• Vincent Duclert : « Jamais Picquart n’a été le précurseur de Zola, jamais il n’aurait écrit “J’accuse” »


    L’historien Vincent Duclert estime que le film de Roman Polanski donne une image héroïque qui trahit la réalité du militaire engagé pour faire innocenter Dreyfus.

    Vincent Duclert, historien, est l’un des grands spécialistes de l’affaire Dreyfus, à laquelle il a consacré plusieurs ouvrages de référence. Il vient de publier « Ecrire, c’est résister », la correspondance entre Alfred Dreyfus et son épouse Lucie, de 1894 à 1899 (éd. Folio Histoire, 304 p., 7,90 €).

    Quel regard porte l’historien que vous êtes sur le film de Roman Polanski, « J’accuse » ?

    Dès lors que le film s’ancre dans l’histoire, on est autorisé à le juger sur son rapport à cette matière. Or je constate, pour aller à l’essentiel, que le film donne de son personnage principal, le colonel Picquart, une image qui trahit la réalité.

    Il y apparaît en effet comme un personnage héroïque, qui se sacrifie à la cause de Dreyfus, et qui travaille main dans la main à cet égard avec le camp des dreyfusards. Il n’en fut rien. Comme le montre le récent ouvrage de Philippe Oriol, Le Faux Ami du capitaine Dreyfus, Picquart, dont il ne faut pas nier pour autant le rôle important qu’il a joué, n’a jamais agi que pour défendre sa propre cause quand il a été menacé, il n’a jamais collaboré avec les dreyfusards. Bien au contraire, il a toujours songé à défendre l’armée, il ne s’est jamais dépris de son antisémitisme ni de son aversion à l’égard de Dreyfus.

    En un mot, rien ne trahit mieux les raccourcis navrants du film que son titre : jamais Picquart n’a été le précurseur de Zola, jamais il n’aurait écrit « J’accuse ».

    Cette héroïsation de Picquart a enfin pour regrettable effet de donner de Dreyfus, par contraste, une image de pure victime. Il se trouve que cette image a longtemps collé au personnage. Or, Dreyfus fit montre d’un grand stoïcisme et d’une remarquable capacité de résistance. Sa correspondance avec sa femme Lucie en témoigne fortement. Dreyfus est en vérité ce qu’on semble encore avoir beaucoup de mal à concevoir : un héros juif.

    […] #mur_d'argent

  • The business of building walls

    Thirty years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, Europe is once again known for its border walls. This time Europe is divided not so much by ideology as by perceived fear of refugees and migrants, some of the world’s most vulnerable people.

    Who killed the dream of a more open Europe? What gave rise to this new era of walls? There are clearly many reasons – the increasing displacement of people by conflict, repression and impoverishment, the rise of security politics in the wake of 9/11, the economic and social insecurity felt across Europe after the 2008 financial crisis – to name a few. But one group has by far the most to gain from the rise of new walls – the businesses that build them. Their influence in shaping a world of walls needs much deeper examination.

    This report explores the business of building walls, which has both fuelled and benefited from a massive expansion of public spending on border security by the European Union (EU) and its member states. Some of the corporate beneficiaries are also global players, tapping into a global market for border security estimated to be worth approximately €17.5 billion in 2018, with annual growth of at least 8% expected in coming years.


    It is important to look both beyond and behind Europe’s walls and fencing, because the real barriers to contemporary migration are not so much the fencing, but the vast array of technology that underpins it, from the radar systems to the drones to the surveillance cameras to the biometric fingerprinting systems. Similarly, some of Europe’s most dangerous walls are not even physical or on land. The ships, aircrafts and drones used to patrol the Mediterranean have created a maritime wall and a graveyard for the thousands of migrants and refugees who have no legal passage to safety or to exercise their right to seek asylum.

    This renders meaningless the European Commission’s publicized statements that it does not fund walls and fences. Commission spokesperson Alexander Winterstein, for example, rejecting Hungary’s request to reimburse half the costs of the fences built on its borders with Croatia and Serbia, said: ‘We do support border management measures at external borders. These can be surveillance measures. They can be border control equipment...But fences, we do not finance’. In other words, the Commission is willing to pay for anything that fortifies a border as long as it is not seen to be building the walls themselves.

    This report is a sequel to Building Walls – Fear and securitization in the European Union, co-published in 2018 with Centre Delàs and Stop Wapenhandel, which first measured and identified the walls that criss-cross Europe. This new report focuses on the businesses that have profited from three different kinds of wall in Europe:

    The construction companies contracted to build the land walls built by EU member states and the Schengen Area together with the security and technology companies that provide the necessary accompanying technology, equipment and services;

    The shipping and arms companies that provide the ships, aircraft, helicopters, drones that underpin Europe’s maritime walls seeking to control migratory flows in the Mediterranean, including Frontex operations, Operation Sophia and Italian operation Mare Nostrum;
    And the IT and security companies contracted to develop, run, expand and maintain EU’s systems that monitor the movement of people – such as SIS II (Schengen Information System) and EES (Entry/Exit Scheme) – which underpin Europe’s virtual walls.

    Booming budgets

    The flow of money from taxpayers to wall-builders has been highly lucrative and constantly growing. The report finds that companies have reaped the profits from at least €900 million spent by EU countries on land walls and fences since the end of the Cold War. The partial data (in scope and years) means actual costs will be at least €1 billion. In addition, companies that provide technology and services that accompany walls have also benefited from some of the steady stream of funding from the EU – in particular the External Borders Fund (€1.7 billion, 2007-2013) and the Internal Security Fund – Borders Fund (€2.76 billion, 2014-2020).

    EU spending on maritime walls has totalled at least €676.4 million between 2006 to 2017 (including €534 million spent by Frontex, €28.4 million spent by the EU on Operation Sophia and €114 million spent by Italy on Operation Mare Nostrum) and would be much more if you include all the operations by Mediterranean country coastguards. Total spending on Europe’s virtual wall equalled at least €999.4m between 2000 and 2019. (All these estimates are partial ones because walls are funded by many different funding mechanisms and due to lack of data transparency).

    This boom in border budgets is set to grow. Under its budget for the next EU budget cycle (2021–2027) the European Commission has earmarked €8.02 billion to its Integrated Border Management Fund (2021-2027), €11.27bn to Frontex (of which €2.2 billion will be used for acquiring, maintaining and operating air, sea and land assets) and at least €1.9 billion total spending (2000-2027) on its identity databases and Eurosur (the European Border Surveillance System).
    The big arm industry players

    Three giant European military and security companies in particular play a critical role in Europe’s many types of borders. These are Thales, Leonardo and Airbus.

    Thales is a French arms and security company, with a significant presence in the Netherlands, that produces radar and sensor systems, used by many ships in border security. Thales systems, were used, for example, by Dutch and Portuguese ships deployed in Frontex operations. Thales also produces maritime surveillance systems for drones and is working on developing border surveillance infrastructure for Eurosur, researching how to track and control refugees before they reach Europe by using smartphone apps, as well as exploring the use of High Altitude Pseudo Satellites (HAPS) for border security, for the European Space Agency and Frontex. Thales currently provides the security system for the highly militarised port in Calais. Its acquisition in 2019 of Gemalto, a large (biometric) identity security company, makes it a significant player in the development and maintenance of EU’s virtual walls. It has participated in 27 EU research projects on border security.
    Italian arms company Leonardo (formerly Finmeccanica or Leonardo-Finmeccanica) is a leading supplier of helicopters for border security, used by Italy in the Mare Nostrum, Hera and Sophia operations. It has also been one of the main providers of UAVs (or drones) for Europe’s borders, awarded a €67.1 million contract in 2017 by the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA) to supply them for EU coast-guard agencies. Leonardo was also a member of a consortium, awarded €142.1 million in 2019 to implement and maintain EU’s virtual walls, namely its EES. It jointly owns Telespazio with Thales, involved in EU satellite observation projects (REACT and Copernicus) used for border surveillance. Leonardo has participated in 24 EU research projects on border security and control, including the development of Eurosur.
    Pan-European arms giant Airbus is a key supplier of helicopters used in patrolling maritime and some land borders, deployed by Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania and Spain, including in maritime Operations Sophia, Poseidon and Triton. Airbus and its subsidiaries have participated in at least 13 EU-funded border security research projects including OCEAN2020, PERSEUS and LOBOS.
    The significant role of these arms companies is not surprising. As Border Wars (2016), showed these companies through their membership of the lobby groups – European Organisation for Security (EOS) and the AeroSpace and Defence Industries Association of Europe (ASD) – have played a significant role in influencing the direction of EU border policy. Perversely, these firms are also among the top four biggest European arms dealers to the Middle East and North Africa, thus contributing to the conflicts that cause forced migration.

    Indra has been another significant corporate player in border control in Spain and the Mediterranean. It won a series of contracts to fortify Ceuta and Melilla (Spanish enclaves in northern Morocco). Indra also developed the SIVE border control system (with radar, sensors and vision systems), which is in place on most of Spain’s borders, as well as in Portugal and Romania. In July 2018 it won a €10 million contract to manage SIVE at several locations for two years. Indra is very active in lobbying the EU and is a major beneficiary of EU research funding, coordinating the PERSEUS project to further develop Eurosur and the Seahorse Network, a network between police forces in Mediterranean countries (both in Europe and Africa) to stop migration.

