#myanmar

  • La junte birmane réprime les syndicats et viole les droits des travailleurs

    Les organisations de défense des droits des travailleurs au Myanmar ont déclaré que le régime militaire a violé à plusieurs reprises les droits des travailleurs, notamment la liberté d’association syndicale, depuis le coup d’État de l’année dernière. Daw Moe Sandar Myint, présidente de la Federation of General Workers Myanmar (FGWM), qui travaille désormais dans une région du pays qui n’est pas sous le contrôle de la junte, a déclaré que la liberté d’association des travailleurs syndiqués a cessé depuis la prise de pouvoir par les militaires.

    https://entreleslignesentrelesmots.wordpress.com/2022/09/23/la-junte-birmane-reprime-les-syndicats-et-viol

    #international #myanmar

  • Solidarité internationale avec le peuple de la Birmanie (Myanmar) !

    Cette déclaration a été initiée par la Solidarity For Myanmar People (SFMP). 369 personnes du monde entier ont répondu (57 pays sont mentionnés), beaucoup avec des messages individuels exprimant leur solidarité et leurs encouragements.

    Nous condamnons l’exécution récente par la junte militaire de la Birmanie de quatre prisonniers politiques.
    Nous craignons que la junte n’entreprenne à nouveau des actions aussi inadmissibles en l’absence d’une pression internationale accrue. Nous sommes des universitaires et des chercheurs du monde entier qui voulons ajouter nos voix à celles qui s’expriment déjà.
    Nous sommes consternés par les actions méprisables et inhumaines de la junte militaire du Myanmar. Nous déplorons l’exécution récente de quatre prisonniers politiques et le traitement cruel et inhumain qui leur a été réservé ainsi qu’à leurs familles. Nous déplorons également le déchaînement de violence et les attaques meurtrières menées sans distinction contre la population, y compris les enfants, les personnes âgées et les infirmes, dans les villages, les villes et les agglomérations du pays, dans une tentative insensée de les soumettre.
    Nous déplorons la poursuite de la destruction délibérée de maisons, de fermes, de cliniques et d’écoles, ainsi que les attaques délibérées contre les efforts d’approvisionnement en nourriture et d’assistance humanitaire déployés par les populations locales qui tentent de s’entraider, en particulier les plus démunis, pour survivre aux brutalités de la junte.

    https://entreleslignesentrelesmots.wordpress.com/2022/08/23/solidarite-internationale-avec-le-peuple-de-la

    #international #myanmar

  • Myanmar. La junte « propriétaire du pays » poursuit la répression. Une grève silencieuse massive exprime la résistance

    Cette semaine, le premier anniversaire du coup d’Etat militaire a été marqué par une grève silencieuse dans tout le pays ; l’envoyée spéciale des Nations unies, la Singapourienne Noeleen Heyzer, a fait sensation par ses déclarations ; le ministre des Affaires étrangères de la junte a été officiellement exclu de la prochaine séance de l’ASEAN ; Aung San Suu Kyi fait l’objet de deux nouvelles accusations impliquant au total des décennies d’emprisonnement. (Réd. Frontier Fridays)

    Grève silencieuse et sanctions pour marquer l’anniversaire du coup d’Etat

    https://entreleslignesentrelesmots.blog/2022/02/19/myanmar-la-junte-proprietaire-du-pays-poursuit-la-repre
    #international #myanmar

  • Myanmar villagers tear down Chinese fences built along the border

    China rejects charges of encroachment, saying fences aren’t built on Myanmar territory.

    Villagers living along Myanmar’s mountainous border with China are destroying fences put up by Chinese authorities to block travelers who might spread #COVID-19, saying the barriers have been built inside Myanmar territory, sources say.

    The destruction of fencing in northern Myanmar’s #Kachin state and #Shan state in the country’s east is causing friction along the border, with both residents and politicians faulting the two countries for letting the problem fester.

    China’s embassy in Myanmar denied any Chinese encroachment and called the construction of fences “a common practice in many countries to strengthen border management.”

    On Oct. 25, residents of #Pangkham village in Shan state’s Muse township took down a fence they said had been set up nearly 30 feet inside village land, one villager said, speaking on condition of anonymity.

    Villagers first saw the new fence when they went to their fields to plant crops, he said.

    “China had first built a solid fence in 2014, but after that they set up barbed wire that was put from 20 to 30 feet inside our own land, and we removed this new fence,” he said, adding that when villagers had previously gone to work in their fields, Chinese soldiers had appeared there to make a show of force.

    “And so we villagers have been moved back four times already,” he said.

    China has not yet responded to the removal of this newest fence, villagers said.

    Muse, the main border crossing into China, lies across a river from #Ruili (#Shweli, in Burmese) in southwestern China’s #Yunnan Province.

    This is the third such dispute between Chinese border authorities and residents of the #Muse district in the last two months, villagers said.

    The Muse township administrator and other local officials have now visited Pangkham, an area close to Chinese border town of #Jiagou, and say they will file a report on the situation with higher-ups at the district level, they said.

    In another incident on Sept. 12, residents of #Namkham township’s #Hak_Hin_village took down a Chinese fence extending into village land after Chinese authorities rebuffed villagers’ objections, village chief Lon Ai Suan said.

    Since the outbreak of the first wave of the #coronavirus pandemic in China in April 2020, border crossings have been tightened on the Chinese side of the border with Myanmar to control the entry and exit of Myanmar nationals, resulting in frequent disputes, sources say.

    ’Can’t do anything on our own’

    Authorities in both countries have been unable so far to settle the issue of encroachment, said Sai Hla Pe, chairman of the Shan Nationalities League for Democracy (SNLD) in northern Shan state, pointing to frequent incidents in #Pansai, #Pangkham, and the #Naung_Mon areas of Muse.

    “We have gone to these places to see for ourselves,” he said.

    “The problem should be solved between the two governments, because we can’t do anything about this on our own. We can only report to the authorities on the results of our investigations in the field,” he said.

    Charges of encroachment by China have also been made by villagers in Kachin state, where one resident said a 20-foot-tall, 500-foot-long fence was put up between Waingmaw and Kanpaiti townships during the last week of July.

    “It’s obvious that they are doing whatever they want in the uninhabited areas of Myanmar,” Zay Jones, a resident of Kanpaiti, said. “They are expanding into our country, and no one says anything about it,” he said.

