• L’obsession du mur

    https://www.peterlang.com/view/title/67389

    A l’image du mur de Trump ou du renforcement des frontières européennes, de plus en plus d’États militarisent leurs frontières au moyen de murs à l’efficacité discutable. Pour expliquer cette obsession globale, il est utile de revenir sur les controverses qui banalisent ces outils militaires à partir de deux matrices de la sécurité frontalière contemporaine, à savoir la «  barrière de sécurité  » israélienne en Cisjordanie et la «  barrière frontalière  » états-unienne à la frontière mexicaine. Les murs s’inscrivent dans un spectacle politique, destiné aux citoyens emmurés, et joué par des acteurs conservateurs, sécuritaires et xénophobes. Ces acteurs problématisent les mobilités, développent une expertise sécuritaire, et attaquent l’État pour mieux le forcer à agir. Fondé sur deux enquêtes en immersion auprès d’eux, ce livre entend dépasser la thèse des murs comme signe du déclin de la souveraineté étatique dans le monde globalisé pour mieux souligner comment la répétition de ces spectacles renforce le militarisme des sociétés au détriment d’autres approches humanitaires, juridiques ou économiques des mobilités.

    #murs #frontières #israël #mexique #états-unis

  • Equatorial Guinea Halts Construction of Cameroon Border Wall

    Equatorial Guinea has agreed to pause the construction of a controversial border wall with Cameroon after talks between the two countries’ defense ministers in Yaoundé. The two sides also agreed once again to withdraw troops from their disputed border after deadly clashes left at least seven people dead. An agreement earlier this month to withdraw forces failed to hold and some border traders are skeptical of this latest pact.

    After a second day of closed-door meetings in Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea’s Defense Minister Leandro Bekale Nkogo said the two sides agreed to set aside their differences.

    Nkogo on Tuesday announced Equatorial Guinea would pause construction of its controversial border wall, which Cameroon’s government says violates its territory.

    He says troops from the two countries that have been deployed to the border will return to their barracks and only come out to protect their civilians in times of crisis. Nkogo says Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea will henceforth jointly combat their common enemies, who are poachers, pirates resurfacing in the Gulf of Guinea, and armed groups attacking and looting civilians in both countries.

    Nkogo said as neighbors, Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea need each other for their security and development.

    Equatorial Guinea’s President Teodoro Obiang Nguema ordered the border wall be built in 2019 to stop Cameroonians and West Africans from illegally entering the country.

    Cameroon deployed its army to stop what it called an intrusion of border markers, leading to armed conflicts and casualties.

    An agreement earlier this month to pull back troops, and jointly demarcate the border, apparently failed.

    Cameroon says at least seven of its civilians were killed in border clashes that followed in the southwestern town of Kye-Ossi.

    But Cameroon’s Defense Minister Joseph Beti Assomo on Tuesday said both sides were firm in seeking an end the border tensions.

    He says the wish of Cameroon’s President Paul Biya is to see Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea become the true brotherly and friendly nations that they were at the dawn of independence. He says both countries have sociological, cultural and geographic relations that should encourage the people of the two states to live in peace and harmony.

    Despite the agreements Monday, not all traders along the border were convinced that the skirmishes will end.

    40-year-old Cameroonian merchant Angelica Amende, who buys wine from Equatorial Guinea to sell back home, doubts the border dispute can soon be resolved.

    She says she does not think there is a political will to solve the crisis on Cameroon’s border with Equatorial Guinea. She says it is not the first-time high-profile delegations have met on the instructions of the two heads of state and the border crisis is yet to end.

    Equatorial Guinea has often accused Cameroon of not doing enough to stop its citizens and other West Africans from crossing the border illegally.

    In 2017, Equatorial Guinea sealed its border with Cameroon for six months after authorities on both sides arrested heavily armed foreigners and accused them plotting to overthrow Obiang.

    The two countries’ leaders are Africa’s longest-serving presidents. Obiang has ruled Equatorial Guinea since 1979, while Biya has ruled Cameroon since 1982.

    Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea in 2017 joined four other states in the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC) in agreeing to lift visa requirements.

    Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, Gabon, and the Republic of Congo have since accused Equatorial Guinea of dragging its feet on allowing the free movement of people and goods.

    https://www.voanews.com/africa/equatorial-guinea-halts-construction-cameroon-border-wall
    #guinée_équatoriale #murs #barrières_frontalières #frontières #Cameroun

    • La Guinée Equatoriale suspend la construction d’un mur à la frontière avec le Cameroun

      Les deux pays étaient en froid depuis la décision de Malabo d’ériger un mur entre les deux pays. La Guinée Equatoriale va suspendre les travaux de construction du mur.

      Les tensions ont atteint leur plus haut point, lorsque la Guinée Equatoriale a unilatéralement entrepris d’ériger un mur à la frontière qui la sépare du Cameroun. Les travaux de construction de ce mur de séparation, long de 189 kilomètres et dont la Guinée Equatoriale a toujours nié l’existence, sont désormais suspendus. C’est la plus importante annonce de la rencontre entre les ministres de la Défense des deux pays, réunis les 29 et 30 juin 2020 à Yaoundé.

      Les participants au sommet se sont concertés sur les modalités de collaboration et d’actions sécuritaires à la frontière commune.

      Le mur de la discorde

      Les tensions ont atteint leur plus haut point, lorsque la Guinée Equatoriale a unilatéralement entrepris, en juillet 2019, d’ériger un mur sur la frontière commune.

      À l’époque, Yaoundé avait accusé la Guinée Equatoriale d’avoir empiété sur son territoire, ce qu’avait démenti Malabo. Les tensions avaient été ravivées quand Malabo a entrepris la construction de miradors au même endroit, d’après une publication en juin, du quotidien d’Etat camerounais Cameroon Tribune.

      Joseph Beti Assomo, le ministre de la Défense du Cameroun a salué la décision de la suspension des travaux de construction du mur qui, selon lui, va davantage consolider les liens entre le Cameroun et la Guinée Equatoriale.

      « Ces derniers mois, des incompréhensions se sont multipliées sur ces travaux de fortification par nos frères, le long de la frontière terrestre. Les nouvelles qui nous parviennent portent sur la suspension des travaux, ce qui nous permet désormais de travailler sereinement », espère le ministre camerounais.

      La zone frontalière de la Guinée équatoriale, du Cameroun et du Gabon, appelée zone des trois frontières, est une plaque tournante des échanges commerciaux, mais aussi de trafics.

      La décision de la construction du mur prise en 2019 par Malabo avait surpris. D’autant que les États de la Communauté Économique et Monétaire de l’Afrique Centrale (CEMAC), prônent la libre circulation des personnes et des biens.

      Porte d’entrée en Guinée Equatoriale

      La question de la libre circulation a toujours été une pierre d’achoppement entre le Cameroun et la Guinée Equatoriale. Malabo estime que le Cameroun est la porte d’entrée de nombreux ressortissants d’Afrique de l’Ouest qui transitent par ce territoire pour se retrouver illégalement en Guinée Equatoriale.

      Leandro Bekale Nkogo, ministre de la Défense de la Guinée Équatoriale, a fait part de quelques propositions, qui selon lui pourraient contribuer au renforcement du dialogue et la sécurité le long de la frontière.

      « Il s’agit de mettre en place des mécanismes qui visent à encourager et à promouvoir la qualité des relations de nos deux peuples le long de la frontière, ainsi que la lutte contre la piraterie maritime, du banditisme au niveau des frontières et de l’immigration clandestine », souligne le ministre Leandro Bekale Nkogo.

      Par le passé, le Cameroun et la Guinée Equatoriale ont tenu des rencontres similaires sans véritablement s’accorder. Les populations espèrent que le sommet bilatéral qui vient de se tenir à Yaoundé aura plus d’effets que les précédents.

      https://www.dw.com/fr/la-guin%C3%A9e-equatoriale-suspend-la-construction-dun-mur-%C3%A0-la-fronti%C3%A8re-avec-le-cameroun/a-54008132

    • Malabo veut un mur à la frontière avec le Cameroun

      Officiellement, il s’agit d’assurer la sécurité à la frontière de la Guinée équatoriale. Mais la crainte d’un afflux de réfugiés venant du Cameroun pourrait également expliquer ce projet.
      Le président de la République de Guinée équatoriale, Teodoro Obiang Nguema, a décidé d’ériger un mur à la frontière avec le Cameroun. Officiellement, il s’agit d’assurer la sécurité de cette frontière un an après une tentative de coup d’Etat conduite par des mercenaires tchadiens et centrafricains qui étaient venus du Cameroun. La construction doit s’étendre sur 40 kilomètres sur le trajet entre Kye Ossi au Cameroun et Campo en Guinée équatoriale. Les travaux ont débuté et sont visibles depuis le côté camerounais.

      Mais à Kye Ossi, la construction du mur provoque la mauvaise humeur de la population locale.

      Pierre Tchinda, habitant de Kye Ossi pense que le mur sera un frein sérieux à la dynamique de la libre circulation des personnes et des biens dans la zone Cemac :

      « Est-ce qu’on parle de la libre circulation en érigeant un mur ? Que les Equato-guinéens nous disent exactement ce qu’ils veulent. Pourquoi ériger un mur ? Pour moi ça n’a pas de sens. Cela va causer un impact pour le citoyen qui achète sa bière à 500 francs CFA et va sans doute devoir ensuite la payer le double. »

      Tensions entre les deux pays

      Certains considèrent même cette initiative comme une provocation. A Kye Ossi, beaucoup pensent aussi que le mur empiète sur le territoire camerounais. C’est ce qu’explique Jean-Marie Zue Zue, l’adjoint au maire de Kye Ossi :

      « Les militaires équato-guinéens, à l’insu des autorités camerounaises, sont allés planter des piquets de délimitation de la frontière alors que cela ne devrait pas se faire ainsi. Il faut une commission ad hoc. Les autorités camerounaises et équato-guinéennes doivent travailler sur les limites exactes des deux pays. »

      Le sous-préfet de la localité, Joseph Victorien Happy De Nguiamba, a affirmé qu’il n’a aucun doute sur la volonté de la Guinée équatoriale de conduire le chantier du mur à son terme. Mais la situation est tendue, les autorités équato-guinéennes ayant refusé de se rendre à plusieurs rencontres prévues avec leurs homologues camerounais.

      La visite du général de l’armée camerounaise René Claude Meka à Kye Ossi il y a quelques semaines a rassuré la population. Les relations entre le Cameroun et la Guinée équatoriale pourraient en effet se détériorer à cause de ce mur.

      https://www.dw.com/fr/malabo-veut-un-mur-%C3%A0-la-fronti%C3%A8re-avec-le-cameroun/a-50058538

    • OBIANG CONSTRUIT UN MUR DE LA HONTE ENTRE LA GUINÉE ÉQUATORIALE ET LE CAMEROUN

      OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO vient de prouver une fois de plus à la communauté internationale qu’il ne respecte ni les Traités ni les lois ni les décrets qu’il signe, il vient de démontrer que sa signature de chef d’État au bas d’un parchemin n’a aucune valeur et tout cela pour construire un ’MUR DE LA HONTE" entre le CAMEROUN et la GUINÉE ÉQUATORIALE.

      Ainsi on apprend, à l’occasion d’incidents qui viennent de se produire à la frontière CAMEROUN/GUINÉE ÉQUATORIALE, que les autorités équato-guinéennes ont opté et commencé la construction d’un mur à la frontière avec le Cameroun au mépris des dispositions régissant l’intégration régionale et continentale.

      Comme on a pu le lire dans la presse, le moins que l’on puisse dire, c’est que le Gouvernement équato-guinéen souffle le chaud et le froid et danse le tango sur ce qu’il dit et ce qu’il fait, tout cela en violation des Conventions et Traités internationaux ainsi qu’aux principes de l’Union africaine (UA) et de la Communauté économique et monétaire de l’Afrique centrale (CEMAC) dont elle est membre.

      Quant à l’armée camerounaise, Préfet en tête, elle est sur le terrain prête à en découdre avec les dépassements de frontière...