    Israeli arms firms are also notable winners of EU border contracts. In 2018, Frontex selected the Heron drone from Israel Aerospace Industries for pilot-testing surveillance flights in the Mediterranean. In 2015, Israeli firm Elbit sold six of its Hermes UAVs to the Switzerland’s Border Guard, in a controversial €230 million deal. It has since signed a UAV contract with the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA), as a subcontractor for the Portuguese company CEIIA (2018), as well as contracts to supply technology for three patrol vessels for the Hellenic Coast Guard (2019).
    Land wall contractors

    Most of the walls and fences that have been rapidly erected across Europe have been built by national construction companies, but one European company has dominated the field: European Security Fencing, a Spanish producer of razor wire, in particular a coiled wire known as concertinas. It is most known for the razor wire on the fences around Ceuta and Melilla. It also delivered the razor wire for the fence on the border between Hungary and Serbia, and its concertinas were installed on the borders between Bulgaria and Turkey and Austria and Slovenia, as well as at Calais, and for a few days on the border between Hungary and Slovenia before being removed. Given its long-term market monopoly, its concertinas are very likely used at other borders in Europe.

    Other contractors providing both walls and associated technology include DAT-CON (Croatia, Cyprus, Macedonia, Moldova, Slovenia and Ukraine), Geo Alpinbau (Austria/Slovenia), Indra, Dragados, Ferrovial, Proyectos Y Tecnología Sallén and Eulen (Spain/Morocco), Patstroy Bourgas, Infra Expert, Patengineeringstroy, Geostroy Engineering, Metallic-Ivan Mihaylov and Indra (Bulgaria/Turkey), Nordecon and Defendec (Estonia/Russia), DAK Acélszerkezeti Kft and SIA Ceļu būvniecības sabiedrība IGATE (Latvia/Russia), Gintrėja (Lithuania/Russia), Minis and Legi-SGS(Slovenia/Croatia), Groupe CW, Jackson’s Fencing, Sorhea, Vinci/Eurovia and Zaun Ltd (France/UK).

    In many cases, the actual costs of the walls and associated technologies exceed original estimates. There have also been many allegations and legal charges of corruption, in some cases because projects were given to corporate friends of government officials. In Slovenia, for example, accusations of corruption concerning the border wall contract have led to a continuing three-year legal battle for access to documents that has reached the Supreme Court. Despite this, the EU’s External Borders Fund has been a critical financial supporter of technological infrastructure and services in many of the member states’ border operations. In Macedonia, for example, the EU has provided €9 million for patrol vehicles, night-vision cameras, heartbeat detectors and technical support for border guards to help it manage its southern border.
    Maritime wall profiteers

    The data about which ships, helicopters and aircraft are used in Europe’s maritime operations is not transparent and therefore it is difficult to get a full picture. Our research shows, however, that the key corporations involved include the European arms giants Airbus and Leonardo, as well as large shipbuilding companies including Dutch Damen and Italian Fincantieri.

    Damen’s patrol vessels have been used for border operations by Albania, Belgium, Bulgaria, Portugal, the Netherlands, Romania, Sweden and the UK as well as in key Frontex operations (Poseidon, Triton and Themis), Operation Sophia and in supporting NATO’s role in Operation Poseidon. Outside Europe, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey use Damen vessels for border security, often in cooperation with the EU or its member states. Turkey’s €20 million purchase of six Damen vessels for its coast guard in 2006, for example, was financed through the EU Instrument contributing to Stability and Peace (IcSP), intended for peace-building and conflict prevention.

    The sale of Damen vessels to Libya unveils the potential troubling human costs of this corporate trade. In 2012, Damen supplied four patrol vessels to the Libyan Coast Guard, sold as civil equipment in order to avoid a Dutch arms export license. Researchers have since found out, however, that the ships were not only sold with mounting points for weapons, but were then armed and used to stop refugee boats. Several incidents involving these ships have been reported, including one where some 20 or 30 refugees drowned. Damen has refused to comment, saying it had agreed with the Libyan government not to disclose information about the ships.

    In addition to Damen, many national shipbuilders play a significant role in maritime operations as they were invariably prioritised by the countries contributing to each Frontex or other Mediterranean operation. Hence, all the ships Italy contributed to Operation Sophia were built by Fincantieri, while all Spanish ships come from Navantia and its predecessors. Similarly, France purchases from DCN/DCNS, now Naval Group, and all German ships were built by several German shipyards (Flensburger Schiffbau-Gesellschaft, HDW, Lürssen Gruppe). Other companies in Frontex operations have included Greek company, Motomarine Shipyards, which produced the Panther 57 Fast Patrol Boats used by the Hellenic Coast Guard, Hellenic Shipyards and Israel Shipyards.

    Austrian company Schiebel is a significant player in maritime aerial surveillance through its supply of S-100 drones. In November 2018, EMSA selected the company for a €24 million maritime surveillance contract for a range of operations including border security. Since 2017, Schiebel has also won contracts from Croatia, Denmark, Iceland, Italy, Portugal and Spain. The company has a controversial record, with its drones sold to a number of countries experiencing armed conflict or governed by repressive regimes such as Libya, Myanmar, the UAE and Yemen.

    Finland and the Netherlands deployed Dornier aircraft to Operation Hermes and Operation Poseidon respectively, and to Operation Triton. Dornier is now part of the US subsidiary of the Israeli arms company Elbit Systems. CAE Aviation (Luxembourg), DEA Aviation (UK) and EASP Air (Netherlands) have all received contracts for aircraft surveillance work for Frontex. Airbus, French Dassault Aviation, Leonardo and US Lockheed Martin were the most important suppliers of aircraft used in Operation Sophia.

    The EU and its member states defend their maritime operations by publicising their role in rescuing refugees at sea, but this is not their primary goal, as Frontex director Fabrice Leggeri made clear in April 2015, saying that Frontex has no mandate for ‘proactive search-and-rescue action[s]’ and that saving lives should not be a priority. The thwarting and criminalisation of NGO rescue operations in the Mediterranean and the frequent reports of violence and illegal refoulement of refugees, also demonstrates why these maritime operations should be considered more like walls than humanitarian missions.
    Virtual walls

    The major EU contracts for the virtual walls have largely gone to two companies, sometimes as leaders of a consortium. Sopra Steria is the main contractor for the development and maintenance of the Visa Information System (VIS), Schengen Information System (SIS II) and European Dactyloscopy (Eurodac), while GMV has secured a string of contracts for Eurosur. The systems they build help control, monitor and surveil people’s movements across Europe and increasingly beyond.

    Sopra Steria is a French technology consultancy firm that has to date won EU contracts worth a total value of over €150 million. For some of these large contracts Sopra Steria joined consortiums with HP Belgium, Bull and 3M Belgium. Despite considerable business, Sopra Steria has faced considerable criticism for its poor record on delivering projects on time and on budget. Its launch of SIS II was constantly delayed, forcing the Commission to extend contracts and increase budgets. Similarly, Sopra Steria was involved in another consortium, the Trusted Borders consortium, contracted to deliver the UK e-Borders programme, which was eventually terminated in 2010 after constant delays and failure to deliver. Yet it continues to win contracts, in part because it has secured a near-monopoly of knowledge and access to EU officials. The central role that Sopra Steria plays in developing these EU biometric systems has also had a spin-off effect in securing other national contracts, including with Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Romania and Slovenia GMV, a Spanish technology company, has received a succession of large contracts for Eurosur, ever since its testing phase in 2010, worth at least €25 million. It also provides technology to the Spanish Guardia Civil, such as control centres for its Integrated System of External Vigilance (SIVE) border security system as well as software development services to Frontex. It has participated in at least ten EU-funded research projects on border security.

    Most of the large contracts for the virtual walls that did not go to consortia including Sopra Steria were awarded by eu-LISA (European Union Agency for the Operational Management of Large-Scale IT Systems in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice) to consortia comprising computer and technology companies including Accenture, Atos Belgium and Morpho (later renamed Idema).

    As research in our Border Wars series has consistently shown, through effective lobbying, the military and security industry has been very influential in shaping the discourse of EU security and military policies. The industry has succeeded in positioning itself as the experts on border security, pushing the underlying narrative that migration is first and foremost a security threat, to be combatted by security and military means. With this premise, it creates a continuous demand for the ever-expanding catalogue of equipment and services the industry supplies for border security and control.

    Many of the companies listed here, particularly the large arms companies, are involved in the European Organisation for Security (EOS), the most important lobby group on border security. Many of the IT security firms that build EU’s virtual walls are members of the European Biometrics Association (EAB). EOS has an ‘Integrated Border Security Working Group’ to ‘facilitate the development and uptake of better technology solutions for border security both at border checkpoints, and along maritime and land borders’. The working group is chaired by Giorgio Gulienetti of the Italian arms company Leonardo, with Isto Mattila (Laurea University of Applied Science) and Peter Smallridge of Gemalto, a digital security company recently acquired by Thales.

    Company lobbyists and representatives of these lobby organisations regularly meet with EU institutions, including the European Commission, are part of official advisory committees, publish influential proposals, organise meetings between industry, policy-makers and executives and also meet at the plethora of military and security fairs, conferences and seminars. Airbus, Leonardo and Thales together with EOS held 226 registered lobbying meetings with the European Commission between 2014 and 2019. In these meetings representatives of the industry position themselves as the experts on border security, presenting their goods and services as the solution for ‘security threats’ caused by immigration. In 2017, the same group of companies and EOS spent up to €2.65 million on lobbying.

    A similar close relationship can be seen on virtual walls, with the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission arguing openly for public policy to foster the ‘emergence of a vibrant European biometrics industry’.
    A deadly trade and a choice

    The conclusion of this survey of the business of building walls is clear. A Europe full of walls has proved to be very good for the bottom line of a wide range of corporations including arms, security, IT, shipping and construction companies. The EU’s planned budgets for border security for the next decade show it is also a business that will continue to boom.

    This is also a deadly business. The heavy militarisation of Europe’s borders on land and at sea has led refugees and migrants to follow far more hazardous routes and has trapped others in desperate conditions in neighbouring countries like Libya. Many deaths are not recorded, but those that are tracked in the Mediterranean show that the proportion of those who drown trying to reach Europe continues to increase each year.

