• Spain wants NATO to flag migration as ’hybrid threat’ in policy roadmap, says foreign minister

    Spain, as host of an upcoming NATO summit, will push for the inclusion of “hybrid threats” such as irregular migration, food insecurity and terrorism in the alliance’s new policy roadmap, Foreign Minister Jose Manuel Albares said in an interview.

    The June 29-30 summit in Madrid will be one of the most important since NATO’s inception in 1949. It will draft the alliance’s “Strategic Concept” for the next decade, outlining its mission against the backdrop of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and the admission of new members such as Finland and Sweden.

    Spain is campaigning for NATO to pay more attention to non-military threats on its so-called southern flank, comprised of the Maghreb and Sahel countries under growing Russian influence, Albares told Reuters in the interview, even as it addresses the Ukraine conflict on its eastern border.

    “We want an acknowledgement that there are also serious threats coming from the southern flank,” Spain’s chief diplomat said. “Terrorism, cybersecurity, the political use of energy resources and of irregular migration all impinge on our sovereignty,” he said.

    NATO insiders have told Reuters in recent weeks that, with an active conflict on its eastern flank and regions such as the Baltic states pushing for more resources, any firm commitment to the southern flank was unlikely.

    Sources also said the issue of migration was too divisive to gain consensus at the summit, even if Spain has the backing in its campaign from other southern European nations such as Portugal and Italy.
    DETERRENT EFFECT

    Albares said the mere inclusion of such hybrid threats in NATO’s strategy, as well as the reference to the southern flank as a region to monitor, would be enough to generate the “deterrent” effect that Spain seeks to protect its borders.

    “Nothing new needs to be done, it must just be borne in mind that a number of threats may emanate from the southern flank that at some point may require a NATO defensive reaction in exactly the same way as we are seeing on the eastern flank.”

    He said while a direct military threat from the south should be met with a NATO military response, “non-conventional” resources such as technology could be used to counter threats like cyberattacks and the weaponisation of irregular migration.

    “Let there be no doubt in anyone’s mind that such hybrid threats cannot be used to challenge our territorial integrity and sovereignty,” he said.

    Spain is also highlighting growing Russian influence in the Sahel region of West Africa. Russian private military contractor the Wagner Group is working with the Malian military to counter Islamic insurgency in the area, while former colonial power France pulled out troops. read more

    The European Union has imposed sanctions Wagner, which it says works on the Kremlin’s behalf. Moscow denies ties but it says it is providing “military assistance” through state channels. read more

    “Russia’s presence [in Mali] does not help in any way, it does not help in any way to advance democracy, to stabilise,” Albares said.

    https://www.reuters.com/world/europe/spain-wants-nato-flag-migration-hybrid-threat-policy-roadmap-says-foreign-2

    #menace #menace_hybride #migrations #asile #réfugiés #OTAN #NATO #Espagne #stratégie #concept_stratégique #souveraineté #southern_flank #flanc_sud #dissuasion #technologie

    ping @isskein @karine4

  • Irish Politician EVISCERATES Pro-#Ukraine Warmongers & NATO - The Jimmy #Dore show

    Clare Daly is an Irish representative in the European Parliament, and among the few willing to speak out against #NATO, call out the organization’s lengthy history of aggression around the globe and criticize western nations’ role in fomenting the Ukraine crisis.

    Jimmy and The #Grayzone’s Max #Blumenthal discuss Daly’s recent fiery pro-peace speech in front of her fellow members of the European Parliament.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ANoZI3tpVmA

  • #Colonialism - the Origin of #Capitalism
    https://diasp.eu/p/14334324

    #Colonialism - the Origin of #Capitalism

    The colonial mode of #production

    Source: https://yewtu.be/watch?v=jG1Dl97TmjQ Source: https://redirect.invidious.io/watch?v=jG1Dl97TmjQ

    A really interesting #video to show the connection between colonianism and today’s western #world. A colonianism that still exists despite today’s so popular welcome greetings for #refugees. Here African people come up to describe the #history from an African point of view.

    The first half hour is a short introduction to the topic. The next few minutes are more detailed explanations.

    #Uhuru #Movement : https://apspuhuru.org

    #International #African #Revolution #NATO (...)

    • The world we live in is changing, and the Russian intervention in Ukraine will not be confined to Ukraine, or even to Europe. The U.S. is learning that the world is slipping from its hands. It won’t tolerate it.

      It will resort to force in its attempt to maintain its grip over humanity. Violent conflicts are very likely to now dominate our world.

    • C’est la lutte entre les tenants de la théorie de l’Empire qui refuse de lâcher l’affaire, et les autres, de gauche, mais non-occidentaux, qui te disent que bon, les US ne sont pas le centre du monde, et que Poutine et Xi sont les deux faces d’un même enfer sur terre, coupables de crimes de guerre, de crimes contre l’humanité, et de génocides.

      On sent qu’on est à un moment de bascule, celui où les nécrologies ne peuvent plus faire de référence à l’histoire sans que certains ne se sentent l’obligation d’édulcorer, pour éviter ce qu’ils croient être des amalgames déplacés.
      https://seenthis.net/messages/953559

    • Je vois plus l’opposition entre l’anti-impérialisme, basé sur l’idée que les événements géopolitiques sont essentiellement motivés par des chocs des impérialismes (européens au XIXe, américains et russes pendant la guerre froide, essentiellement américain évidemment à l’effondrement de l’URSS, puis montée plus récente de la Chine et la Russie), et des « analyses » qui prétendent à chaque fois que cette fois c’est pas du tout pareil et ça n’a rien à voir et tu n’as rien compris et tu es juste un idiot utile des génocidaires si tu ne veux pas bombarder mon pays.

    • Euh non, des analyses qui te rappellent que les USA ne sont pas le SEUL impérialisme et que oui la Russie actuelle et la Chine le sont aussi et ont des velléités d’impérialisme tout aussi fortes et auto-suffisantes, sans que ce soit obligatoirement une réaction face aux US. Et que donc l’impérialisme US seul ne permet pas de comprendre le monde (truisme s’il en est mais qu’il faut apparemment rappeler).

    • Je persiste à penser que ces textes ne dépassent que rarement le stade du sophisme de l’homme de paille : l’anti-impérialisme est bien au courant qu’il n’y a pas qu’un seul impérialisme. Tous ces textes qui font comme si les analyses anti-impérialistes étaient monoexplicatives, pfff.

      Sinon, il y a une difficulté aussi à évoquer des « velléités d’impérialisme » pour dire qu’elles sont « aussi fortes ». Ou alors on oublie l’invasion de l’Irak. On ne regarde pas les bases militaires installées dans des pays étrangers. Et on ne compare surtout pas les montants des budgets militaires (en 2019, le budget militaire US est de 732 milliards de dollars ; le budget russe de 65 milliards, le budget de l’Arabie saoudite de 61 milliards…). Le terme « vélléités » masque les différences d’échelle des moyens des impérialismes : Poutine a sans aucune doute des velléités énormes, mais il a des moyens de nain.

      Quand à l’« auto-suffisance » des impérialismes, je n’y crois pas. Même dans le cas de l’impérialisme US. Sinon ce n’est plus de la géopolitique.

    • Alors puisque Chomsky est une cible usuelle de cette littérature qui prétend que la gauche occidentale anti-impérialiste réduit tout au seul impérialisme US, je note que sa récente interview à propos de l’Ukraine commence comme ceci :
      https://www.courrierinternational.com/article/interview-noam-chomsky-il-est-imperatif-de-menager-une-porte-

      Rappelons d’abord quelques faits incontestables. Le premier, c’est que l’invasion russe de l’Ukraine est un crime de guerre de la plus haute gravité, comparable à l’invasion américaine de l’Irak et à l’invasion de la Pologne par Hitler et Staline en septembre 1939, pour ne citer que ces deux exemples marquants. Il est toujours bon de chercher des explications, mais il convient de ne rien justifier ni minimiser.

      Et en version originale : Noam Chomsky : US Military Escalation Against Russia Would Have No Victors
      https://truthout.org/articles/noam-chomsky-us-military-escalation-against-russia-would-have-no-victors

      Noam Chomsky: Before turning to the question, we should settle a few facts that are uncontestable. The most crucial one is that the Russian invasion of Ukraine is a major war crime, ranking alongside the U.S. invasion of Iraq and the Hitler-Stalin invasion of Poland in September 1939, to take only two salient examples. It always makes sense to seek explanations, but there is no justification, no extenuation.