      La question de la libre circulation est sur la table depuis des années en Afrique centrale : en 1972, l’ancêtre de la CEMAC avait déjà acté la libre circulation des personnes,

      En 2000, à la création de la Communauté économique et monétaire d’Afrique centrale, (CEMAC), l’idée d’un passeport commun à la zone centrafricaine avait été avancée puis décidée, mais le document n’a jamais vu le jour. Les négociations sur la libre circulation, laborieuses se sont poursuivies à chaque Sommet de la Communauté et elles ont longtemps achoppé en raison des refus de la Guinée équatoriale et du Gabon, pays pétroliers peu peuplés et relativement prospères (sauf pour les 80% qui vient en dessous du seuil de pauvreté) qui craignaient une immigration massive.

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=2&v=CADVWhK-uXM

      la CEMAC a pris acte de la ratification, fin octobre 2017 par tous les États membres, de l’Accord de 2013 sur la libre circulation des personnes dans la sous-région, mettant fin ainsi à des négociations laborieuses entamées il y a plus de quinze ans.

      Les chefs d’État de la CEMAC, réunis en Sommet extraordinaire à N’Djamena, ont aussi décidé d’autoriser la Banque de développement des États d’Afrique centrale (BDEAC) à débloquer 1,7 milliards de francs pour « accompagner l’application de la libre circulation ».

      À aucun cas cette somme, destinée à favoriser la libre circulation, n’était destinée à permettre de construire un "MUR DE LA HONTE"..., c’est dire que le signataire OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO n’avait aucunement l’idée, malgré sa signature d’appliquer ces Accords internationaux, ce qui remet en question toute sa crédibilité, celle de l’État et de ses ministres au moment même où il entend proposer la négociation de nouveaux blocs pétroliers ou de participer à des négociations sur la transformation du franc CFA et la création d’une nouvelle monnaie africaine...

      À ce sujet, il est particulièrement honteux, pour un pays comme la Guinée équatoriale, de venir mendier 55 millions d’euros auprès de la Banque africaine de Développement (BAD) pour, soi-disant, augmenter et valoriser la production de poissons, à travers le développement durable de la pêche industrielle, de la pêche artisanale et de l’aquaculture, alors que le président dispose, à titre personnel, d’une fortune personnelle de plus de 600 millions de dollars selon FORBES et que l’un des yachts du fils OBIANG vaut, à lui seul, plus de 250 millions de dollars... D’où vient tout cet argent qui manque lorsqu’il faut investir dans un secteur fondamental comme celui de la pêche et que l’on trouve pour satisfaire des achats compulsifs personnels et que l’on ne trouve pas pour satisfaire les besoins fondamentaux de l’État équato-guinéen ?

      Depuis des décennies, les populations du CAMEROUN et de la GUINÉE ÉQUATORIALE vivent en bonne intelligence et ont des relations commerciales soutenues par la nécessité alimentaire de la population équato-guinéenne, privée de développement dans ce domaine par le fait, pour le pouvoir en place sans interruption depuis 40 ans, d’avoir privilégié les constructions pharaoniques de plusieurs palais présidentiels et d’une ville fantôme au lieu de développer les secteurs économiques fondamentaux en pensant vivre éternellement de la rente pétrolière et des fruits de la corruption qu’elle génère, ainsi l’agriculture et la pêche équato-guinéennes ont été réduites à leur plus simple expression, ce qui a nécessité des importations alimentaires quotidiennes pour permettre à 80 pour cent de la population, qui vit en dessous du seuil de pauvreté, de pouvoir s’alimenter. Or, cette production alimentaire vient en grande partie du Cameroun.

      La construction du MUR DE LA HONTE divise même les familles équato-guinéennes et camerounaises qui cohabitent ensemble à la frontière et vivent ensemble sur le même territoire, le mur de la honte coupera en deux ce qui existe en brousse depuis des siècles, ce qui montre une fois de plus l’incapacité présidentielle et de ses ministres à prendre en compte la réalité sur le terrain des situations, les visites de chantier et les poignées de main serrées aux opérateurs sont bien loin des préoccupations de la population que le président semble ignorer et surtout prendre en compte.

      Le président OBIANG se prend pour l’empereur de CHINE qui, 200 ans avant notre ère, a construit la grande muraille de CHINE. Il entend marquer l’histoire de la République de Guinée équatoriale par des infrastructures qui portent son nom et dont il croit qu’elles défieront le temps, alors que l’on a vu les statues de tous les dictateurs de la planète tomber les unes après les autres, qu’il se souvienne du mur de BERLIN et des statues déboulonnées en terre africaine... Aujourd’hui, grisé par le fait d’avoir nommé son fils général, le voici qu’il veut qu’il endosse sa tenue de combat et ses rangers pour aller se frotter au pays voisin où l’armée camerounaise l’attend de pied ferme...

      Poursuivant son oeuvre de désinformation, voici que le Gouvernement équato-guinéen ose publier, ce 8 août 2019, un communiqué dans lequel le ministre de l’information, de la Presse et de la Radio et ministre porte-parole du Gouvernement (n’en rajoutez plus cela en fait beaucoup en matière de désinformation), Eugenio Nze Obiang ose affirmer " La Guinée équatoriale vient de célébrer 40 ans de paix, de prospérité et de saine coexistence nationale"... et il termine en concluant : "La Guinée équatoriale, unie comme étant un seul homme suivant son chef d’État, SE Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, continuera à lutter pour maintenir la paix,

      Ce communiqué, qui est un numéro d’illusionniste, fait une démonstration visant à condamner AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL, en reprenant, selon ses mots : "qu’un vent de liberté et surtout d’espoir s’est levé dans toutes les villes, dans tous les villages et dans tous les foyers, diffusant l’illusion d’une nouvelle vie pour tous les groupes de la population, qui n’avait connu que le terreur, l’intimidation et l’humiliation et pour lesquels la liberté était encore un rêve inaccessible".

      Oui il parle effectivement de ce que tout le peuple attend aujourd’hui : la paix, la fin de la dictature et le retour à la Démocratie, à la liberté de la presse, qu’Eugenio Nze Obiang malgré ses fonctions ignore puisqu’il porte le maillot n° 171 en matière de liberté de la presse dans le monde, ce qui est la preuve de son discrédit et de tout ce qu’il peut affirmer en parlant de paix au moment même où des tensions se sont formées sur le MUR DE LA HONTE, qui est la signature d’un Régime à bout de souffle en matière d’idées et de développement économique et social.

      Ce jour, le Conseil de Sécurité de l’ONU plaide pour une action plus intégrée et multisectorielle en Afrique de l’Ouest et au Sahel pour traiter les questions du développement, de l’action humanitaire, des droits de la personne et de la paix et de la sécurité. Cette démarche doit être entreprise pour s’attaquer aux causes profondes des crises qui touchent la région, c’est ainsi que le Conseil souhaite que les réformes politiques en cours dans la région soient consolidées pour prévenir les violences et l’instabilité et que la réconciliation nationale progresse. Aussi, le Conseil souligne que les parties prenantes nationales doivent collaborer pour faciliter la préparation, en temps voulu, et la tenue dans les délais fixés « d’élections véritablement libres, justes, crédibles et pacifiques ».

      Le Conseil appelle ces parties à prendre toutes les mesures qui s’imposent pour prévenir les violences et leur demande, instamment, de garantir des conditions égales à tous les candidats et toutes les candidates et de favoriser la participation pleine et véritable des femmes sur un pied d’égalité avec les hommes, notamment en vue d’accroître le nombre de femmes aux hautes fonctions de l’État.

      Le maintien de la paix ne saurait permettre la tentative de déstabilisation des relations avec le pays voisin engagée par le président OBIANG par la construction de ce MUR DE LA HONTE, c’est la raison pour laquelle la COALITION CORED, son président, les membres de son bureau ainsi que les 20 partis politiques et associations en exil, qui représentent les 250 000 personnes qui ont fui la Guinée-équatoriale pour ne pas se faire assassiner et rejoindre les 310 personnes dont la mémoire vient d’être honorée, une fois de plus, à la date du 3 août, demande l’arrêt immédiat de ce projet de construction du MUR DE LA HONTE équato-guinéen et appelle la communauté internationale à soutenir son action pour que les bonnes relations avec son pays voisin, le Cameroun, soient préservées.

      https://blogs.mediapart.fr/abeso-ndong-salomon/blog/080819/obiang-construit-un-mur-de-la-honte-entre-la-guinee-equatoriale-et-l

  • During and After Crisis : Evros Border Monitoring Report

    #HumanRights360 documents the recent developments in the European land border of Evros as a result of the ongoing policy of externalization and militarization of border security of the EU member States. The report analyses the current state of play, in conjunction with the constant amendments of the Greek legislation amid the discussions pertaining to the reform of the Common European Asylum System (CEAS) and the Return Directive.

    https://www.humanrights360.org/during-and-after-crisis-evros-border-monitoring-report

    #rapport #Evros #migrations #réfugiés #Grèce #frontières #2019 #militarisation_des_frontières #loi_sur_l'asile #Kleidi #Serres #covid-19 #coronavirus #Turquie #push-backs #refoulements #refoulement #push-back #statistiques #passages #chiffres #frontière_terrestre #murs #barrières_frontalières #Kastanies #violence #Komotini #enfermement #détention #rétention_administrative #Thiva #Fylakio #transferts

    –------
    Pour télécharger le rapport


    https://www.humanrights360.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/During-After-Crisis-Evros.pdf

    ping @luciebacon

  • Let’s Call it a Wall

    The border between the US and Mexico was first defined by the “United States and Mexican Boundary Survey” (1848–1855) in accordance with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which ended the Mexican–American War.

    About forty years later, the first border control point was installed, in 1896 at Eagle Pass, Texas. In 1918, the first recorded border fence was built at Nogales, Arizona. Its construction was ordered by Felix B. Peñaloza, the mayor, of Nogales, Mexico. In his opinion, the fence would help to “direct the flow of people crossing the border through two gateways, to make it easier for a growing number of soldiers, customs agents, and other officials to oversee transborder movement.”

    But soon after fence was erected, a conflict broke that resulted in a two-hour shootout between officers on both sides. “At least twelve Mexicans and Americans had been killed, including Peñaloza, who had built the fence precisely to minimize the risk of conflict between the nations.”

    Despite the fact that this first fence building activity was not very successful in negotiating conflicts, the fence in Nogales remained, and more barriers were about to come. Yet it was not until the 1990s that signs of serious barrier construction appeared. The most significant fence building activity before the 1990s was a five-mile chain-link fence in 1945 and twenty-seven miles of punched-out-metal fence during the Carter era in the late 1970s dubbed the “Tortilla Curtain.”

    Most fences during the postwar period were erected on both sides of border at crossing points to prevent vehicles and people from circumventing controls.

    In the 1990s, first fences separate from border crossing points were erected out of portable Marston Mats (M8A1).

    These ten-foot-long, fifteen-inches-thick corrugated metal panels were originally used during the Vietnam War as landing pads for aircraft and parking areas for vehicles. Yet at the border, supported by metal studs, they formed a ten-foot-high steel wall. Marston Mat walls can still be found along large parts of the border today, in every state except Texas.

    Until the mid-2000s, border fence construction remained rather marginal. Only fifty miles of the 1,954-mile-long border were fenced by the end of the 1990s. The annual budget for “Tactical Infrastructure” (the bureaucratic term for border barriers) was $6 million in 2002, and still as low as $15 million in 2005.
    In 2007, however, the budget skyrocketed to $647 million. This sudden increase was a result of the “Secure Fence Act of 2006,” which authorized and partially funded the construction of 700 miles of fencing along the US-Mexican border. The Act was signed into law on October 26, 2006, by US President George W. Bush, with wide bipartisan support (including senators Obama, Clinton, Schumer, and Biden).
    https://vimeo.com/400921834#at=8

    Until the Secure Fence Act, there were no clear design guidelines for border barriers, which resulted in a large variety of fence typologies. We have identified eight barrier and wall typologies, plus eleven fence typologies. Of these nineteen typologies, many varieties in topping, foundation, and dimension exist, which is the result of differences in terrain, year of construction, and different contractors. From this large diversity of border barrier typologies, one particular fence has recently come to the fore: Personnel-Vehicle Fence Type 1 (PV-1).