    This is not an inevitable state of affairs. It is both the result of policy decisions made by the EU and its member states, and corporate decisions to profit from these policies. In a rare principled stand, German razor wire manufacturer Mutanox in 2015 stated it would not sell its product to the Hungarian government arguing: ‘Razor wire is designed to prevent criminal acts, like a burglary. Fleeing children and adults are not criminals’. It is time for other European politicians and business leaders to recognise the same truth: that building walls against the world’s most vulnerable people violates human rights and is an immoral act that history will judge harshly. Thirty years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, it is time for Europe to bring down its new walls.


    #business #murs #barrières_frontalières #militarisation_des_frontières #visualisation #Europe #UE #EU #complexe_militaro-industriel #Airbus #Leonardo #Thales #Indra #Israel_Aerospace_Industries #Elbit #European_Security_Fencing #DAT-CON #Geo_Alpinbau #Dragados #Ferrovial, #Proyectos_Y_Tecnología_Sallén #Eulen #Patstroy_Bourgas #Infra_Expert #Patengineeringstroy #Geostroy_Engineering #Metallic-Ivan_Mihaylov #Nordecon #Defendec #DAK_Acélszerkezeti_Kft #SIA_Ceļu_būvniecības_sabiedrība_IGATE #Gintrėja #Minis #Legi-SGS #Groupe_CW #Jackson’s_Fencing #Sorhea #Vinci #Eurovia #Zaun_Ltd #Damen #Fincantieri #Frontex #Damen #Turquie #Instrument_contributing_to_Stability_and_Peace (#IcSP) #Libye #exernalisation #Operation_Sophia #Navantia #Naval_Group #Flensburger_Schiffbau-Gesellschaft #HDW #Lürssen_Gruppe #Motomarine_Shipyards #Panther_57 #Hellenic_Shipyards #Israel_Shipyards #Schiebel #Dornier #Operation_Hermes #CAE_Aviation #DEA_Aviation #EASP_Air #French_Dassault_Aviation #US_Lockheed_Martin #murs_virtuels #Sopra_Steria #Visa_Information_System (#VIS) #données #Schengen_Information_System (#SIS_II) #European_Dactyloscopy (#Eurodac) #GMV #Eurosur #HP_Belgium #Bull #3M_Belgium #Trusted_Borders_consortium #économie #biométrie #Integrated_System_of_External_Vigilance (#SIVE) #eu-LISA #Accenture #Atos_Belgium #Morpho #Idema #lobby #European_Organisation_for_Security (#EOS) #European_Biometrics_Association (#EAB) #Integrated_Border_Security_Working_Group #Giorgio_Gulienetti #Isto_Mattila #Peter_Smallridge #Gemalto #murs_terrestres #murs_maritimes #coût #chiffres #statistiques #Joint_Research_Centre_of_the_European_Commission #Mutanox

    Pour télécharger le #rapport :


    déjà signalé par @odilon ici :
    Je le remets ici avec des mots clé de plus

    ping @daphne @marty @isskein @karine4

  • Children were told to ‘build the wall’ at White House Halloween party

    “Horrified. We were horrified,” said a person who was there and requested anonymity to avoid professional retaliation.

    The Eisenhower Executive Office Building stands across from the White House and houses a large portion of the West Wing support staff and is home to the vice president’s ceremonial office. The “Build the Wall” mural was on the first floor, outside the speechwriter’s office and next to the office of digital strategy and featured red paper bricks, each bearing the name of a child.

    Large letters on the display spelled out “Build the Wall.” Kids dressed as superheroes and ninjas were given brick-colored paper cards and told to write their name with a marker and tape them to the wall. Alongside the paper wall were signs including one that read “America First,” a slogan often used by President Trump that had been criticized because it was previously employed by the #Ku_Klux_Klan.

    #etats-unis #enfants #extreme_droite #mur #air_du_temps

  • Gaza, Bagdad, Rio... : 30 ans après la chute du mur de Berlin, cinq « nouveaux murs » à travers le monde
    par Rédaction Internationale, Aurélien Colly, Frédéric Métézeau , Frédéric Ojardias, Anne Vigna, Lucile Wassermann publié le 1 novembre 2019

    Le mur marin de Gaza : celui qui, en mer, veut empêcher des intrusions en Israël depuis Gaza par la Méditerranée. Construit entre l’été 2017 et le début 2019.
    Des deux côtés, l’armée israélienne a instauré des zones tampons interdites d’accès. Et à Gaza, jusqu’à l’année dernière, elle a utilisé la manière forte pour dégager le terrain, raconte Miriam Marmur, de l’association israélienne Gisha : « Pendant quelques années Israël a pulvérisé des herbicides par avion. Le vent a transporté les produits chimiques dans l’enclave et l’on ne connaît pas tous les effets secondaires ». Le mur pénalise des milliers de civils palestiniens et pourrait demain gêner aussi les Israéliens, explique Yaacov Nir, géologue à la retraite, car sa partie maritime retient les courants de sable côté Gaza, ce qui va éroder la côte en Israël. (...)


  • Trump Admits His Border Wall is Not Impenetrable after Reports Parts Have Been Sawed Through: ’You Can Cut Through Anything’

    President Donald Trump has admitted his border wall is not as impenetrable as he had initially claimed after reports that some parts had been sawed through.

    The Washington Post reported on Saturday that smuggling gangs have used commercial power tools to cut through the new parts of Trump’s controversial wall along the Mexican border.

    The gangs used a cordless reciprocating saw, which can be purchased at hardware stores starting from as little as $100, to make gaps big enough for people and drugs to pass through, U.S. agents and officials who have knowledge of the situation told the newspaper.

    Once fitted with specialized blades, the saws can cut through the steel-and-concrete bollards of the barrier in minutes, according to the unnamed agents.

    Trump, who spent years insisting his border wall would be impenetrable, conceded that any wall can be cut through but insisted the damage could be “easily fixed.”

    “We have a very powerful wall. But no matter how powerful, you can cut through anything, in all fairness,” Trump told reporters in Washington, D.C. before his departure for New York City on Saturday evening.

    "We have a lot of people watching,’ Trump added, according to Politico. “Cutting is one thing, but it’s easily fixed. One of the reasons we did it the way we did it, it’s very easily fixed. You put the chunk back in.”

    But according to the Post, smugglers have learned how to cut the bollards and then return them to their positions so that the damage goes unnoticed, allowing the passage to be used multiple times.

    U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) agents reportedly drive along the barrier and kick the bollards with their boots to check for any defects in the metal. If any are found, welding crews are sent in to fix the damage.

    But smugglers have also returned to the same bollards once they have been fixed and cut through the welds as the metal on those bollards is softer, the Post reported. They have also tried to trick agents by using a putty that looks like welding to make a bollard that has been cut look as if it is still intact.

    And cutting isn’t the only technique used by the smugglers to circumvent the barrier. They have also been building makeshift ladders to scale the wall, especially in the San Diego area, the Post reported.

    In a statement to Newsweek, a CBP spokesperson insisted that “the wall is working.”

    The spokesperson said: "Any characterization that the wall isn’t working is simply false. The wall is working and is providing additional capability that Border Patrol agents have asked for.

    “What we’re building is a wall system, which includes cameras, sensors, infrastructure and border patrol agents to ensure we ultimately apprehend the criminals trying to defeat it. When someone cuts through the wall and a border patrol agent is standing there to arrest them because of the technology that gave them a heads up, that’s a win.”

    The spokesperson didn’t elaborate on how many breaches there have been.

    But a senior administration official, who spoke to the Post on the condition of anonymity, said there had been “a few instances” but added that the new fencing had “significantly increased security and deterrence.”

    Trump has made building the wall along the border to stop migrants coming into the U.S. from Mexico a major feature of his presidency, repeatedly boasting about its construction at rallies, in ads and on Twitter.

    He recently touted the taxpayer-funded barrier as a “world-class security system” that is “virtually impenetrable.”

    “When the wall is built, it will be virtually impossible to come over illegally, and then we’re able to take border control and put them at points of entry,” Trump said during a visit to a construction site in San Diego’s Otay Mesa area in September, according to the Associated Press.


    Si même #Trump le dit.................

    #walls_don't_work #murs #barrières_frontalières #frontières #USA #Etats-Unis

  • Terrorist, sagt Erdoğan

    Ein in Deutschland aufgewachsener Kurde wird in die Türkei abgeschoben und flüchtet zurück nach Deutschland. Nun lebt er in einem #Ankerzentrum.

    #Murat_Akgül sitzt in einem Café in der Nürnberger Südstadt und legt einen Finger auf seine Stirn. Dort, wo die Haut noch leicht gerötet ist, ist der Anflug einer Beule zu sehen. Die Narbe ist seine Erinnerung an Bosnien und die Balkanroute. Akgül lebt seit 30 Jahren in Nürnberg, er ist hier aufgewachsen, hat hier die Schule besucht, eine Lehre gemacht, eine Familie gegründet, Eigentumswohnung, vier Kinder. Ende Mai erhielt der Kurde aus dem Südosten der Türkei einen Ausweisungsbescheid.

    Man hat ihn abgeschoben und Akgül ist zurückgeflüchtet. Das ist die Geschichte. Jetzt sitzt er hier, unweit seiner Wohnung, und darf nicht die Nacht dort verbringen. Er muss zurück ins Ankerzentrum Donauwörth. Er scheint noch nicht einmal wütend, nur müde. „Manchmal denke ich“, sagt Murat Akgül, „sie sollen mich einfach nur in Ruhe lassen.“

    Als Akgül Ende Mai der Brief mit dem Ausweisungsbescheid erreicht, hat er eine Niederlassungserlaubnis. Dass er jetzt, als politisch aktiver Kurde in die Türkei abgeschoben werden soll, kann er zuerst nicht glauben. Als Begründung listet der Verfassungsschutz auf 35 Seiten „sicherheitsrechtliche Erkenntnisse“ auf.