  • Die #NATO als Kriegstreiber in der #Ukraine
    https://diasp.eu/p/14216895

    Die #NATO als Kriegstreiber in der #Ukraine

    Es ist schon echt komisch, wie manche junge Leute ohne die geringste Ahnung von #Geschichte einerseits den ewigen Antifaschismus hochhalten und anderseits bereits Sachen, die vor nicht einmal 10 Jahre passiert sind, als kalten Kaffee bezeichnen.

    Auf jeden Fall wurde so etwas vor nicht einmal 10 Jahren sogar noch im öffentlich-rechtlichen Fernseher gezeigt. + Lange ist es her. Kalter #Kaffee halt.

    https://odysee.com/@neuesforum:a/DieNATOalsKriegstreiber:0

    #Russland #Kriegsbündnis #Krieg #Hintergrund

    • #EU #États-Unis #Russie #Ukraine #OTAN

      excellent entretien !

      Les Russes et les Américains savent donc très bien - contrairement aux Européens - où le voyage doit les mener - ils nous cataloguent comme des charlatans qui, au mieux, se voient attribuer une place de figurants dans des scénarios élaborés de guerre psychologique.

      https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scott_Ritter

      [...]

      Le 27 août 1998, il démissionne de la commission spéciale chargée de désarmer l’Irak. Il accuse les États-Unis et l’ONU de ne plus soutenir le travail d’inspection, affirmant que le département d’état américain a œuvré pour retarder ou empêcher des inspections. Il estime que les américains ont cédé à l’Irak et il déclare à la BBC : « L’Irak devrait être soumis à une vaste campagne visant à détruire le régime de Saddam Hussein »1,3. Ensuite, jusqu’à l’invasion de l’Irak par les américains de 2003, il critique la politique américaine, mais plus de la même façon : il estime désormais que les occidentaux sont trop sévère vis-à-vis de l’Irak et fin 1998 qualifie les frappes américaines et britanniques en Irak d’« horrible erreur ».

      Selon The New York Times, Scott Ritter fait ainsi « volte face » et apparaît alors, « pendant la longue période qui a conduit à la guerre » en 2003, « comme le sceptique le plus fort et le plus crédible de l’affirmation de l’administration Bush selon laquelle Saddam Hussein cachait des armes de destruction massive »4. D’après la BBC, il est « le plus véhément » des critiques de la politique américaine vis-à-vis de l’Irak1.

      En 1999, il publie le livre Endgame sur sa mission en Irak lorsqu’il était inspecteur. En 2000, il produit un documentaire sur le même sujet. En 2001, il affirme que l’Irak coopère de façon très significative avec le processus d’inspection de l’ONU et estime que les Etats-unis sont au bord de commettre une erreur magistrale : selon lui, « l’Irak aujourd’hui ne représente pas une menace pour ses voisins et n’agit pas de manière à menacer quiconque se trouvant en dehors de ses propres frontières »

      En 2002, il fait un voyage à Bagdad en Irak en tant que simple citoyen pour avertir que son pays est sur le point de commettre une « erreur historique ». Il exhorte les irakiens à permettre la reprise des inspections. Pour son insistance à dénoncer que les armes de destruction massives ne sont qu’un prétexte pour déclarer une guerre, il est exclu des médias et moqué4.

      En 2009, il est arrêté pour délinquance sexuelle sur internet. Il a communiqué par l’intermédiaire d’un site de discussion avec un policier qui se faisait passer pour un adolescent de 15 ans. Il se défend en affirmant qu’il pensait que son interlocuteur était un adulte qui assouvissait ses phantasmes. En octobre 2011, il reçoit une peine de prison de 1 an et demi au minimum et 5 ans et demi maximum. Il est mis en liberté conditionnelle en septembre 2014.

      [...]

  • Also wenn ich das richtig sehe, wird Europa auf jeden Fall verliere...
    https://diasp.eu/p/14170584

    Also wenn ich das richtig sehe, wird Europa auf jeden Fall verlieren

    Vorteile hat so ein Europa interner Krieg ja nur für die Waffen liefern oder die die Rohstoffverteilung neu organisieren wollen. Also die USA und China. China hält sich so ganz offiziell bis jetzt raus, wird aber sicher der Top-Abnehmer des russischen Reichtums und wenn man die chinesischen Medien anschaut, ist da ja kein Zweifel auf wessen Seite die da zur Not sind. Die USA machen fröhlich Geschäfte mit allen Beteiligten und die hätten bestimmt auch nichts gegen ein Steinzeiteuropa – weniger Stress. Atombomben gibts ja auch noch.

    #china #krieg #nato #russland #usa Originally posted at: (...)

    • propre lien :

      https://www.heise.de/tp/features/Nato-und-Russland-Blick-in-den-Abgrund-6513994.html

      […]

      Selbsttäuschung, mit der Konsequenz einer Täuschung der Öffentlichkeit hat ihren Kern im Bruch der mündlichen Vereinbarungen der Westmächte und der damaligen Sowjetunion aus den Jahren 1989 und 1990 während der Verhandlungen über die Aufnahme der DDR in das Nato-Land Bundesrepublik Deutschland.

      Dazu hielt damals der Staatssekretär im Bundesaußenministerium Jürgen Chrobog (FDP) als Verhandlungsresultat fest:

      Wir haben in den Zwei-plus-vier Verhandlungen deutlich gemacht, dass wir die Nato nicht über die Elbe hinaus ausdehnen. Wir können daher Polen und den anderen keine Nato-Mitgliedschaft anbieten. Jürgen Chrobog

      Heute erklären die Nato-Kräfte und ihre Unterstützer wie Bundesaußenministerin Baerbock, es sei Russland, das die Sicherheitsarchitektur Europas infrage stelle, indem es ein “System der Mächterivalität und Einflusssphären” einfordere, denn: “Über den Weg, den ein Land gehen will, können nur das Land selbst, und vor allen Dingen seine Menschen entscheiden.”

      Das ist ein leicht durchschaubares Narrativ zur Beeinflussung der öffentlichen Meinung. Es klingt auf den ersten Blick plausibel, weshalb es seine Wirkung erzielt. Natürlich hat die Nato immer mitzuentscheiden, wen sie als Alliierten aufnimmt und wen nicht. Das ist nicht nur die Entscheidung des Staates, der sich um Aufnahme bewirbt. Ohne Einladung, ohne Aufnahmebereitschaft kommt es nicht zur Aufnahme; das zeigt schließlich schon der Umgang der EU mit dem Aufnahmeantrag der Türkei.

      Darum beharrt Russland auf schriftliche Vereinbarungen

      Wenn die Nato erklärt, die Aufnahme der Ukraine stehe aktuell nicht an, ist das für Russland nicht befriedigend. Es erinnert daran, wie die Westmächte mit ihren Erklärungen gegenüber der Sowjetunion während der Verhandlungen zur Vereinigung der beiden deutschen Staaten umgingen, indem sie die abgesprochenen Inhalte nicht in die von beiden Seiten unterschriebenen vertraglichen Regelung aufnahmen.

      Damals war Michail Gorbatschow wohl zu gutgläubig, dass Worte seiner Verhandlungspartner gelten. Wäre das Thema damals juristisch sauber geführt worden, dann wäre die aktuelle Kriegsgefahr gar nicht erst entstanden. Implizit ist diese Frage allerdings sehr wohl völkerrechtlich zu bewerten.

      Mit ihrer Politik, das auszublenden, hebeln die Nato und die sie unterstützenden Kräfte – auch in der Ampel-Koalition – nicht nur die Vereinbarungen aus, die die Einheit der beiden deutschen Staaten erst möglich gemacht haben. Und sie verkaufen die von ihnen selbst praktizierte Aufkündigung der zum Ende des Kalten Krieges 1990 vereinbarten Sicherheitsarchitektur als deren Aufrechterhaltung.

      Der stoische Verweis auf die Verteidigung von “Souveränität”, “Freiheit” und “Demokratie” könnte den Kontinent dem Risiko eines Atomkriegs aussetzen. Denn die Spannungen, die sich aus der Verletzung unter anderem der Abmachungen von 1990 ergeben, führen zu Konfliktsituationen, die von beteiligten Akteuren schon selbst als gefährlich nahe an einem dritten großen Krieg in Europa seit 100 Jahren gekennzeichnet werden, wie man auch aus den Zitaten aus der Münchner Sicherheitskonferenz ersehen kann.

      Während dieser Konferenz warfen westliche Politiker Russland vor, es plane eine fingierte Situation herbei, um einen Angriff auf die Ukraine zu legitimieren: Nato-Generalsekretär Stoltenberg sprach von "Anzeichen, dass ‘Russland sich darauf vorbereitet, einen Vorwand für einen Angriff auf die Ukraine zu schaffen’. Die zunehmenden Waffenstillstandsverstöße in der Ostukraine, die ‘falschen Anschuldigungen’ eines ‘Genozids’ im Donbass und die Evakuierung der von den prorussischen Separatisten kontrollierten Gebiete seien ‘beunruhigende Zeichen’.