    “You can see barbed wire fences on the mountains from Kanpaiti. No one knows for sure whether these mountains are in Myanmar or in China, but we know [the fences] are on the Myanmar side.”

    “The Chinese just put up fences wherever they want,” he said.

    Local residents said that Kanpaiti township officials have sent a letter of protest to Chinese officials on the other side, but that no replies have been received.

    Local officials in Shan state’s Muse district conduct field inspections and “send objections to the relevant Chinese departments when problems occur," an official from the district’s administration department said, also speaking on condition of anonymity.

    "And if there is a violation of an agreement we signed earlier, we will send a letter of protest and report the situation to higher authorities,” the official said.

    “In some places where we have found a definite encroachment, they have had to pull it down, and in other places we have had to consult with joint inspection teams from both sides. But because of COVID, this isn’t happening at present,” he said.

    ’China may have reached an understanding’

    In Kachin state, the Chinese border lies mostly along areas controlled by the ethnic Kachin Independence Army (KIA), and almost all of it has been fenced off by China, local sources said. China has been building new fences since July near the remote mountain town of Laiza and in other places, they added.

    China may be prioritizing the building of fences in these areas to stop refugees entering China because of concerns over the political situation in Myanmar nine months after a Feb. 1 military coup overthrew the country’s elected civilian government, sparking widespread protests and fighting.

    “China may have reached an understanding with the ethnic armed groups,” said Than Soe Naing, an analyst of ethnic affairs in Myanmar.

    “Thus, we see today that new fences are being set up, especially in areas where there are clashes between junta forces and local militias who are trying to stop [central government] incursions into their land,” he said.

    Attempts to reach Myanmar’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs for comment were unsuccessful.

    China’s embassy in Myanmar in an email to RFA’s Myanmar Service on Monday called the construction of border fences “a common practice in many countries to strengthen border management.”

    “The fences will not enter Myanmar territory,” the embassy said.

    “China and Myanmar have been in close communication on this issue and hope the media can report it objectively.”

    #murs #barrières #frontières #barrières_frontalières #Chine #Myanmar #Birmanie

  • Myanmar : les travailleurs ont perdu tous leurs droits ; le coup d’État et la troisième vague mettent les ouvriers en danger

    Certains propriétaires d’usines ont été accusés d’avoir encore plus exploité et de ne pas avoir protégé leurs employés lors de la dernière épidémie de Covid-19, et comme les syndicats ne sont pas actifs depuis le coup d’État, les travailleurs ne peuvent pas demander réparation.

    https://entreleslignesentrelesmots.blog/2021/09/18/myanmar-les-travailleurs-ont-perdu-tous-leurs-droits-le

    #international #myanmar

  • A global call to support refugees from Myanmar - Asia Times
    https://asiatimes.com/2021/06/a-global-call-to-support-refugees-from-myanmar

    A global call to support refugees from Myanmar. The UN marked World Refugee Day on Sunday, but the global community is still doing too little for those fleeing Myanmar. Sunday, June 20, marked the United Nations’ World Refugee Day, a time to focus on refugees worldwide, applaud their courage, and highlight their contributions. This year’s theme, “Heal, Learn, Shine,” recognizes the challenges of Covid-19, the need to uphold the right to education, and how refugees persevere despite the challenges they face.
    According to the UN, there are more than 1.1 million refugees from my home country of Myanmar, making it one of the top five source countries of refugees worldwide. While many were able to celebrate World Refugee Day, those forced to flee Myanmar continue to witness mass atrocities.
    As the number of people fleeing the Myanmar military’s violence has only increased since the coup, seeking refuge in Thailand has proved increasingly difficult for ethnic-minority refugees as Thai officials fear the spread of Covid-19 and strictly police their borders.
    Estimates are that in March and April, close to 3,000 Karen internally displaced persons (IDPs) crossed the Salween River to seek refuge in Thailand, only to be held by Thai officials until conditions were deemed secure enough to turn them away. Similarly, more than 100,000 Karenni civilians escaping conflict in their home state were met with force at the Thai border, where officials attempted to push back thousands. Safety and security for refugees are rare, even when they are accepted by host countries. Refugees are uniquely affected by a number of factors, and are being disproportionately impacted by Covid-19.Often crammed into tight living situations with inadequate hygiene facilities, the ability to escape Covid-19’s grip is almost impossible for Myanmar’s refugees. With more than a million Rohingya refugees living in Bangladesh, there have been estimates of more than 1,300 cases of Covid-19 in the camps. Vaccine supplies are also far from refugees’ reach – as of June 1, no Covid-19 vaccines had been distributed in Cox’s Bazar. Education remains unavailable to refugees from Myanmar and across the diaspora in Bangladesh, India, Thailand and Malaysia. While some children are able to attend small, community-run schools, the general lack of educational opportunities forces entire generations from Myanmar to face their future unprepared.

    #Covid-19#migrant#migration#myanmar#rohingya#karen#refugie#camp#personnedeplacee#sante#vulnerablite#education#vaccination#securite

  • Myanmar : A la résistance passive se sont adjoints des affrontements armés + Position politique sur les Rohingya dans l’Etat de Rakhine

    Cette semaine, la réouverture forcée des écoles par la junte est tombée à plat ; la troisième vague Covid-19 a continué à enfler ; de nouveaux groupes armés sont entrés dans le combat dans l’Etat de Kayin ; des responsables de la junte et des informateurs présumés ont été tués dans tout le pays. (Frontier Fridays)

    https://entreleslignesentrelesmots.blog/2021/06/08/myanmar-a-la-resistance-passive-se-sont-adjoints-des-af

    #international #myanmar

  • Les syndicats du Myanmar luttent pour protéger les droits des travailleurs malgré la répression militaire

    Les syndicats du Myanmar se battent pour que les droits des centaines de milliers de travailleurs, à l’avant-garde du Mouvement de désobéissance civile (MDC), soient protégés. Et ils exhortent les marques internationales qui achètent des produits dans les usines de fournisseurs du Myanmar à faire de même.

    https://entreleslignesentrelesmots.blog/2021/04/26/les-syndicats-du-myanmar-luttent-pour-proteger-les-droi

    #international #myanmar #syndicat

  • Coronavirus: border city chief dismissed for Covid-19 failures as Ruili continues to report new cases | South China Morning Post
    https://www.scmp.com/news/china/politics/article/3128727/coronavirus-border-city-chief-dismissed-covid-19-failures-ruili