    Das heißt: Akgül hat an zahlreichen Demonstrationen, Versammlungen, Kundgebungen und Festen des kurdischen Vereins Medya Volkshaus teilgenommen, das zuweilen auch Funktionäre der #PKK empfängt. Von Teilnehmern dieser Veranstaltungen seien verbotene Parolen gerufen und verbotene Symbole gezeigt worden. Gleichzeitig ist das Medya Volkshaus ein Treffpunkt für Kurdinnen und Kurden in Nürnberg und erhält regelmäßig städtische Kulturförderung.

    Akgül bespricht sich mit seinem Anwalt Peter Holzschuher, klagt gegen den Bescheid und erhebt einen Eilantrag, die Abschiebung bis zur Entscheidung über die Klage auszusetzen. Dass er als Vater deutscher Kinder tatsächlich abgeschoben werden würde, glauben beide nicht. Der Eilantrag wird abgewiesen und Akgül reicht Beschwerde ein. Noch während die Beschwerde bearbeitet wird, seien nicht weniger als acht Polizisten zu ihm nach Hause gekommen: Sie holen ihn aus dem Bett, verfrachten ihn in einen Transporter.

    Am selben Nachmittag landet Akgül in Istanbul. Wenn die türkischen Behörden erfahren, dass er sich auf Demos in Deutschland für die kurdische Sache starkgemacht hat, gilt er hier als Terrorist. Akgül erfindet einen Grund. Zwar hätten die Beamten, im Flughafen wie auf der Station in Istanbul, ihm nicht geglaubt, dass er wegen einer Schlägerei abgeschoben worden sei, doch: Noch liegen den Türken keine Akten zu ihm vor, man lässt ihn gehen.
    Bei 30 Grad sitzen 35 Flüchtende im Lkw

    Akgül kann abtauchen, er schläft bei Bekannten, nirgends bleibt er länger als drei Tage. Dann zurück nach Istanbul. „Zuletzt habe ich die Schlepper gefunden“, sagt er, als spräche er von einer Muschel am Strand. Wie, gefunden? „Die findest du.“ 6.500 Euro soll Akgül bezahlen, damit er zurück nach Deutschland geschleust wird. Er werde mit dem Auto heimgefahren. „Nichts, was sie gesagt haben, hat gestimmt.“ Auf den vier Wochen auf der Balkanroute, sagt er, habe er die Hölle erlebt, den Tod überstanden.

    Die Schlepper hätten eine Gruppe von etwa 30 Menschen übers Telefon gelenkt, Wegmarken genannt, die sie ansteuern sollen. Zwischen Bosnien und Kroatien seien sie durch Urwälder gelaufen. Mit Akgül laufen Mütter und Kinder. Sie durchqueren Flüsse und kriechen durch Schlamm. Ihm schwellen die Füße an, ein Ast knallt ihm gegen die Stirn. Zwei Stunden, hatte es geheißen, am Ende seien sie 15 Stunden unterwegs gewesen. Von dem Wald träumt er heute noch.

    In Kroatien aber wartet ein Lkw, der sie nach Slowenien bringen soll. Bei 30 Grad Außentemperatur quetschen sich 35 Flüchtende auf die Ladefläche. Der Laderaum ist nicht belüftet. Die Menschen hämmern gegen die Wände, bis der Fahrer anhält. Akgül kennt diese Nachrichten aus der Zeitung. Er weiß, wie es sich anfühlt, darüber zu lesen, sagt er: 15 Sekunden Mitleid, dann hat man es vergessen. Jetzt ist er selbst einer von denen. Was ist mit seinem Leben passiert? Ein Stock, in die Verkleidung des Lkws geklemmt, sorgt schließlich dafür, dass etwas Luft ins Innere gelangt.

    In Slowenien wird Akgül von der Polizei aufgegriffen und registriert. Um nicht direkt wieder abgeschoben zu werden, habe er Asyl beantragen müssen. Dann lassen die Behörden ihn weiterziehen, schließlich sind seine Kinder in Deutschland. Ende Juli ist Akgül wieder in Franken. Deutlich ärmer, eine Beule auf der Stirn, aber sonst könnte alles wieder sein, wie es vorher war. Sein Arbeitgeber, eine Reinigungsfirma, hat seine Stelle freigehalten. Er will das hinter sich lassen wie einen bösen Traum.

    Noch in der Aufnahmeeinrichtung in Zirndorf ist er wieder in Handschellen. Bei seiner Abschiebung wurde ein zehn Jahre andauerndes Einreiseverbot verhängt. Er soll sofort wieder abgeschoben werden, zurück in die Türkei, in der ihm eine langjährige Haftstrafe droht. „Ich dachte, die machen Spaß. Die wollen mich erschrecken.“ Über Rechtsanwalt Yunus Ziyal beantragt Akgül nun erneut Asyl. Er frühstückt noch mit seiner Familie, danach muss er nach Donauwörth, Ankerzentrum. Ab sofort soll er sich dreimal wöchentlich bei der Polizei melden.
    Stundenlange „Sicherheitsgespräche“

    Es ist nicht leicht, den Anwalt Ziyal zu erreichen. Zwei Wochen vergehen, Akgül wartet in Donauwörth auf seine Anerkennung als Flüchtling, scheinbar. Ziyal ist am Telefon: „Es hat sich etwas Neues ergeben.“ Der Asylantrag ist laut Dublin-Bescheid unzulässig, Akgül soll nach Slowenien ausreisen. Am Freitag, dem 20. 9., erhebt Ziyal Klage und stellt einen Eilantrag gegen den Bescheid, der nun dem Verwaltungsgericht Augsburg vorliegt.

    Die Klage gegen die erste Ausweisung ist noch immer anhängig. ­Ziyal: „Das ist absurd – er hat Familie, sogar deutsche Kinder hier. Das Dublin-Verfahren stellt die Familieneinheit an erste Stelle.“ Er hält den Bescheid daher für rechtswidrig.

    Ziyal beobachtet generell, dass politisch aktive Kurden in Bayern momentan heftiger verfolgt würden als noch vor einigen Jahren. Die KurdInnen im Umfeld des Medya Volkshauses müssten sich immer wieder stundenlangen „Sicherheitsgesprächen“ unterziehen. Das bayerische Innenministerium bestätigt gegenüber den Nürnberger Nachrichten 29 Ausweisungen in drei Jahren. Die Aktivitäten, die von der Ausländerbehörde als ursächlich für die Abschiebung genannt würden, seien aber allesamt komplett legal: eine Demonstration gegen den IS, Kundgebungen für eine friedliche Lösung der Kurdenfrage, das Neujahrsfest …

    Murat Akgül ist längst kein Einzelfall mehr, aber einer, der heraussticht: nicht nur wegen der Kinder und der Wohnung, sondern auch wegen der Unerbittlichkeit im Vorgehen der deutschen Behörden, die sich die Terrorismusdefinition von Präsident Erdoğan zu eigen zu machen scheinen. Eine Antwort auf die Bitte der taz um Stellungnahme sowohl an das Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge als auch an das Bayerische Landesamt für Asyl und Rückführungen steht aus.

    Auf einer Demonstration in Nürnberg habe Akgül eine Fahne der kurdischen Miliz YPG getragen, so der Verfassungsschutz. Die gilt einerseits als bewaffneter Arm der PKK, wurde vom Westen, sprich: USA, Frankreich, andererseits im Krieg gegen den IS unterstützt. Akgül bestreitet, eine solche Fahne zu besitzen, sagt aber auch: „Zehntausende kurdische Soldaten sind im Krieg gegen den IS gefallen.“ Das Ermittlungsverfahren in dieser Sache – das einzige gegen seine Person – wurde eingestellt.

    Warum jetzt, ist die Frage, die unweigerlich am Ende dieser Geschichte steht. Warum geht der deutsche Staatsschutz so gezielt gegen Kurdinnen und Kurden vor, nachdem jahrelang Ruhe herrschte. „Ich kann da nur spekulieren“, schickt Ziyal vorweg. „Aber: Ich weiß, dass der EU-Türkei-Flüchtlingsdeal in diese Zeit fällt, und ich weiß, dass Erdoğan Deutschland vorgeworfen hat, Terroristen zu unterstützen.“ Die Bundesrepublik pflege viele enge Wirtschaftsbeziehungen zur Türkei und rege sei auch die polizeilich-justizielle Zusammenarbeit.

    Akgül kann jeden Tag eine neue gute oder schlechte Nachricht erreichen, ein neuer Bescheid, die Abweisung seiner Klage. Auch sein Anwalt wagt nur noch Hoffnungen zu formulieren.

    Egal wo, sein Leben wird nie wieder so sein wie vor seiner Abschiebung. Er hat die Balkanroute durchlebt und weiß jetzt, wie sich ein Ankerzentrum anfühlt. Er erzählt von miesen hygienischen Bedingungen, Ratten in „Herden“ und der lähmenden Langeweile, die die Bewohner in den Drogenkonsum treibe. Am lautesten klagt er nicht darüber, sondern über die deutsche Bürokratie, über die Behörden, die einander widersprechen, und Polizisten, die nicht zuhören.

    Nach dem gescheiterten Putschversuch 2016 ist Murat Akgül nicht mehr freiwillig in die Türkei gereist. Gerade jetzt, im Krieg, ist die Situation für einen politisch aktiven Kurden in der Türkei umso dramatischer. „Aber hier, denke ich, ich lebe in einem freien, demokratischen Land. Jeder hat doch das Recht zu demonstrieren. Ich habe mich immer gegen Unterdrückung eingesetzt.“ Natürlich will er hier bleiben, natürlich auch in Zukunft zu Demonstrationen gehen. Aber: „Früher hatte ich nur in der Türkei Angst. Jetzt auch hier.“

    #Turquie #purge #renvois #expulsions #Allemagne #Kurdes #migrations #réfugiés #réfugiés_kurdes #réfugiés_turcs

    ping @_kg_

  • Cities Made of Boundaries – UCL Press


    Cities Made of Boundaries presents the theoretical foundation and concepts for a new social scientific urban morphological mapping method, Boundary Line Type (BLT) Mapping. Its vantage is a plea to establish a frame of reference for radically comparative urban studies positioned between geography and archaeology. Based in multidisciplinary social and spatial theory, a critical realist understanding of the boundaries that compose built space is operationalised by a mapping practice utilising Geographical Information Systems (GIS).