      […]

      #Ukraine #Russie #Allemagne 1990 #OTAN #NATO
      #Donbass

  • Wenn etwas schiefgeht, dann wird es vor allem uns treffen
    https://diasp.eu/p/14114998

    Wenn etwas schiefgeht, dann wird es vor allem uns treffen

    Dirk Pohlmann hat in wenigen Worten skizziert, wie wir in Sachen Ukraine, Russland, Nordstream 2 usw. an der Nase herumgeführt werden. Und was uns droht. Albrecht Müller.

    Nordstream 2 gibt es, weil die deutsche Regierung es wollte, nicht weil die russische es wollte. Deutschland braucht Gaslieferungen, um sicher Grundlast-Strom produzieren zu können, nachdem die Nuklearkraftwerke abgeschaltet werden.

    Die USA sind gegen Nordstream 2, sie versuchen die Pipeline zu stoppen, seit vielen Jahren, mit vielen Mitteln. Aus vielen Gründen, aus geopolitischen, aber auch aus simplen wirtschaftlichen Interessen. Frackinggaslieferungen aus den USA wären beides, ein Geschäft und erpressungsfähiger Einfluss auf Deutschland.

    Die USA wollen die NATO (...)

  • Afghanistan, il dramma di chi resta: «Noi interpreti traditi dagli occidentali e lasciati ad aspettare la morte»

    La storia di #Hamdullah_Hamdard. Aveva lavorato come traduttore per tre anni con le forze Nato: è stato ucciso per questo. Ora suo fratello teme di fare la stessa fine

    (#paywall)

    https://www.repubblica.it/esteri/2021/08/16/news/afghanistan_talebani_usa_interpreti_collaborazionisti-314156428/?ref=RHTP-BL-I314089984-P2-S2-T1&__vfz=medium%3Dsharebar

    #Afghanistan #interprète #asile #réfugiés #OTAN #NATO #migration #droit_d'asile #interprètes #traducteurs

    –—

    ajouté à la métaliste sur les #interprètes_afghans:
    https://seenthis.net/messages/740387

  • Taking Hard Line, Greece Turns Back Migrants by Abandoning Them at Sea

    Many Greeks have grown frustrated as tens of thousands of asylum seekers languished on Greek islands. Now, evidence shows, a new conservative government has a new method of keeping them out.

    The Greek government has secretly expelled more than 1,000 refugees from Europe’s borders in recent months, sailing many of them to the edge of Greek territorial waters and then abandoning them in inflatable and sometimes overburdened life rafts.

    Since March, at least 1,072 asylum seekers have been dropped at sea by Greek officials in at least 31 separate expulsions, according to an analysis of evidence by The New York Times from three independent watchdogs, two academic researchers and the Turkish Coast Guard. The Times interviewed survivors from five of those episodes and reviewed photographic or video evidence from all 31.

    “It was very inhumane,” said Najma al-Khatib, a 50-year-old Syrian teacher, who says masked Greek officials took her and 22 others, including two babies, under cover of darkness from a detention center on the island of Rhodes on July 26 and abandoned them in a rudderless, motorless life raft before they were rescued by the Turkish Coast Guard.

    “I left Syria for fear of bombing — but when this happened, I wished I’d died under a bomb,” she told The Times.

    Illegal under international law, the expulsions are the most direct and sustained attempt by a European country to block maritime migration using its own forces since the height of the migration crisis in 2015, when Greece was the main thoroughfare for migrants and refugees seeking to enter Europe.

    The Greek government denied any illegality.

    “Greek authorities do not engage in clandestine activities,’’ said a government spokesman, Stelios Petsas. “Greece has a proven track record when it comes to observing international law, conventions and protocols. This includes the treatment of refugees and migrants.”

    Since 2015, European countries like Greece and Italy have mainly relied on proxies, like the Turkish and Libyan governments, to head off maritime migration. What is different now is that the Greek government is increasingly taking matters into its own hands, watchdog groups and researchers say.

    ​For example, migrants have been forced onto sometimes leaky life rafts and left to drift at the border between Turkish and Greek waters, while others have been left to drift in their own boats after Greek officials disabled their engines.

    “These pushbacks are totally illegal in all their aspects, in international law and in European law,” said Prof. François Crépeau, an expert on international law and a former United Nations special rapporteur on the human rights of migrants.

    “It is a human rights and humanitarian disaster,” Professor Crépeau added.

    Greeks were once far more understanding of the plight of migrants. But many have grown frustrated and hostile after a half-decade in which other European countries offered Greece only modest assistance as tens of thousands of asylum seekers languished in squalid camps on overburdened Greek islands.

    Since the election last year of a new conservative government under Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis, Greece has taken a far harder line against the migrants — often refugees from the war in Syria — who push off Turkish shores for Europe.

    The harsher approach comes as tensions have mounted with Turkey, itself burdened with 3.6 million refugees from the Syrian war, far more than any other nation.

    Greece believes that Turkey has tried to weaponize the migrants to increase pressure on Europe for aid and assistance in the Syrian War. But it has also added pressure on Greece at a time when the two nations and others spar over contested gas fields in the eastern Mediterranean.

    For several days in late February and early March, the Turkish authorities openly bused thousands of migrants to the Greek land border in a bid to set off a confrontation, leading to the shooting of at least one Syrian refugee and the immediate extrajudicial expulsions of hundreds of migrants who made it to Greek territory.

    For years, Greek officials have been accused of intercepting and expelling migrants, on a sporadic and infrequent basis, usually before the migrants manage to land their boats on Greek soil.

    But experts say Greece’s behavior during the pandemic has been far more systematic and coordinated. Hundreds of migrants have been denied the right to seek asylum even after they have landed on Greek soil, and they’ve been forbidden to appeal their expulsion through the legal system.

    “They’ve seized the moment,” Professor Crépeau said of the Greeks. “The coronavirus has provided a window of opportunity to close national borders to whoever they’ve wanted.”

    Emboldened by the lack of sustained criticism from the European Union, where the migration issue has roiled politics, Greece has hardened its approach in the eastern Mediterranean in recent months.

    Migrants landing on the Greek islands from Turkey have frequently been forced onto sometimes leaky, inflatable life rafts, dropped at the boundary between Turkish and Greek waters, and left to drift until being spotted and rescued by the Turkish Coast Guard.

    “This practice is totally unprecedented in Greece,” said Niamh Keady-Tabbal, a doctoral researcher at the Irish Center for Human Rights, and one of the first to document the phenomenon.

    “Greek authorities are now weaponizing rescue equipment to illegally expel asylum seekers in a new, violent and highly visible pattern of pushbacks spanning several Aegean Islands,” Ms. Keady-Tabbal said.

    Ms. al-Khatib, who recounted her ordeal for The Times, said she entered Turkey last November with her two sons, 14 and 12, fleeing the advance of the Syrian Army. Her husband, who had entered several weeks earlier, soon died of cancer, Ms. al-Khatib said.

    With few prospects in Turkey, the family tried to reach Greece by boat three times this summer, failing once in May because their smuggler did not show up, and a second time in June after being intercepted in Greek waters and towed back to the Turkish sea border, she said.

    On their third attempt, on July 23 at around 7 a.m., they landed on the Greek island of Rhodes, Ms. al-Khatib said, an account corroborated by four other passengers interviewed by The Times. They were detained by Greek police officers and taken to a small makeshift detention facility after handing over their identification documents.

    Using footage filmed at this site by two passengers, a Times reporter was able to identify the facility’s location beside the island’s main ferry port and visit the camp.

    A Coast Guard officer and an official at the island’s mayoralty both said the site falls under the jurisdiction of the Port Police, an arm of the Hellenic Coast Guard.

    A Palestinian refugee, living in a disused slaughterhouse beside the camp, confirmed that Ms. al-Khatib had been there, recounting how he had spoken to her through the camp’s fence and bought her tablets to treat her hypertension, which Greek officials had refused to supply her.

    On the evening of July 26, Ms. al-Khatib and the other detainees said that police officers had loaded them onto a bus, telling them they were being taken to a camp on another island, and then to Athens.

    Instead, masked Greek officials transferred them to two vessels that ferried them out to sea before dropping them on rafts at the Turkish maritime border, she and other survivors said.

    Amid choppy waves, the group, which included two babies, was forced to drain the raft using their hands as water slopped over the side, they said.

    The group was rescued at 4:30 a.m. by the Turkish Coast Guard, according to a report by the Coast Guard that included a photograph of Ms. al-Khatib as she left the life raft.