    Coronavirus: border city chief dismissed for Covid-19 failures as Ruili continues to report new cases. Gong Yunzun was demoted to first-level researcher after three outbreaks in city on Myanmar border, say Yunnan authorities Gong Yunzun was dismissed from the top Communist Party job in Ruili because of his handling of coronavirus outbreaks and prevention measures. Photo: Handout Gong Yunzun was dismissed from the top Communist Party job in Ruili because of his handling of coronavirus outbreaks and prevention measures.
    The top Communist Party official of Ruili, the Chinese city bordering Myanmar, has been dismissed from his post over “serious dereliction of duty” after failing to prevent Covid-19 outbreaks in recent months.
    “Three Covid-19 outbreaks within half a year in Ruili, especially the epidemic in March, have severely undermined the epidemic control efforts in the country and the province, and seriously hurt the province’s economic and social development,” authorities in the southwestern province of Yunnan said in a statement on Thursday.It said the dismissal of Gong Yunzun, the city’s party chief who bore the main responsibility for leading Covid-19 control efforts, should serve as a warning to other officials.

    #Covid-19#migrant#migration#chine#myanmar#sante#circulation#frontiere

  • Coronavirus: China closes Myanmar border bridge and orders city lockdown after new cluster emerges | South China Morning Post
    https://www.scmp.com/news/china/diplomacy/article/3127751/coronavirus-chinese-city-closes-border-bridge-myanmar-and

    Coronavirus: China closes Myanmar border bridge and orders city lockdown after new cluster emerges. Six local Covid-19 infections were reported in Ruili, prompting China to close the bridge linking the city to Myanmar, undertaking a widespread testing program and enforcing lockdown and quarantine measures. Photo: Weibo Six local Covid-19 infections were reported in Ruili, prompting China to close the bridge linking the city to Myanmar, undertaking a widespread testing program and enforcing lockdown and quarantine measures. The health commission of Yunnan province in southwestern China said in a statement that three new asymptomatic cases – which China does not classify as confirmed cases – were found in Ruili, along with the six confirmed infections on Tuesday.
    It is the first time since February 5 that China has reported a local cluster. On Wednesday, the National Health Commission said China found 11 new Covid-19 cases on March 30. The other five cases were all imported.
    As well as strengthening public health measures, China has been bolstering security as the violent crackdown by Myanmar’s junta causes many Myanmese to flee the country, seeking refuge in China, Thailand and India.
    Health authorities said one of the confirmed Covid-19 cases and three of the asymptomatic cases were Myanmese while the rest were Chinese.
    Ruili deputy mayor Yang Mou said on Wednesday morning the city would enter a one-week lockdown and that 317 people identified as close contacts were under quarantine for medical observation.Yang said the city expected to complete citywide nucleic acid sampling and testing by late Wednesday night, while provincial authorities had mobilised 1,800 medical personnel from neighbouring cities to help. Deputy police chief Cun Daipeng said nearly 4,000 security personnel had been mobilised to set up checkpoints at major traffic sites and border crossings, including the Jiegao bridge linking Ruili with Myanmar.Lu Qing, a Ruili resident living near the bridge, has been using a loud hailer since Tuesday to remind drivers the bridge is closed and they must turn around. “There were many armed police at the checkpoint and some carrying weapons. They work together with customs in setting up the blockades to seal off the bridge,” Lu said.
    Ruili also ordered a lockdown of the local Guomen residential estate in the city. While the official statement did not say how many residents were infected, a shop owner surnamed Huang who lives nearby said he had seen a lot of ambulances come and go since Tuesday. “Many of us had gone through testing since yesterday. I queued until midnight [to get tested]. There were too many people. But there is no panic, as we have experienced this before,” Huang said.Ruili police arrested two residents for smuggling two Myanmese infected with Covid-19 into the city last year and causing local spread, resulting in a week-long lockdown and blanket testing of the whole city from September 14.

    #Covid-19#migrant#migration#chine#myanmar#thailande#sante#cluster#frontiere#conflit#circulation

  • Myanmar’s Military Deploys Digital Arsenal of Repression in Crackdown - The New York Times
    https://www.nytimes.com/2021/03/01/world/asia/myanmar-coup-military-surveillance.html

    During a half century of military rule, Myanmar’s totalitarian tools were crude but effective. Men in sarongs shadowed democracy activists, neighbors informed on each other and thugs brandished lead pipes.

    The generals, who staged a coup a month ago, are now back in charge with a far more sophisticated arsenal at their disposal: Israeli-made surveillance drones, European iPhone cracking devices and American software that can hack into computers and vacuum up their contents.

    Some of this technology, including satellite and telecommunications upgrades, helped people in Myanmar go online and integrate with the world after decades of isolation. Other systems, such as spyware, were sold as integral to modernizing law enforcement agencies.

    But critics say a ruthless armed forces, which maintained a dominance over the economy and powerful ministries even as it briefly shared power with a civilian government, used the facade of democracy to enable sensitive cybersecurity and defense purchases.

    Some of these “dual-use” technologies, tools of both legitimate law enforcement and repression, are being deployed by the Tatmadaw, as the Myanmar military is known, to target opponents of the Feb. 1 coup — a practice that echoes actions taken against critics by China, Saudi Arabia, Mexico and other governments.

    The documents, provided by Justice For Myanmar, catalog tens of millions of dollars earmarked for technology that can mine phones and computers, as well as track people’s live locations and listen in to their conversations. Two parliamentary budget committee members, who requested anonymity given the sensitive political climate, said these proposed budgets for the Ministry of Home Affairs and Ministry of Transport and Communications reflected actual purchases.

    The budgets detail companies and the functionality of their tools. In some instances, they specify the proposed uses, like combating “money laundering” or investigating “cybercrime.”

    “What you see the Myanmar military putting together is a comprehensive suite of cybersecurity and forensics,” said Ian Foxley, a researcher at the Center for Applied Human Rights at the University of York. “A lot of this is electronic warfare capability stuff.”

    Documentation for post-coup arrest warrants, which were reviewed by The Times, shows that Myanmar’s security forces have triangulated between their critics’ social media posts and the individual addresses of their internet hookups to find where they live. Such detective work could only have been carried out by using specialized foreign technology, according to experts with knowledge of Myanmar’s surveillance infrastructure.