    Benjamin N. Vis gives a precise account of how BLT Mapping can be applied to detailed historical, reconstructed, contemporary, and archaeological urban plans, exemplified by sixteenth- to twenty-first century Winchester (UK) and Classic Maya Chunchucmil (Mexico). This account demonstrates how the functional and experiential difference between compact western and tropical dispersed cities can be explored.

    The methodological development of Cities Made of Boundaries will appeal to readers interested in the comparative social analysis of built environments, and those seeking to expand the evidence-base of design options to structure urban life and development.
    Supplementary materials for this book are available to download from http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/10055955/6/Supplement-BLT-table.pdf

    #urban_mater #planification_urbaine #cartographie #Murs #frontières #fractures

  • Reflecting history: the Berlin Wall Memorial | DW Travel | DW | 31.10.2019


    Sunday afternoon. Sunbeams can be seen shining on the asphalt. It’s one of the last beautiful autumn days in Berlin. I walk along Bernauer Strasse, at first glance a street like any other. Cars and trams pass me, people cross my way. But the Bernauer is more than just a road. It is a historical place and since 1998 a memorial to the division of Germany.

    After the end of the Second World War, the street was divided into East and West: on one side the Soviet-controlled sector, on the other the French sector. Bernauer Strasse was still passable, but that came to an abrupt end in 1961. On August 13, 1961, Communist East-Germany erected the Wall that separated East and West Berlin. The border ran directly through Bernauer Strasse. You can still see its traces today: a few parts of the wall have been preserved. Where it was dismantled after 1989, high rusted metal bars trace the former course of the border. Behind them are extensive lawns. Here the former death strip extended with barbed wire and mines. Tourists and school groups take photos, lay their hands on the Berlin Wall, children run slalom through the rusty bars.

    #ddr #berlin #mur

  • « Je n’ai jamais vu ça, un durcissement aussi violent » : des agents de Pôle emploi « horrifiés » par la réforme

    La réforme de l’Assurance-chômage entre en vigueur ce 1er novembre. 1,3 millions de demandeurs d’emploi, dont les plus précaires, verront leurs indemnités baisser dans l’année qui vient. Basta ! a rencontré des agents de Pôle #Emploi_qui décryptent le nouveau système et ses conséquences. C’est une véritable machine à fabriquer de la pauvreté qui va se mettre en branle à partir du 1er novembre. Même les agents du Pôle emploi en prennent le vertige. « Je n’ai jamais vu ça, un tel durcissement, aussi violent, (...) #Décrypter

    / Emploi , #Classes_populaires, #Protections_sociales, #Inégalités, A la une

  • Ségrégation, lutte territoriale et affrontements identitaires dans un espace post-conflictuel, le cas des militants républicains dans les quartiers nationalistes de #Belfast et #Derry

    Cet article traite de l’affrontement identitaire opposant les unionistes aux nationalistes pour la possession de l’espace dans les quartiers de Belfast et Derry. Élément déterminant de la politique et l’identité en Irlande du Nord, l’espace possède une importance stratégique pour garantir la survie d’une communauté dans cette ville ségrégée. En posant l’hypothèse d’une pacification de la lutte territoriale suite à la situation politique post-conflictuelle, l’auteur montre que le conflit spatial est toujours actuel et qu’il exacerbe les antagonismes politiques et identitaires à travers des logiques de provocation et de défense du quartier. En mobilisant des observations participantes et des entretiens avec des militants républicains, l’auteur retranscrit les comportements quotidiens de ces militants ainsi que leurs stratégies offensives et défensives pour maintenir la cohésion de leurs quartiers face aux unionistes.

    #irlande_du_nord #mur

  • The Trump administration is sucking up tens of millions of gallons of precious desert groundwater to build the #BorderWall.

    Even after our children tear down this absurd barrier, it could take the ancient aquifers at #Organ_Pipe generations to recover.

    #eau #murs #barrières_frontalières #USA #Etats-Unis #nappe_phréatique #désert #frontières

    ping @mobileborders

  • #Etats-Unis. Beaucoup plus qu’un simple #mur : le #business rentable et meurtrier de la militarisation des #frontières | A l’encontre

    Le résumé du rapport du Transnational Institute examine le rôle des plus grandes firmes d’armement du monde (ainsi que d’un certain nombre d’autres entreprises de sécurité et d’informatique) dans le façonnement de la militarisation des frontières états-uniennes et les avantages qu’elles en tirent. Par leurs contributions à la campagne électorale, leurs activités de #lobbying, leur engagement constant auprès des représentants du gouvernement et la navette des cadres entre l’industrie et le gouvernement, ces sociétés de sécurité frontalière et leurs alliés gouvernementaux ont formé un puissant complexe industriel frontalier qui constitue un obstacle majeur à une réponse humaniste à la #migration.


  • 07.10.2019 : 40 Jahre Mietendeckel (Tageszeitung junge Welt)

    Aujourd’hui il y a 70 ans suite à la création du Deutsche Mark et la fondation de la Republique Fédérale d’Allemagne sous surveillance des alliés occidentaux la chambre de députés provisoire à Berlin vote la constitution d’un état socialiste sur le sol allemand . Par cette décision l’assemblée fonde la Deutsche Demokratische Republik .

    Am 7. Oktober 1949 wurde die Deutsche Demokratische Republik gegründet. Soziale Grundrechte hatten in dem sozialistischen Staat bis zuletzt Verfassungsrang

    L’hymne national : Auferstanden aus Ruinen, traduction en français

    - Ressuscitée des ruines
    et tournée vers l’avenir,
    laisse-nous te servir pour atteindre le bien,
    Allemagne, patrie unie.
    Une misère ancienne est à vaincre
    et nous la vaincrons réunis.
    Car il nous faut y arriver,
    que le soleil beau comme jamais
    brille sur l’Allemagne (bis)

    – Qu’avec bonheur et avec paix soit bénie
    l’Allemagne, notre patrie.
    Le monde entier aspire à la paix,
    tendez la main aux peuples.
    Si nous nous réunissons fraternellement,
    nous battrons l’ennemi du peuple.
    Faites briller la lumière de la paix,
    pour que jamais plus une mère
    ne pleure son fils (bis)

    – Labourons, bâtissons,
    apprenez et travaillez comme jamais avant.
    Et avec confiance en sa propre force
    une génération libre se lèvera.
    Jeunesse allemande, les meilleures ambitions
    de notre peuple en toi réunies,
    tu seras la nouvelle vie de l’Allemagne
    et le soleil beau comme jamais
    brillera sur l’Allemagne (bis)


    #Allemagne #DDR #histoire #constitution

  • The Wall. Growing Up Behind the Iron Curtain

    “I was born at the beginning of it all, on the Red side—the Communist side—of the Iron Curtain.” Through annotated illustrations, journals, maps, and dreamscapes, Peter Sís shows what life was like for a child who loved to draw, proudly wore the red scarf of a Young Pioneer, stood guard at the giant statue of Stalin, and believed whatever he was told to believe. But adolescence brought questions. Cracks began to appear in the Iron Curtain, and news from the West slowly filtered into the country. Sís learned about beat poetry, rock ’n’ roll, blue jeans, and Coca-Cola. He let his hair grow long, secretly read banned books, and joined a rock band. Then came the Prague Spring of 1968, and for a teenager who wanted to see the world and meet the Beatles, this was a magical time. It was short-lived, however, brought to a sudden and brutal end by the Soviet-led invasion. But this brief flowering had provided a glimpse of new possibilities—creativity could be discouraged but not easily killed.

    By joining memory and history, Sís takes us on his extraordinary journey: from infant with paintbrush in hand to young man borne aloft by the wings of his art. This title has Common Core connections.

    #livre #mur #guerre_froide #murs #barrières_frontalières #Tchécoslovaquie #dessin #BD #communisme #histoire #totalitarisme

  • Brexit: border talk stirs up bad memories in Northern Ireland | UK news | The Guardian

    Two very different storms barrelled into Gortmullan last week, one from the west, the other from the east.

    Remnants of Hurricane Lorenzo unleashed wind and rain from the Atlantic across the area, a rural pocket of County Fermanagh that marks Northern Ireland’s border with the Republic. “Stay back, stay high, stay dry,” advised the authorities, and residents duly hunkered down. Lorenzo passed without major damage.

    Brexit secretary hints UK could rethink DUP veto on deal | Politics | The Guardian

    The Brexit secretary has hinted that the government could amend its proposal to give the Democratic Unionist party an effective veto over its plan for an alternative to the Irish backstop

    #brexit #irlande #royaume-uni #irlande_du_nord #ulster #frontières #murs

  • « C’est fou à quel point ces #murs et ces #grilles sont hautes. On côtoie ces murs en permanence.
    Ils limitent notre quotidien. Ils sont l’affirmation de la négation de l’autre.
    Mais on les a intégrés, leur #violence a été assimilée. On accepte sans le percevoir le #pouvoir de contrainte, la #dépossession de l’#espace qu’ils représentent »

    #géographie_urbaine #villes #urban_matter #barrières

    Source : une #BD de #Margot_Gustaedt dont le titre est "Les renards sans pelage" , qui n’a pas été publiée. C’est son travail de diplôme.