    Ms. al-Khatib tried to reach Greece for a fourth time, on Aug. 6, but said her boat was stopped off the island of Lesbos by Greek officials, who removed its fuel and towed it back to Turkish waters.

    Some groups of migrants have been transferred to the life rafts even before landing on Greek soil.

    On May 13, Amjad Naim, a 24-year-old Palestinian law student, was among a group of 30 migrants intercepted by Greek officials as they approached the shores of Samos, a Greek island close to Turkey.

    The migrants were quickly transferred to two small life rafts that began to deflate under the weight of so many people, Mr. Naim said. Transferred to two other rafts, they were then towed back toward Turkey.

    Videos captured by Mr. Naim on his phone show the two rafts being tugged across the sea by a large white vessel. Footage subsequently published by the Turkish Coast Guard shows the same two rafts being rescued by Turkish officials later in the day.

    Migrants have also been left to drift in the boats they arrived on, after Greek officials disabled their engines, survivors and researchers say. And on at least two occasions, migrants have been abandoned on Ciplak, an uninhabited island within Turkish waters, instead of being placed on life rafts.

    “Eventually the Turkish Coast Guard came to fetch us,” said one Palestinian survivor who was among a group abandoned on Ciplak in early July, and who sent videos of their time on the island. A report from the Turkish Coast Guard corroborated his account.

    In parallel, several rights organizations, including Human Rights Watch, have documented how the Greek authorities have rounded up migrants living legally in Greece and secretly expelled them without legal recourse across the Evros River, which divides mainland Greece from Turkey.

    Feras Fattouh, a 30-year-old Syrian X-ray technician, said he was arrested by the Greek police on July 24 in Igoumenitsa, a port in western Greece. Mr. Fattouh had been living legally in Greece since November 2019 with his wife and son, and showed The Times documents to prove it.

    But after being detained by the police in Igoumenitsa, Mr. Fattouh said, he was robbed and driven about 400 miles east to the Turkish border, before being secretly put on a dinghy with 18 others and sent across the river to Turkey. His wife and son remain in Greece.

    “Syrians are suffering in Turkey,” Mr. Fattouh said. “We’re suffering in Greece. Where are we supposed to go?”

    Ylva Johansson, who oversees migration policy at the European Commission, the civil service for the European Union, said she was concerned by the accusations but had no power to investigate them.

    “We cannot protect our European border by violating European values and by breaching people’s rights,” Ms. Johansson said in an email. “Border control can and must go hand in hand with respect for fundamental rights.”

    https://www.nytimes.com/2020/08/14/world/europe/greece-migrants-abandoning-sea.html?searchResultPosition=1

    #Grèce #refoulement #refoulements #expulsions #Evros #îles #Turquie #asile #migrations #réfugiés #frontières #push-back

    –—

    sur les refoulements dans la région de l’Evros (à partir de 2018), voir aussi :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/710720

    • Message de l’Aegean Boat Report, 12.08.2020 :

      57 people that arrived on two boats on Lesvos north yesterday seems to have disappeared, port police on Lesvos claims there was no arrivals.
      First boat arrived on a Korakas, Lesvos north during the night, locals in the area claims to have heard gunshots coming from Korakas. The boat was carrying 24 people, 7 was picked up by police on arrival location, the rest, 17 people managed to flee to the woods in the dark. Later in the day, the rest was found by port police, transported from the area in a minivan. Question is, where did port police take them? They are not registered as arrived anywhere, neither the quarantine camp in the north or south has any new arrivals registered.
      Second boat landed in Gavathas, Lesvos north west before first light, carrying 33 people. Locals in the area reported on the new arrivals, also these people were taken away by port police, nobody has seen them since, they are not registered anywhere on Lesvos.
      Port police on Lesvos claims that there has been no new arrivals at all yesterday in the north, and that anyone saying otherwise is pushing “fake news”. There are no reports in any local newspaper on arrivals from Lesvos north yesterday, only one boat carrying 55 people that landed in Skala Mistegnon last night.
      Aegean Boat Report has received documentation that proves that these people actually arrived, there is no question about it! Videos, pictures and location data proves that they where there, question is where did port police take them, and why are they not registered anywhere?
      Yesterday before sundown Turkish coast guard picked up 57 people from two life rafts drifting outside Bademli, Turkey. From pictures posted by TCG, Aegean Boat Report has identified 4 people that also are in pictures and videos that ABR received from Korakas yesterday morning, the identification is 100%.
      There is no doubt that the people from the two boats that landed on Lesvos north yesterday was illegal deported by the Greek Coast Guard. They where taken from safety on land on Lesvos, and put back in the sea in life rafts, helplessly drifting, what kind of people would put children adrift at sea, how can they sleep at night.. This is not human behavior, not even animals would be this cruel!
      Many of Aegean Boat Report’s followers have in the past asked “what can we do?”, “how can we stop this?”, and the usual reply was, you can spread the news, share the info. It’s obviously not enough, now the gloves are off, it’s time to take action in a more direct way!
      Aegean Boat Report call’s upon all followers to participate, to make your voice heard, together this voice can make a difference! Pick up your phone and call the port authority of Mytilíni, Lesvos, and demand answers! They will deny any involvement in illegal activities, but we know they are lying!
      Port police Mytilini: +30 2251 040827
      (Number is open 24/7)
      We need them to understand that we don’t tolerate this any longer, and that there are many people all over the world that are watching what they are doing. One call will not change anything, but if 100 people call, 1000 people, perhaps they will start to understand that we do not tolerate this any longer!
      To call any public authority number is a common right, without any conditions or clauses, it’s fully legal activity that can be taken by anyone without any legal consequences. ABR has consulted Greek lawyers on the matter, and it’s totally legal. But ABR ask you to stay clear of all Emergancy channel’s, don’t flood European Emergancy numbers, only use numbers provided her!
      Aegean Boat Report will from now on, in every case regarding pushbacks and other illegal activities, publish the Port Police number of the area the incident has taken place, so that people can call to demand answers. The more people that calls these numbers, asking questions, the better. At some point they will understand that we will not stop before they do!
      These violations of international laws and human rights has been going on for to long, blessed and financed by Europe. The presence of NATO and FRONTEX is massive in the Aegean Sea, they all know what is going on every single day, but they do nothing, they just watch.
      It’s time we make them listen, it’s time to step up and demand answers, it’s time for YOU to take action!!
      Call port police of Mytilíni, tell them how you feel, make your voice heard!
      Port police Mytilini: +30 2251 040827
      Please share this post as much as possible!

      https://www.facebook.com/AegeanBoatReport/posts/895342667655505

      #Frontex #OTAN #NATO

  • Greece to extend border fence over migration surge

    Greece will extend its fence on the border with Turkey, a government source said Sunday (8 March), amid continuing efforts by migrants to break through in a surge enabled by Ankara.

    “We have decided to immediately extend the fence in three different areas,” the government source told AFP, adding that the new sections, to the south of the area now under pressure, would cover around 36 kilometres (22 miles).

    The current stretch of fence will also be upgraded, the official added.

    Tens of thousands of asylum-seekers have been trying to break through the land border from Turkey for a week after Ankara announced it would no longer prevent people from trying to cross into the European Union.

    A police source Sunday told AFP that riot police reinforcements from around the country had been sent to the border in recent days, in addition to drones and police dogs.

    There have been numerous exchanges of tear gas and stones between Greek riot police and migrants.

    Turkey has also bombarded Greek forces with tear gas at regular intervals, and Athens has accused Turkish police of handing out wire cutters to migrants to help them break through the border fence.

    The Greek government over the weekend also released footage which it said showed a Turkish armoured vehicle assisting efforts to bring down the fence.

    “Parts of the fence have been removed, both by the (Turkish) vehicle and with wire cutters, but they are constantly being repaired,” local police unionist Elias Akidis told Skai TV.

    Turkey has accused Greek border guards of using undue force against the migrants, injuring many and killing at least five.

    The government in Athens has consistently dismissed the claim as lies.

    https://www.euractiv.com/section/justice-home-affairs/news/greece-to-extend-border-fence-over-migration-surge
    #murs #Evros #barrières_frontalières #Grèce #Turquie #frontières #extension
    ping @fil @reka @albertocampiphoto

    • je suis tombé sur une vidéo YT d’un compte néo-nazi montrant une attaque du mur de l’Evros par des migrants. L’attaque y est présentée comme soutenue par la police turque, ce qui est vraiment beaucoup solliciter les images… les migrants sont noyés sous les lacrymos.

