, pour peu qu’il travaille au moins 150 heures, c’est-à-dire environ un mois. À partir du 1er novembre, ce seuil sera multiplié par six : il faudra aussi avoir travaillé six mois pour pouvoir prolonger son indemnisation.

      Outre ce réel durcissement, un bouleversement va toucher, à compter du 1er avril, le calcul de l’indemnité qui sera versée aux chômeurs. Au lieu d’être calculées à partir des jours travaillés seulement (comme elles le sont depuis exactement 40 ans), les indemnités le seront à partir du revenu moyen des mois où un salarié a travaillé. Y compris s’il n’a rien gagné pendant plusieurs semaines de ce mois.

      On passe donc d’un calcul sur une base journalière à une base mensuelle : si un salarié n’a travaillé qu’une semaine sur trois pendant 18 mois, il a droit aujourd’hui à une indemnité pendant six mois, calculée à partir de son salaire quotidien (72 % en moyenne, 79 % pour un Smic). À partir d’avril, il touchera une indemnisation pendant 18 mois, mais à un niveau bien plus faible : au minimum, 65 % du salaire net mensuel moyen touché pendant 24 mois, qui englobe les périodes travaillées, mais aussi celles où il n’aura touché aucun salaire.

      Les promesses de campagne sont tenues, mais restent peu ambitieuses

      Les 70 000 à 80 000 chômeurs qui perçoivent les plus grosses allocations vont également voir le montant de leur allocation baisser drastiquement au bout de six mois, à compter du mois de mai prochain. Tous ceux qui percevaient une rémunération de plus de 4 500 euros brut (3 645 net) par mois lorsqu’ils étaient en poste – ils faisaient partie des 10 % des salariés les mieux payés – verront leur indemnisation réduite de 30 % au bout du septième mois. La mesure ne s’appliquera pas aux plus de 57 ans, qui ont énormément de mal à retrouver un travail.

      Sous les apparences du bon sens, voire d’une certaine justice sociale, la proposition est contestée par tous les syndicats, de la CGT à la CFE-CGC, le syndicat des cadres. Aucune étude économique au monde n’a conclu à l’efficacité de la dégressivité des allocations. Elle a déjà existé en France, entre 1992 et 1996, et une étude de l’Insee en 2001 a conclu que sa mise en place avait « ralenti le retour à l’emploi ». Un récent travail de l’OFCE a de même rappelé, fin 2017, que cette mesure était tout sauf efficace.

      Les observateurs les plus pessimistes craignent aussi qu’en touchant d’abord aux droits des plus riches, le gouvernement ne cherche surtout à installer l’idée qu’il est possible de diminuer les allocations chômage, quelle que soit la population visée, et ne cherche à étendre la mesure dans un deuxième temps.

      Enfin, la promesse de campagne du candidat Macron sera bien respectée : l’indemnisation chômage sera ouverte aux démissionnaires ayant travaillé dans la même entreprise au cours des cinq dernières années. Elle sera conditionnée à un projet de reconversion professionnelle ou de formation solide, évalué par « la commission paritaire interprofessionnelle » (qui succède aux Fongecif) de la région du salarié.

      Les indépendants bénéficieront, eux, d’une allocation forfaitaire (800 euros par mois pendant six mois) en cas de liquidation judiciaire. L’activité professionnelle devra avoir généré un revenu minimum de 10 000 euros par an sur les deux dernières années avant la liquidation. Dans ces conditions, une allocation sera versée pendant six mois, mais dont le montant n’est pas encore clairement précisé. Les deux dispositifs ne devraient pas bénéficier à plus de 60 000 personnes en tout.

      Enfin, malgré l’hostilité affichée du patronat, un système de « bonus-malus » est bien créé, concernant la cotisation d’assurance-chômage payée par les entreprises dans sept secteurs grands consommateurs de contrats courts et d’intérim (hébergement restauration, agroalimentaire, transports…).

      Mais deux secteurs ayant massivement recours aux contrats courts y échapperont : le bâtiment et le médico-social. Les petites entreprises de moins de douze salariés ne seront pas visées et le montant de la modulation maximale sera faible : les employeurs dont les effectifs tournent beaucoup verront leurs cotisations sociales alourdies de 0,95 % au maximum. Et ceux dont la main-d’œuvre est la plus stable auront droit à un bonus pouvant aller jusqu’à 1,05 %. Et surtout, alors que le ministère du travail avait annoncé que les « bonus-malus » entreraient « en application au 1er janvier 2020 », la mesure ne sera en fait effective qu’un an plus tard, à partir du 1er janvier 2021.

      L’État reprend encore un peu plus la main sur l’assurance-chômage

      Le décret contient aussi son lot de surprises, désagréables pour les syndicats. D’abord, le financement de Pôle emploi par l’Unédic va augmenter en proportion : pour 2019, l’Unédic doit consacrer 10 % de ses ressources pour financer le service public de l’emploi, mais à partir de l’an prochain, ce sera 11 %, a décidé le gouvernement. Une hausse de 370 millions d’euros, « au titre du renforcement de l’accompagnement » des personnes privées d’activité.

      Le gouvernement a en effet annoncé l’embauche de 1 000 CDD de trois ans pour mieux accompagner les chômeurs. Le budget total de Pôle emploi dépasse 5 milliards d’euros, et l’Unédic y contribuera donc pour presque 3,9 milliards. Le reste est assuré par l’État lui-même.

      Or, le budget de l’Unédic est uniquement abondé par prélèvements sur les salaires : cotisations patronales et cotisations salariales transformées depuis octobre dernier en CSG. Autrement dit, cette nouvelle mesure revient à faire payer par les chômeurs eux-mêmes leur accompagnement renforcé, et détourne une partie des sommes mises en commun pour assurer le versement des allocations chômage.

      Une telle évolution n’était pas anticipée par les partenaires sociaux, qui espéraient plutôt réussir à imposer à l’État une meilleure répartition du financement de Pôle emploi entre Unédic et pouvoirs publics. Mais la « convention tripartite » entre Pôle emploi, l’Unédic et l’État, qui devait régler ce point, était en attente de signature depuis décembre 2018. Le gouvernement a finalement décidé de s’affranchir de toute discussion, et a imposé unilatéralement sa solution.

      Dernière illustration de la plus forte emprise de l’État sur le régime d’assurance-chômage : désormais, la revalorisation des allocations sera décidée chaque année par arrêté ministériel, et non par décision commune des syndicats et du patronat, réunis dans le conseil d’administration de l’Unédic.

      Le changement est majeur, mais n’est rien d’autre que la conséquence logique des dispositions contenues dans la loi sur l’emploi et la formation votée en août 2018. Depuis octobre dernier, le financement de l’assurance-chômage a changé de nature, comme Mediapart l’a déjà détaillé : les salariés ne se voient plus prélever aucune cotisation chômage sur leur salaire. Ces cotisations alimentaient jusqu’ici les caisses de l’Unédic. Désormais, ce sont tous les Français qui contribueront à financer les allocations chômage, via un relèvement de la CSG, un impôt directement versé à l’État, qui pourra ensuite en disposer à sa guise.