    La BD porte sur les #violences_policières et sur l’affaire du #lycée_Arago

    D’autres travaux de Margot, que j’ai rencontrée en Grèce lors d’une summer school à Athènes sur les villes-refuge, car elle travaillait à une nouvelle BD avec une étudiante qui suivait la summer school :

    ping @reka @davduf @isskein

  • Balkan Region - Report July 2019

    The Border Violence Monitoring Network has just published it’s August report summarizing the current situation regarding pushbacks and police violence in the Western Balkans, primarily in Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, the Se​rbian borders with Croatia and Hungary, but also including Italy, Slovenia, North Macedonia and Greece.

    This report analyzes, among other things:

    – Torture: Recurrence of extreme violence and abuse
    – Pushback from Italy
    – Beyond police: Actors within the pushback framework
    – Further dispersion of pushback sites in NW Bosnia
    – Trends in pushback sites to and from Greece

    More broadly, monitoring work continues to note the trans-national and bilateral cooperation between EU member states in the north of the Balkan route. Instances of chain pushbacks from Italy to Bosnia and Herzegovina, though relatively rare, offer insight into the web of actors engaged in the refoulement of groups across multiple borders, and liminality of due process in these cases. The intersection of unlawful acts also raises key concerns about aiding and abetting of pushbacks by Brussels. Specifically, analysis from this month elaborates on the involvement of Frontex in facilitating pushbacks.

    #rapport #migrations #réfugiés #Balkans #route_des_balkans #asile #frontières

    • Je mets ici les passages qui m’intéressent particulièrement... et notamment sur la #frontière_sud-alpine

      Push-back from Italy

      Chain push-backs from Italy are comparatively rare. Yet notably one report (see 1.1: https://www.borderviolence.eu/violence-reports/august-5-2019-0700-fernetti-italy conducted last month provided evidence of this sequential phenomena of expulsion from Italy back to BiH, via Slovenia and Croatia; drawing into question why such uncommon and illegal procedure was conducted by Italian police officers. The transit group was initially apprehended by Italian police officers in a small village on theoutskirts of Trieste from where they described being brought to a government building. Both in Italy and later in Slovenia, the transit group in question was detained, made to give their fingerprints, had their pictures taken and were asked to sign paperswritten in languages that they did not understand.

      “We asked the woman, what was on the paper because it was in Italian. She didn’t translate and we didn’t understand what we signed.” “I told the translator that they have to find a solution. They can’t just bring us back to Slovenia, knowing that we were in Italy. And they said, we are just migrants, we are not tourists.”Once they arrived in Croatia, the transit group was detained in a police station and interviewed one at a time before being brought to the border with Bosnia-Herzegovina where the group had their phones individually broken with a hammer by a Croatian police officer. They were then told to walk through a forest into Bosnia-Herzegovina. The chronology of events above alludes also to the complicit nature of preliminary actors within the wider pushbacks. Arguably initiators such as Slovenia and Italy -who often afford groups with translators and legal documents -have an intimate relationship to the violence and terror that accompanies subsequent push-backs from Croatia to BiH. The feigning of due process by these countries, despite prior knowledge of violent chain refoulement, forms a central part of their conceit. Italy and Slovenia mask their actions in a malaise of procedures (regularly untranslated or explained), in order to hide the institutionalisation of illegal chain pushbacks. The nature of chain pushbacks are defined by these bit-part processes, which simultaneously imitate regular procedures, while providing ample space for state authorities to deviate from legal obligations.

      #Italie #push-back #Slovénie #refoulement

    • And on the

      Construction of further fencing along Slovenian-Croatian border

      This August the Slovenian government authorized the construction (https://www.reuters.com/article/us-europe-migrants-slovenia/slovenia-erects-more-border-fence-to-curb-migrant-inflow-idUSKCN1VC19Q) of a fence 40 kms long on the banks of the river Kolpa, on the border with Croatia. The security device, installed by Serbian firm LEGI SGS, will add up to an already existing fence, making the barrier a total of 219km long. The exact location of the construction was not made public, and a spokeswoman for the interior ministry said itwill be a temporary measure to prevent people crossing the border. She did however directly cite migration as a threat to the security of citizens’ in her statement, arguably reinforcing the ideological bordering that accompanies this further fencing. Theconstruction is part of an escalating approach to border security which includes the deployment of military (https://www.aljazeera.com/amp/news/2019/07/slovenia-deploy-soldiers-boost-border-patrols-migrants-190721191235190.ht), stationed on the border since 2016, and bolstered this year alongside regular police forces.

      The opposition party NSi demanded tighter control (https://balkaninsight.com/2019/07/05/slovenia-opposition-demands-tighter-border-controls-with-croatia) sat the border with Croatia in July, and there seems little, or no will to challenge the mainstream rhetoric on migration. These demands, as BVMN reported last month (http://www.nonamekitchen.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/Final-Report-July-2019.pdf), coincided with concerns of Italy building a wall on the border with Slovenia, were the ongoing joint border not to stem movement from Slovenia into Italy. Thus it seems somewhat ironic to observe the construction of a barrier on Slovenia’s Southern border, preempting the machinations of Italian interior minister, Matteo Salvini.

      Unfortunately, the domino effect being played out between these states only feeds into Croatia’s intensifying security measures. While interior minister David Bozinovic was plethoric, stating that “what Slovenians are doing, is their own decision” (https://www.total-croatia-news.com/politics/38042-migrants), his assertion that a joint European solution would be more welcome rings fairly hollow when viewed in tandem with the heightened repression around pushbacks this month and the already complicit role of Frontex. To this end, there seems to be no escape from the vicious circle of reborderization and loss of human rights in Europe, shown most recentlyby Slovenia’s harder borders.

      Allegations of smuggling made against asylum centerstaff in Ljubljana

      A statement (https://push-forward.org/novica/izjava-iniciative-prosilcev-za-azil-la-lutte-de-la-liberte-6-8-2019-az) by the asylum seekers initiative La lutte de la Liberté, and released at the beginning of August highlights what may be a serious case of abuse by security personnel in the asylum seekers camp Vič, Slovenia. According to the group, a resident in the camp called Ibrahim witnessed a number of security guards smuggling migrants out of the camp with cars in exchange for money. After the incident, which took place at the beginning of July, Ibrahim told the director of the camp who flatly denied the allegations, yet simultaneously removed two guards from their posts, causing great suspicion. In retaliation, other guards started to mob Ibrahim resulting in a series of episodes of violence culminating in a fight, for which Ibrahim was taken to a detention centre in #Postojna.

      Ibrahim has now been released and three security guards in the camp are under investigation, a source from InfoKolpa shared. Even though the actual occurrence of smuggling remains a supposition, the event highlights an important grey zone in which camp staff are operating, and the potential for systemic abuse of the asylum system. It can be argued that such cases can only emerge in the void left by inaccessible procedures and it is well known that extremely long waiting times are built into the asylum system in Slovenia. The behaviorof the security guards, in a position of absolute power over the migrants, can be explained by the fact that they are virtually invisible to the outside world, unless the migrants can organizethemselves as in this case. There has already been proof of violent behaviorby the guards in Vic, as shown in this video (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m4GP0qLTsg0

      ) taken some six months ago.

      People on the move, for their part, are in a position of structural and individual disadvantage, susceptible to many types of violence. As the statement correctly underlines, regardless of some staff being amenable, one person abusing a position of power is enough to ruin the life of someone held captive in a protracted asylum system. Infact, evidence would go further to suggest that in this case it seems like the guards were more of an organizedmob, rather than rogue individuals.

      The waiting period for asylum which reaches nine months maximum in theory (with only 18 euros a month granted to applicants by the state), makes the tenure of asylum seekers even more precarious, adding to the poor or nonexistent measures taken to integrate them into society: asylum seekers have no access to welfare, assistance in access to work or social housing and their placement in the detention center in Postojna is decided arbitrarily bythe police. The entire Slovenian asylum system goes thus into inquiry, if viewed through thelensof this case, which both expounds its flaws and the potential corruption within.


      #murs #barrières_frontalières #militarisation_des_frontières

  • ’Them and Us / Ellos Y Nosotros’: Border wall comes to Mass MoCA | The Berkshire Eagle | Pittsfield Breaking News, Sports, Weather, Traffic

    Them and Us / Ellos Y Nosotros’: Border wall comes to Mass MoCA
    Artist recreates wall to give viewers feeling of crossing the border
    Posted Thursday, August 1, 2019 6:06 am
    By Jennifer Huberdeau, The Berkshire Eagle

    NORTH ADAMS — For the majority of Americans, the building of a permanent wall along the U.S.-Mexico border is still an abstract concept. But in many places, such as San Diego and Tijuana, Mexico, the wall is a long-standing reality.

    There, the San Ysidro Port of Entry, the largest land border crossing between the two communities, is part of everyday life for residents and commuters on both sides of the wall. It is this wall that Marcos Ramirez, the artist known as ERRE (a nod to the rolled `r’ of Spanish) is bringing to the Massachusetts Museum of Contemporary Art as part of his exhibition, “Them and Us / Ellos Y Nosotros,” opening Saturday.

    And it is through “Of Fence,” his sculptural recreation of the weathered, metal barricade of San Ysidro that museum-goers will have to pass through to see the rest of his show.

    The exhibition, in Building B6, is meant to simulate crossing the border. Viewers who cross through the wall will find themselves confronted with the same questions people entering the U.S. are asked. The difference will be that the questions won’t be asked directly to those entering the show. Instead, they will be displayed in vinyl letters on the windows and door leading into the gallery.

    #états-unis #mexique #murs #frontières #trump #migrations

  • L.A. might ban homeless people from sleeping on many streets. What about your block?

    A plan under consideration at City Hall would ban sleeping on streets and sidewalks within 500 feet of schools, parks, day-care facilities and some popular venues, eliminating at least a quarter of #Los_Angeles for homeless people trying to bed down at night, a Times analysis found.