    “Even under a civilian government, there was little oversight of the military’s expenditure for surveillance technology,” said Ko Nay Yan Oo, a former fellow at the Pacific Forum of the Center for Strategic and International Studies who has studied the Myanmar military. “Now we are under military rule, and they can do everything they want.”

    One particularly large section of the budget allocations covers the latest ware for phone-cracking and computer-hacking. Those systems are usually designed for use by militaries and police forces, and many international export bans include such technology.

    The 2020-2021 Ministry of Home Affairs budget allocations include units from MSAB, a Swedish company that supplies forensic data tools for militaries around the world. These MSAB field units can download the contents of mobile devices and recover deleted items, according to notations in the budget.

    Henrik Tjernberg, the chairman of MSAB, said that some of the company’s “legacy technology” had ended up in Myanmar a few years ago, but it no longer sold equipment there because of a European Union export ban on dual-use products that can be used for domestic repression. Mr. Tjernberg did not answer questions about how his products ended up in the latest budget.

    In Myanmar, the latest budget also included MacQuisition forensic software designed to extract and collect data from Apple computers. The software is made by BlackBag Technologies, an American company that was bought last year by Cellebrite of Israel. Both companies also make other sophisticated tools to infiltrate locked or encrypted devices and suck out their data, including location-tracking information.

    In many instances, governments do not buy military-grade technology directly from the companies that make them but instead go through middlemen. The intermediaries often cloak their intentions behind business registrations for education, construction or technology companies, even as they post photographs on social media of foreign weaponry or signing ceremonies with generals.

    Middlemen can give Western companies distance from dealing face-to-face with dictators. But international embargoes and dual-use bans still hold tech firms liable for the end users of their products, even if resellers make the deals.

    By 2018, Israel had essentially blocked military exports to Myanmar, after it emerged that Israeli weaponry was being sold to an army accused of genocidal actions against the Rohingya ethnic minority. The embargo extends to spare parts.

    Two years later, Myanmar Future Science, a company that calls itself an educational and teaching aid supplier, signed paperwork reviewed by The Times agreeing to service military-grade surveillance drones made by Elbit Systems, an Israeli arms manufacturer. Senior Gen. Min Aung Hlaing, the Tatmadaw chief who led the coup last month, visited Elbit’s offices during a 2015 trip to Israel.

    #Surveillance #Myanmar #Matériel_militaire #Vente_armes #Bande_de_salauds

  • Les travailleur·euses et les syndicats du Myanmar en première ligne dans la lutte contre le coup d’État

    Des travailleur·euses de l’habillement en grève ont manifesté devant les bureaux de l’Organisation internationale du travail à Yangon, au Myanmar, en début de la semaine, pour exiger que les marques mondiales de vêtements veillent à ce que les travailleur·euses ne soient pas réprimé·es pour avoir participé à des manifestations pro-démocratiques.

    https://entreleslignesentrelesmots.blog/2021/03/01/les-travailleur·euses-et-les-syndicats-du-myanmar-en-pr

    #international #myanmar #grève

  • Fled civil war in Myanmar, lost job to coronavirus and died in Malaysia: young mother’s suicide highlights refugees’ plight | South China Morning Post
    https://www.scmp.com/week-asia/politics/article/3122990/fled-civil-war-myanmar-lost-job-coronavirus-and-died-malaysia

    A day before Malaysia deported more than 1,000 people to Myanmar
    in defiance of a court order and protests from human rights groups, a young mother worried about her illegal status killed herself by jumping from the first floor of her apartment building in Kuala Lumpur. The woman, who was not one of those targeted for Tuesday’s mass deportation, had fled civil war in Myanmar’s Kachin state. She is thought to have become depressed after both she and her husband lost their jobs to the coronavirus pandemic.Her death on Monday was the latest in a string of suicides by refugees and migrant workers from Myanmar to have occurred in Malaysia since the pandemic began.“The couple were facing money problems, had debts and she worried over her undocumented status,” said Nang Moon, who works with refugee groups and belongs to the Malaysia branch of the Myanmar political party National League for Democracy.“She is also believed to have been suffering from postpartum depression.”She estimated this was the 24th such suicide since the onset of the Covid-19 pandemic last year, though added, “We don’t know the exact figure.”La Seng, head of the Kachin Refugee Organisation in Malaysia, said the woman had been in Malaysia since 2014, was 28 years old and left behind a 3-month-old daughter. “Her husband is very depressed,” said La Seng.

    #Covid-19#migrant#migration#malaisie#myanmar#sante#santementale#suicide#refugie#pandemie#emploi#vulnerabilite

  • Migrants in the crossfire of Thai Covid blame game - Asia Times
    https://asiatimes.com/2021/01/migrants-in-the-crossfire-of-thai-covid-blame-game

    Market vendors refuse to let them buy food. Some banks won’t allow them to enter their premises. Hotels and guest houses double-check that non-Thai speaking Asians who seek to check-in are not from neighboring Myanmar.It all began on December 17 when a 67-year-old Thai working in a shrimp market in Mahachai in Samut Sakhon province southwest of Bangkok tested positive for the Covid-19 virus.Tens of thousands of Myanmar migrants have worked for years in the market and nearby seafood-processing plants, often doing thankless jobs that most Thais are unwilling to do.It’s become clear by now that Covid-19 spread quickly through Mahachai’s cramped and congested living quarters, similar to the ghetto-like dwellings and dormitories where the disease has thrived among migrants in Singapore and Malaysia.
    As such, Myanmar migrants are now being blamed for what is being widely described as Thailand’s second viral wave, which is now creeping across the kingdom after months of reporting no community spread.
    From a stable low of just over 4,000 cases and 60 deaths until mid-December, Thailand had 10,547 cases and 67 deaths as of January 11, according to the Thailand Center for Covid-19 Situation Administration, a state body managing the pandemic.

    #Covid-19#migrant#migration#thailande#singapour#myanmar#malaisie#dortoir#marche#economie#travailleurmigrant

  • Le Mécanisme pour le Myanmar toque à la porte de Naypyidaw
    https://www.justiceinfo.net/fr/divers/45515-mecanisme-myanmar-toque-porte-naypyidaw.html

    Le nouvel organe de collecte de preuves des Nations unies sur les crimes internationaux au Myanmar, lancé il y a un an, a annoncé qu’il a commencé à partager des informations dans l’affaire du génocide des Rohingyas devant la Cour internationale de justice, y compris avec le gouvernement du Myanmar, dans l’espoir d’ouvrir une nouvelle porte.