    The first mentioning of the Personnel-Vehicle Fence Type 1 (PV-1) is issued in a document by the Department of Homeland Security dated May 2008, a few months before the completion of the first segment using PV-1 fencing. The fence consists of vertical steel bollards with a six-by-six-inch square profile filled with concrete. The distance between the vertical bollards is about five inches (the original sketch in the 2008 document shows less distance between the bollards, but an opening for cats to pass through instead). Nine vertical bollards are mounted together to form one fence element which is placed in an in-situ concrete foundation. At the top, the PV-1 finishes with a five-foot-high steel plate, but occasionally, this plate is omitted. The first PV-1, built in August 2008, is still standing at Andrade, California, between Boundary Monument 210 and 207.PV-1 became “the fence,” or better known as “the wall,” in Donald Trump’s presidential campaign, and who later downgraded it to “steel slats.” The PV-1’s breakthrough moment was on October 26, 2018, in Calexico, California when the president mounted a plaque on it to commemorate the erection of his first section of the border wall. Yet the wall was not a wall, but a fence, one that was designed during the George W. Bush administration, and the particular section in Calexico being commemorated was in fact a replacement of an existing structure that was already approved and built by the Obama administration in 2009.

    There is little known about the person, or team behind the design of PV-1, but the 2008 brief exists and states clearly that the fence must:

    extend fifteen-to-eighteen feet above ground and be supported in subsurface footers at depths deemed necessary;
    be capable of withstanding an impact from a 10,000-pound gross weight vehicle traveling at forty miles per hour;
    be semi-transparent, as dictated by operational need;
    be designed to survive extreme climate changes of a desert environment;
    be designed to allow movement of small animals from one side to the other; and
    not impede the natural flow of water.

    The only difference between the initial design and the current version of PV-1 is height. While the 2008 brief mentions fifteen-to-eighteen feet, its current design is eighteen-to-thirty feet.

    After Trump spent $3.3 million on the construction of eight new border wall prototypes, the final success of the PV-1 was ultimately decided upon by Congress. In approving the budget for the 2017–2019 fiscal years, Congress included a note in the Department of Homeland Security Appropriations bill that the apportioned money has to be used on “previously deployed and operationally effective designs, such as currently deployed steel bollard designs, that prioritize agent safety.”

    Additionally, it was stated that the money only can be spent on barrier replacement, not new barrier construction.

    While this might have been seen as a blow for Trump and his promised wall, in July 2017, a year before the eight prototypes have been completed, he already mentioned that PV-1 might be the “wall” he always had in mind. Yet the war of words continued. The Congressional Research Service mentioned in its January 2020 “DHS Border Barrier Funding” report that “News stories indicate that the White House has reportedly asked CBP [Customs and Border Protection] to stop using the term “replacement barrier” because it sounds like a lesser accomplishment.” The White House prefers to use the term “new border wall system.”
    PV-1 construction continues. In December 2019, two companies were commissioned with PV-1 construction: $789 million is being paid to the Galveston, Texas-based general contractors SLSCO Ltd., which will replace forty-six miles of vehicle barriers along the New Mexico border; and the Bozeman, Montana-based construction company Barnard Construction Co. received a $187 million contract to build eleven miles of fencing in three separate segments along the Yuma County border in southwestern Arizona.PV-1 is slowly turning into an iconic structure, symbolizing the border between the US and Mexico, not unlike how the concrete wall with its rounded top symbolized the Berlin Wall. Yet no barrier is unsurmountable.

    https://www.e-flux.com/architecture/at-the-border/325750/let-s-call-it-a-wall
    #murs #chronologie #visualisation #frontières #migrations #barrières_frontalières #USA #Etats-Unis #Mexique #graphique #cartographie #prototypes #architecture

    via @isskein
    ping @reka @mobileborders

  • North American Borders in Comparative Perspective | UAPress

    https://uapress.arizona.edu/book/north-american-borders-in-comparative-perspective

    The northern and southern borders and borderlands of the United States should have much in common; instead they offer mirror articulations of the complex relationships and engagements between the United States, Mexico, and Canada. In North American Borders in Comparative Perspectiveleading experts provide a contemporary analysis of how globalization and security imperatives have redefined the shared border regions of these three nations.

    This volume offers a comparative perspective on North American borders and reveals the distinctive nature first of the overportrayed Mexico-U.S. border and then of the largely overlooked Canada-U.S. border. The perspectives on either border are rarely compared. Essays in this volume bring North American borders into comparative focus; the contributors advance the understanding of borders in a variety of theoretical and empirical contexts pertaining to North America with an intense sharing of knowledge, ideas, and perspectives.

    #frontières #murs #amérique_du_nord #états-unis

  • La #Slovénie érige de nouvelles barrières à sa frontière avec la #Croatie


    https://www.infomigrants.net/fr/post/24082/la-slovenie-erige-de-nouvelles-barrieres-a-sa-frontiere-avec-la-croati

    La Slovénie a décidé de renforcer sa frontière avec la Croatie afin d’éviter des franchissements illégaux par des migrants, a annoncé mardi le ministère de l’Intérieur. En cinq ans, près de 200 kilomètres de clôtures ont déjà été construits dans cette zone.

    La Slovénie a déclaré, mardi 14 avril, qu’elle allait ajouter 40 kilomètres de nouvelles barrières à sa frontière avec la Croatie afin d’empêcher des migrants de la franchir clandestinement, rapporte l’agence de presse Reuters. Depuis 2015, le pays a fait construire progressivement quelque 196 kilomètres de clôtures sur les 670 kilomètres de frontière commune entre la Slovénie et la Croatie.

    Le ministère n’a pas précisé où les nouvelles barrières seront installées, mais a indiqué que leur construction serait effective dans le courant de l’année. Une annonce similaire portant également sur 40 kilomètres de nouvelles barrières avait été faite en juillet dernier pour l’année 2019.

    Bien que la Croatie et la Slovénie soient membres de l’Union européenne, la première n’appartient pas à l’espace Schengen de libre circulation. Les autorités slovènes ont donc expliqué l’an dernier qu’elles comptaient installer de nouvelles clôtures « dans les zones où il est urgent d’empêcher le franchissement illégal des frontières et de protéger les citoyens et leurs biens ».

    Explosion du nombre de tentatives de franchissement de la frontière

    Sur les deux premiers mois de l’année 2020, la police slovène a dénombré 1 165 tentatives de passage clandestin, soit près de 80% de plus qu’à la même période l’an dernier. Elle avait notamment annoncé, le mois dernier, avoir découvert une trentaine de migrants cachés dans un train de marchandises (https://www.infomigrants.net/fr/post/23225/slovenie-la-police-decouvre-trente-migrants-caches-sous-de-l-argile-da).

    Revenu fin février dans le fauteuil de Premier ministre, Janez Jansa avait promis lors de sa campagne de durcir sa politique en matière d’asile, d’ajouter de nouvelles barrières frontalières et de renforcer les contrôles aux frontières de ce petit pays de deux millions d’habitants situé sur le route migratoire des Balkans (https://www.infomigrants.net/fr/post/23045/slovenie-le-conservateur-janez-jansa-revient-au-pouvoir-en-durcissant-).

    Durant le pic de la crise migratoire en 2015 et 2016, un demi million de migrants clandestins avait traversé la Slovénie en six mois afin d’atteindre les pays d’Europe occidentale plus riches, comme la France, l’Allemagne ou le Royaume-Uni.

    #barrières_frontalières #asile #migrations #réfugiés #murs #route_des_balkans #frontière_sud-alpine #frontières #clôture

    • C’était 2019...
      En Slovénie, une clôture « de la honte » à la frontière croate (1/3)

      Depuis 2015, le gouvernement slovène érige le long de sa frontière sud une clôture de #barbelés pour tenter d’endiguer le flux de migrants en provenance de la Croatie voisine. Les villages slovènes traversés par les fils barbelés supportent mal l’installation de ce grillage qui, selon eux, abîme le #paysage et n’empêche pas la traversée des migrants.

      « Qui aime se réveiller le matin avec des #fils_barbelés devant sa fenêtre ? » Rudy ne décolère pas. Cet habitant de #Slavski_Laz, un village perdu dans les #montagnes slovènes, frontalier avec la Croatie, ne s’explique toujours pas pourquoi le gouvernement a construit, ici, au bord de la #rivière_Kolpa, une clôture de barbelés.

      « Ils disent que ce grillage est fait pour nous protéger… Mais nous protéger de quoi ? Je n’ai #peur de rien… », continue ce retraité qui vit depuis des années dans la région encore largement sauvage. L’argument de « l’#invasion_migratoire » brandi par le gouvernement pour justifier la construction de ce mur de métal ne le convainc pas.

      « Les migrants ici, ils passent, c’est tout », explique-t-il. « Ils transitent par la Slovénie et puis s’en vont vers d’autres pays, vers le nord de l’Europe généralement ».

      Les amis de Rudy acquiescent, tous attablés dans le seul café encore ouvert à 19h de #Kostel, un village de moins de 650 habitants non loin d’une des rares routes menant à la Croatie. Selon eux, la clôture est inutile, elle abîme le paysage, et son rôle de #dissuasion est largement surestimé. « Ils disent que les barbelés vont empêcher le passage de migrants… Mais tout le monde passe quand même ! », sourit Marco, un ami de Rudy, habitant dans le village voisin de Fara, en déclenchant l’hilarité de l’assemblée.

      « Par exemple, en ce moment, avec l’hiver et les forts courants, les rivages sont boueux, poreux, alors, les terrains bougent, la clôture s’effondre. Les migrants qui veulent passer n’ont même pas besoin de se fatiguer, ils ont juste à l’#enjamber », continue Marco en riant. « Il y a des endroits où des sillons se sont creusés. Ils peuvent aussi passer sous la barrière ! »

      116 km de #grillages

      Près de 14 000 migrants ont traversé la frontière depuis le début de l’année, « soit 70% de plus que l’année dernière », à la même période, affirment les autorités slovènes à InfoMigrants.

      Cet été, 40 km supplémentaires de grillages ont donc été construits à la frontière sud, le long de la rivière Kolpa. « Il faut empêcher le franchissement illégal des frontières », a indiqué le ministère de l’Intérieur dans un communiqué. En tout, depuis 2015, Ljulbjana a déjà érigé 116 km de grillages le long de la Kolpa qui parcourt les 670 km de frontière avec la Croatie.

      « Ces clôtures ne sont pas une baguette magique mais elles nous aident », ajoute, de son côté, un commandant de police slovène.

      Khaled, un demandeur d’asile érythréen, aujourd’hui à Ljubljana, a tenté trois fois le passage de la frontière slovène avant de réussir à entrer dans le pays. La clôture, il s’en souvient très bien. « J’ai traversé la frontière au mois de mai, quelque part vers #Ribnica. Je me souviens qu’une fois la rivière franchie, il a fallu passer ces barbelés. Alors j’ai grimpé, je me suis déchiré les mains, elles étaient pleines de sang, mais je suis passé ».

      Montagnes dangereuses, présence d’#ours, eau glaciale

      Au delà de sa dangerosité, Rudy, le villageois, voit dans cet alignement de barbelés, une « #clôture_de_la_honte » qui, selon lui, stigmatise les migrants. « On voit arriver des familles, parfois des enfants. Je ne vois pas bien en quoi, ce sont des ennemis », continue le retraité.

      « Cette barrière, c’est le début de l’enfer », explique à son tour une jeune fille qui énumère les dangers qui attendent les migrants juste après son franchissement : la montagne « très dangereuse quand on s’y perd », les températures « glaciales » et les ours, nombreux dans le pays. « Parfois, on entend des cris là-haut. Ce sont des migrants qui hurlent pour effrayer les animaux ».

      Ces dernières semaines, deux migrants sont décédés par #noyade dans la Kolpa et un autre a été retrouvé mort de froid et d’#épuisement dans la #forêt.