    #bannissement #ségrégation #périmètres_d'exclusion #exclusion #anti-SDF #sans-abrisme #SDF #sans-abri #cartographie #frontières #visualisation #USA #Etats-Unis #barrières_urbaines #in/visibilité #murs_urbains #invisibilité #ressources_pédagogiques #murs_intra-urbains #villes #géographie_urbaine #urbanisme
    ping @reka

  • The Invisible Wall of #Lampedusa: Landscaping Europe’s Outer Frontier

    Two people are standing by a beaten-up Toyota on an arid, scrub-covered hilltop in the middle of nowhere. They are looking at the valley, keeping a safe distance from the edge. They have to make sure they are not visible from down there, to avoid any trouble. From where they stand, they can see only the roofs of the buildings at the bottom of the valley, some red and white prefabs making their way out of the green vegetation. Getting closer to the edge, they can probably see people walking between the buildings, hanging clothes out to dry on their fences, maybe playing football or talking outside. We’ve all seen these scenes on TV. But they can’t get any closer, otherwise the soldiers might confiscate their cameras. Instead, they will just take nice pictures of the valley, the prickly pears and the scattered agaves lining the hillsides. Even of the sea, in the background.

    #séparation #division #murs #frontières #in/visibilité #ségrégation #migrations #asile #réfugiés #camps #paysage #CPSA #Centro_di_Primo_Soccorso_e_Accoglienza #Porta_d’Europa #monument #port #Molo_Favaloro

    via @isskein
    ping @mobileborders @reka

    Et la conclusion:

    Broadly speaking, Lampedusa serves as evidence of the complexity of the spatial implications of political borders, when they do not translate into physical barriers. The narrative around migration that currently permeates Europe has not necessitated a physical wall in Lampedusa, but it has taken the form of a network of artefacts, whose collective purpose is to produce the spectacle of a border.

  • Le #Maroc à l’assaut de #Ceuta et #Mellila

    Durant ces derniers mois, le Maroc a entravé la #contrebande avec les deux enclaves espagnoles de Ceuta et Mellila et suspendu le #commerce légal avec cette dernière. Une manière de pousser Madrid à renoncer à sa #souveraineté sur ces territoires.

    #frontières #Espagne #femmes_mules #femmes-mules #femmes_mulets #femmes-mulets
    ping @reka

  • Autour de Murray Bookchin

    Lors de la Conférence Internationale des Géographes Anarchistes et libertaires 2019, un débat entre Floréal Roméro, agriculteur-écrivain et Philippe Pelletier, professeur de géographie à l’Université de Lyon II, à propos de Murray Bookchin. Trois thème sont abordés : Murray Bookchin et son oeuvre, l’écologie sociale et l’urgence climatique, le municipalisme. Durée : 1h04. Source : Radio Zinzine


    • « Je ne peux que suivre Emma Goldman quand elle déclare ne pas vouloir d’une révolution où elle ne pourrait pas danser. Mais à tout le moins, elle voulait une révolution – une révolution sociale – sans laquelle de telles fins esthétiques et psychologiques ne bénéficieraient qu’à quelques-uns. Or, sauf à me tromper complètement, les objectifs révolutionnaires et sociaux de l’anarchisme aujourd’hui souffrent d’une telle dégradation que le mot “anarchie” fera bientôt partie intégrante du vocabulaire chic bourgeois du siècle à venir : une chose quelque peu polissonne, rebelle, insouciante, mais délicieusement inoffensive. »

      #Murray_Bookchin #agone

  • #Zoltan_Kovacs sur twitter

    Hungary’s southern border fence has contributed immensely to reducing migration on the Western Balkans migration route since September 2015. Yet, @EU_Commission refuses to cover a fair portion of our extra defense costs. Here’s some data from @Frontex


    Zoltán Kovács (born 1969) is a Hungarian historian and politician, who currently serves as Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Relations in the Second Cabinet of Viktor Orbán.


    #murs #propagande #Hongrie #frontières #asile #migrations #réfugiés

    Les #statistiques ne disent pas tout...

    Ma réponse :

    Great! People who are by law allowed to ask for #asylum are now blocked in inhumane conditions in #Croatia & #Bosnia... or try to find new, more dangerous ways to cross the #borders.
    #WallsDontWork, #walls are never the solution!


    ping @reka

  • Le #Pentagone débloque 3,6 milliards de dollars pour le mur de Trump

    Le Pentagone a annoncé mardi avoir débloqué 3,6 milliards de dollars pour financer la construction de 280 km de mur à la frontière mexicaine, à la demande du président Donald Trump.

    Pour débloquer ces fonds, le ministère américain de la #Défense a décidé de « reporter » 127 projets de construction et de modernisation des locaux militaires aux Etats-Unis et à l’étranger prévus dans son budget 2019, a indiqué à la presse un porte-parole du ministère, Jonathan Hoffman.

    Le ministre de la Défense #Mark_Esper « a décidé que ces projets de construction sont nécessaires pour soutenir l’usage des forces armées et le ministère de la Défense va donc mener 11 projets de construction militaire de barrière frontalière », a précisé M. Hoffman au cours d’un point de presse.

    « La longueur totale (...) est de 175 miles », a précisé le responsable des affaires de sécurité intérieure au Pentagone, Kenneth Rapuano. Il a précisé qu’il s’agit de renforcer des segments de barrière frontalière déjà existant mais considérés comme insuffisants, ainsi que de construire de nouveaux segments.

    Les zones considérées sont notamment situées près de #Yuma (Arizona), #El_Centro et #San_Diego (Californie), #Laredo et #El_Paso (Texas).

    Le général Andrew Poppas, directeur des opérations à l’état-major américain, a assuré que la construction de ces pans de mur frontalier permettrait de réduire le nombre des 5.000 militaires américains déployés à la frontière mexicaines à la demande de Donald Trump, qui souhaite endiguer une vague d’immigration en provenance d’Amérique latine.

    Les projets de construction militaire reportés n’ont pas été décrits à la presse, le Pentagone souhaitant informer d’abord les élus des Etats concernés par les 127 projets, mais les élus du Congrès ont très rapidement réagi à cette annonce.

    Parmi les projets affectés figure notamment un bâtiment de la prestigieuse académie militaire de West Point, a indiqué le leader des démocrates au Sénat, Chuck Schumer.

    « C’est une gifle pour les forces armées qui servent notre pays », a-t-il tweeté. Le président Donald Trump est « prêt à cannibaliser des fonds militaires déjà alloués pour satisfaire son ego et pour un mur qu’il a promis que le Mexique paierait », a-t-il ajouté.

    #murs #financement #barrières_frontalières #frontières #USA #Etats-Unis #armée

    ping @mobileborders

    • Trump administration raids military construction projects for border wall

      The move is likely to further inflame Democrats who have accused the administration of illegally overriding Congress’ spending decisions.

      The Trump administration is carrying out plans to raid $3.6 billion in military construction projects to build the border wall, further inflaming lawmakers who have accused President Donald Trump of illegally overriding Congress’ spending decisions.

      Defense Secretary Mark Esper informed congressional leaders on Tuesday of the cash grab from a total of 127 military projects. Roughly half the money will come from funds previously dedicated to upgrading military bases abroad and the other half in the United States.

      Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer said Esper told him some of the money will come from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in his home state of New York.

      “It is a slap in the face to the members of the Armed Forces who serve our country that President Trump is willing to cannibalize already allocated military funding to boost his own ego and for a wall he promised Mexico would pay to build,” Schumer said in a statement.

      Trump declared a national emergency in February in order to divert $8 billion from various federal accounts to build a physical barrier along the U.S.-Mexico border, including a Treasury Department fund and Defense Department efforts to interdict illegal drugs.

      Tuesday’s announcement comes on top of $2.5 billion the Pentagon already diverted from its budget toward the border barrier this spring over objections from leaders on the House and Senate Armed Services and Appropriations committees.

      In a letter to Senate Armed Services Chairman Jim Inhofe (R-Okla.) on Tuesday, Esper detailed 11 border projects on the U.S.-Mexico border that the diverted funds will now finance.

      The barriers, Esper contended, will allow military personnel that have been deployed to the border to beef up security to focus on areas that don’t have physical barriers.

      “In short, these barriers will allow DoD to provide support to DHS more efficiently and effectively,” Esper wrote. “In this respect, the contemplated construction projects are force multipliers.”

      In total, the military construction budget will fund 175 miles of border wall — a combination of new barricades and improvements to existing structures. The earliest construction could begin in about 100 days, Elaine McCusker, the Pentagon’s acting comptroller, told reporters.

      She added that the first projects are likely to begin on land owned by the military, including the Barry M. Goldwater Air Force Range along the border in Arizona.

      The roster of 127 projects the Pentagon is targeting to pay for the border wall has been winnowed down from a much longer list of $12.9 billion worth of projects in dozens of states, as well as several locations overseas.

      The Pentagon is expected to release a list of all impacted projects on Wednesday, after it notifies lawmakers whose districts will be affected, as well as officials in foreign countries where projects are being deferred, according to Jonathan Hoffman, the Pentagon’s chief spokesperson.

      However, the military construction projects being raided do not include family housing, military barracks and projects that have already been awarded or are expected to be awarded in fiscal 2019, Hoffman said. He also added that the $1.8 billion from domestic projects will become available only when the $1.8 billion from international projects has been used up.

      Defense officials said they also hope Congress will appropriate more money to backfill the military construction projects that get cut. “The way we’re describing it is deferred. They’re definitely not canceled," McCusker said of the military construction projects being raided.

      Nevertheless, other Democrats in Congress also swiftly rebuked the decision. Rep. Debbie Wasserman Schultz (D-Fla.), who oversees military construction funding in the House, warned that the Trump administration “is about to weaken our national security by stealing billions from our military," including training for soldiers and schools for military families.