    En l’absence de justice, le Mécanisme d’enquête indépendant pour le Myanmar (IIMM ou Mécanisme pour le Myanmar) a été mis en place pour recueillir et conserver des preuves en vue d’éventuels procès internationaux ou nationaux. Cependant, la Gambie, petit État d’Afrique de l’Ouest qui sort lui-même d’une dictature marquée par des violations des droits humains, a posé un acte historique en saisissant la Cour internationale de justice (CIJ) d’une plainte contre le (...)

    #Divers

  • The #Rohingya. A humanitarian emergency decades in the making

    The violent 2017 ouster of more than 700,000 Rohingya from Myanmar into Bangladesh captured the international spotlight, but the humanitarian crisis had been building for decades.

    In August 2017, Myanmar’s military launched a crackdown that pushed out hundreds of thousands of members of the minority Rohingya community from their homes in northern Rakhine State. Today, roughly 900,000 Rohingya live across the border in southern Bangladesh, in cramped refugee camps where basic needs often overwhelm stretched resources.

    The crisis has shifted from a short-term response to a protracted emergency. Conditions in the camps have worsened as humanitarian services are scaled back during the coronavirus pandemic. Government restrictions on refugees and aid groups have grown, along with grievances among local communities on the margins of a massive aid operation.

    The 2017 exodus was the culmination of decades of restrictive policies in Myanmar, which have stripped Rohingya of their rights over generations, denied them an identity, and driven them from their homes.

    Here’s an overview of the current crisis and a timeline of what led to it. A selection of our recent and archival reporting on the Rohingya crisis is available below.
    Who are the Rohingya?

    The Rohingya are a mostly Muslim minority in western Myanmar’s Rakhine State. Rohingya say they are native to the area, but in Myanmar they are largely viewed as illegal immigrants from neighbouring Bangladesh.

    Myanmar’s government does not consider the Rohingya one of the country’s 135 officially recognised ethnic groups. Over decades, government policies have stripped Rohingya of citizenship and enforced an apartheid-like system where they are isolated and marginalised.
    How did the current crisis unfold?

    In October 2016, a group of Rohingya fighters calling itself the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army, or ARSA, staged attacks on border posts in northern Rakhine State, killing nine border officers and four soldiers. Myanmar’s military launched a crackdown, and 87,000 Rohingya civilians fled to Bangladesh over the next year.

    A month earlier, Myanmar’s de facto leader, Aung San Suu Kyi, had set up an advisory commission chaired by former UN secretary-general Kofi Annan to recommend a path forward in Rakhine and ease tensions between the Rohingya and ethnic Rakhine communities.

    On 24 August 2017, the commission issued its final report, which included recommendations to improve development in the region and tackle questions of citizenship for the Rohingya. Within hours, ARSA fighters again attacked border security posts.

    Myanmar’s military swept through the townships of northern Rakhine, razing villages and driving away civilians. Hundreds of thousands of Rohingya fled to Bangladesh in the ensuing weeks. They brought with them stories of burnt villages, rape, and killings at the hands of Myanmar’s military and groups of ethnic Rakhine neighbours. The refugee settlements of southern Bangladesh now have a population of roughly 900,000 people, including previous generations of refugees.

    What has the international community said?

    Multiple UN officials, rights investigators, and aid groups working in the refugee camps say there is evidence of brutal levels of violence against the Rohingya and the scorched-earth clearance of their villages in northern Rakhine State.

    A UN-mandated fact-finding mission on Myanmar says abuses and rights violations in Rakhine “undoubtedly amount to the gravest crimes under international law”; the rights probe is calling for Myanmar’s top generals to be investigated and prosecuted for genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes.

    The UN’s top rights official has called the military purge a “textbook case of ethnic cleansing”. Médecins Sans Frontières estimates at least 6,700 Rohingya were killed in the days after military operations began in August 2017.

    Rights groups say there’s evidence that Myanmar security forces were preparing to strike weeks and months before the August 2017 attacks. The evidence included disarming Rohingya civilians, arming non-Rohingya, and increasing troop levels in the area.
    What has Myanmar said?

    Myanmar has denied almost all allegations of violence against the Rohingya. It says the August 2017 military crackdown was a direct response to the attacks by ARSA militants.

    Myanmar’s security forces admitted to the September 2017 killings of 10 Rohingya men in Inn Din village – a massacre exposed by a media investigation. Two Reuters journalists were arrested while researching the story. In September 2018, the reporters were convicted of breaking a state secrets law and sentenced to seven years in prison. They were released in May 2019, after more than a year behind bars.

    Myanmar continues to block international investigators from probing rights violations on its soil. This includes barring entry to the UN-mandated fact-finding mission and the UN’s special rapporteurs for the country.
    What is the situation in Bangladesh’s refugee camps?

    The swollen refugee camps of southern Bangladesh now have the population of a large city but little of the basic infrastructure.

    The dimensions of the response have changed as the months and years pass: medical operations focused on saving lives in 2017 must now also think of everyday illnesses and healthcare needs; a generation of young Rohingya have spent another year without formal schooling or ways to earn a living; women (and men) reported sexual violence at the hands of Myanmar’s military, but today the violence happens within the cramped confines of the camps.

    The coronavirus has magnified the problems and aid shortfalls in 2020. The government limited all but essential services and restricted aid access to the camps. Humanitarian groups say visits to health centres have dropped by half – driven in part by fear and misunderstandings. Gender-based violence has risen, and already-minimal services for women and girls are now even more rare.

    The majority of Rohingya refugees live in camps with population densities of less than 15 square metres per person – far below the minimum international guidelines for refugee camps (30 to 45 square metres per person). The risk of disease outbreaks is high in such crowded conditions, aid groups say.

    Rohingya refugees live in fragile shelters in the middle of floodplains and on landslide-prone hillsides. Aid groups say seasonal monsoon floods threaten large parts of the camps, which are also poorly prepared for powerful cyclones that typically peak along coastal Bangladesh in May and October.

    The funding request for the Rohingya response – totalling more than $1 billion in 2020 – represents one of the largest humanitarian appeals for a crisis this year. Previous appeals have been underfunded, which aid groups said had a direct impact on the quality of services available.

    What’s happening in Rakhine State?

    The UN estimates that 470,000 non-displaced Rohingya still live in Rakhine State. Aid groups say they continue to have extremely limited access to northern Rakhine State – the flashpoint of 2017’s military purge. There are “alarming” rates of malnutrition among children in northern Rakhine, according to UN agencies.