      Surtout, les migrants doivent éviter les patrouilles de #police. « La nuit, quand nous tentons la traversée, nous voyons les lumières des lampes torche, derrière la clôture. Les #policiers sont partout. C’est ça qui nous effraie le plus », se souvient Khaled. « On fait tout pour les éviter. Quand la police vous attrape, elle vous renvoie en Croatie. Elle vous emmène rarement jusqu’à la capitale pour demander l’asile ».

      Depuis le début de l’année, sur les 14 000 entrées illégales, plus de 8 000 renvois – aussi appelés « pushbacks » - ont été effectués depuis les frontières slovènes, affirment les autorités.

      Patrouille de miliciens d’extrême-droite

      « C’est une #honte, il y a la police, l’armée, maintenant cette clôture et il y a même une milice ! », fulmine à son tour Katarina Bernad Sterva, directrice de l’association slovène d’aide aux réfugiés, qui se désespère de la situation à la frontière.

      Depuis quelques jours en effet, des miliciens en treillis militaires, visages cachés derrière des cagoules noires, patrouillent aussi le long de la rivière Kolpa. Dirigée par le leader d’extrême-droite, Andrej Sisko,cette milice se veut un « renfort » à l’armée régulière pour « défendre la frontière » et intercepter les migrants. « Nous sommes le point d’entrée de l’espace Schengen », se justifie Andrej Sisko. « Nous voulons faire passer un message. Nous voulons dire aux étrangers de rester chez eux. La clôture est fragile, elle ne permet pas de stopper les migrants alors nous venons contrôler les abords de la rivière nous-mêmes ».

      La milice d’#Andrej_Sisko n’a aucun mandat légal. Et visiblement, les villageois s’expliquent mal leur présence.

      Si certains rient à leur passage - « C’est le carnaval quand ils sont là », entend-t-on ici et là dans les villages frontaliers – d’autres comme Katarina Bernad Sterva regarde cette armée parallèle avec une inquiétude grandissante. « Ce qui m’effraie, c’est qu’ils existent. Publiquement, le gouvernement a condamné leurs actions, mais, dans les faits, les autorités ne font rien. Ces hommes sont fous, nous nous attendions à une réaction forte du gouvernement, comme par exemple l’annonce de la dissolution de ces patrouilles ».
      https://twitter.com/sarecmarjan/status/1036914541693755400?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw%7Ctwcamp%5Etweetembed%7Ctwterm%5E10

      Interrogée par InfoMigrants, la police reste muette sur le sujet. « Je n’ai rien à dire sur ces hommes. Ils n’ont pas le soutien de la police », déclare simplement Vicjem Toskan, l’un des commandants en chef de la police de Koper, à l’ouest du pays.

      Ce soir-là, à Kostel, les amis du café s’interrogent surtout sur le sort réservé aux migrants interceptés par cette milice d’extrême-droite. « On a déjà la police et l’armée pour intercepter les migrants. On a une clôture pour les empêcher de continuer leur route. Eux, qu’est-ce qui vont leur faire, la nuit, dans la montagne ? », s’inquiète Rudy. « Ils portent des masques, ils marchent dans la forêt. J’ai plus peur d’eux que des immigrés qui traversent la rivière », chuchote à son tour, une jeune fille en bout de table. « Si j’étais migrante, je n’aimerais vraiment pas tomber sur eux ».

      https://www.infomigrants.net/fr/post/20807/en-slovenie-une-cloture-de-la-honte-a-la-frontiere-croate-1-3

      #milices #patrouilles #extrême_droite #Kolpa #efficacité #montagne #Alpes #décès #morts #mourir_aux_frontières #danger #dangers #push-back #refoulement #refoulements #militarisation_des_frontières #push-backs

      –---

      #Walls_don't_work :

      « Par exemple, en ce moment, avec l’hiver et les forts courants, les rivages sont boueux, poreux, alors, les terrains bougent, la clôture s’effondre. Les migrants qui veulent passer n’ont même pas besoin de se fatiguer, ils ont juste à l’#enjamber », continue Marco en riant. « Il y a des endroits où des sillons se sont creusés. Ils peuvent aussi passer sous la barrière ! »

      –-> voir la métaliste

    • Despite all the existing reports about the Croatian police violence and brutality, Slovenia continues to pushback migrants to Croatia. This was recently even recognized by the Italian court: an Italian court stopped deportation to Slovenia on the grounds that there is a risk for an asylum seeker to be subjected to inhumane and degrading treatment due to the high possibility of him (or her) being further expelled to Croatia and then to Bosnia or Serbia.
      More on that in AYS article from beginning of June:
      AYS Special: Italian Court StopsDeportation to Slovenia, Meanwhile Pushbacks Continue
      https://medium.com/are-you-syrious/ays-special-italian-court-stops-deportation-to-slovenia-meanwhile-pushbacks-

      Last week, the new Slovenian Minister of Interior Affair (of the new right wing government) frankly admitted in an interview that Slovenian police is sending migrants back to Croatia and consequently into the refugees centres in Bosnia and Serbia:
      Notranji minister Aleš Hojs razkril migracijsko »skrivnost«
      https://www.dnevnik.si/1042931634 (only in Slovenian)

      Currently, the government is also preparing a new Aliens Act where they plan to severely restrict access to asylum (among many other things): this means that during what they call complex migration emergencies, proclaimed by the government, access to asylum can be completely limited.

      Message reçu via la mailing-list Migreurop, le 15.06.2020

    • Slovénie : une vingtaine de migrants « proches de la suffocation » découverts dans des camions

      La police slovène a annoncé avoir découvert 22 migrants cachés dans des camion-citernes, samedi, à la frontière croate. Les contrôles ont été fortement renforcés dans cette région avec notamment l’envoi de 1 000 nouveaux policiers début juin.

      « Ils étaient proches de la suffocation. » Vingt-deux migrants cachés dans deux camion-citernes alimentaires ont été découverts par la police slovène, samedi 20 juin, à la frontière avec la Croatie, rapporte l’agence de presse AP. Les deux poids-lourds avaient des plaques d’immatriculation provenant de Serbie.

      Un premier groupe de 13 migrants a été découvert lors d’un contrôle de police à la frontière. Le second groupe, composé de 9 personnes, a été trouvé peu après dans un autre camion appartenant à la même compagnie.

      Les migrants sont originaires du Bangladesh, d’Inde, de Turquie et de Syrie, indique la police.

      Des milliers de migrants empruntent chaque année la route dite « des Balkans » malgré sa dangerosité. Un grand nombre d’entre eux font appel à des passeurs afin de traverser les frontières vers l’Europe occidentale dans des camions, plutôt que de tenter leur chance à pied à travers les forêts et les montagnes de la région.

      Craignant une recrudescence des passages clandestins à la suite du déconfinement décrété dans différents pays européens, la Slovénie a annoncé, début juin, qu’elle envoyait 1000 officiers de police en renfort à sa frontière avec la Croatie. Ces effectifs sont équipés de #drones, de #caméras_thermiques et de #détecteurs_de_mouvements.


      https://www.infomigrants.net/fr/post/25519/slovenie-une-vingtaine-de-migrants-proches-de-la-suffocation-decouvert

  • Géographie des confinés

    « J’suis cloué dans un appartement d’deux pièces n’ayant rien d’autre à faire que de regarder par la fenêtre c’qui s’passe chez les voisins »

    Fenêtre sur Cours, A. Hitchcock, à écouter dans Fenêtre sur rue- #Hugo_Tsr (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QsNft5ftYSs&feature=youtu.be

    )

    « Voilà à quoi sont réduits nos #espaces_quotidiens, nos géographies urbaines aujourd’hui : #1_kilomètre. Voilà le périmètre auquel nous nous cognons, assortie maintenant d’un #couvre-feu pour beaucoup.

    Rien de nouveau, le confinement ça existait déjà avant. La #prison_à_ciel_ouvert que constitue nos villes, nos quartiers et aussi nos campagnes c’était déjà du confinement pour beaucoup. Les #quartiers_populaires on y vit confiné sous occupation policière permanente, tous les jours.
    C’est ce que nous raconte de nombreux lyricistes dont Hugo Tsr dans ses morceaux (une écoute à renouveler en temps de confinement).
    Des oiseaux de nuit nous interpellent sur les #murs de la ville : Confinement oui mais on n’oublie pas, on pardonne pas…
    Pour moi c’est l’heure d’aller faire mon tour. Merde il faut j’écrive une autorisation. »

    « Il est six heure c’est l’heure légale, moi j’suis allé marché
    Histoire de périmètre, on tourne dans des #carrés_tracés » (Périmètre, Hugo Tsr)
    Corenthin


    https://www.modop.org/se-relier/#1avril

    #périmètre #mobilité #1_km #confinement #géographie #espace_vécu #murs_urbains #musique

  • WELCOME TO PRISON : We are treated like animals in the zoo !!!

    Tuesday, 17th march in the morning. Workers came with building equipment and started putting up a fence around Porin, one of the camps (prisons) for asylum seekers in Zagreb. What was until now a symbolic prison (the rules imposed on people forced to stay inside including no visiting rights from their friends or loved ones, limited exit, extreme surveillance with cameras, counting at bedtime, complete denial of autonomy to organize one’s everyday existence, apart from long and dehumanizing process of applying for asylum and waiting for an answer etc.) is now becoming, with every meter of the fence being built, a true gated prison. This is sending a very clear message reinforcing racist imaginary of the outside world: the camp is a space of Other, of danger and threat to the community, a space (and this sticks onto people that stay inside as well) that needs to be controlled, regulated, locked to protect the community. So even if people manage to avoid push back, survive the beatings, intimidation and other forms of violence and actually apply for asylum, they will be punished by staying behind a fence. Their only “crime” being freedom of movement. Financed with EU money, Croatia continues to fulfill perfectly its role of watchdog of fortress Europe.

    The erection of the fence is being done quietly, without notifying the people staying inside the camp or explaining to them what this will mean for their lives, without a sound of protest by local NGO’s (scared, not unjustified, of losing funding and possibility of continuing the support work), like it’s a reality we have to accept and can’t do anything about it. The timing could not be more perfect – with the health scare creating a state of emergency, it’s an ideal opportunity to divert attention from repressive and restrictive policies being carried out in the background (let’s not forget Greece suspending the right to apply for asylum, for example). Some lives are worth care and saving, others deserve to be left to die. One of our brothers in the camp who got deported to Croatia from Austria was infected with corona virus. Instead of providing him healthcare, they took him to detention center (closed camp) Ježevo, with pretext that there are empty rooms there where he can get better. White lives matter, others not so much.

    Even though we can not stop the fence from being built, we can at least raise our voice and not allow it to go completely unnoticed. We want to say that we noticed the workers coming, we noticed how they started to build the fence, dehumanizing and humiliating us again and to this we say WE ARE ANGRY and sick of being prisoners of racist Europe, sick of fences and violence and being treated like less than human.