    • Evros: Greece to extend the fence on the borders with Turkey to 40km

      Greece will extend the fence to its Evros borders with Turkey to 40 km, government spokesman Stelios Petsas said on Friday morning. The additional fence will be installed in “sensitive” areas preferred for illegal entries by migrants and refugees.

      The fence currently covers 12.5 km.

      Speaking to ANT1 TV, Petsas noted that at the moment the most vulnerable border point is in the south.

      The current 12.5 km fence of land access points is installed north and south of Kastanies customs office, where thousands of migrants and refugees have amassed.

      According to the daily Kathimerini, the 40 kilometers new fence is planned to be partially installed either in areas where the Evros waters are low or in areas where the landscape favors illegla paasage.

      Sections such as Ormenio, Gardens, Feres, Tychero, Soufli, Dikaia, Dilofo, Marassia, Nea Vyssa and elsewhere have been designated as the areas where the new fence will installed by the Greek Army and support by the police.

      According to a report by daily Elftheros Typos, Greece’s Plan B aside from the fence extension is the presence of about 4,000 police officers and soldiers in parallel patrols, helicopters, unmanned aircraft, message broadcasting, cameras for audio-video.

      A Greek Army – Greek Police “joint operations center” is to be established in Nea Vryssa.

      According to the daily more than 1,000 soldiers, two commandos squads, 1,500 police and national guards are currently operating in the Evros area.

      Petsas underlined that the Greek government has changed its policy because there is a national security issue at the moment.

      He reiterated the new policy saying that “no one will cross the border.”

      https://www.keeptalkinggreece.com/2020/03/06/evros-greece-fence-borders-turkey-extension

    • Video 2 - Violences contre les exilé·es à la frontière gréco-turque

      Depuis le début du mois de mars 2020, des milliers d’exilé·es, incité·es voire poussé·es par les autorités turques, se sont précipité·es aux frontières terrestres et maritimes entre la Turquie et la Grèce. Ils et elles se sont heurté·es à la violence de la police et de l’armée grecque, ainsi que de groupe fascistes, mobilisés pour leur en interdire le franchissement, la suite : www.gisti.org/spip.php ?article6368

      https://indymotion.fr/videos/watch/e8938a1c-5456-46e8-a0cb-be0806c96051?start=1s

    • Greece shields Evros border with blades wire, 400 new border guards

      Greece is strengthening ifs defense and is preparing for a possible new wave of migrants at its Evros border. A fence of sharp blades wire (concertina wire) and 400 additional border guards are to shield the country for the case Turkey will open its borders again so that migrants can cross into Europe.

      According to daily ethnos (https://www.ethnos.gr/ellada/105936_ohyronetai-o-ebros-frahtis-me-lepidoforo-syrmatoplegma-kai-400-neoi-sy), Ankara has already been holding groups of migrants in warehouses near the border, while the Greek side is methodically being prepared for the possibility of a new attempt for waves of migrants to try to cross again the border.

      “At the bridgeheads of Peplos and Fera, at the land borders after the riverbed is aligned, and in other vulnerable areas along the border, kilometer-long of metal fence with sharp blades wire are being installed, the soil is being cleaned from wild vegetation and clearing of marsh lands.

      The fence in the northern part is being strengthened and expanded, and 11 additional border pylons, each one 50 meters high, will be installed along the river in the near future. Each pylon will be equipped with cameras and modern day and night surveillance systems, with a range of several kilometers and multiple telecommunications capabilities, the daily notes.

      Within the next few months, 400 newly recruited border guards will be on duty and will almost double the deterrent force and enhance the joint patrols of the Army and Police, ethnos adds.

      Big armored military vehicles destined for Libya and confiscated five years ago south of Crete have been made available to the Army in the area, the daily notes.

      One and a half month after the end of the “war without arms” at the Evros border from end of February till the end of March, sporadic movement on the Turkish side of the border has been observed.

      At least four shooting incidents have been reported in the past two weeks, with Turkish jandarmerie to have fired at Greek border guards and members of the Frontex.

      Greece’s security forces are on high alert.

      Just a few days ago, Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu reiterated that Ankara’s policy of “open borders” will continue for anyone wishing to cross into Europe.

      Speaking to nationalist Akit TV on Wednesday, Cavusoglu claimed that Greece used “inhumane” behavior towards the migrants who want to cross into the country.

      Also Interior Minister Suleyman Soylu had threatened that the migrants will be allowed to leave Turkey again once the pandemic was over.

      PS It could be a very hot summer, should Turkey attempt to send migrants to Europe by land through Evros and by sea with boats to the Aegean islands and at the same time, deploys a drilling ship off Crete in July, as it claimed a few days ago.

      https://www.keeptalkinggreece.com/2020/05/17/greece-shields-evros-border-blades-wire-400-border-guards

      #militarisation_des_frontières

    • Pour la bagatelle de 63 millions d’euro...

      Greece to extend fence on land border with Turkey to deter migrants

      Greece will proceed with plans to extend a cement and barbed-wire fence that it set up in 2012 along its northern border with Turkey to prevent migrants from entering the country, the government said on Monday.

      The conservative government made the decision this year, spokesman Stelios Petsas said, after tens of thousands of asylum seekers tried to enter EU member Greece in late February when Ankara said it would no longer prevent them from doing so.

      Greece, which is at odds with neighbouring Turkey over a range of issues, has been a gateway to Europe for people fleeing conflicts and poverty in the Middle East and beyond, with more than a million passing through the country in 2015-2016.

      The project led by four Greek construction companies will be completed within eight months at an estimated cost of 63 million euros, Petsas told a news briefing.

      The 12.5-kilometre fence was built eight years ago to stop migrants from crossing into Greece. It will be extended in areas indicated by Greek police and the army, Petsas said without elaborating. In March, he said it would be extended to 40 kilometres.

      Tensions between NATO allies Greece and Turkey, who disagree over where their continental shelves begin and end, have recently escalated further over hydrocarbon resources in the eastern Mediterranean region.

      https://kdal610.com/2020/08/24/greece-to-extend-fence-on-land-border-with-turkey-to-deter-migrants

    • Greece to extend fence on land border with Turkey to deter migrants

      Greece will proceed with plans to extend a cement and barbed-wire fence that it set up in 2012 along its northern border with Turkey to prevent migrants from entering the country, the government said on Monday.

      The conservative government made the decision this year, spokesman Stelios Petsas said, after tens of thousands of asylum seekers tried to enter EU member Greece in late February when Ankara said it would no longer prevent them from doing so.

      Greece, which is at odds with neighbouring Turkey over a range of issues, has been a gateway to Europe for people fleeing conflicts and poverty in the Middle East and beyond, with more than a million passing through the country in 2015-2016.

      The project led by four Greek construction companies will be completed within eight months at an estimated cost of 63 million euros, Petsas told a news briefing.

      The 12.5-kilometre fence was built eight years ago to stop migrants from crossing into Greece. It will be extended in areas indicated by Greek police and the army, Petsas said without elaborating. In March, he said it would be extended to 40 kilometres.

      Tensions between NATO allies Greece and Turkey, who disagree over where their continental shelves begin and end, have recently escalated further over hydrocarbon resources in the eastern Mediterranean region.

      https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-greece-turkey-fence/greece-to-extend-fence-on-land-border-with-turkey-to-deter-migrants-idUK

    • Evros land border fence to be ready in eight months

      The construction of a new fence on northeastern Greece’s Evros land border with Turkey will be completed in eight months, according to Citizens’ Protection Minister Michalis Chrysochoidis, speaking in Parliament on Monday.

      The border fence project has a total budget of 62.9 million euros and has been undertaken by a consortium put together by four construction companies.

      It will have a total length of 27 kilometers and eight elevated observatories will be constructed to be used by the Hellenic Army.

      Moreover, the existing fence will be reinforced with a steel railing measuring 4.3 meters in height, instead of the current 3.5 meters.

      Damage to the existing fence during attempts by thousands of migrants to cross into Greece territory from Turkey, as well as bad weather, will be repaired – including a 400-meter stretch that collapsed as a result of flooding.

      https://www.ekathimerini.com/256184/article/ekathimerini/news/evros-land-border-fence-to-be-ready-in-eight-months

    • New Evros fence to be completed by April next year, PM says during on-site inspection

      Construction of a new fence designed to stop undocumented migrants from slipping into Greece along its northeastern border with Turkey, demarcated by the Evros River, is expected to be completed by April next year, Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis said during a visit at the area of Ferres on Saturday.

      “Building the Evros fence was the least we could do to secure the border and make the people of Evros feel more safe,” Mitsotakis said.