      C’est la fin de ce que l’on nomme le modèle assurantiel : chaque salarié versait une partie de son salaire pour s’assurer contre la perte de son emploi, et les indemnités chômage versées dépendaient de la durée d’emploi et de la rémunération précédente. Désormais, c’est l’État qui décide quelle part de son budget doit être affectée au financement du système de chômage. Sans aucune garantie qu’à terme, le montant des allocations chômage ne baisse pas drastiquement, comme l’exécutif vient de s’en ménager ouvertement la possibilité.

      #Décret n° 2019-797 du 26 juillet 2019 relatif au régime d’assurance chômage https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/eli/decret/2019/7/26/MTRD1919111D/jo/texte

      #assurance_chômage #chômeuses #chômeurs #chômeurs_en_activité_à_temps_réduit #pôle_emploi #dette (fabrication et usage politique de la) #allocation #précarité #précarisation #politique_d'austérité #guerre_au_prolétariat #guerre_aux_pauvres #anti_social_à_sang_froid

    • J’ai vu dans mon centre « pole emploi » où j’aime encore pointer comment le nouveau conseiller suit les nouvelles directives à la lettre.

      Comme il dit « je n’ai aucun pb à vous radier » et « ce n’est pas par vengeance ».

      En l’écoutant j’étais partagé entre rire de son attitude dictatoriale presque caricaturale vis-à-vis de ces chômeurs en fin de droit que je représentais ou être pris d’un grand malaise. Je me demandais pourquoi autant d’autoritarisme ("il me faut chaque mois la preuve que vous cherchez un emploi en amenant la liste des 10 entreprises, chiffres minimal, auxquelles vous avez envoyé lettre de motivation et cv" m’a-t-il dit sentencieux) alors que je ne touche aucune indemnité depuis mon inscription.

      Je me demande où est la sortie ? comment survivre dans ce monde ?

    • j’étais partagé entre rire de son attitude dictatoriale presque caricaturale vis-à-vis de ces chômeurs en fin de droit que je représentais ou être pris d’un grand malaise

      je ne touche aucune indemnité

      L’anecdote qui fait mouche.

    • « Tableau de bord numérique » des chômeurs : l’expérimentation se profile pour novembre
      À bord ou à raison
      https://www.nextinpact.com/news/108098-tableau-bord-numerique-chomeurs-lexperimentation-se-profile-pour-

      Initialement prévue pour juin dernier, l’expérimentation d’un « tableau de bord numérique », dans lequel les chômeurs devront consigner leurs actes de recherche d’emploi, se profile désormais pour novembre. Les pouvoirs publics se refusent encore à préciser le dispositif qui s’annonce.

      En application de la loi dite « Avenir professionnel » de septembre 2018, les chômeurs de certaines régions devraient d’ores et déjà founir à Pôle emploi, au moment de leur actualisation, différents renseignements sur « l’état d’avancement de leur recherche d’emploi ».

      Officiellement, l’objectif de cette expérimentation est d’améliorer « le suivi et l’accompagnement » des demandeurs d’emploi, histoire parfois de remotiver certaines personnes. Durant les débats parlementaires, l’opposition avait toutefois dénoncé le caractère stigmatisant de ce dispositif, perçu comme un moyen supplémentaire d’accroître le contrôle sur les demandeurs d’emploi.

      Visiblement conscient de la sensibilité du dossier, la majorité avait confié au gouvernement le soin de définir les modalités de mise en œuvre de cette expérimentation, ultérieurement, par décret.

      #paywall... #emploi #recherche_d'emploi #contrôle

    • Si même la CFDT s’en offusque, c’est vous dire si ça craint !

      Il a été justifié par le gouvernement par le fait que lorsque la période de référence de 4 mois a été instituée, en 2008, il s’agissait de répondre à la crise économique brutale qui déferlait sur le monde, à la suite de la crise américaine des subprimes.

      La crise ! Quelle crise ??

      En revenant à une période de 6 mois, il s’agirait simplement, assure le ministère du travail, de revenir à ce qui prévalait avant 2008, la crise économique étant passée . Or, la CFDT, qui préside l’Unédic, rappelle que le passage de 6 à 4 mois n’était lié à aucune crise, dont les conséquences ont plutôt commencé à se faire sentir en France en 2009. Il s’agissait surtout de toucher plus de jeunes, qui accumulent des périodes courtes de travail. Ce qui est toujours le cas aujourd’hui.

      vivement la prochaine crise qu’on soit tous.te.s au chômage !
      #monde_de_merde

  • Le #HCR se félicite du soutien de 175 villes à travers le #monde entier en faveur des réfugiés

    A l’occasion de la Journée mondiale 2019 du réfugié, le HCR, l’Agence des Nations Unies pour les réfugiés, remercie les maires de dizaines de villes dans environ 50 pays d’avoir ajouté leur soutien à une déclaration mondiale d’accueil et d’inclusion pour les familles déracinées. Cette déclaration s’inscrit dans le cadre de l’initiative du HCR Cities#WithRefugees ou « Villes #Aveclesréfugiés », qui existe depuis un an et qui a été signée par près de 175 villes.

    Ce geste de #solidarité envers les réfugiés est d’autant plus important car, selon le rapport statistique annuel du HCR sur les Tendances mondiales publié hier, environ 61% des réfugiés et 80% des personnes déplacées internes vivent en milieu urbain. Les villes, les autorités locales et les municipalités jouent un rôle essentiel dans le soutien et l’accueil des réfugiés et d’autres personnes déplacées. Ils offrent la sécurité et un logement décent. Par ailleurs, ils peuvent permettre l’accès aux services locaux, à l’éducation et à des opportunités d’emploi.

    Dans l’ensemble, le rapport statistique annuel sur les Tendances mondiales montre que le nombre de personnes déracinées par la guerre, les conflits ou les persécutions a doublé ces 20 dernières années.

    Face à des niveaux toujours plus élevés de déplacement forcé - et parallèlement à des niveaux croissants de xénophobie dans le monde - des villes comme Paris en France, Montevideo en Uruguay, Lahore au Pakistan, Bucarest en Roumanie, Vancouver au Canada et Atlanta aux Etats-Unis appellent également d’autres maires et autorités locales à travers le monde à se joindre à eux dans leurs efforts concertés pour accueillir et inclure des réfugiés dans leurs communautés.

    « Les villes sont à l’avant-garde des nouvelles approches en matière d’accueil, d’inclusion et d’offre d’opportunités aux réfugiés », a déclaré Filippo Grandi, Haut Commissaire des Nations Unies pour les réfugiés. « J’ai une grande admiration pour ces maires, pour ces autorités locales et pour les habitants de ces villes qui oeuvrent en faveur de la solidarité. Nous attendons d’eux qu’ils défendent ces valeurs et qu’ils poursuivent cet important travail. »

    « Nous n’avons pas le luxe de faire de la politique car il nous faut que les choses fonctionnent, non seulement pour les nouveaux arrivants mais aussi pour les communautés établies dans nos villes. Ce que nous avons, c’est la capacité de réunir nos forces et des ressources différentes pour faire de l’inclusion une réalité – tout en mobilisant les contributions des secteurs public, privé et bénévole afin de trouver des solutions concrètes à nos défis les plus urgents », a déclaré Marvin Jonathan Rees, le maire de Bristol au Royaume-Uni et l’un des premiers signataires de l’initiative Cities #WithRefugees, pour décrire le rôle unique des dirigeants au niveau local.