    Some residents of Porin and their friends from the outside world.


    http://komunal.org/teksti/542-welcome-to-prison-we-are-treated-like-animals-in-the-zoo
    #murs_urbains #barrières #asile #migrations #réfugiés #coronavirus #Zagreb #Hotel_Porin #Serbie #confinement #hôtel_porin #clôture

    Sur cet hôtel transformé en centre d’accueil pour réfugiés, pas mal d’info sur seenthis :
    https://seenthis.net/tag/hotel_porin

    ping @luciebacon

    • Le coronavirus, double peine pour les réfugiés dans les Balkans

      À Zagreb, dans le quartier de Dugave, des barbelés ont été récemment installés autour de l’hôtel Porin, le centre d’accueil pour les demandeurs d’asile. La construction de cette clôture, pour un budget de 90 694 euros, était prévue de longue date. Le contexte de la #pandémie a permis d’accélérer sa réalisation sans faire de vagues. « Les ouvriers sont venus avec leur matériel et ont commencé à monter la clôture », expliquent des pensionnaires de Porin dans une lettre ouverte. « Ce qui était jusqu’à présent une prison symbolique est en train de devenir une véritable prison fermée. La construction de la clôture a lieu dans le silence, elle n’a pas été annoncée aux gens qui vivent dans le camp, on ne leur a pas expliqué ce que ça signifierait exactement pour leur vie quotidienne, et il n’y a pas eu la moindre protestation des ONG locales. Le timing est idéal : la menace sanitaire nécessite l’état d’urgence, l’occasion idéale de détourner l’attention des politiques répressives et restrictives qui sont menées à l’arrière-plan. »

      « Même si nous ne pouvons pas empêcher la construction de la clôture, nous pouvons au moins élever la voix et ne pas laisser ça se passer dans l’ignorance totale », conclut la lettre. « Nous voulons dire que nous avons bien vu les ouvriers, nous avons bien vu qu’ils construisaient une clôture. On nous déshumanise à nouveau, on nous humilie, nous sommes en colère et nous en avons plus qu’assez de tout ça, nous en avons assez d’être les prisonniers d’une Europe raciste, des barbelés, de la violence et d’être traités comme si nous n’étions pas des êtres humains. »

      L’un des pensionnaires de Porin, présentant des symptômes de coronavirus, a été placé à l’isolement dans le centre de détention de Ježevo. « Pourquoi cette personne, qui bénéficie en tant que réfugié de la protection internationale et donc de droits quasiment égaux à ceux des citoyens croates, n’a-t-elle pas été placée en isolement dans l’un des bâtiments prévu à cet effet mis à disposition par la ville de Zagreb ? », demande l’Initiative Bienvenue.

      Pourquoi ? Parce que les réfugiés et les migrants, même quand ils bénéficient sur le papier de la protection internationale et des droits afférents, demeurent dans les faits des êtres humains de seconde zone. C’est que confirment de jour en jour les mesures prises contre eux dans les Balkans et le reste de l’Europe. Il y a quelques jours, des tentes ont été installées à Lipa, près de Bosanski Petrovac, afin d’y reloger une partie des migrants qui séjournent actuellement dans des bâtiments abandonnés ou dans les rues de Bihać.

      https://www.courrierdesbalkans.fr/Balkans-le-coronavirus-double-peine-pour-les-migrants

  • South Africa to build 40km fence along #Zimbabwe border

    Authorities say fence will stem irregular migration as well as spread of coronavirus in the country.

    Authorities in South Africa have said they will build a 40km (25 miles) fence along its border with Zimbabwe to prevent undocumented migrants from entering and spreading coronavirus - even though the neighbouring country has no confirmed cases.

    The planned fence is to be erected on either side of the Beitbridge Land Port of Entry to “ensure that no undocumented or infected persons cross into the country,” Patricia de Lille, the public works minister, said in a statement on Thursday.

    As of Friday, South Africa has reported 202 confirmed cases of the virus and no deaths. President Cyril Ramaphosa has already ordered 35 of 53 land entry points closed.

    “This measure will ... not be effective if the fences at the border are not secure, which in many places, they are not,” de Lille said in the statement.

    "All 40km of fence will be finished within one month. Local labour will be sourced by the contractor.

    “We are certainly not xenophobic. We have had thorough consultations with all the countries that are our neighbours. What is important for South Africa is to protect our own citizens and people coming into our country because at the border post now, you’ve got health inspectors and you’ve got environmental professionals and they are doing the testing and screening at the border. But if somebody just walks over the border, there are no such facilities,” she added.

    South Africa, the continent’s most industrialised country, has long sought to reduce irregular migration from Zimbabwe, which it sees as a threat to local jobs in a country with unemployment of around 30 percent.

    Countries around the world have been cancelling flights, banning travel from certain countries and tightening controls at borders to prevent the virus’s spread.

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 209,000 people have tested positive for COVID-19, the infection caused by the novel coronavirus, around the world.

    The virus has claimed the lives of at least 8,700, according to the UN health body.

    The outbreak reached Africa later than other continents, but at least 33 countries have now confirmed cases, with 13 reported deaths.

    https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/03/south-africa-build-40km-fence-zimbabwe-border-200320062936120.html
    #murs #frontières #Afrique_du_Sud #barrières_frontalières #migrations #asile #réfugiés #fermeture_des_frontières #coronavirus

    ping @fil @mobileborders @thomas_lacroix

  • Greece to extend border fence over migration surge

    Greece will extend its fence on the border with Turkey, a government source said Sunday (8 March), amid continuing efforts by migrants to break through in a surge enabled by Ankara.

    “We have decided to immediately extend the fence in three different areas,” the government source told AFP, adding that the new sections, to the south of the area now under pressure, would cover around 36 kilometres (22 miles).

    The current stretch of fence will also be upgraded, the official added.

    Tens of thousands of asylum-seekers have been trying to break through the land border from Turkey for a week after Ankara announced it would no longer prevent people from trying to cross into the European Union.

    A police source Sunday told AFP that riot police reinforcements from around the country had been sent to the border in recent days, in addition to drones and police dogs.

    There have been numerous exchanges of tear gas and stones between Greek riot police and migrants.

    Turkey has also bombarded Greek forces with tear gas at regular intervals, and Athens has accused Turkish police of handing out wire cutters to migrants to help them break through the border fence.

    The Greek government over the weekend also released footage which it said showed a Turkish armoured vehicle assisting efforts to bring down the fence.

    “Parts of the fence have been removed, both by the (Turkish) vehicle and with wire cutters, but they are constantly being repaired,” local police unionist Elias Akidis told Skai TV.

    Turkey has accused Greek border guards of using undue force against the migrants, injuring many and killing at least five.

    The government in Athens has consistently dismissed the claim as lies.

    https://www.euractiv.com/section/justice-home-affairs/news/greece-to-extend-border-fence-over-migration-surge
    #murs #Evros #barrières_frontalières #Grèce #Turquie #frontières
    ping @fil @reka @albertocampiphoto

    • je suis tombé sur une vidéo YT d’un compte néo-nazi montrant une attaque du mur de l’Evros par des migrants. L’attaque y est présentée comme soutenue par la police turque, ce qui est vraiment beaucoup solliciter les images… les migrants sont noyés sous les lacrymos.

    • Evros: Greece to extend the fence on the borders with Turkey to 40km

      Greece will extend the fence to its Evros borders with Turkey to 40 km, government spokesman Stelios Petsas said on Friday morning. The additional fence will be installed in “sensitive” areas preferred for illegal entries by migrants and refugees.

      The fence currently covers 12.5 km.

      Speaking to ANT1 TV, Petsas noted that at the moment the most vulnerable border point is in the south.

      The current 12.5 km fence of land access points is installed north and south of Kastanies customs office, where thousands of migrants and refugees have amassed.

      According to the daily Kathimerini, the 40 kilometers new fence is planned to be partially installed either in areas where the Evros waters are low or in areas where the landscape favors illegla paasage.

      Sections such as Ormenio, Gardens, Feres, Tychero, Soufli, Dikaia, Dilofo, Marassia, Nea Vyssa and elsewhere have been designated as the areas where the new fence will installed by the Greek Army and support by the police.

      According to a report by daily Elftheros Typos, Greece’s Plan B aside from the fence extension is the presence of about 4,000 police officers and soldiers in parallel patrols, helicopters, unmanned aircraft, message broadcasting, cameras for audio-video.

      A Greek Army – Greek Police “joint operations center” is to be established in Nea Vryssa.

      According to the daily more than 1,000 soldiers, two commandos squads, 1,500 police and national guards are currently operating in the Evros area.

      Petsas underlined that the Greek government has changed its policy because there is a national security issue at the moment.

      He reiterated the new policy saying that “no one will cross the border.”

      https://www.keeptalkinggreece.com/2020/03/06/evros-greece-fence-borders-turkey-extension

    • Video 2 - Violences contre les exilé·es à la frontière gréco-turque

      Depuis le début du mois de mars 2020, des milliers d’exilé·es, incité·es voire poussé·es par les autorités turques, se sont précipité·es aux frontières terrestres et maritimes entre la Turquie et la Grèce. Ils et elles se sont heurté·es à la violence de la police et de l’armée grecque, ainsi que de groupe fascistes, mobilisés pour leur en interdire le franchissement, la suite : www.gisti.org/spip.php ?article6368

      https://indymotion.fr/videos/watch/e8938a1c-5456-46e8-a0cb-be0806c96051?start=1s

    • Greece shields Evros border with blades wire, 400 new border guards

      Greece is strengthening ifs defense and is preparing for a possible new wave of migrants at its Evros border. A fence of sharp blades wire (concertina wire) and 400 additional border guards are to shield the country for the case Turkey will open its borders again so that migrants can cross into Europe.

      According to daily ethnos (https://www.ethnos.gr/ellada/105936_ohyronetai-o-ebros-frahtis-me-lepidoforo-syrmatoplegma-kai-400-neoi-sy), Ankara has already been holding groups of migrants in warehouses near the border, while the Greek side is methodically being prepared for the possibility of a new attempt for waves of migrants to try to cross again the border.

      “At the bridgeheads of Peplos and Fera, at the land borders after the riverbed is aligned, and in other vulnerable areas along the border, kilometer-long of metal fence with sharp blades wire are being installed, the soil is being cleaned from wild vegetation and clearing of marsh lands.

      The fence in the northern part is being strengthened and expanded, and 11 additional border pylons, each one 50 meters high, will be installed along the river in the near future. Each pylon will be equipped with cameras and modern day and night surveillance systems, with a range of several kilometers and multiple telecommunications capabilities, the daily notes.

      Within the next few months, 400 newly recruited border guards will be on duty and will almost double the deterrent force and enhance the joint patrols of the Army and Police, ethnos adds.

      Big armored military vehicles destined for Libya and confiscated five years ago south of Crete have been made available to the Army in the area, the daily notes.

      One and a half month after the end of the “war without arms” at the Evros border from end of February till the end of March, sporadic movement on the Turkish side of the border has been observed.

      At least four shooting incidents have been reported in the past two weeks, with Turkish jandarmerie to have fired at Greek border guards and members of the Frontex.

      Greece’s security forces are on high alert.

      Just a few days ago, Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu reiterated that Ankara’s policy of “open borders” will continue for anyone wishing to cross into Europe.

      Speaking to nationalist Akit TV on Wednesday, Cavusoglu claimed that Greece used “inhumane” behavior towards the migrants who want to cross into the country.

      Also Interior Minister Suleyman Soylu had threatened that the migrants will be allowed to leave Turkey again once the pandemic was over.

      PS It could be a very hot summer, should Turkey attempt to send migrants to Europe by land through Evros and by sea with boats to the Aegean islands and at the same time, deploys a drilling ship off Crete in July, as it claimed a few days ago.

      https://www.keeptalkinggreece.com/2020/05/17/greece-shields-evros-border-blades-wire-400-border-guards

      #militarisation_des_frontières

  • 100 ans du traité de #Tartu : célébrations collectives et dialogue de sourds - REGARD SUR L’EST

    http://regard-est.com/100-ans-du-traite-de-tartu-celebrations-collectives-et-dialogue-de-sourd

    Le 2 février 2020, l’Estonie a célébré le centenaire du traité de Tartu, qui a mis fin à la guerre entre l’Estonie et la Russie soviétique (1918-1920). Aussi important pour les Estoniens que la déclaration d’indépendance du 24 février 1918, ce Traité demeure un point de tension avec les autorités de la Russie voisine.

    #russie #estonie #murs #frontières #différends_frontaliers #urss #ex-urss

  • The #Climate-Migration-Industrial_Complex

    Thirty years ago there were fifteen border walls around the world. Now there are seventy walls and over one billion national and international migrants. International migrants alone may even double in the next forty years due to global warming. It is not surprising that over the past two decades, we have also seen the rise of an increasingly powerful global climate-security market designed to profit from (and help sustain) these crises. The construction of walls and fences to block rising sea levels and incoming people has become one of the world’s fastest growing industries, alongside the detention and deportation of migrants, and is projected to reach $742 billion by 2023. I believe we are witnessing the emergence of what we might call a “climate-migration-industrial complex.”