      The 62.9-million-euro steel fence with barbed wire will be five meters high and have a total length of 27 kilometers. Eight elevated observatories will be constructed to be used by the Hellenic Army. The project, which is designed to also serve as anti-flood protection, has been undertaken by a consortium put together by four construction companies.

      During a meeting with local officials, Mitsotakis also confirmed the hiring of 400 guards to patrol the border.

      https://www.ekathimerini.com/258187/article/ekathimerini/news/new-evros-fence-to-be-completed-by-april-next-year-pm-says-during-on-s

    • To Vima: Evros wall will be ready in April, the Min. of Public
      Order said that ’labourers worked in the snow to finish the fence’.
      It also claims drones fly daily over the border - can anyone confirm? Only found older news saying they were to be deployed.

      https://twitter.com/lk2015r/status/1363625427307278340

      –—

      Εβρος : Ο φράκτης, τα drones και ο χιονιάς

      O καινούργιος φράκτης στα σύνορα με μήκος 27 χιλιόμετρα και με 13 χιλιόμετρα ο παλαιός, θα είναι απόλυτα έτοιμος τον Απρίλιο.

      Ούτε το χιόνι, ούτε οι λευκές νύχτες του Φεβρουαρίου, ούτε οι θερμοκρασίες κάτω από το μηδέν εμπόδισαν τα συνεργεία στις εργασίες τους για την κατασκευή του φράκτη στον Έβρο. Όπως μου είπε ο Μιχάλης Χρυσοχοΐδης « μηχανήματα και εργάτες δούλεψαν μέσα στα χιόνια για να ολοκληρώσουν τον φράκτη ». Μου αποκάλυψε μάλιστα ότι ο καινούργιος φράκτης στα σύνορα με μήκος 27 χιλιόμετρα και με 13 χιλιόμετρα ο παλαιός, θα είναι απόλυτα έτοιμος τον Απρίλιο. Και τούτο παρά το γεγονός ότι αυτές τις ημέρες το μόνον που δυσκολεύει τις εργασίες είναι τα πολλά νερά του ποταμού ο οποίος έχει υπερχειλίσει. Ωστόσο τα drones πετούν καθημερινά και συλλέγουν πληροφορίες, οι περιπολίες είναι συνεχείς και τα ηχοβολιστικά μηχανήματα έτοιμα, εάν χρειαστεί να δράσουν.

      https://www.tovima.gr/2021/02/19/opinions/evros-o-fraktis-ta-drones-kai-o-xionias

    • In post-pandemic Europe, migrants will face digital fortress

      As the world begins to travel again, Europe is sending migrants a loud message: Stay away!

      Greek border police are firing bursts of deafening noise from an armored truck over the frontier into Turkey. Mounted on the vehicle, the long-range acoustic device, or “sound cannon,” is the size of a small TV set but can match the volume of a jet engine.

      It’s part of a vast array of physical and experimental new digital barriers being installed and tested during the quiet months of the coronavirus pandemic at the 200-kilometer (125-mile) Greek border with Turkey to stop people entering the European Union illegally.

      A new steel wall, similar to recent construction on the US-Mexico border, blocks commonly-used crossing points along the Evros River that separates the two countries.

      Nearby observation towers are being fitted with long-range cameras, night vision, and multiple sensors. The data will be sent to control centers to flag suspicious movement using artificial intelligence analysis.

      “We will have a clear ‘pre-border’ picture of what’s happening,” Police Maj. Dimonsthenis Kamargios, head of the region’s border guard authority, told the Associated Press.

      The EU has poured 3 billion euros ($3.7 billion) into security tech research following the refugee crisis in 2015-16, when more than 1 million people – many escaping wars in Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan – fled to Greece and on to other EU countries.

      The automated surveillance network being built on the Greek-Turkish border is aimed at detecting migrants early and deterring them from crossing, with river and land patrols using searchlights and long-range acoustic devices.

      Key elements of the network will be launched by the end of the year, Kamargios said. “Our task is to prevent migrants from entering the country illegally. We need modern equipment and tools to do that.”

      Researchers at universities around Europe, working with private firms, have developed futuristic surveillance and verification technology, and tested more than a dozen projects at Greek borders.

      AI-powered lie detectors and virtual border-guard interview bots have been piloted, as well as efforts to integrate satellite data with footage from drones on land, air, sea and underwater. Palm scanners record the unique vein pattern in a person’s hand to use as a biometric identifier, and the makers of live camera reconstruction technology promise to erase foliage virtually, exposing people hiding near border areas.

      Testing has also been conducted in Hungary, Latvia and elsewhere along the eastern EU perimeter.

      The more aggressive migration strategy has been advanced by European policymakers over the past five years, funding deals with Mediterranean countries outside the bloc to hold migrants back and transforming the EU border protection agency, Frontex, from a coordination mechanism to a full-fledged multinational security force.

      But regional migration deals have left the EU exposed to political pressure from neighbors.

      Earlier this month, several thousand migrants crossed from Morocco into the Spanish enclave of Ceuta in a single day, prompting Spain to deploy the army. A similar crisis unfolded on the Greek-Turkish border and lasted three weeks last year.

      Greece is pressing the EU to let Frontex patrol outside its territorial waters to stop migrants reaching Lesbos and other Greek islands, the most common route in Europe for illegal crossing in recent years.

      Armed with new tech tools, European law enforcement authorities are leaning further outside borders.

      Not all the surveillance programs being tested will be included in the new detection system, but human rights groups say the emerging technology will make it even harder for refugees fleeing wars and extreme hardship to find safety.

      Patrick Breyer, a European lawmaker from Germany, has taken an EU research authority to court, demanding that details of the AI-powered lie detection program be made public.

      “What we are seeing at the borders, and in treating foreign nationals generally, is that it’s often a testing field for technologies that are later used on Europeans as well. And that’s why everybody should care, in their own self-interest,” Breyer of the German Pirates Party told the AP.

      He urged authorities to allow broad oversight of border surveillance methods to review ethical concerns and prevent the sale of the technology through private partners to authoritarian regimes outside the EU.

      Ella Jakubowska, of the digital rights group EDRi, argued that EU officials were adopting “techno-solutionism” to sideline moral considerations in dealing with the complex issue of migration.

      “It is deeply troubling that, time and again, EU funds are poured into expensive technologies which are used in ways that criminalize, experiment with and dehumanize people on the move,” she said.

      Migration flows have slowed in many parts of Europe during the pandemic, interrupting an increase recorded over years. In Greece, for example, the number of arrivals dropped from nearly 75,000 in 2019 to 15,700 in 2020, a 78% decrease.

      But the pressure is sure to return. Between 2000 and 2020, the world’s migrant population rose by more than 80% to reach 272 million, according to United Nations data, fast outpacing international population growth.

      At the Greek border village of Poros, the breakfast discussion at a cafe was about the recent crisis on the Spanish-Moroccan border.

      Many of the houses in the area are abandoned and in a gradual state of collapse, and life is adjusting to that reality.

      Cows use the steel wall as a barrier for the wind and rest nearby.

      Panagiotis Kyrgiannis, a Poros resident, says the wall and other preventive measures have brought migrant crossings to a dead stop.

      “We are used to seeing them cross over and come through the village in groups of 80 or a 100,” he said. “We were not afraid. … They don’t want to settle here. All of this that’s happening around us is not about us.”

      https://www.ekathimerini.com/news/1162084/in-post-pandemic-europe-migrants-will-face-digital-fortress

      #pandémie #covid-19 #coronavirus #barrière_digitale #mur_digital #pré-mur #technologie #complexe_militaro-industriel #AI #IA #intelligence_artificielle #détecteurs_de_mensonge #satellite #biométrie #Hongrie #Lettonie #Frontex #surveillance #privatisation #techno-solutionism #déshumanisation

    • Greece: EU Commission upgrades border surveillance – and criticises it at the same time

      The Greek border police are using a sound cannon and drones on a new border fence, and the EU Commission expresses its „concern“ about this. However, it is itself funding several similar research projects, including a semi-autonomous drone with stealth features for „effective surveillance of borders and migration flows“

      On Monday, the Associated Press (AP) news agency had reported (https://apnews.com/article/middle-east-europe-migration-technology-health-c23251bec65ba45205a0851fab07e) that police in Greece plan to deploy a long-range sound cannon at the external border with Turkey in the future. The device, mounted on a police tank, makes a deafening noise with the volume of a jet engine. It is part of a system of steel walls that is being installed and tested along with drones on the 200-kilometre border with Turkey for migration defence. The vehicle, made by the Canadian manufacturer #Streit, comes from a series of seized „#Typhoons“ (https://defencereview.gr/mrap-vehicles-hellenic-police) that were to be illegally exported to Libya via Dubai (https://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/streit-libya-un-1.3711776).