    Au niveau mondial, le Pacte mondial sur les réfugiés, qui vise à mettre en œuvre une approche plus globale de la gestion des crises de réfugiés, reconnaît le rôle important des autorités locales en tant que premiers intervenants dans les situations de réfugiés à grande échelle. Le HCR organisera le tout premier Forum mondial sur les réfugiés en décembre 2019, qui sera l’occasion de catalyser des partenariats novateurs entre les secteurs et pour tous les acteurs concernés - gouvernements, société civile, secteur privé, organisations internationales et autres - afin de changer concrètement la vie des réfugiés et des communautés hôtes.

    https://www.unhcr.org/fr-fr/news/press/2019/6/5d0b8549a/hcr-felicite-soutien-175-villes-travers-monde-entier-faveur-refugies.html
    #villes-refuge #asile #migrations #réfugiés #accueil
    #Cities#WithRefugees

    Ajouté à la métaliste :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/759145

  • #Push-back_map

    Cette carte documente et dénonce des #push-backs systématiques. Ils sont une réalité quotidienne aux nombreuses #frontières de l’Europe et du monde. Renvoyer les gens à travers les frontières contre leur volonté est une pratique de l´État qui est violente, et qui doit cesser maintenant !

    Veuillez noter que si un témoignage ou un rapport ne dispose pas d’une localisation GPS exacte, l’emplacement du marqueur ne sera qu’une approximation.


    https://pushbackmap.org/fr/carte-des-refoulements

    #push-back #cartographie #contre-cartographie #cartographie_critique #cartographie_radicale #asile #migrations #réfugiés #cartographie_participative #violent_borders #monde
    ping @reka @fil

  • Overview and Key Findings of the 2018 Digital News Report
    http://www.digitalnewsreport.org/survey/2019/overview-key-findings-2019

    This year’s report comes against the backdrop of rising populism, political and economic instability, along with intensifying concerns about giant tech companies and their impact on society. News organisations have taken the lead in reporting these trends, but also find themselves challenged by them – further depressing an industry reeling from more than a decade of digital disruption. Platform power – and the ruthless efficiency of their advertising operations – has undermined news business models contributing to a series of high-profile layoffs in traditional (Gannett) and digital media (Mic, BuzzFeed) in the early part of 2019. Political polarisation has encouraged the growth of partisan agendas online, which together with clickbait and various forms of misinformation is helping to further undermine trust in media – raising new questions about how to deliver balanced and fair reporting in the digital age.

    #monde_numérique #presse_en_ligne #Média #journalisme #presse #internet

    • Ces réfugiés dans leur propre pays

      En 2018, il y a eu autant de nouveaux « déplacés internes » dans 55 pays que de réfugiés en séjour dans le monde entier.

      A voir le nombre de personnes exilées à l’intérieur de leur propre pays, celui des réfugiés paraît faire moins problème. A fin 2018, le nombre de réfugiés recensés dans le monde entier atteignait 28,5 millions, soit autant que celui des « déplacés internes » supplémentaires enregistrés au cours de la seule année dernière.

      Selon le Rapport global 2019 de l’Observatoire des situations de déplacement interne (IDMC) du Conseil norvégien des réfugiés, dont le siège se trouve à Genève, on comptait, à fin 2018, 41,3 millions de personnes vivant en situation de déplacés internes dans 55 pays, suite à des catastrophes naturelles ou à des conflits. Il s’agit d’un effectif record de personnes déplacées dans leur propre pays du fait de conflits, de violence généralisée ou de catastrophes naturelles.
      Catastrophes naturelles

      Parmi les désastres qui ont provoqué l’an dernier quelque 17,2 millions de nouveaux déplacements, certains sont très probablement dus au changement climatique. Ainsi, les incendies qui ont détruit une grande partie de la forêt californienne et qui ont contraint 1,2 million d’Américains – sans compter les morts – à abandonner leur domicile et à s’installer ailleurs peuvent probablement être attribués au réchauffement climatique et à la sécheresse.

      Au contraire, le Bangladesh n’a enregistré l’an dernier « que » 78’000 déplacements de personnes en raison des inondations. C’est presque l’équivalent de la population de la ville de Lucerne qu’il faut recaser sur des terrains sûrs dans un pays comptant 1’100 habitants au kilomètre carré. Le Bangladesh prévoit de construire trois villes de taille moyenne pour accueillir les déplacés récents et ceux qui ne vont pas manquer d’affluer dans les années à venir. Mais que pourra-t-on faire lorsque le niveau de la mer montera ?

      Au Nigeria, cet immense pays de plus de 100 millions d’habitants, 80% des terres ont été inondées par des pluies torrentielles, causant 541’000 déplacements internes.

      Problème : les personnes qui, en raison d’inondations ou de conflits locaux, doivent chercher refuge ailleurs dans leur propre pays se rendent systématiquement dans les villes, souvent déjà surpeuplées. Comment imaginer que Dhaka, la capitale du Bangladesh récemment devenue une mégapole approchant les 17 millions d’habitants, puisse encore grandir ?
      Violences et conflits

      En 2018 toujours, 10,8 millions de personnes ont connu le sort des déplacés internes en raison des violences ou des conflits qui ont sévi surtout dans les pays suivants : Ethiopie, République démocratique du Congo (RDC), Syrie, Nigeria, Somalie, Afghanistan, République centrafricaine, Cameroun et Soudan du Sud. Outre ces mouvements internes, des personnes sont allées chercher secours et refuge notamment en Turquie (3,5 millions), en Ouganda (1,4 million) ou au Pakistan (1,4 million).

      Les trois pays qui comptent le plus de déplacés internes dus à la violence sont la Syrie, (6,1 millions de personnes), la Colombie (5,8 millions) et la RDC (3,1 millions). S’agissant de la Syrie, nous savons que la guerre civile n’est pas terminée et qu’il faudra faire des efforts gigantesques pour reconstruire les villes bombardées.

      Mais que savons-nous de la Colombie, depuis l’accord de paix entre le gouvernement de Santos et les Farc ? En 2018, il y a eu 145’000 nouveaux déplacés internes et de nombreux leaders sociaux assassinés : 105 en 2017, 172 en 2018 et 7, soit une personne par jour, dans la première semaine de janvier 2019.

      L’Assemblée nationale colombienne ne veut pas mettre en œuvre les accords de paix, encore moins rendre des terres aux paysans et accomplir la réforme agraire inscrite à l’article premier de l’accord de paix. Les Farc ont fait ce qu’elles avaient promis, mais pas le gouvernement. Ivan Duque, qui a remplacé Manuel Santos, s’est révélé incapable de reprendre le contrôle des terrains abandonnés par les Farc – et repris par d’autres bandes armées, paramilitaires ou multinationales, ou par des trafiquants de drogue. Triste évolution marquée par une insécurité grandissante.

      Et que dire de la RDC ? C’est au Kivu, Nord et Sud, véritable grotte d’Ali Baba de la planète, que les populations sont victimes de bandes armées s’appuyant sur diverses tribus pour conserver ou prendre le contrôle des mines riches en coltan, diamant, or, cuivre, cobalt, étain, manganèse, etc. Grands responsables de ces graves troubles : les téléphones portables et autres appareils connectés à l’échelle mondiale ainsi que les multinationales minières.