    Rohingya still living in northern Rakhine face heavy restrictions on working, going to school, and accessing healthcare. The UN says remaining Rohingya and ethnic Rakhine communities continue to live in fear of each other.

    Additionally, some 125,000 Rohingya live in barricaded camps in central Rakhine State. The government created these camps following clashes between Rohingya and Rakhine communities in 2012. Rohingya there face severe restrictions and depend on aid groups for basic services.

    A separate conflict between the military and the Arakan Army, an ethnic Rakhine armed group, has brought new displacement and civilian casualties. Clashes displaced tens of thousands of people in Rakhine and neighbouring Chin State by early 2020, and humanitarian access has again been severely restricted. In February 2020, Myanmar’s government re-imposed mobile internet blackouts in several townships in Rakhine and Chin states, later extending high-speed restrictions until the end of October. Rights groups say the blackout could risk lives and make it even harder for humanitarian aid to reach people trapped by conflict. Amnesty International has warned of a looming food insecurity crisis in Rakhine.

    What’s next?

    Rights groups have called on the UN Security Council to refer Myanmar to the International Criminal Court to investigate allegations of committing atrocity crimes. The UN body has not done so.

    There are at least three parallel attempts, in three separate courts, to pursue accountability. ICC judges have authorised prosecutor Fatou Bensouda to begin an investigation into one aspect: the alleged deportation of the Rohingya, which is a crime against humanity under international law.

    Separately, the West African nation of The Gambia filed a lawsuit at the International Court of Justice asking the UN’s highest court to hold Myanmar accountable for “state-sponsored genocide”. In an emergency injunction granted in January 2020, the court ordered Myanmar to “take all measures within its power” to protect the Rohingya.

    And in a third legal challenge, a Rohingya rights group launched a case calling on courts in Argentina to prosecute military and civilian officials – including Aung San Suu Kyi – under the concept of universal jurisdiction, which pushes for domestic courts to investigate international crimes.

    Bangladesh and Myanmar have pledged to begin the repatriation of Rohingya refugees, but three separate deadlines have come and gone with no movement. In June 2018, two UN agencies signed a controversial agreement with Myanmar – billed as a first step to participating in any eventual returns plan. The UN, rights groups, and refugees themselves say Rakhine State is not yet safe for Rohingya to return.

    With no resolution in sight in Myanmar and bleak prospects in Bangladesh, a growing number of Rohingya women and children are using once-dormant smuggling routes to travel to countries like Malaysia.

    A regional crisis erupted in 2020 as multiple countries shut their borders to Rohingya boats, citing the coronavirus, leaving hundreds of people stranded at sea for weeks. Dozens are believed to have died.

    Bangladesh has raised the possibility of transferring 100,000 Rohingya refugees to an uninhabited, flood-prone island – a plan that rights groups say would effectively create an “island detention centre”. Most Rohingya refuse to go, but Bangladeshi authorities detained more than 300 people on the island in 2020 after they were rescued at sea.

    The government has imposed growing restrictions on the Rohingya as the crisis continues. In recent months, authorities have enforced orders barring most Rohingya from leaving the camp areas, banned the sale of SIM cards and cut mobile internet, and tightened restrictions on NGOs. Local community tensions have also risen. Aid groups report a rise in anti-Rohingya hate speech and racism, as well as “rapidly deteriorating security dynamics”.

    Local NGOs and civil society groups are pushing for a greater role in leading the response, warning that international donor funding will dwindle over the long term.

    And rights groups say Rohingya refugees themselves have had little opportunity to participate in decisions that affect their futures – both in Bangladesh’s camps and when it comes to the possibility of returning to Myanmar.

    https://www.thenewhumanitarian.org/in-depth/myanmar-rohingya-refugee-crisis-humanitarian-aid-bangladesh
    #asile #migrations #réfugiés #Birmanie #Myanmar #chronologie #histoire #génocide #Bangladesh #réfugiés_rohingya #Rakhine #camps_de_réfugiés #timeline #time-line #Arakan_Rohingya_Salvation_Army (#ARSA) #nettoyage_ethnique #justice #Cour_internationale_de_Justice (#CIJ)

  • Virus refugees fleeing Myanmar for Thailand - Asia Times
    https://asiatimes.com/2020/09/virus-refugees-fleeing-myanmar-for-thailand

    CHIANG MAI – Thailand’s security forces on the Myanmar border are on high alert to prevent an influx of a new breed of migrants which if some reports are accurate may turn into a flood: health refugees fleeing a surge of Covid-19 infections.Thai authorities are reportedly on the lookout for a large but unspecified number of Myanmar people trying to cross the border. Rather than looking for work, as in the recent past, the new wave of Myanmar migrants are seeking to escape a seemingly uncontrolled outbreak of Covid-19 infections in their country.“They know Thailand has medical facilities where they could get help if they are infected or, if they are not, just seek shelter from what appears to be a wave of infections in Myanmar, a country with grossly inadequate health services for the general public,” said a source who has just returned from the border.

    #Covid-19#migrant#migration#thailande#myanmar#refugie#sante#politique#accessanté

  • Un #rapport de l’ONU s’inquiète de l’augmentation des #violences_sexuelles liées aux #conflits

    Malgré une décennie de lutte, l’#ONU constate que les violences sexuelles restent une #arme_de_guerre dans de nombreux conflits et qu’elles continuent d’augmenter sur toute la planète. L’ONU analyse dans son dernier rapport (https://news.un.org/fr/story/2020/07/1073341) les violations constatées dans 19 pays, principalement contre des jeunes #filles et des #femmes.

    Les violences sexuelles augmentent dans la plupart des #conflits_armés. C’est ce qui ressort du dernier rapport de l’ONU sur les violences sexuelles liées aux conflits publié en juillet dernier.

    Le rapport insiste sur le fait que ce type de violence a un impact direct sur les déplacements en masse de populations, la montée de l’extrémisme, des inégalités et des discriminations entre les hommes et les femmes. Par ailleurs, selon l’ONU, les violences sexuelles sont particulièrement répandues dans des contextes de détention, de captivité et de migration.

    Fin 2019, plus de 79 millions de personnes se trouvaient déplacées dans le monde. Cela signifie que près d’un pourcent de la population mondiale a dû abandonner son domicile à cause d’un conflit ou de persécutiosn. L’an denier, le nombre de déplacés a augmenté, tout comme le niveau de violences sexuelles se produisant sur des sites accueillant des déplacés.