      After the AP report about the sound cannons went viral, Commission spokesman Adalbert Jahnz had clarified that it was not an EU project (https://twitter.com/Ad4EU/status/1400010786064437248).

      Yesterday, AP reported again on this (https://apnews.com/article/middle-east-europe-migration-government-and-politics-2cec83ae0d8544a719a885a). According to Jahnz, the Commission has „noted with concern“ the installation of the technology and is requesting information on its use. Methods used in EU member states would have to comply with European fundamental rights, including the „right to dignity“. The right to asylum and the principle of non-refoulement in states where refugees face persecution must also be respected.

      The Commission’s outrage is anything but credible. After Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan used refugees to storm the Turkish-Greek border in March 2020, Commission President Ursula von der Leyen travelled to the border river Evros before the start of a Frontex mission and declared her solidarity there. Literally, the former German Defence Minister said (https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/statement_20_380): „I thank Greece for being our European shield“.

      Commission funds research on border surveillance

      Also yesterday, the Commission-funded #ROBORDER project (https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/740593/de) said in a statement (https://roborder.eu/2021/06/03/new-collaboration-with-borderuas-project) that it is now cooperating with the #BorderUAS project (https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/883272/de). Both are about the use of drones. The police in Greece are involved and the applications are to be tested there.

      The acronym ROBORDER stands for „#Autonomous_Swarm_of_Heterogeneous_Robots_for_Border_Surveillance“. It works with drones on water, on land and in the air. In Greece, for example, a drone is to be used to detect „unauthorised sea border crossing“ (https://roborder.eu/the-project/demonstrators), as well as an aircraft from the #Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft with a surveillance test platform, #radar systems and thermal imaging cameras.

      All drones in ROBORDER are supposed to be able to operate in swarms. They are controlled via a mobile control centre from the German company #Elettronica. This „#Multipurpose_Mission_Support_Vehicle“ (#MUROS) is used to collect all recorded data (https://www.elettronica.de/de/produkte/oeffentliche-sicherheit-integration). The project, which will soon come to an end, will cost around nine million euros, of which the EU Commission will pay the largest share.

      High-resolution cameras on lighter-than-air drones

      The acronym BorderUAS means „#Semi-Autonomous_Border_Surveillance_Platform_with_a_High-Resolution_Multi-Sensor_Surveillance_Payload“. Border authorities, police forces as well as companies and institutes mainly from Eastern Europe and Greece want to use it to investigate so-called lighter-than-air drones.

      These can be small zeppelins or balloons that are propelled by alternative propulsion systems and have a multitude of sensors and cameras. The participating company #HiperSfera (https://hipersfera.hr) from Croatia markets such systems for border surveillance, for example.

      The project aims to prevent migration on the so-called Eastern Mediterranean route, the Western Balkan route and across the EU’s eastern external land border. According to the project description, these account for 58 percent of all detected irregular border crossings. BorderUAS ends in 2023, and the technology will be tested by police forces in Greece, Ukraine and Belarus until then. The Commission is funding the entire budget with around seven million euros.

      Civilian and military drone research

      For border surveillance, the EU Defence Agency and the Commission are funding numerous civilian and military drone projects in Greece. These include the €35 million #OCEAN2020 project (https://ocean2020.eu), which conducts research on the integration of drones and unmanned submarines into fleet formations. #ARESIBO, which costs around seven million euros (https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/833805/de) and on which the Greek, Portuguese and Romanian Ministries of Defence and the #NATO Research Centre are working on drone technology, will end in 2022. With another five million euros, the Commission is supporting an „#Information_Exchange_for_Command_Control_and_Coordination_Systems_at_the_Borders“ (#ANDROMEDA) (https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/833881/de). This also involves drones used by navies, coast guards and the police forces of the member states.

      In #CAMELOT (https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/740736/de) are flying various drones from Israel and Portugal, and as in ROBORDER, a single ground station is to be used for this purpose. A scenario „illegal activity, illegal immigration persons“ is being tested with various surveillance equipment at the Evros river. The Commission is contributing eight million euros of the total sum. This year, results from #FOLDOUT (https://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/214861/factsheet/de) will also be tried out on the Greek-Turkish border river Evros, involving satellites, high-flying platforms and drones with technology for „through-foliage detection“ (https://foldout.eu/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Flyer_v1_Foldout_EN_v2_Print.pdf) in the „outermost regions of the EU„. The Commission is allocating eight million euros for this as well.

      Also with EU funding, predominantly Greek partners, including drone manufacturers #ALTUS and #Intracom_Defense, as well as the Air Force, are developing a drone under the acronym LOTUS with „autonomy functions“ and stealth features for surveillance. The project manager promotes the system as suitable for „effective surveillance of borders and migration flows“ (https://www.intracomdefense.com/ide-leader-in-european-defense-programs).

      https://digit.site36.net/2021/06/04/greece-eu-commission-upgrades-border-surveillance-and-criticises-it-at

      #drones #Canada #complexe_militaro-industriel

    • La Grèce construit un mur sur sa frontière avec la Turquie

      22 août - 13h : La Grèce a annoncé vendredi avoir achevé une clôture de 40 km à sa frontière avec la Turquie et mis en place un nouveau système de #surveillance pour empêcher d’éventuels demandeurs d’asile d’essayer d’atteindre l’Europe après la prise de contrôle de l’Afghanistan par les talibans.

      La crise afghane a créé « des possibilités de flux de migrants », a déclaré le ministre de la Protection des citoyens Michalis Chrysochoidis après s’être rendu vendredi dans la région d’Evros avec le ministre de la Défense et le chef des forces armées. « Nous ne pouvons pas attendre passivement l’impact possible », a-t-il affirmé. « Nos frontières resteront sûres et inviolables. »

      https://www.courrierdesbalkans.fr/refugies-balkans-les-dernieres-infos

  • Belgique 85 hélicoptères de l’armée américaine en transit par la base de Chièvres Belga - 2 Février 2019 - RTBF
    https://www.rtbf.be/info/regions/detail_85-helicopteres-de-l-armee-americaine-en-transit-par-la-base-de-chievres

    Quatre-vingt-cinq hélicoptères de l’armée de terre américaine vont transiter au cours des prochains jours par la base aérienne de Chièvres (entre Ath et Mons), avant d’aller renforcer le flanc oriental de l’Otan, ont indiqué vendredi plusieurs officiers.

    Ces hélicoptères de différents types – des AH-64E Apache d’attaque et des CH-47F Chinook, UH-60L et M Blackhawk de transport – appartiennent à la « 1 st Combat Aviation Brigade, 1 st Infantry Division » basée à Fort Riley, au Kansas.

    Ils sont arrivés par bateau à Zeebrugge le 29 janvier, où ils ont été rassemblés. Mais seuls six – deux Chinook, trois Blackhawk et un Apache – étaient arrivés vendredi à Chièvres. Ils doivent s’y rassembler avant de quitter la Belgique à destination de l’#Allemagne, la #Lettonie, la #Pologne et la #Roumanie pour un déploiement de neuf mois en Europe dans le cadre de l’opération américaine « #Atlantic_Resolve » (#AOR), visant à renforcer le flanc est de l’Otan face à une Russie considérée comme plus agressive.

    La météo hivernale a ralenti les transferts entre Zeebrugge et Chièvres, mais les militaires américains se refusent à parler de retard.

    « Nous avons pris nos précautions et tous les hélicoptères devraient avoir quitté Chièvres d’ici mercredi » prochain, a indiqué vendredi le colonel John Tiedeman, le commandant de l’une des unités transitant par la Belgique, à quelques journalistes.

    #OTAN #NATO

  • Google aime beaucoup le #black (&)

    Nouvelle descente sur le chantier de Google à Baudour : 227 travailleurs illégaux découverts Florence Dussart - 7 Décembre 2018 - RTBF
    https://www.rtbf.be/info/regions/hainaut/detail_exclusif-nouvelle-descente-sur-le-chantier-de-google-a-baudour-227-trava

    La justice vient à nouveau de mettre la main sur des travailleurs illégaux sur le chantier de Google à Baudour (Hainaut). 227 travailleurs n’étaient pas en ordre sur ce chantier de construction du troisième data center du géant informatique. Un chantier de 250 millions d’euros, sur lequel on a découvert ce jeudi, pour la deuxième fois en 15 jours, des travailleurs illégaux : la justice a en effet mis la main sur 105 travailleurs illégaux il y a 15 jours (des Roumains et des Bulgares). 

    Elle vient d’en surprendre 227 de plus (de toutes nationalités, mais parmi lesquels des Anglais et beaucoup de Hongrois), soit au total 331 ouvriers qui ne sont pas en ordre. Tout comme la fois passée, leur badge d’accès au chantier a été bloqué.