      Il y a probablement bien d’autres pays de la planète où les violences sont commises par des multinationales qui obligent les habitants locaux à fuir devant la destruction de leurs villages et de leurs terres. Où vont-ils se réfugier ? Dans les villes bien sûr, où ils espèrent trouver un toit. Mais un toit ne suffit pas, ni l’éventuelle aide humanitaire apportée par la Croix-Rouge et les Etats occidentaux. Quand débarquent des dizaines de milliers de déplacés, les municipalités doivent aussi construire des écoles, des hôpitaux, assurer la distribution d’eau potable et l’évacuation des eaux usées.

      Dans les pays africains où il arrive que moins de la moitié des habitants aient accès à l’eau potable, un déplacement important risque fort de remettre en cause tout le programme gouvernemental. Le rapport de l’Observatoire des situations de déplacement interne va même jusqu’à prévoir que certains des Objectifs de développement durable fixés par les Nations unies en 2015 ne pourront jamais être atteints.


      https://www.domainepublic.ch/articles/35077

    • Displaced people: Why are more fleeing home than ever before?

      More than 35,000 people were forced to flee their homes every day in 2018 - nearly one every two seconds - taking the world’s displaced population to a record 71 million.

      A total of 26 million people have fled across borders, 41 million are displaced within their home countries and 3.5 million have sought asylum - the highest numbers ever, according to UN refugee agency (UNHCR) figures.

      Why are so many people being driven away from their families, friends and neighbourhoods?
      Devastating wars have contributed to the rise

      Conflict and violence, persecution and human rights violations are driving more and more men, women and children from their homes.

      In fact, the number of displaced people has doubled in the last 10 years, the UNHCR’s figures show, with the devastating wars in Iraq and Syria causing many families to leave their communities.

      Conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Yemen and South Sudan, as well as the flow of Rohingya refugees from Myanmar to Bangladesh, have also had a significant impact.

      Most do not become refugees

      While much of the focus has been on refugees - that’s people forced to flee across borders because of conflict or persecution - the majority of those uprooted across the world actually end up staying in their own countries.

      These people, who have left their homes but not their homeland, are referred to as “internally displaced people”, or IDPs, rather than refugees.

      IDPs often decide not to travel very far, either because they want to stay close to their homes and family, or because they don’t have the funds to cross borders.

      But many internally displaced people end up stuck in areas that are difficult for aid agencies to reach - such as conflict zones - and continue to rely on their own governments to keep them safe. Those governments are sometimes the reason people have fled, or - because of war - have become incapable of providing their own citizens with a safe place to stay.

      For this reason, the UN describes IDPs as “among the most vulnerable in the world”.

      Colombia, Syria and the DRC have the highest numbers of IDPs.

      However, increasing numbers are also leaving home because of natural disasters, mainly “extreme weather events”, according to the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC), which monitors the global IDP population only.

      The next biggest group of displaced people are refugees. There were 25.9 million by the end of 2018, of whom about half were children.

      One in four refugees came from Syria.

      The smallest group of displaced people is asylum seekers - those who have applied for sanctuary in another country but whose claim has not been granted. There were 3.5 million in 2018 - fewer than one in 10 of those forced to flee.
      Places hit by conflict and violence are most affected

      At the end of 2018, Syrians were the largest forcibly displaced population. Adding up IDPs, refugees and asylum seekers, there were 13 million Syrians driven from their homes.

      Colombians were the second largest group, with 8m forcibly displaced according to UNHCR figures, while 5.4 million Congolese were also uprooted.

      If we just look at figures for last year, a massive 13.6 million people were forced to abandon their homes - again mostly because of conflict. That’s more than the population of Mumbai - the most populous city in India.

      Of those on the move in 2018 alone, 10.8 million ended up internally displaced within their home countries - that’s four out of every five people.

      A further 2.8 million people sought safety abroad as newly-registered refugees or asylum seekers.

      Just 2.9 million people who had previously fled their homes returned to their areas or countries of origin in 2018 - fewer than those who became displaced in the same period.

      The world’s largest new population of internally displaced people are Ethiopians. Almost three million abandoned their homes last year - many escaping violence between ethnic groups.

      The conflict in the DRC also forced 1.8 million to flee but remain in their home country in 2018.

      In war-torn Syria, more than 1.6 million became IDPs.

      Venezuelans topped the list of those seeking asylum abroad in 2018, with 341,800 new claims. That’s more than one in five claims submitted last year.

      Hyperinflation, food shortages, political turmoil, violence and persecution, have forced hundreds of thousands of Venezuelans to leave their homeland.

      Most left for Peru, while others moved to Brazil, the US or Spain. More than 7,000 applied for asylum in neighbouring Trinidad and Tobago - just seven miles off Venezuela’s coast - last year alone.

      Annielis Ramirez, 30, is among the thousands of Venezuelans seeking a better life on the islands.

      “All my family is in Venezuela, I had to come here to work and help them,” she says. "I couldn’t even buy a pair of shoes for my daughter. The reality is that the minimum salary is not enough over there.

      “I’m here in Trinidad now. I don’t have a job, I just try to sell empanadas [filled pastries]. The most important thing is to put my daughter through school.”
      Those driven from their homelands mostly remain close by

      Almost 70% of the world’s refugees come from just five countries: Syria, Afghanistan, South Sudan, Myanmar and Somalia, according to the UNHCR. And their neighbouring nations host the most.

      Most Syrians have escaped to Turkey and more than half of Afghan refugees are in Pakistan.

      Many South Sudanese go to nearby Sudan or Uganda. Those from Myanmar - the majority Rohingya refugees displaced at the end of 2017 - mainly fled to Bangladesh.

      Germany, which doesn’t border any of those countries with the largest outflows, is home to more than half a million Syrian and 190,000 Afghan refugees - the result of its “welcome culture” towards refugees established in 2015. It has since toughened up refugee requirements.

      When assessing the burden placed on the host countries, Lebanon holds the largest number of refugees relative to its population. One in every six people living in the country is a refugee, the vast majority from across the border in Syria.

      The exodus from Syria has also seen refugee numbers in neighbouring Jordan swell, putting pressure on resources. About 85% of the Syrians currently settled in Jordan live below the poverty line, according to the UN.

      Overall, one third of the global refugee population (6.7 million people) live in the least developed countries of the world.
      Many go to live in massive temporary camps

      Large numbers of those driven from their home countries end up in cramped, temporary tent cities that spring up in places of need.

      The biggest in the world is in Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh, where half a million Rohingya now live, having fled violence in neighbouring Myanmar.

      The second largest is Bidi Bidi in northern Uganda, home to a quarter of a million people. The camp has seen many arrivals of South Sudanese fleeing civil war just a few hours north.

      Bidi Bidi, once a small village, has grown in size since 2016 and now covers 250 sq km (97 sq miles) - a third of the size of New York City.

      But what makes Bidi Bidi different from most other refugee camps, is that its residents are free to move around and work and have access to education and healthcare.

      The Ugandan government, recognised for its generous approach to refugees, also provides Bidi Bidi’s residents with plots of land, so they can farm and construct shelters, enabling them to become economically self-sufficient.

      The camp authorities are also aiming to build schools, health centres and other infrastructure out of more resilient materials, with the ultimate aim of creating a working city.

      Among those living in Bidi Bidi are Herbat Wani, a refugee from South Sudan, and Lucy, a Ugandan, who were married last year.

      Herbat is grateful for the welcome he has received in Uganda since fleeing violence in his home country.