    Ces violences ont notamment lieu quand des femmes et des filles mineures fuient des attaques. Ce 11ème rapport du Secrétaire général de l’ONU (en anglais) sur ce sujet se penche particulièrement sur les violences sexuelles utilisées comme tactiques de guerre ou comme une arme utilisée par les réseaux terroristes.

    Il dresse la situation dans 19 pays, entre janvier et décembre 2019, et se base sur des cas documentés par les Nations unies.

    En tout, 2 838 cas de violences sexuelles ont été rapportés dans ces 19 pays. Dans 110 cas, soit environ 4 % des cas, les victimes sont des hommes ou des garçons.

    #Afghanistan

    En 2019, la Mission d’assistance des Nations unies en Afghanistan (MANUA) a documenté 102 cas de violences sexuelles : 27 étaient liées au conflit qui oppose le pouvoir aux rebelles Talibans, touchant 7 femmes, 7 filles et 13 garçons.

    Alors que la plupart des agressions sont attribuées aux Talibans, les forces de sécurité et des milices pro-gouvernementales ont également été impliquées.

    #Centrafrique

    La Mission des Nations unies en Centrafrique (MINUSCA) a confirmé 322 incidents de violences sexuelles liées aux conflits, affectant 187 femmes, 124 filles, 3 hommes, 2 garçons, et 6 femmes d’âge inconnu. Parmi ces cas, 174 sont des viols ou tentatives de viol et 15 cas sont des mariages forcés.

    Le gouvernement de Bangui a signé avec les groupes armés, en février 2019, un accord de paix qui appelle à la fin de toutes formes de violences liées au sexe. Mais les signataires continuent d’utiliser la violence sexuelle comme moyen de terroriser les civils, conclut le rapport de l’ONU.

    #Colombie

    En 2019, un organisme de l’État venant en aide aux victimes a recensé 356 victimes de violences sexuelles liées aux conflits dans un pays où sévissent de nombreux groupes criminels et armés. Dans quasiment 90 % des cas, il s’agissait de femmes et de filles. Près de la moitié des victimes avaient des origines africaines.

    51 cas d’abus ont été commis sur des enfants (31 filles et 20 garçons). Dans au moins une dizaine de cas, les agresseurs présumés appartenaient au groupe rebelle de l’Armée de libération nationale ou à d’autres groupes armés et organisations criminelles.

    #RDC

    En 2019, la mission de l’ONU en #République_démocratique_du_Congo (MONUSCO), a documenté 1 409 cas de violences sexuelles liées aux conflits, ce qui représente une hausse de 34 % depuis 2018.

    Parmi ces cas, 955 sont attribués à des groupes armés. Mais des membres de l’armée congolaise sont eux aussi impliqués dans 383 agressions. Enfin, la police nationale est responsable dans 62 cas.

    #Irak

    Au cours de l’année 2019, des civils qui étaient détenus par l’organisation de l’État islamique (OEI) en Syrie ont continué à retourner en Irak. Certains sont des survivants de violences sexuelles.

    En novembre dernier, le gouvernement régional du Kurdistan irakien a publié des statistiques sur les cas de disparition dans la communauté des Yazidis depuis 2014. Plus de 6 400 Yazidis ont ainsi été enlevés. Parmi eux près de 3 500 ont été libérés, en grande partie des femmes et des filles.

    Une commission crée en 2014 par les autorités régionales kurdes pour faire la lumière sur les crimes commis par l’OEI a enregistré plus de 1 000 cas de violences sexuelles liées aux conflits. Ces abus ont en grande partie touché les femmes et filles yazidies.

    #Libye

    La mission de l’ONU en Libye (MANUL) n’a pu vérifier que 7 cas de violences sexuelles qui ont touché 4 femmes, deux filles et un homme activiste pour les droits des LGBTQ.

    D’après le rapport, les femmes retenues dans le centre de détention très controversé de #Mitiga n’ont aucune possibilité de contester la légalité de leur détention. Ce centre est contrôlé par la « Force de dissuasion » qui est placée sous la responsabilité du ministère libyen de l’Intérieur.

    Quatre prisonnières ont été violées et forcées de se montrer nues. L’activiste pour les droits des LGBTQ a été victime d’un viol en groupe perpétré par des gardiens de la Force de dissuasion.

    La MANUL a aussi rapporté des schémas de violences et d’exploitation sexuelles, d’extorsion et de trafic de migrants dans des centres de détention de #Zaouïa, #Tadjourah, #Garian, #Tariq_al_Sikka à #Tripoli et #Khoms qui sont liés aux autorités chargées de la lutte contre la migration illégale.

    Certaines femmes et filles migrants sont exposées au risque d’être vendues pour des travaux forcés ou être exploitées sexuellement dans des réseaux criminels internationaux, dont certains sont liés aux groupes armées présents en Libye. A Tariq al-Sikka, deux filles, frappées en public, ont été victimes d’abus sexuels.

    #Mali

    En 2019, la force onusienne au Mali (MINUSMA) a enquêté sur 27 cas de violences sexuelles liées aux conflits, commis contre 15 femmes, 11 filles et un homme. Des accusations d’esclavage sexuel, de mariages forcés, de castration et de grossesses forcées ont également été rapportées.

    #Birmanie (#Myanmar)

    L’absence de responsabilité pour des violences sexuelles perpétrées contre la minorité musulmane #Rohingyas reste de mise.

    Une mission d’enquête sur les violences sexuelles en Birmanie a montré que ce genre d’agressions étaient une marque de fabrique de l’armée birmane lors des opérations qu’elle a menées en 2016 et 2017.

    De plus, comme le rappelle le rapport de l’ONU, les abus sexuels commis contre les femmes et filles Rohingyas étaient une #tactique_de_guerre qui avait pour objectif d’intimider, de terroriser et de punir les populations civiles.

    #Somalie

    La mission de l’ONU en Somalie (ONUSOM) a confirmé près de 240 cas de violences sexuelles liées aux conflits, dont l’immense majorité contre des mineures. Elles sont en majorité attribuées à des hommes armés non identifiés, au groupe des #Shebabs somaliens, mais aussi à des forces de #police locales et à l’armée somalienne. Près de la moitié de ces abus ont été commis dans l’État de #Jubaland, dans le sud-ouest du pays.