    This complex is composed of private companies who profit by securitizing nation-states from the effects of climate-related events, including migration. This includes private detention centers, border construction companies, surveillance technology consultants and developers, deportation and transportation contractors, and a growing army of other subcontractors profiting from insecurity more broadly. Every feature of this crisis complex is an opportunity for profit. For example, even when security measures “fail” and migrants cross borders illegally, or remain beyond their visas to live without status as “criminals,” there is an entire wing of private companies paid to hunt them down, detain them, and deport them just across the border, where they can return and begin the market cycle all over again. Each step in the “crimmigration” process now has its own cottage industry and dedicated army of lobbyists to perpetuate the laws that support it.

    Here is the incredible double paradox that forms the backbone of the climate-migration-industrial complex: right-wing nationalists and their politicians claim they want to deport all undocumented migrants, but if they did, they would destroy their own economy. Capitalists, on the other hand, want to grow the economy with migrant labor (any honest economist will tell you that immigration almost always leads to growth in GDP), but if that labor is too expensive, then it’s not nearly as profitable.

    Trump is the Janus-faced embodiment of this anti-immigrant, pro-economy dilemma and the solution to it — not that he necessarily knows it. With one hand, migrant labor is strategically criminalized and devalorized by a xenophobic state, and with the other, it is securitized and hyper-exploited by the economy. It is a win-win situation for right-wing capitalists but a crucial element is still missing: what will continue to compel migrants to leave their homes and work as exploited criminals in an increasingly xenophobic country?

    This is where the figure of the climate migrant comes in. What we call “climate migrants” or “climate refugees” are not the victims of merely “natural disasters,” because climate change is not a strictly natural process — it is also highly political. The causes of climate-related migration are disproportionately produced by rich Western countries and the effects are disproportionately suffered by poorer countries. The circumstances that determine who is forced to migrate are also influenced by the history of colonialism, global inequality, and the same conditions that have propelled economic migration for decades. In short, the fact that climate change benefits the perpetrators of climate destruction by producing an increasing supply of desperate, criminalized, physically and economically displaced laborers is no coincidence. In fact, it is the key to the Trump “solution.”

    Another key is the use of climate change to acquire new land. When people are forced to migrate out of a territory, or when frozen territories thaw, new lands, waters, and forests become open to extractive industries like mining, drilling, fishing, and logging. Trump’s recent (and ridiculous) bid to buy the thawing territory of Greenland for its oil and gas reserves is one example of this. Climate-stricken urban areas open up new real estate markets, as the gentrification of New Orleans after hurricane Katrina illustrated. In other words, climate change might not mean the end of capitalism, but rather could actually signal its resurgence from current falling rates of ecological profit. During colonialism, everything and everyone that could be easily appropriated (oil, slaves, old-growth forests, etc.), was gobbled up. The workers who are left today under post-colonialism demand more money and more rights. The minerals left are more expensive to extract. This is why capitalists have increasingly retreated to financial speculation, and now to monetizing their own crises.

    If only there were new ways, the capitalist dreams, to kick start the economy and cheaply dislodge huge numbers of people from their land, devalorize their labor, and then appropriate that labor extremely cheaply. In other words, if climate change did not exist, capitalism would have to create it. Luckily for the capitalists, it does exist, because they did create it. Climate migrants now form what we might call a “disposable climate labor army,” conscripted out of a standing reserve of global poverty from wherever the next climate-related disaster strikes, and deployed wherever capitalism demands precarious, securitized, and criminalized labor to be exploited.

    We need to rethink the whole framing of the climate migration “crisis.” Among other things, we need a more movement-oriented political theory to grapple better with the highly mobile events of our time — what I call a “kinopolitics.” The advent of the Capitalocene/Kinocene makes possible today the insight that nature, humans, and society have always been in motion. Humans are and have always been fundamentally migratory, just as the climate and the earth are. These twin insights might sound obvious today, but if taken seriously, they offer a complete inversion of the dominant interpretive paradigms of the climate and migration crises.

    Humans and Earth have always been in motion, but not all patterns of motion are the same. There is no natural, normal, or default state of the earth or of human society. Therefore, we have to study the patterns of circulation that make possible these metastable states and not take them as given. This is what I have tried to work out in The Figure of the Migrant (2015) and Theory of the Border (2016). Unfortunately, the dominant framework for thinking about the climate and migrant crises is currently upside down. It starts from the perspective of a triple stasis: 1) that the earth and human society are in some sense separable and static, or at least stable, structures; 2) that the future should continue to be stable as well; and 3) that if there is not stability, then there is a “crisis.” Mobility, then, is a crisis only if we assume that there was or should be stasis in the first place. For example, migrants are said to destabilize society, and climate change is said to destabilize the earth.

    From a kinopolitical perspective, we can see that the opposite is, in fact, true: Humans were first migratory, and only later settled into more metastable patterns of social-circulation (made historically possible by the social expulsion and dispossession of others). Migrants are not outside society but have played a productive and reproductive role throughout history. Migrant movements are constitutive and even transformative elements of society, rather than exceptional or marginal phenomena. The real question is how we ever came to act and think as if societies were not processes of social circulation that relied on migration as their conditions of reproduction. The earth, too, was first migratory, and only later did it settle into metastable patterns of geological and atmospheric circulation (e.g. the Holocene). Why did we ever think of the earth as a stable surface, immune from human activity in the first place?

    The problem with the prevailing interpretation of climate change and migration is that the flawed paradigm that has defined the “crisis,” the notion of stasis, is also proposed as the solution “Let’s just get things back to normal stability again.” In short, I think a new paradigm is needed that does not use the same tools that generated the “crisis” to solve it — i.e. capitalism, colonialism, and the nation-state.

    Today’s migrant “crisis” is a product of the paradox at the heart of the capitalist, territorial nation-state form, just as the climate crisis is an expression of the paradox at the heart of anthropocentrism. The solutions, therefore, will not come from the forms in crisis but only from the birth of new forms-in-motion that begin with the theoretical primacy of the very characteristic that is dissolving the old forms: the inherent mobility of the migrant climate and the climate migrant.

    https://publicseminar.org/essays/the-climate-migration-industrial-complex

    #complexe_militaro-industriel #réfugiés_environnementaux #réfugiés_climatiques #murs #barrières_frontalières #business #climat #changement_climatique #sécurité #rétention #détention_administrative #privatisation #contrôles_frontaliers #kinopolitics #kinopolitique #kinocène #mobilité #circulation #crise #stabilité #philosophie #ressources_pédagogiques #Etat-nation

    –—

    #catastrophes_naturelles :

    What we call “climate migrants” or “climate refugees” are not the victims of merely “natural disasters,” because climate change is not a strictly natural process — it is also highly political. The causes of climate-related migration are disproportionately produced by rich Western countries and the effects are disproportionately suffered by poorer countries. The circumstances that determine who is forced to migrate are also influenced by the history of colonialism, global inequality, and the same conditions that have propelled economic migration for decades. In short, the fact that climate change benefits the perpetrators of climate destruction by producing an increasing supply of desperate, criminalized, physically and economically displaced laborers is no coincidence.

    –-> @karine4

    #terres #accaparement_des_terres :

    Another key is the use of climate change to acquire new land. When people are forced to migrate out of a territory, or when frozen territories thaw, new lands, waters, and forests become open to extractive industries like mining, drilling, fishing, and logging.

    –-> @odilon
    #extractivisme #colonialisme

    –---------

    @sinehebdo, un nouveau mot :
    –-> #crimmigration
    #mots #terminologie #vocabulaire

    Et aussi... la #kinocène

    –---

    Lien avec le #capitalisme :

    If only there were new ways, the capitalist dreams, to kick start the economy and cheaply dislodge huge numbers of people from their land, devalorize their labor, and then appropriate that labor extremely cheaply. In other words, if climate change did not exist, capitalism would have to create it. Luckily for the capitalists, it does exist, because they did create it. Climate migrants now form what we might call a “disposable climate labor army,” conscripted out of a standing reserve of global poverty from wherever the next climate-related disaster strikes, and deployed wherever capitalism demands precarious, securitized, and criminalized labor to be exploited.

    #expoitation #travail #disposable_climate_labor_army #pauvreté

    signalé par @isskein

    ping @fil @reka

  • Hungary’s slow descent into xenophobia, racism and human rights abuses

    Hungary’s refugee and migrant policies have been in breach of international human rights conventions as well as EU regulation for years. Along the country’s border with Serbia there’s now a new, underreported trend affecting migrants: deliberate starvation.

    Near Hungary’s two major border crossings of Röszke and Tompa, two so-called transit zones have been set up in response to the onset of the so-called refugee crisis in 2015. These fortifications are basically container barracks that resemble high-security prisons. Surrounded by wire fences, these are the only places in Hungary where refugees can currently apply for asylum.

    Every day a maximum of 10 people are admitted through their iron gates to file their applications. However, the vast majority is rejected following what looks like a quick trial and must then leave the transit zone immediately. But authorities are now reportedly trying to employ inhumane methods to make migrants give up on their cases before they’re even heard.

    Starving asylum seekers into submission

    According to reports, asylum applicants rarely receive any meals during their stays in the transit zones at all. They are kept behind bars while their applications are being processed having no access to food. The objective behind this practice appears to be the intention to force asylum seekers to leave these transit zones voluntarily out of sheer hunger.

    According to Hungarian law, leaving the transit zone would automatically result in rejection without ever being allowed to submit an asylum application again — in case the same asylum seekers were to return. In 2019, there have been 27 cases recorded cases of asylum seekers being left without food to eat so far. Independent Hungarian media organizations have taken to referring to this practice as “starvation.”

    In a number of cases, the migrants were only given some food after urgent decisions taken by the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) had to be applied, forcing Hungarian authorities to feed them.

    Underage, underfed, underrepresented

    No Hungarian politician is more familiar with this situation than independent opposition MP Bernadett Szél. For years, she has been tirelessly criticizing Hungary’s asylum policies and the outright disregard for certain human rights when it comes to migrants and refugees.

    In recent months, she has been researching this practice of starving refugees in transit zones, and has recently published her findings. Being a member of parliament, Szél was able to visit the transit zones — unlike lawyers or civil rights activists, who are routinely denied access.

    “The transit zones are practically prisons,” Szél told InfoMigrants. “Most of the applicants inside are minors. They have no access to regular education and are only entitled to medical care in urgent cases.”

    No due process – even for Hungarian politicians

    At the beginning of August, Szél sued Hungarian authorities for abuse of power and physical assault against asylum seekers in the transit zones because of the starvation practices. However, her allegations were thrown out of court as being “unfounded.”

    Authorities said that there was no such practice as “starvation,” highlighting that those who felt affected by any such alleged practice were free to voluntarily leave the transit zone at any time.

    For Bernadett Szél, the ruling in favor of the starvation tactics marks a new low point in the country’s attitudes towards refugees and migrants: “There has been virtually no fairness in Hungary’s asylum system based on fair procedures since 2015,” Szél said, “even though we joined the Geneva Convention 30 years ago.”

    Emergency powers

    In the spring of 2015, Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orbán turned the issue of migration into a major political campaign issue. Many Hungarians felt a sense of unease about the thousands of refugees who were crossing the Hungarian border each day mainly on their way to Austria, Germany and other EU nations.

    Against this backdrop, Orbán promised to deliver a crackdown on “illegal migration” and to protect the country against Islamic terrorism, mass immigration and cultural alienation. In the early summer of 2015, Orbán’s government built a fence along the border with Serbia. By September 2015, the country further sealed off that border hermetically, and has since deployed thousands of border guards to the area.

    At the same time, the Hungarian parliament adopted a set of special laws relating to migration after announcing a “state of emergency.” These have been in force since the beginning of 2016. The provisions of the “migration emergency” give law enforcement officials and the military wide-reaching operational powers across the country. For example, civil rights such as freedom of movement or freedom of assembly can unduly be withdrawn, and homes can be searched without a legal warrant.

    Special refugee courts

    Márta Pardavi, the co-chair of the Hungarian Helsinki Committee, which provides legal assistance to refugees and migrants, has criticized the repeated extension of the so-called “migration emergency” laws since 2016, saying that there is “no real and fact-based reason for this.”