      “The moment you reach the boundary, you’re still scared but there are these people who welcome you - and it was really amazing,” he says. “Truly I can say Uganda at this point is home to us.”

      Lucy says she doesn’t see Herbat as a refugee at all. “He’s a human being, like me,” she says.

      However, despite the authorities’ best efforts, a number of challenges remain at Bidi Bidi.

      The latest report from the UNHCR notes there are inadequate food and water supplies, health facilities still operating under tarpaulins and not enough accommodation or schools for the large families arriving.
      Displacement could get worse

      Alongside conflict and violence, persecution and human rights violations, natural disasters are increasingly responsible for forcing people from their homes.

      Looking at data for IDPs only, collected separately by the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC), natural disasters caused most new internal displacement cases last year, outpacing conflict as the main reason for people fleeing.

      On top of the 10.8 million internally displaced by conflict last year, there were 17.2 million people who were forced to abandon their homes because of disasters, mainly “extreme weather events” such as storms and floods, the IDMC says.

      The IDMC expects the number of people uprooted because of natural disasters to rise to 22 million this year, based on data for the first half of 2019.

      Mass displacement by extreme weather events is “becoming the norm”, its report says, and IDMC’s director Alexandra Bilak has urged global leaders to invest more in ways of mitigating the effects of climate change.

      Tropical cyclones and monsoon floods forced many in India and Bangladesh from their homes earlier this year, while Cyclone Idai wreaked havoc in southern Africa, killing more than 1,000 people and uprooting millions in Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Malawi.

      Idai was “one of the deadliest weather-related disasters to hit the southern hemisphere”, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) said.

      Although linking any single event to global warming is complicated, climate change is expected to increase the frequency of such extreme weather events.

      The WMO warns that the physical and financial impacts of global warming are already on the rise.

      Phan Thi Hang, a farmer in Vietnam’s Ben Tre province, has told the BBC his country’s changing climate has already had a “huge impact” on rice yields.

      “There has been less rain than in previous years,” he says. "As a result, farming is much more difficult.

      “We can now only harvest two crops instead of three each year, and the success of these is not a sure thing.”

      He says he and his fellow farmers now have to work as labourers or diversify into breeding cattle to make extra cash, while others have left the countryside for the city.

      Like Phan’s fellow farmers, many IDPs head to cities in search of safety from weather-related events as well as better lives.

      But many of the world’s urban areas may not offer people the sanctuary they are seeking.

      Displaced people in cities often end up seeking shelter in unfinished or abandoned buildings and are short of food, water and basic services, making them vulnerable to illness and disease, the IDMC says. They are also difficult to identify and track, mingling with resident populations.

      On top of this, some of the world’s biggest cities are also at risk from rising global temperatures.

      Almost all (95%) cities facing extreme climate risks are in Africa or Asia, a report by risk analysts Verisk Maplecroft has found.

      And it’s the faster-growing cities that are most at risk, including megacities like Lagos in Nigeria and Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

      Some 84 of the world’s 100 fastest-growing cities face “extreme” risks from rising temperatures and extreme weather brought on by climate change.

      This means that those fleeing to urban areas to escape the impact of a warming world may well end up having their lives disrupted again by the effects of rising temperatures.

      https://www.bbc.com/news/world-49638793
      #conflits #violence #Bidi-Bidi #camps_de_réfugiés #bidi_bidi #vulnérabilité #changement_climatique #climat #villes #infographie #visualisation

  • Nearly All U.S. Visa Applicants Now Required To Submit 5-Year Social Media History | HuffPost
    https://www.huffpost.com/entry/visa-social-media-state-department_n_5cf4898ce4b0e8085e3bfde1

    Hina Shamsi, director of the American Civil Liberties Union’s National Security Project, said the new policy was a “dangerous and problematic proposal.”

    It “does nothing to protect security concerns but raises significant privacy concerns and First Amendment issues for citizens and immigrants,” Shamsi told the Times. “Research shows that this kind of monitoring has chilling effects, meaning that people are less likely to speak freely and connect with each other in online communities that are now essential to modern life.”

    #etats-unis #visas#démocratie#leadership #monde_libre

  • Hundreds of Europeans ‘criminalised’ for helping migrants – as far right aims to win big in European elections

    Elderly women, priests and firefighters among those arrested, charged or ‘harassed’ by police for supporting migrants, with numbers soaring in the past 18 months.

    These cases – compiled from news reports and other records from researchers, NGOs and activist groups, as well as new interviews across Europe – suggest a sharp increase in the number of people targeted since the start of 2018. At least 100 people were arrested, charged or investigated last year (a doubling of that figure for the preceding year).


    https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/5050/hundreds-of-europeans-criminalised-for-helping-migrants-new-data-show
    #délit_de_solidarité #solidarité #asile #migrations #réfugiés #Europe
    #Allemagne #criminalisation #statistiques #chiffres #Suisse #Danemark #Espagne #France #journalisme #journalistes #presse #Grèce #Calais

    #Norbert_Valley #Christian_Hartung #Miguel_Roldan #Lise_Ramslog #Claire_Marsol #Anouk_Van_Gestel #Lisbeth_Zornig_Andersen #Daphne_Vloumidi #Mikael_Lindholm #Fernand_Bosson #Benoit_Duclois #Mussie_Zerai #Manuel_Blanco #Tom_Ciotkowski #Rob_Lawrie

    ping @isskein @karine4

    • The creeping criminalisation of humanitarian aid

      At the heart of the trial of a volunteer with American migrant aid group No More Deaths that began in Arizona last week lies the question of when humanitarian aid crosses the line and becomes a criminal offence.

      Scott Warren, 37, faces three felony charges after he helped two undocumented migrants by providing them food, shelter, and transportation over three days in January 2018 – his crime, prosecutors say, wasn’t helping people but hiding them from law enforcement officers.

      Whichever way the case goes, humanitarian work appears to be under growing threat of criminalisation by certain governments.

      Aid organisations have long faced suspensions in difficult operating environments due to geopolitical or domestic political concerns – from Pakistan to Sudan to Burundi – but they now face a new criminalisation challenge from Western governments, whether it’s rescue missions in the Mediterranean or toeing the US counter-terror line in the Middle East.

      As aid workers increasingly find themselves in the legal crosshairs, here’s a collection of our reporting to draw attention to this emerging trend.

      http://www.thenewhumanitarian.org/news/2019/06/07/creeping-criminalisation-humanitarian-aid

      Dans l’article une liste d’articles poubliés dans The New Humanitarian sur le délit de solidarité un peu partout dans le #monde...