    #Soudan_du_Sud

    La mission onusienne de maintien de la paix au Soudan du Sud (MINUSS) a documenté 224 cas de violences sexuelles liées aux conflits, touchant 133 femmes, 66 filles, 19 hommes et 6 garçons.
    Soudan

    En 2019, l’opération de l’ONU au #Darfour (MINUAD) a constaté 191 cas de violences sexuelles contre des femmes et des filles. Les viols et tentatives de viol ont constitué près de 80 % des cas.

    Les agressions ont été attribuées à des nomades armés, des membres de l’#Armée_de_libération_du_Soudan et à des miliciens. Les forces de sécurité du gouvernement, dont les forces armés soudanaises et la police ont également été impliquées.

    #Nigeria

    En 2019, l’ONU a recensé 826 allégations de violences sexuelles liées aux conflits, dont des viols et des #mariages_forcés.

    La quasi-totalité de ces cas sont attribués à des #groupes_armés, dont #Boko_Haram et la #Civilian_Joint_Task_Force, une #milice d’autodéfense. Les forces de sécurité de l’État sont impliquées dans 12% des cas.

    Les efforts de l’ONU restent vains

    En avril 2019, une résolution (https://www.un.org/press/fr/2019/cs13790.doc.htm) adoptée par le Conseil de sécurité des Nations unies reconnait le besoin d’une approche centrée sur les survivants pour informer et mettre en place des mesures pour lutter contre les violences sexuelles liées aux conflits.

    La #résolution ne peut que constater que « malgré le condamnation répétées des violences, dont les violences sexuelles contre des femmes et des enfants dans des situations de conflit, et malgré l’appel à toutes les parties prenantes dans les conflits armés pour qu’elles cessent ce genre d’actes, ces derniers continuent de se produire. »

    Le rapport conclut en rappelant que l’#impunité accompagne souvent les #abus et que les efforts des parties impliquées dans un conflit à suivre les résolutions de l’ONU restent très faibles.

    https://www.infomigrants.net/fr/post/26635/un-rapport-de-l-onu-s-inquiete-de-l-augmentation-des-violences-sexuell
    #guerres #guerre #viols

    ping @odilon

    • Violence sexuelle liée aux conflits : l’ONU plaide pour une nouvelle décennie d’action

      Il faut continuer à garder les crimes de violence sexuelle dans les conflits et leurs auteurs sous les projecteurs de la communauté internationale, a plaidé vendredi Pramilla Patten, la Représentante spéciale du Secrétaire général de l’ONU sur la violence sexuelle dans les conflits.

      « Comme le dit la célèbre maxime juridique : justice doit être rendue et être vue comme étant rendue. Les survivantes doivent être considérées par leur société comme les détentrices de droits qui seront, en fin de compte, respectés et appliqués », a déclaré Mme Patten lors d’un débat du Conseil de sécurité sur ce thème.

      Outre Mme Patten, l’Envoyée spéciale du Haut-Commissaire des Nations Unies pour les réfugiés, Angelina Jolie et deux responsables d’ONG, Khin Omar, fondatrice et présidente de Progressive Voice s’exprimant au nom du groupe de travail des ONG sur les femmes, la paix et la sécurité, et Nadia Carine Thérèse Fornel-Poutou, présidente de l’Association des femmes juristes de la République centrafricaine, ont pris la parole devant le Conseil.

      Selon la Représentante spéciale, le débat au Conseil de sécurité ouvre la voie à une nouvelle décennie d’action décisive, selon trois axes :

      Premièrement, l’autonomisation des survivantes et des personnes à risque grâce à des ressources accrues et à une prestation de services de qualité, afin de favoriser et de créer un environnement propice dans lequel elles peuvent signaler les violations en toute sécurité et demander réparation.

      Deuxièmement, agir sur la base des rapports et des informations reçus pour faire en sorte que les parties prenantes respectent les normes internationales.

      Troisièmement, le renforcement de la responsabilité en tant que pilier essentiel de la prévention et de la dissuasion, garantissant que lorsque les parties prenantes ne respectent pas leurs engagements, elles sont dûment tenues de rendre des comptes.

      « La prévention est la meilleure réponse. Pourtant, nous avons du mal à mesurer - ou même à définir - les progrès du pilier prévention de ce programme. Le respect est un exemple concret : la violence sexuelle persiste non pas parce que les cadres et obligations existants sont inadéquats, mais parce qu’ils sont mal appliqués », a souligné Mme Patten.

      « La résolution 1820 de 2008 ne demandait rien de moins que ‘la cessation immédiate et complète par toutes les parties aux conflits armés de tous les actes de violence sexuelle contre les civils’. Cette résolution a écrit une nouvelle norme et a tracé une ligne rouge. Maintenant, nous devons démontrer clairement quelles sont les conséquences quand elle est franchie », a-t-elle ajouté.
      Aller au-delà de la rhétorique

      De son côté, Angelina Jolie a rappelé la résolution 2467 adoptée par le Conseil de sécurité l’an dernier.

      « C’était la première à placer les survivantes, leurs besoins et leurs droits au centre de toutes les mesures. Mais les résolutions, les mots sur papier, ne sont que des promesses. Ce qui compte, c’est de savoir si les promesses sont tenues », a dit l’actrice américaine devant les membres du Conseil de sécurité.

      Celle qui est également réalisatrice de films a noté que la résolution 2467 a promis des sanctions, la justice et des réparations pour les victimes et la reconnaissance des enfants nés de viol.

      « Ce sont toutes des promesses qui doivent être tenues. Je vous exhorte donc tous à vous réengager aujourd’hui à tenir ces promesses : aller au-delà de la rhétorique et mettre en œuvre vos décisions », a dit Angelina Jolie.

      « Je vous prie de demander des comptes aux auteurs, d’aborder les causes profondes et structurelles de la violence et de la discrimination sexistes dans vos pays. Et s’il vous plaît, augmentez d’urgence le financement des programmes qui répondent aux besoins de tous les survivants, et en particulier des victimes invisibles - les enfants », a ajouté la star du cinéma qui a fait preuve ces 20 dernière années d’un engagement pour les causes humanitaires, notamment en faveur des réfugiés et des droits des femmes et enfants.

      https://www.infomigrants.net/fr/post/26635/un-rapport-de-l-onu-s-inquiete-de-l-augmentation-des-violences-sexuell