    “(It) only provides the government with the framework for its inhumane action against refugees,” Pardavi told InfoMigrants.

    As part of the emergency measures, the government also introduced a special court to deal with cases involving refugees and migrants: judges carry out expedited proceedings at the court in the southern city of Szeged, focusing on issues like migrants who illegally crossed the border or committed other offenses, including damaging the border fence.

    Proceedings usually last only one or two hours and contravene various constitutional and other legal standards. For example, any indictments and verdicts delivered by the court do not need to be translated in writing into the mother tongue of the defendants. It is not even required to identify the defendants sufficiently. The court also treats minors aged 14 and over as adults.

    No practical avenues left to qualify for asylum

    Orbán’s government has also tightened the country’s asylum legislation in numerous ways in 2017 and 2018 to reflect his iron-fisted approach to immigration. Hungarian immigration laws are now considered to be the most restrictive within the European Union.

    Under current regulations, migrants entering from a third country deemed to be a safe country of origin are no longer entitled to asylum at all; their applications are automatically rejected. However, as all of the neighboring countries have been deemed to be such safe third countries and nearly all migrants and refugees pass through these neighboring countries on their way to Hungary, it is now practically impossible for refugees to obtain asylum status in Hungary.

    Furthermore, the new laws stipulate that refugees can only apply for asylum in the transit zones at the national borders, which they are not allowed to leave for the duration of the proceedings. Asylum procedures can also be terminated immediately and without appeal if the applicant leaves the transit zone at during this process or is deemed to not cooperate with the authorities.

    However, a small number of asylum seekers still manage to receive asylum or a temporary protection status in Hungary. In the first eight months of 2019, there were only 35 people admitted into Hungary — out of a total of 476 applicants. The explanation for this is that Hungarian authorities proceed according to the Geneva Refugee Convention, as a government spokesman told InfoMigrants.

    Márta Pardavi of the Hungarian Helsinki Committee, however, explains that judges sometimes overrule the decisions made by the immigration authorities, thereby forcing the Hungarian state to grant asylum to the applicants. “This shows that some judges still dare to oppose the official party line, despite the massive pressure put on the judicial system and asylum procedures.”

    Populism, nationalism, xenophobia

    In addition to introducing new laws targeting potential asylum seekers directly, the Hungarian government has also launched a series of campaigns to gang up support among Fidesz voters against migrants as well — or as the government calls them “national consultations.” These so-called consultations appear to have been designed to fuel anti-refugee sentiments among the population and by presenting Orbán’s government as protectors of the country against the backdrop of a perceived threat of unmitigated immigration.

    The first such campaign took place in the early summer of 2015, when the government launched a nationwide billboard campaign with a controversial slogan saying “if you come to Hungary, you can not take away the work places from Hungarians.” Other posters followed that were billed as part of the campaign, containing slogans like “if you come to Hungary you have to respect the culture of the Hungarians.”

    Stop Soros law

    Another government-sponsored campaign that came up as part of the overall anti-migrant rhetoric was the so-called “Stop Soros” drive, which featured some not-so-hidden anti-Semitic undertones: the campaign was targeted against Hungarian-American stock market billionaire George Soros, a Holocaust-survivor, who has since become a divisive figure in Hungary on account of the government’s ongoing campaign against him.

    Large parts of Soros’ immense fortune have been transferred to his Open Society Foundation which since the late 1980s has supported democratization processes, the rule of law and civil society initiatives across Eastern Europe. Orbán, once an Open Society scholar himself, has now taken to accusing Soros of planning to settle millions of migrants in Europe in an alleged bid to undermine his government and destroy the “European way of life” — echoing sentiments that during the Nazi rule of large swathes of Europe had been brought against other Jewish people of influence.

    At the end of the campaign against Soros, the Hungarian government passed the so-called “Stop Soros” law, which targets mostly non-governmental organizations supported by Soros. The law calls for the penalization of all acts of “promotion of illegal migration” — be they big or small. Under the law, even small information events about current trends in migration could be penalized.

    Mon-governmental organizations deemed to be engaged in such alleged promotion of illegal migration will also now be subject to a 25% tax on all income and donations, effectively limiting the funds that organizations like the Open Society Foundation can spend on philanthropic activities and other forms of outreach.

    EU intervention

    In July 2018, the European Union launched infringement proceedings against Hungary, targeting both the tightened asylum legislation and the Stop Soros laws introduced in recent years, and more recently has also initiated another infringement case against the Hungarian government’s alleged practice of “starving” asylum seekers at the transit zone.

    There is still no final decision in any of the cases as the Court of Justice of the European Union (ECJ) continues to examine them. However, the Hungarian government said it would not accept any ruling that would demand any commitments on its part that could result in changes to its asylum legislation.

    Speaking to InfoMigrants, a Hungarian government spokesman said that the outgoing “migration-friendly” EU Commission was working hard" to bring even more migrants to the European Union and thus to Hungary."

    “The Hungarian people repeatedly said no to immigration. Now the outgoing Commission wants to punish Hungary and the Hungarian people by all means. In our view, these steps taken by the outgoing Commission are deeply anti-democratic and incorrect, as it wants to force the new EU Commission to follow a coercive route, leaving no room to maneuver one of the main problems of the continent.”

    Hanging on to power

    There are also parts of the Hungarian migration policies, however, where the EU cannot intervene. This is especially true for the way the government veers the public debate on migration. Orbán and his government routinely counter almost any criticism against any of their policies by stating that these criticisms come from “pro-migration forces.” They push news stories in government media outlets about horrors relating to migration elsewhere in Europe, most of which have been proven to be invented or distorted.

    Independent MP Bernadett Szél said that Orbán “uses the refugee crisis and the issue of migration as a means to maintain his position of power, so his propaganda machine is constantly spreading a distorted picture of reality.”

    A climate of fear

    There have been far-reaching consequences to the government’s way of handling the public discourse on the migration issue: for example, non-governmental organizations report that they now face steep challenges whenever the want to rent spaces to hold events, as landlords fear they might have to face legal consequences if they rent out their spaces to groups that later might be regarded as out of the government’s favor. They often prefer to decline renting spaces to NGOs than risk being penalized themselves.

    It is commonly known that private social media accounts of public employees are more or less systematically monitored by the government. Anyone working in the public service is therefore careful to avoid having any connection to anyone who might be seen to be in favor of a more liberal approach to migration.

    Above all, people of color — mainly tourists but also Hungarian citizens — report that they increasingly suffer from being exposed to public insults, especially if they are perceived as being immigrants of any sort. There are been cases were some were even arrested as suspected illegal migrants only because of the color of their skin.

    However, “white” Hungarians don’t appear to be safe from this climate of fear either. In October 2017, the case of Zoltán Fenyvesi made headlines. Fenyvesi, a pension operator from the western Hungarian village of Öcsény, wanted to offer a recognized refugee family a one-week free holiday including an adventure program for children. His gesture of humanity, however, triggered resentment across the village, the tires of his two cars were cut, some villagers openly threatened him with violence. In the end, he canceled the family visit for security reasons.

    Even Orbán got involved in the affair, saying he had found "nothing to complain about “the reactions displayed by the villagers.”

    “They expressed their opinions in a determined, loud and understandable way.”

    https://www.infomigrants.net/en/post/20220/hungary-s-slow-descent-into-xenophobia-racism-and-human-rights-abuses

    #xénophobie #Hongrie #asile #migrations #réfugiés #anti-migrants #anti-réfugiés #droits_humains #populisme #nationalisme #peur #murs #frontières #procédure_d'asile

    –------
    voir aussi:
    Using Fear of the “Other,” Orbán Reshapes Migration Policy in a Hungary Built on Cultural Diversity
    https://seenthis.net/messages/807348

  • #Inde : des policiers armés de #frondes et de #catapultes vont protéger #Trump des #singes

    Les autorités indiennes ont également érigé un #mur pour cacher les #bidonvilles qui bordent une route que doit emprunter Donald Trump, explique Slate.

    #Donald_Trump va fouler le sol indien pour la première fois en tant que président les 24 et 25 février 2020. Alors, pour s’assurer que le voyage du locataire de la Maison-Blanche se déroule en toute quiétude, l’Inde n’a pas lésiné sur les moyens. Le Premier ministre Narendra Modi a notamment équipé sa police pour protéger le milliardaire des 50 millions de singes qui peuplent cet immense pays du sud de l’Asie. Les forces de l’ordre, munies de frondes et de petites catapultes, vont suivre leur hôte à la trace pour le prémunir de toute attaque de ces animaux qui peuvent parfois se montrer agressifs, comme l’expliquent nos confrères de Slate, jeudi 20 février 2020. Voilà les primates prévenus.

    Et ce n’est pas tout. Non content d’assurer la sécurité de Donald Trump, le gouvernement indien souhaite également s’assurer du confort de ses pérégrinations. Les autorités ont pris la décision polémique d’ériger un mur de 500 mètres sur la route reliant l’aéroport d’Ahmedabad au centre-ville, comme le révèle le journal indien The Wire (en anglais). Le but ? Dissimuler la pauvreté des bidonvilles de Sarania Vaas aux yeux du prestigieux hôte, qui doit assister à l’inauguration du stade de cricket de la région.

    #Cache-misère de béton

    Les autorités d’Ahmedabad ont démenti toute volonté de construire un cache-misère. Vijay Nehra, qui dirige la ville, explique vouloir « éviter les intrusions et protéger des arbres qui étaient abîmés ». Un argument qui ne convainc pas grand monde en Inde, à l’image de The Wire. « Pourquoi cherchons-nous à cacher nos pauvres alors que nous sommes incapables de dissimuler la pauvreté qui martyrise le pays ? » s’insurge le quotidien. Il y a fort à parier que Donald Trump jalouse un tel mur, qu’il rêve de voir s’ériger entre les États-Unis et le Mexique.

    https://www.lepoint.fr/monde/inde-des-policiers-armes-de-frondes-et-de-catapultes-vont-proteger-trump-des
    #murs_intra-urbains #murs_urbains #invisibilisation #lol #géographie_urbaine

    • Gujarat: Another Brick in Trump’s Wall


      –-> Children play near the wall being constructed in Ahmedabad, to hide a slum from Trump during his visit. Photo: Reuters/Amit Dave

      As the US President Donald Trump visits Ahmedabad in Gujarat this month, we hear that the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) is building half-kilometre wall on the stretch that leads to Gandhinagar from Ahmedabad.

      The purpose of the wall, it is learnt, is to hide the 500 kutcha houses at the Dev Saran or Saraniyavaas slum area. The slum houses an estimated population of 2,500.

      All in all, the AMC is building this wall to hide poverty, if not the poor.

      We know well that Trump rose to power on an exclusive hate campaign, at the heart of which was his commitment and rhetoric to build a wall at the Mexican border. His arrogant pledge asking Mexico to even pay for such a wall, added to his deceitful masculinity and persona, traits which do matter in the elections to the highest office in the USA.

      In our penchant for welcoming guests beyond their expectations, we have gone too far in pleasing Trump by offering him a spectacle of a wall on his forthcoming visit. Atithi Devo Bhava, stretched to its best!

      Ironically, the wall in question is not to limit illegal migration but to hide the legal citizens of this country. In fact Trump’s good friend, Modi, has other tricks up his sleeve to contain the legality of citizens of the land but that’s a different story, for some other day.

      Coming back to the wall in question, the building of walls to hide poverty is not new in this world.

      In preparation for the 2016 Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, the Brazilian government constructed a wall surrounding the Mare Favela complex to hide the poverty of the favela. When brought to the notice of the world, the Brazilian government came up with a bizarre explanation for the act.

      It said that the wall was necessary to protect the ears of its poor! Strange that silence is still considered to be the harbinger of sanity by otherwise noisy and careless regimes.


      –-> An outer wall of an under-construction detention centre for illegal immigrants is pictured at a village in Goalpara district in the northeastern state of Assam, September 1, 2019. Photo: Reuters/Anuwar Hazarika

      Even though no such explanation has been offered by the Gujarat government, it is but interesting to know why do we want to hide our poor even when we cannot hide the poverty which ails the nation like a disease? The indices of human development in Gujarat reveal a story where the necessity of such a wall to hide the poor and the poverty can be explained though not justified.