    • European activists fight back against ‘criminalisation’ of aid for migrants and refugees

      More and more people are being arrested across Europe for helping migrants and refugees. Now, civil society groups are fighting back against the 17-year-old EU policy they say lies at the root of what activists and NGOs have dubbed the “criminalisation of solidarity”.

      http://www.thenewhumanitarian.org/news-feature/2019/06/20/european-activists-fight-criminalisation-aid-migrants-refugees

      Et le #rapport:
      Crackdown on NGOs and volunteers helping refugees and other migrants


      http://www.resoma.eu/sites/resoma/resoma/files/policy_brief/pdf/Final%20Synthetic%20Report%20-%20Crackdown%20on%20NGOs%20and%20volunteers%20h

    • Documentan incremento de amenazas contra defensores de migrantes tras acuerdo con EU

      Tras el acuerdo migratorio que México y los Estados Unidos firmaron el pasado junio, se han incrementado los riesgos y amenazas que sufren las y los activistas que defienden a migrantes en Centroamérica, México y Estados Unidos. Esa es la conclusión del informe “Defensores sin muros: personas defensoras de Derechos Humanos criminalizadas en Centroamérica, México y Estados Unidos”, elaborado por la ONG Frontline Defenders, el Programa de Asuntos Migratorios de la Universidad Iberoamericana y la Red Nacional de Organismos Civiles Todos los Derechos para Todas y Todos. El documento identifica 69 eventos de detención, amenazas, acoso, difamación, agresión, deportación, vigilancia o negación de entrada a un país. La mayoría de ellos, 41, tuvieron lugar durante 2019, según un listado que acompaña al informe. Uno de los grandes hallazgos: la existencia de colaboración entre México y Estados Unidos para cerrar el paso a los migrantes y perseguir a los activistas. “Los gobiernos tienen relaciones tensas, difíciles, complicadas. México y Estados Unidos están pasando por uno de sus peores momentos en bilaterales, pero cuando se trata de cooperar para restringir Derechos Humanos hay colaboración absoluta”, dijo Carolina Jiménez, de Amnistía Internacional. Entre estas colaboraciones destaca un trabajo conjunto de ambos países para identificar a activistas y periodistas que quedaron fichados en un registro secreto. El informe se presentó ayer en la Ciudad de México, al mismo tiempo en el que el presidente estadounidense, Donald Trump, habló ante la asamblea general de las Naciones Unidas, agradeciendo al presidente Andrés Manuel López Obrador “por la gran cooperación que estamos recibiendo y por poner a 27 mil soldados en nuestra frontera sur”.

      https://www.educaoaxaca.org/documentan-incremento-de-amenazas-contra-defensores-de-migrantes-tras-a
      #Amérique_centrale #Mexique

    • Migration and the Shrinking Humanitarian Space in Europe

      As of October 10th, 1071 deaths of migrants were recorded in the Mediterranean in 2019.[1] In their attempt to save lives, civilian maritime search and rescue organisations like Sea Watch or Proactive Open Arms have gained high levels of media attention over the last years. Cases such as the arrest of the captain of the Sea Watch 3, Carola Rackete, in June 2019 or the three weeks odyssey of Open Arms in August 2019 dominate the media and public discourse in Europe. The closing of ports in Italy, Spain and Malta, the confiscation of vessels, legal proceedings against crew members alongside tight migration policies and anti-trafficking laws have led to a shrinking space for principled humanitarian action in Europe. While maritime search and rescue (SAR) activities receive most of the attention, focusing solely on them prevents one from seeing the bigger picture: a general shrinking of humanitarian space in Europe. In the following, the analysis will shed some light on patterns in which the space for assisting and protecting people on the move is shrinking both on land and at sea.
      Migration and Humanitarian Action

      Migration is not a new phenomenon. Throughout history people have left their homes to seek safety and pursue a better life. Yet, due to increasing human mobility and mounting crisis migration the number of people on the move is consistently rising (Martin, Weerasinghe, and Taylor 2014). In 2019, The International Organisation for Migration (IOM) documents more than 258 million international migrants worldwide, compared to 214 million in 2009.[2]

      This number is composed of a variety of different migrant groups, such as students, international labour migrants or registered refugees. Based on a distinction between voluntary and involuntary migration, not all these groups are considered people in need of international protection and humanitarian assistance (Léon 2018). Accordingly, unlike refugees or internally displaced persons (IDPs) migrants generally fall out of the humanitarian architecture.[3] Yet, notwithstanding the reasons for migrating, people on the move can become vulnerable to human trafficking, sexual exploitation and other forms of abuse during their journey. They strand at borders and live in deplorable conditions (Léon 2018).

      The UN Secretary General’s Agenda for Humanity therefore stresses the importance of addressing the vulnerabilities of migrants. This entails providing more regular and legal pathways for migration but also requires “a collective and comprehensive response to displacement, migration and mobility”, including the provision of humanitarian visas and protection for people on the move who do not fall under the narrow confines of the 1951 Refugee Convention.[4] The view that specific vulnerabilities of migrants are to be integrated into humanitarian response plans is reflected in the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement’s approach to migration, which is strictly humanitarian and focuses on the needs and vulnerabilities of migrants irrespective of their legal status, type, or category (Linde 2009).

      Thereby, the term ‘migrant’ is deliberately kept broad to include the needs of labour migrants, vulnerabilities due to statelessness or being considered irregular by public authorities (ibid.). Despite this clear commitment to the protection of people on the move, migrants remain a vulnerable group with a high number losing their lives on migratory routes or going missing. Home to three main migratory routes, the Mediterranean is considered one of the world’s deadliest migration routes.[5]

      When in 2015 an unprecedented number of people made their way into Europe this exposed the unpreparedness of the EU and its member states in reacting quickly and effectively to the needs of people on the move. A report by the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) on refugees and vulnerable migrants in Europe concludes that “Europe’s actual humanitarian response must be judged a failure in many respects; basic needs have not been met and vulnerable people have not been protected” (De Largy 2016).

      For humanitarian organisations with experience in setting up and managing camps in countries of the Global South, managing the humanitarian response in their own backyard seems to have posed significant challenges. When more than one million people arrived in 2015, most international humanitarian organisations had no operational agreement with European states, no presences in affected areas, no funding lines for European activities and no established channels to mobilise resources (ibid.). This has led to protection gaps in the humanitarian response, which, in many cases, have been filled by activists, volunteers and civil society actors. Despite a number of factors, including the EU-Turkey deal, arrangements with Libya and toughening border controls, have since lead to a decline in the number of people arriving in Europe, sustained humanitarian action is needed and these actors continue to provide essential services to refugees and vulnerable migrants. However, with hostile attitudes towards migrants on the rise, and the marked effects of several successful smear campaigns, a number of organisations and civil society actors have taken it upon themselves to bring much needed attention to the shrinking space for civil society.
      Shrinking Humanitarian Space in Europe

      The shrinking space for civil society action is also impacting on the space for principled humanitarian action in Europe. While no agreed upon definition of humanitarian space[6] exists, the concept is used in reference to the physical access that humanitarian organisations have to the affected population, the nature of the operating environment for the humanitarian response including security conditions, and the ability of humanitarian actors to adhere to the core principles of humanitarian action (Collinson and Elhawary 2012: 2). Moreover, the concept includes the ability of affected people to reach lifesaving assistance and protection. The independence of humanitarian action from politics is central to this definition of humanitarian space, emphasising the need to adhere to the principles of humanity, neutrality, impartiality and independence as well as to maintain a clear distinction between the roles and functions of humanitarian in contrast to those of military and political actors (OCHA, 2003). Humanitarian actors within this space strive to achieve their mission of saving lives and alleviating suffering by seeking ongoing access to the affected population.

      Though the many organisations, volunteers and individuals that work on migration issues in Europe would not all self-identify or be considered purely humanitarian organisations, many of them provide life-saving services to people on the move. Thus, the humanitarian space is occupied by a diversity of actors, including human rights organisations, solidarity networks, and concerned individuals alongside more traditional humanitarian actors (Léon 2018).