      “I reminded his Admin today that I will not support this theft from our military," Wasserman Schultz wrote on Twitter. “Trump can pander to his nativist base, but the House will fight his every attempt to make our military families or national security suffer as a result.”

      A group of Democratic senators sent a letter to Esper on Tuesday demanding more details. “We are opposed to this decision and the damage it will cause to our military and the relationship between Congress and the Department of Defense,” the senators wrote. “We also expect a full justification of how the decision to cancel was made for each project selected and why a border wall is more important to our national security and the well-being of our service members and their families than these projects.”

      In response to the news, Rep. Don Beyer (D-Va.) also taunted Trump in a tweet, writing eight times that “Trump promised Mexico would pay” for his campaign pledge to build a border wall.

      The move is also expected to draw ire of Republicans — at least privately. Lawmakers in both parties have consistently warned the Pentagon against raiding the defense budget for a border wall — a move they fear will hurt military readiness.

      The Trump administration previously angered congressional Democrats by deploying thousands of troops to help secure the southern border.

      It’s possible some of those troops on the border could return home once the wall is erected, Army Lt. Gen. Andrew Poppas, the director of operations on the Joint Chiefs of Staff, told reporters. Having more effective barricades could reduce the need for military personnel to patrol those portions of the border, Hoffman added.

      But Congress isn’t the only interested party expected to put up a fight over Trump’s latest move.

      The American Civil Liberties Union said after the announcement that it plans to file a motion to block the transfer of the money. The ACLU is representing the Sierra Club and border advocates in a related federal lawsuit in California.

      “The fact that the government sat on these so-called ‘emergency funds’ for seven months further confirms that this is nothing but an unlawful power grab. We’ll be back in court very soon to block Trump’s latest effort to raid military funds for his xenophobic wall," Dror Ladin, staff attorney with the ACLU’s National Security Project, said in a statement.


    • Trump moving forward to divert $3.6B from military projects for border wall

      The Trump administration is moving forward with its plan to divert $3.6 billion from military construction projects, notifying congressional leaders and lawmakers whose states will be impacted by the shuffle.

      Defense Secretary Mark Esper called congressional leaders, including House Speaker Nancy Pelosi (D-Calif.) and Senate Minority Leader Charles Schumer (D-N.Y.), on Tuesday to detail the decision to reprogram the money away from military construction projects and to the border.

      Schumer, who has projects in his home state that will be impacted, panned the decision as a “slap in the face” to members of the military.

      “The president is trying to usurp Congress’s exclusive power of the purse and loot vital funds from our military. Robbing the Defense Department of much-needed funds is an affront to our service members and Congress will strongly oppose any funds for new wall construction,” he added.

      Pelosi told House Democrats on a caucuswide conference call on Tuesday that Esper also informed her of the move earlier in the day, according to a call participant.

      “Canceling military construction projects at home and abroad will undermine our national security and the quality of life and morale of our troops, making America less secure,” Pelosi said later in a public statement.

      “The House will continue to fight this unacceptable and deeply dangerous decision in the Courts, in the Congress and in the court of public opinion, and honor our oath to protect the Constitution,” she added.

      Pentagon officials on Tuesday also confirmed that Esper approved $3.6 billion in Defense Department dollars to build 175 miles of wall on the U.S.- Mexico border, with Congress being briefed on the construction projects that will be affected by the order.

      The notification to congressional leadership comes following Trump’s declaration of a national emergency earlier this year to access more money for the border wall after Congress passed a funding bill that included only $1.35 billion for the border.

      Republicans bristled over Trump’s decision to declare the national emergency to get wall funding, but Congress was unable to override Trump’s veto of a resolution to nix the declaration. Democrats have pledged to force another vote this fall.

      As part of the declaration, Trump announced that he would reshuffle $3.6 billion from military construction projects. Republicans are promising to “back fill” the money in the upcoming government funding bills, though that requires cooperation from Democrats.

      In the meantime, roughly 127 military construction projects are being put on hold, half of which are overseas and half of which are planned U.S. projects, according to the Pentagon.

      Pentagon Comptroller Elaine McCusker, who also spoke to reporters, said construction is expected to begin in about 135 days.

      Officials also said that the additional miles of wall to be built are expected to diminish the number of U.S. troops deployed to the border but could not give an estimate as to how many.

      Democrats immediately balked at the Pentagon’s decision to formally move forward with the reprogramming.

      Sen. Jack Reed (D-R.I.), the top Democrat on the Senate Armed Services Committee, knocked the administration on Tuesday, saying there was “no credible reason” for diverting the funding.

      “There should be broad, bipartisan opposition to misusing defense dollars in this manner in both Congress and the courts," he added.

      “The President is robbing the men and women of our armed services of funds meant for critical construction projects that are necessary to serve our troops, support our allies, deter our adversaries, and care for our military families — all to build a wall that will do nothing to solve the humanitarian crisis at our Southwest border or protect the American people,” Sens. Patrick Leahy (D-Vt.), Dick Durbin (D-Ill.) and Brian Schatz (D-Hawaii) said in a joint statement.

      Leahy is the top Democrat on the Senate Appropriations Committee, while Durbin is the top Democrat on the Defense subcommittee and Schatz is the top Democrat on the military construction subcommittee.

      Schatz added in a subsequent tweet that “every service member, family member, and veteran should look at the list of projects he is de-funding and know that Trump thinks a wall is more important.”

      Democrats on the Senate Appropriations Committee sent Esper a letter on Tuesday requesting more information on the impacted projects, including how they were selected.

      “We ... expect a full justification of how the decision to cancel was made for each project selected and why a border wall is more important to our national security and the wellbeing of our service members and their families than these projects,” 10 Democrats on the panel wrote in their letter.


    • Pentagon diverts $3.6bn in funds for southern border wall

      US Secretary of Defence Mark Esper has granted $3.6bn (£3bn) in Pentagon funding to be redirected to help build a US-Mexico border wall.

      The money will fund 175 miles (280km) of construction and will force 127 military projects to be put on hold, he told lawmakers in a letter on Tuesday.

      Building a border wall was a major campaign pledge of President Trump but it has faced significant opposition.

      Tough action on immigration also forms a central part of his re-election bid.

      Mr Esper’s letter did not use the term “wall” but the border barriers described are likely to be cited by Mr Trump as evidence of progress as he gears up for the vote in 2020.

      Last July, the Supreme Court handed Mr Trump a victory in a related case, saying that the national emergency he issued in February allowed him the power to use $2.5bn in defence funds for wall construction while the matter proceeds in courts.

      In a letter sent to several congressional committees, the Department of Defense identified the 127 military construction projects worldwide that stand to lose funding on behalf of the border wall.

      Democrats argue that by diverting funds to the wall, the Trump administration is attempting to circumvent Congress’ role in making budgets for government agencies.

      Democrat Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer said it showed Mr Trump “is willing to cannibalise already allocated military funding to boost his own ego and for a wall he promised Mexico would pay to build”.

      The American Civil Liberties Union promised to seek a court order to block “the president’s abuse of emergency powers to secure funds for a wall Congress denied”.

      Donald Trump promised to use military construction money to fund his long-promised Mexican border wall. Now that order is being recorded on paper and put into action.

      That may cause some political difficulties for the president, but it’s clear he believes the potential damage from not following through on his 2016 border-wall campaign pledge - even if the funds are coming from US taxpayers, not Mexico - is greater than the risk of disgruntled constituents and interested parties.

      It wasn’t too long ago that border walling was a non-controversial proposition, tucked into larger spending legislation. That was before Donald Trump made it the most visible embodiment of his immigration policies, however.

      Mr Trump has already tweeted aerial video of new border wall construction (technically, just replacement barriers). His goal is to have even more footage to point to - and, perhaps, stand smiling alongside - as his 2020 presidential re-election campaign picks up steam.
      What is being defunded?

      In a letter released on Wednesday evening, first reported by The Daily Beast, Mr Esper identifies 127 projects that stand to lose funding at the expense of the border wall.

      This list includes projects across 23 US states, three US territories and 20 countries. More than $1bn in mainland projects - with a wide array of purposes -will likely be shelved, including $40m to update hazardous waste storage in Virginia and $95m for an engineering centre in New York.

      Nearly $700m will be diverted from projects in US territories Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands and Guam. Of these Puerto Rico will be hit hardest: the island stands to lose $400m worth of planned projects.

      Approximately $770m will be taken from projects across Europe, directed at helping allied countries deter a possible attack from Russia.

      Nine projects overall affect the renovation and replacement of schools for children on US military bases across the world.

      According to the Pentagon, the affected projects have not been cancelled outright but have been “deferred”.

      For the projects to be resumed, however, Congress must agree to do so in its annual defence policy bill. If Congress fails to do so, they will be stuck in legislative limbo and effectively defunded.


  • #Mur_mures_aux_frontières, édition mai 2019... dans les rues de #Grenoble...

    Pour en savoir plus sur ce #journal_mural :
    Journal mural contre les #frontières et la politique de la peur

    Mur-Mures aux frontières est un journal mural qui est réalisé à Grenoble.

    Il paraît régulièrement pour diffuser des informations, actualités et analyses sur ce qu’il se passe aux frontières de l’Europe : une véritable guerre, avec son armée (Frontex) et ses relais médiatiques. Ces frontières sont diffuses, leur présence est partout à l’intérieur et à l’extérieur de l’Union européenne, à travers les contrôles, les rafles, le harcèlement et l’humiliation systématique des exilé·e·s.

    Ce journal défend la liberté d’installation et de circulation pour toutes et tous, veut contribuer à lutter contre le racisme et les nouvelles formes du colonialisme, contre les frontières et les injustices sociales, et contre la politique de la peur.


    #migrations #asile #réfugiés