      Despite the so called “Gujarat model of development,” these indices clearly show that poverty and poor human existence is the unceasing companion of the Gujarati masses, irrespective of what Modi and his ilk wants us to believe.

      Gujarat stood at 22nd rank among Indian states in the Human Development Index for 2018.

      This is far below than some of so called “poor performing” states of Jammu & Kashmir (at 17) Uttarakhand (at 19) and Nagaland (at 20). The Infant Mortality Rate of Gujarat in 2016 stood at 30 per 1,000 live births, far poorer than that of states like Jharkhand (29 per 1000 live births) and Jammu & Kashmir (24 per 1000 live births).

      Another sensitive index of human development, namely the Maternal Mortality Rate was 91 per 1,00,000 live births in Gujarat in 2016 as compared to 66 in Tamil Nadu and 88 in Telangana in the same year.

      In an interesting paper (titled Did Gujarat Switch to a Higher Growth Trajectory Relative to India under Modi?) published in the Economic and Political Weekly in May 2014, just when Modi took over as the PM of the country for the first time, authors Maitreesh Ghatak and Sanchari Roy could show through complex statistical analysis that the success story of Gujarat under Modi’s chief ministership was nothing more than what the state could have even otherwise achieved in the natural course of things.

      In fact Gujarat fared worse when compared to Bihar for the same period of analysis. No wonder the ill fate of Gujarat has continued unabated till date so as to warrant the need of building the wall of shame.

      The need for a wall to hide the poverty in Gujarat is even more acute it seems. According to the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) report, ‘Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India’ released recently, the suicide rates in Gujarat due to poverty increased by a whopping 162% in 2018. The report also revealed that 21% more suicides happened in Gujarat due to unemployment as a reason.

      Interestingly, one of the basic functions of a wall is separation.

      In the very popular TV series, The Game of Thrones, a continent-spanning wall is made to keep out the “wild” people from civilisation. The Greeks had similar motives when they built walls. Those who lived beyond the city walls were called barbarians. These were the uncivilised people whom the walls kept at a safe distance from the civilised.

      In fact, even the thick prison walls serve the same purpose: keeping the dangerous separated from the civil.

      The mythical wall which God instructs Nehemiah to build in the Bible, separates and thus saves Jerusalem from the attack of the enemy. The separation by a wall is thus both symbolic and actual.

      In fact in the words of Dostoyevsky:

      “A wall, you see, is a wall … and so on, and so on. But is it? It is my thesis that, in addition to their versatile physical functions, walls possess an immense measure of signification and that these two realms-the concrete and the symbolic interact with each other.”

      Walls have thus been tools of keeping the ‘wild’, the uncivilised and the barbaric separated from those who are the harbingers of civility. But to build a wall to separate the view of poverty has its own unique flavour. It becomes even more important in the context of a democracy where the people, both poor and the rich, vote to form the very government which wants to hide them from visiting leaders of affluent countries.

      As residents of urban metropolises we are concerned about the aesthetics of our cities. Ugly poverty is an eyesore to the landscape we want to build.

      The smart cities we promise should be without the poor. Slums, ghettos and street habitation form an obnoxious trail of existence which we earnestly want to wipe off from the streets of our cities.

      Who needs to see the poor, the sick and the dying? The street children selling balloons need to be obliterated from our view not because we care for them but because we care for ourselves.

      We care for the reputation that we build in front of visiting dignitaries. So what if we cannot address poverty, we can still build a wall.

      I am not surprised. Walls divide, walls hide. Walls are stony deaf and heartless.

      https://thewire.in/rights/ahmedabad-wall-trump-visit

      #Ahmedabad

    • A Wall Is Being Built in Ahmedabad to Block a #Slum From Donald Trump’s View

      A wall is being constructed by the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation to hide a slum cluster from the view of US President Donald Trump and Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

      The wall is over half-a-kilometre long and seven feet high.

      The two have planned a roadshow in the city on February 24.

      The wall is being constructed on the road leading from the Ahmedabad airport to Gandhinagar as part of a beautification plan that has been rolled out ahead of Trump’s visit. He is scheduled to address a huge gathering at the Motera Stadium in Ahmedabad at the end of the roadshow.

      The ‘Kem Chho Trump’ event is being seen as Modi’s reciprocative gesture to the US president for joining him at the ‘Howdy Modi’ gathering in Houston last year.

      As part of the preparations for the event, a lot of infrastructural work has been undertaken all around Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar.

      The wall in question is coming up in front of the Dev Saran or Saraniyavaas slum area, which has been in existence for several decades and houses over 500 tenements. The place is home to over 2,500 people and the manner in which the wall is being constructed to mask it has posed questions around the mindset which has driven the exercise.

      Earlier, when Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and his wife Akie Abe had visited Gujarat for the 12th India-Japan annual summit in 2017, and then for the Vibrant Gujarat Summit the same year, a beautification drive was undertaken but attempts were not made to hide any part of the city’s life from the visiting dignitaries.

      Budget session also postponed for first time in two decades

      Meanwhile, the budget session of the Gujarat assembly has also been postponed by two days in view of Trump’s visit. It has now been rescheduled to convene from February 26.

      The state legislative affairs minister, Pradipsinh Jadeja, told the media that it was due to Modi and Trump’s visit that the government has decided to reschedule the budget session and the presentation of the budget.

      This is the first time in the last two decades that the budget session has been rescheduled in the state. The secretary of Gujarat assembly, D.M. Patel, was quoted as saying that “rescheduling of budget date has happened rarely in Gujarat’s parliamentary history”.

      An official defended the action, saying the rescheduling has been done to prevent any political clashes that are usually witnessed on the first day of the budget session.

      https://thewire.in/government/gujarat-ahmedabad-slum-wall-donald-trump

  • La #Croatie érige des barrières sur ses frontières

    21 février —15h30 : La Croatie a érigé ce vendredi matin une #barrière_métallique sur sa frontière avec la #Bosnie-Herzégovine, au niveau du poste d’#Izačić/ #Ličko_Petrovo_Selo, près de #Bihać. Il s’agit de renforcer les moyens de contrôle et de bloquer les migrants et les réfugiés qui tentent de franchir cette frontière.

    Selon le ministère croate de l’Intérieur, les fondations pour la pose de barrières ont également été posées au niveau des postes frontière de #Gejkovac, #Pašin_Potok, #Erdut et #Batina, dans le nord du pays.

    https://www.courrierdesbalkans.fr/fil-info-refugies-2020-fevrier

    #murs #asile #migrations #réfugiés #frontières #barrières_frontalières #Izacic #Licko_Petrovo_Selo #Bihac ##Pasin_Potok

  • Building border walls and barriers: What the research says
    https://journalistsresource.org/studies/government/immigration/border-walls-barriers-migrant-research

    In the lead-up to the 2020 elections, the Journalist’s Resource team is combing through the Democratic presidential candidates’ platforms and reporting what the research says about their policy proposals. We want to encourage deep coverage of these proposals — and do our part to help deter horse race journalism, which research suggests can lead to inaccurate reporting and an uninformed electorate. We’re focusing on proposals that have a reasonable chance of becoming policy, and for us that means several top-polling candidates say they intend to tackle the issue. Here, we look at research on building border walls.

    #murs #frontières #états-unis #mexique et merci à @isskein

  • #Achille_Mbembe dénonce le « #brutalisme » du #libéralisme
    https://www.lemonde.fr/afrique/article/2020/02/09/achille-mbembe-denonce-le-brutalisme-du-liberalisme_6028977_3212.html

    A Ceuta et Melilla, à Lampedusa ou à Lesbos, mais aussi en Hongrie, à Terespol en Pologne, aux Etats-Unis, en Israël, en Cisjordanie, et encore en Arabie saoudite, en Iran, en Inde, en Corée du Nord… Partout, de plus en plus, des #murs, des barbelés, des barrières militarisées, des caméras, de nouvelles ou de séculaires peurs instrumentalisées ; et ce sur quelque 40 000 kilomètres, l’équivalent de la circonférence de la Terre. Auxquels s’ajoutent les mers et les déserts transformés en cimetières.

    Partout les #frontières se ferment toujours un peu plus et on voit apparaître de nouveaux camps où sont emprisonnés des femmes et des hommes, mais aussi des enfants, entravés dans leur liberté de mouvement. Ces « corps-frontières » analyse Achille Mbembe dans Brutalisme (éd. La Découverte) sont ceux d’« hommes-déchets » qui n’ont pas de valeur ajoutée pour le capitalisme.

  • Les Cafés Géo » Israël-Palestine : Quelles frontières ?

    http://cafe-geo.net/israel-palestine-quelles-frontieres

    L’historique de question remonte à la 2ème partie du XXème car si une terre est deux fois promise, il y en a une fois de trop. Pendant la première guerre mondiale, dans le cadre des négociations secrètes entre Londres et Paris qui se partagent à l’avance les bribes de l’empire ottoman, le territoire de la Palestine jusqu’au Jourdain est convoité par le Royaume-Uni et la Syrie par la France. Le Ministre du Foreign Office, Lord Balfour, qui n’a aucune visée philanthropique, propose aux sionistes européens de créer un « foyer national juif » en Palestine pour gêner les puissances centrales (Allemagne, Autriche Hongrie) et pour protéger le canal de Suez. Les Français, de leur coté, s’intéressent aux Chrétiens d’Orient et au pétrole de Mossoul…. En 1919, le plan est appliqué mais si la fin de la Première Guerre Mondiale marque la fin de l’Empire Ottoman sur le plan politique, il persiste en tant que pratiques et organisation des communautés.

    #frontières #michel_foucher #palestine #israël #murs

  • Portion of US border wall in California falls over in high winds and lands on Mexican side

    Newly installed panels from the US border wall fell over in high winds Wednesday, landing on trees on the Mexican side of the border.
    The area is part of an ongoing construction project to improve existing sections of the wall.
    Agent Carlos Pitones of the Customs and Border Protection sector in El Centro, California, told CNN that the sections that gave way had recently been set in a new concrete foundation in Calexico, California. The concrete had not yet cured, according to Pitones, and the wall panels were unable to withstand the windy conditions.

    The National Weather Service reports that winds in the area gusted as high as 37 mph Wednesday. Video from CNN affiliate KYMA shows the metal panels leaning against trees adjacent to a Mexicali, Mexico, street as the wind whips up dirt from the construction site on the other side of the border.
    “We are grateful there was no property damage or injuries,” said Pitones.
    Customs and Border Protection says local Mexicali officials diverted traffic from the area of the accident, and the agency is working with the Mexican government on the next steps to right the wall. Pitones said it is not currently known how long the construction work in the area will need to be suspended in order to allow for cleanup.
    Three years into his presidency, President Donald Trump’s signature campaign promise has faced a host of legal and logistical challenges. Even with funding, the administration will have to contend with private landowners whose property may be seized to build barriers along the border.
    Trump has sought to pull hundreds of millions of dollars from several government accounts as his administration looks to construct 450 miles of barriers in the ramp-up to the presidential election.
    Earlier this month, the administration announced that the wall had reached the 100-mile mark, the majority of which was replacing barriers with newer, enhanced designs, and around half a mile was constructed in the Rio Grande Valley where no wall previously existed.
    The White House has pushed for construction on the US-Mexico border to be dubbed new wall, according to a former administration official. There was a “constant drumbeat” from the White House to call it “new wall” within the Department of Homeland Security, the official added. “There is a lot of pressure on the President to deliver in the campaign promise.”

    Acting Customs and Border Protection Commissioner Mark Morgan has previously said he feels “no pressure from the administration to build more miles of wall.”

    https://edition.cnn.com/2020/01/29/politics/us-border-wall-falls-over-high-winds/index.html

    #murs #barrières_frontalières #destruction #walls_don't_work #les_murs_tombent #frontières #Californie #USA #Etats-Unis #Mexique

    Ajouté à la métaliste:
    https://seenthis.net/messages/823380