      Referring to the limited room for agency and restricted access to the affected population, the shrinking humanitarian space in Europe has been linked to the spreading of populism, restrictive migration policies, the securitisation of migration and the criminalisation of humanitarian action (Hammerl 2019). These developments are by no means limited to Europe. Other regions of the world witness a similar shrinking of the humanitarian space for assisting people on the move. In Europe and elsewhere migration and asylum policies have to a great extent determined the humanitarian space. Indeed, EU migration policies have negatively affected the ways in which humanitarian actors are able to carry out their work along the migration routes, limiting the space for principled humanitarian action (Atger 2019). These policies are primarily directed at combatting human trafficking and smuggling, protecting European borders and national security interests. Through prioritising security over humanitarian action, they have contributed to the criminalisation of individuals and organisations that work with people on the move (ibid.). As has been particularly visible in the context of civilian maritime SAR activities, the criminalisation of humanitarian action, bureaucratic hurdles, and attacks on and harassment of aid workers and volunteers have limited the access to the affected population in Europe.
      Criminalisation

      The criminalisation of migration that has limited the space for principled humanitarian action is a process that occurs along three interrelated lines: first, the discursive criminalisation of migration; second, the interweaving of criminal law and policing for migration management purposes; and finally, the use of detention as a way of controlling people on the move (Hammerl 2019, citing Parkin). With media and public discourse asserting that migrants are ‘illegal’, people assisting them have been prosecuted on the grounds of facilitating illegal entry, human trafficking and smuggling.

      Already back in 2002, the Cypriot NGO Action for Equality, Support and Anti-Racism (KISA) was prosecuted under criminal law after it had launched a financial appeal to cover healthcare costs for a migrant worker (Fekete 2009). This is just been one of six cases in which the Director of an organisation has been arrested for his work with migrants.[7] While KISA takes a clear human rights stance, these trends are also observable for humanitarian activities such as providing food or shelter. Individuals and organisations providing assistance and transportation to migrants have faced legal prosecution in France and Belgium for human smuggling in 2018. Offering shelter to migrants in transit has led to arrests of individuals accused of human trafficking (Atger 2019).[8] The criminalisation of civilian maritime SAR activities has led to the arrest and prosecution of crew members and the seizing of rescue vessels.

      The tension between anti-smuggling and anti-trafficking laws and humanitarian action is a result of the European ‘Facilitators’ Package’ from 2002 that defines the facilitation of unauthorised entry, transit and residence.[9] Though the Directive and its implementation in national legislatures foresees humanitarian exemptions[10], the impact of these laws and regulations on the humanitarian space has been critical. Lacking clarity, these laws have been implemented differently by EU member states and created a sense of uncertainty for individuals and organisations assisting migrants, who now risk criminal prosecution (Carrera et al. 2018). In several EU member states with humanitarian exemptions, humanitarian actors were reportedly prosecuted (ibid.). A case in point is Greece, which has a specific humanitarian exemption applying to maritime SAR activities and the facilitation of entry for asylum seekers rescued at sea. Despite sounding promising at first, this has not prevented the prosecution of volunteer crew members of the Emergency Response Centre International (ERCI) due to the existence of two legal loopholes. The first of these works on the basis that rescuers are not able to identify who is in need of international protection, and second, the legal framework contains an exemption from punishment, but not prosecution.[11]
      Bureaucratic Hurdles

      Besides the criminalisation of humanitarian activities, across Europe – predominantly at borders – administrative decisions and rules have narrowed the space for humanitarian action (Atger 2019). In countries such as France, Germany, Hungary, Spain and Italy, laws and regulations prevent organisations from accessing reception centres or transit zones between borders (Hammerl 2019, Amnesty 2019). A reduction of financial support and tighter legal requirements for operation further hinder organisations to assist people on the move (Atger 2019). In the case of maritime SAR operations, NGOs had to stop their operations due to de-flagging of rescue ships as ordered by EU member state authorities.[12]

      Access to people on the move is obstructed in manifold ways and organisations face a mix of intimidations strategies and bureaucratic obstacles in their mission to deliver aid (Léon 2018). In Germany, new asylum policies in 2015 changed the provision of the previous cash-based assistance to in-kind aid.[13] This is inconsistent with German humanitarian policy in other migrant and refugee hosting countries, where the German Foreign Ministry promotes cash-based programming as an efficient, effective and dignified way of assisting people in need.

      Apart from instructions and orders by public authorities and law enforcement entities, other tactics range from frequent ID checks, parking fines to threats of arrest (Amnesty 2019). In Calais, humanitarian action was obstructed when the municipality of Calais prohibited the distribution of food as well as the delivery of temporary showers to the site by a local charity with two municipal orders in March 2017 (Amnesty 2019). In 2017, the Hungarian Parliament passed the so-called LEX NGO. Like the foreign agent law in Russia, it includes provisions for NGOs that receive more than EUR 23 000 per year from abroad (including EU member states) to register as “organisations receiving foreign funding”. Coupled with a draft bill of a new Tax Law that establishes a 25% punitive tax to be paid for “propaganda activities that indicate positive aspects of migration”, these attempts to curtail work with migrants has a chilling effect both on NGOs and donors. As the punitive tax is to be paid by the donor organisation, or by the NGO itself in case the donor fails to do so, organisations risk bankruptcy.[14]
      Policing Humanitarianism[15]

      An increasingly hostile environment towards migration, fuelled by anti-immigrant sentiments and public discourse, has led to suspicion, intimidation and harassment of individuals and organisations working to assist and protect them. The securitisation of migration (Lazaridis and Wadia 2015), in which migrants are constructed as a potential security threat and a general atmosphere of fear is created, has given impetus to a general policing of humanitarian action. Even when not criminalised, humanitarian actors have been hindered in their work by a whole range of dissuasion and intimidation strategies. Civilian maritime SAR organisations in particular have been targets of defamation and anti-immigration rhetoric. Though analyses of migratory trends have proved that a correlation between SAR operations and an increase of migrant crossings was indeed erroneous (Cusumano and Pattison, Crawley et al. 2016, Cummings et al. 2015), organisations are still being accused of both constituting a pull-factor for migration (Fekete 2018) and of working together with human traffickers. In some instances, this has led to them being labelled as taxis for ‘illegal’ migrants (Hammerl 2019). In Greece, and elsewhere, volunteers assisting migrants have been subject to police harassment. Smear campaigns, especially in the context of SAR operations in the Mediterranean, have affected the humanitarian sector as a whole “by creating suspicion towards the work of humanitarians” (Atger 2019). Consequently, organisations have encountered difficulties in recruiting volunteers and seen a decline in donations. This prevented some organisations from publicly announcing their participation in maritime SAR or their work with migrants.[16] In severe cases, humanitarian actors suffered physical threats by security personnel or “self-proclaimed vigilante groups” (Hammerl 2019).

      Moreover, having to work alongside security forces and within a policy framework that primarily aims at border policing and migration deterrence (justified on humanitarian grounds), humanitarian actors risk being associated with migration control techniques in the management of ‘humanitarian borders’ (Moreno-Lax 2018, Pallister-Wilkins 2018). When Italy in 2017 urged search and rescue organisations to sign a controversial Code of Conduct in order to continue disembarkation at Italian ports, some organisations refused to do so. The Code of Conduct endangered humanitarian principles by making life-saving activities conditional on collaborating in the fight against smugglers and the presence of law enforcement personnel on board (Cusumano 2019).

      Beyond the maritime space, the politicisation of EU aid jeopardises the neutrality of humanitarian actors, forcing them to either disengage or be associated with a political agenda of migration deterrence. Humanitarian organisations are increasingly requested to grant immigration authorities access to their premises, services and data (Atger 2019). In Greece, a legislation was introduced in 2016 which entailed the close monitoring of, and restrictive access for, volunteers and NGOs assisting asylum seekers, thereby placing humanitarian action under the supervision of security forces (Hammerl 2019). As a consequence of the EU-Turkey Deal in 2016, MSF announced[17] that it would no longer accept funding by EU states and institutions “only to treat the victims of their policies” (Atger 2019).
      The Way Ahead

      The shrinking space poses a fundamental challenge for principled humanitarian action in Europe. The shrinking humanitarian space can only be understood against the backdrop of a general shrinking civil space in Europe (Strachwitz 2019, Wachsmann and Bouchet 2019). However, the ways in which the shrinking space affects humanitarian action in Europe has so far received little attention in the humanitarian sector. The problem goes well beyond the widely discussed obstacles to civilian maritime SAR operations.

      Humanitarian organisations across Europe assist people arriving at ports, staying in official or unofficial camps or being in transit. An increasingly hostile environment that is fuelled by populist and securitisation discourses limits access to, and protection of, people on the move both on land and at sea. The criminalisation of aid, bureaucratic hurdles and harassment of individuals and organisations assisting migrants are just some of the ways in which humanitarian access is obstructed in Europe.

      A defining feature of humanitarian action in Europe has been the important and essential role of volunteers, civil society organisations and solidarity networks both at the grassroots’ level and across national borders. Large humanitarian actors, on the other hand, took time to position themselves (Léon 2018) or have shied away from a situation that is unfamiliar and could also jeopardize the financial support of their main donors – EU member states.

      Since then, the humanitarian space has been encroached upon in many ways and it has become increasingly difficult for volunteers or (small) humanitarian organisations to assist and protect people on the move. The criminalisation of humanitarian action is particularly visible in the context of civilian maritime SAR activities in the Mediterranean, but also bureaucratic hurdles and the co-optation of the humanitarian response into other political objectives have limited the space for principled humanitarian action. In order to protect people on the move, national, regional and international responses are needed to offer protection and assistance to migrants in countries of origin, transit and destination. Thereby, the humanitarian response needs to be in line with the principles of impartiality, neutrality, and independence to ensure access to the affected population. While the interests of states to counter organised crime, including human trafficking, is legitimate, this should not restrict humanitarian access to vulnerable migrants and refugees.

      In Europe, the biggest obstacle for effective humanitarian action is a lacking political will and the inability of the EU to achieve consensus on migration policies (DeLargy 2016). The Malta Agreement, a result of the latest EU Summit of Home Affairs Ministers in September 2019 and subsequent negotiations in Luxembourg in October of the same year, has failed to address the shortcomings of current migration policies and to remove the obstacles standing in the way of principled humanitarian action in the Mediterranean. For this, new alliances are warranted between humanitarian, human rights and migration focussed organizations to defend the humanitarian space for principled action to provide crucial support to people on the move both on land and at sea.

      http://chaberlin.org/en/publications/migration-and-the-shrinking-humanitarian-space-in-europe-2

      Pour télécharger le rapport:
      http://chaberlin.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/2019-10-debattenbeitrag-migration-shrinking-humanitarian-space-roepstorff
      #CHA #Centre_for_humanitarian_action

  • Villes – jamais sans ma voiture ?
    http://carfree.fr/index.php/2019/05/29/villes-jamais-sans-ma-voiture

    Un épisode de la série « Le dessous des cartes » diffusée sur la chaîne Arte fait le point sur les transports dans les villes du #monde. L’épisode s’intitule « Villes – jamais Lire la suite...

    #Etalement_urbain #Fin_de_l'automobile #Pollution_automobile #Belgique #carte #cartographie #congestion #france #pollution #Suisse #trafic #vidéo

  • Le bel avenir des inégalités

    Que vaut la promesse d’égalité démocratique lorsque la situation matérielle des classes moyennes et populaires stagne ou régresse ? À travers une analyse implacable des inégalités mondiales, #Branko_Milanovic met en évidence la difficulté du combat pour la #justice_sociale au début du XXIe siècle.


    https://laviedesidees.fr/Le-bel-avenir-des-inegalites.html
    #inégalités #livre #monde #classes_moyennes #riches #pauvres #richesse #pauvreté #égalité_des_chances
    ping @reka

    • « Il se passe quelque chose de très #malsain dans ce pays » : critiques après de nouvelles convocations de journalistes par la #DGSI
      https://www.lemonde.fr/societe/article/2019/05/23/vague-de-protestations-apres-de-nouvelles-convocations-de-journalistes-par-l

      La rédaction du #Monde continue de dénoncer « une forme de banalisation de ce type de convocations, qui devraient être absolument exceptionnelles et liées à des affaires particulièrement graves de mise en danger de la sécurité nationale ». De source judiciaire, #Ariane_Chemin est convoquée dans le cadre d’une enquête ouverte pour « révélation de l’identité d’un membre des unités des #forces_spéciales ».

      Selon des sources concordantes, cette #enquête fait suite à une plainte déposée à la mi-avril par #Chokri_Wakrim. Ce dernier était lié par un contrat de protection rapprochée avec un homme d’affaires russe, qui a conduit à l’ouverture d’une enquête pour « corruption ». « L’intérêt public suppose de pouvoir enquêter sur les entourages et les liens entretenus par des collaborateurs de l’Elysée ou de Matignon, quels que soient leurs parcours antérieurs », défend Luc Bronner.

      La rédaction de #Disclose dénonce également « une nouvelle tentative du #parquet_de_Paris de contourner la #loi_de_1881 sur la liberté de la presse et la protection des sources ». « En tant que témoin notre #journaliste ne pourra pas être assisté d’un avocat. Il ne pourra pas non plus faire valoir le “droit au silence”. Mais en tant que journaliste, il pourra invoquer le secret des #sources », précise le site.

  • Le trafic automobile responsable de quatre millions de nouveaux cas d’asthme infantile par an
    http://carfree.fr/index.php/2019/05/16/le-trafic-automobile-responsable-de-quatre-millions-de-nouveaux-cas-dasthme-

    Un travail récent sur la #pollution atmosphérique a isolé et montré l’impact important du trafic routier (soit principalement des autos et motos selon les pays) sur la santé des #enfants Lire la suite...

    #Pollution_automobile #air #asthme #circulation #monde #paris #santé #ville

  • Fantasy maps by #Misty_Beee

    I’m Beee and I’m a fantasy map maker from France. My biggest pleasure is to bring reality to worlds that only exists in the imagination of their authors : I love to work in collaboration with them to create the map they dream of.

    I mostly work with fantasy authors or roleplayers, but I’m open to any occasion to discover new universes, so don’t hesitate to contact me to talk about your project : I’m always ok to chat and always happy to help !


    http://mistybeee.com
    #cartographie #visualisation #imagination #mondes_imaginaires #monde_imaginaire #littérature #imaginaire
    signalé par @isskein sur twitter
    ping @reka @odilon