    Fin novembre, fait rarissime, les sociétés (anglaises) qui emploient les clandestins avaient régularisé tout le monde, en une fois, sous la pression de Google sans doute. Mais la justice l’auditeur du travail Charles-Eric Clesse va demander le paiement des lois sociales et une amende record.

    & Black : Travail au noir en Belgique

    #google #fraude #esclavage #Belgique #travailleurs_détachés #travail #dumping_social #exploitation #UE #union_européenne
    Baudour, en Belgique c’est à quelques Km du Shape, #OTAN #NATO

  • Baudour : de nombreuses infractions en matière de dumping social à nouveau constatées sur le chantier Google
    https://www.rtbf.be/info/regions/detail_baudour-de-nombreuses-infractions-en-matiere-de-dumping-social-a-nouveau

    Lors d’une deuxième opération menée sur le chantier Google à Baudour, l’ Auditorat du travail du Hainaut a constaté de nombreuses infractions dans le domaine du dumping social . Des badges d’accès ont été bloqués.

    L’opération menée entre 7h30 et 22h30 sur le site Google a révélé plusieurs infractions sociales. L’action a mobilisé 23 inspecteurs spécialisés en dumping, venus de toute la Belgique, trois policiers et dix interprètes en langues bulgare et roumaine.

    Au terme de l’opération, l’Auditorat du travail a apposé des scellés virtuels, en bloquant des badges d’accès de 105 travailleurs qui ont donc été interdits de chantier. Vingt-neuf de ces travailleurs ont produit de faux documents de détachement « A1 » et ces faux ont été confirmés par la Bulgarie. Septante-six autres travailleurs roumains n’avaient pas de document de détachement « A1 » malgré un premier contrôle organisé précédemment qui avait déjà mis le même problème en évidence.

    Selon l’Auditorat, ces travailleurs seraient en outre de faux indépendants. « Ils ne savent pas tous sous quel statut ils travaillent », a expliqué Charles-Eric Clesse, auditeur du travail. « Certains disent qu’ils reçoivent des ordres, d’autres ne savent pas s’ils sont indépendants ou salariés. »

    Une première intervention de l’Auditorat du travail menée il y a trois semaines sur ce même chantier à Baudour avait notamment débouché sur plusieurs auditions d’employeurs roumains et bulgares.

    #google #fraude #esclavage #Belgique #travailleurs_détachés #travail #dumping_social

  • Chinesischer Konzern veralbert Berlin als Häufchen-Stadt – B.Z. Berlin
    https://www.bz-berlin.de/berlin/reinickendorf/chinesischer-konzern-veralbert-berlin-als-haeufchen-stadt


    Neben der TaxihalteIn in Tegel hängt ’ne neue Reklame, die et in sich hat.

    Vonne Chinesen verarschen lassen wa uns nich , tönt die B.Z. , den’ hamwat schon im Boxakriech jezeicht wo der Hammer hängt. Und uff unsre Wauwis lassen wa schon jarnüscht komm’ . Schöne Vorlage habta den Trump-Freunden und Transatlantikern jeliefat, um Stimmung jejen de Konkurrenz aus Fernost zu machen, könnte man der HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Deutschland GmbH sagen, imma schön rin inne Fettnäpfchen, wennse schonmal da sind, kamma ooch rinlatschen, spritzt so scheen.

    Ein Chinesen-Witz eines Telekommunikations-Riesen auf Plakaten empfängt die Passagiere am Flughafen Tegel.

    „Was wird in Berlin flächendeckender sein: 5G oder Hundehaufen?“ Diese Frage stellt sich eine Omi mit Hund im Ankunftsbereich und auf den Fluggastbrücken. 5G, das ist die nächste Generation des Mobilfunks und hier längst nicht flächendeckend in Sicht – anders, als Tretminen auf den Gehwegen.

    Der Absender der Werbung, Huawei aus Shenzhen (bringt 2019 das erste 5G-Smartphone heraus), rüstet auch Netzwerke aus. „Die Huawei-Werbung blickt mit einem Augenzwinkern auf die Hauptstadt“, sagt Flughafensprecher Daniel Tolksdorf. Nach B.Z.-Informationen zahlen die Chinesen für ihr Hauptstadt-Bashing mehr als 70.000 Euro.

    So jeht Denunziation. Knete hamse massich. Jeldjierich sinnse. Jeheime Technik hamse. Schade ditte Chinesen keene Juden sind, hätte man am 9. Novemba noch bessa an olle Tradition’ andocken könn’, oda?

    Jetzt mal im Ernst, wer die Internetadresse auf dem Werbeplakat öffnet, erfährt, worum es geht: Die größte deutsche Firma mit chinesischem Hintergrund möchte sich einen Ruf als fortschrittlicher Modernisierer aufbauen und von künftigen Großaufträgen profitieren. Diese Kampagne kann eine Zeitung aus dem konservativen, NATO-verbundenen Springer Verlag natürlich nicht einfach hinnehmen.

    Chinalobbying auf dem deutschen Hauptstadtflughafen, da geht der empörten Redaktöse der Hut hoch. Vielleicht hat Huawei auch keine Werbung in den Springermedien geschaltet. Prompt appelliert die Postille an die niedrigsten nationalistischen Gefühle, um die gelbe Gefahr auszubremsen.

    Das war schon in der Vergangenheit mit Nebenwirkungen verbunden. Wie dumm.

    Kriegsstimmung kann man mit dem nationalistischem und ausländerfeindlichem Gedöns schüren. Das hat immer schon gut funktioniert, das ist keine Nebenwirkung. Heute sollen Deutschlands Rüstungsausgaben massiv angehoben werden. Haupsache die Chinesen kriegen vom Geldsegen nichts ab , heißt die deutsche Devise.

    Mir doch egal, wer die Rüstungsprofite macht. Das einzige, was man gegen die Chinesen sagen kann, die kennen kein Trinkgeld. Reisende aus den USA haben da mehr Stil. Auch egal. Wir fahren sie alle. Zum amtlichen Preis. Das ist der Job. Willkommen in Berlin.

    Mission Statement - Huawei Digitales Hauptstadtbüro - Deutschland besser verbinden.
    http://huawei-dialog.de/mission-statement

    Huawei ist bereits seit 2001 in Deutschland aktiv und beschäftigt mehr als 2.200 Mitarbeiter an 18 Standorten. Damit ist Huawei das größte chinesische Unternehmen in Deutschland. In München befindet sich der Hauptsitz von Huaweis Europäischem Forschungszentrum (ERC), das insgesamt 18 Forschungseinrichtungen in ganz Europa umfasst:

    Das Unternehmen hat in Deutschland eine breite Kundenbasis, zu der u.a. die Deutsche Telekom, Vodafone und Telefónica zählen.
    Huawei ist Partner von Telekommunikationsunternehmen und Netzbetreibern beim LTE-Rollout und der Erschließung ländlicher Gebiete mit Internet. Mit seiner Technologie ist es ein wichtiger Partner bei der Umsetzung der Breitbandstrategie der Bundesregierung.
    Wir setzen auch in Deutschland einen Schwerpunkt auf die Forschungs- und Entwicklungsarbeit und sind mit zahlreichen Universitäten und Forschungsinstitutionen Kooperationen eingegangen – darunter die RWTH Aachen und Einrichtungen der Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft. Seit 2006 ist Huawei in Deutschland mehr als 30 Kooperationen bei Forschungsprojekten mit insgesamt 19 unterschiedlichen Institutionen eingegangen.
    Huawei ist engagierter Partner der deutschen Politik und Wirtschaft, u.a. durch aktive Teilnahme bei BITKOM (Bundesverband Informationswirtschaft, Telekommunikation und neue Medien e.V.), VATM (Verband der Anbieter von Telekommunikations- und Mehrwertdiensten e.V.), BREKO (Bundesverband Breitbandkommunikation e.V.), BUGLAS (Bundesverband Glasfaseranschluss e.V.), eco (Verband der deutschen Internetwirtschaft e.V.), der Deutsche Breitbandinitiative, der Allianz für Cyber-Sicherheit, dem Wirtschaftsrat Deutschland, dem IT-Gipfel, der Initiative D21, dem Münchener Kreis und der Deutschen Akademie für Technikwissenschaften (acatech).

    #Berlin #Reinickendorf #Tegel #Flughafen_Tegel #Werbung #Humor #Rüstung #NATO #China #Wirtschaft

  • En Lettonie, la coalition sortante subit une déroute Ruptures - 08 octobre 2018
    https://ruptures-presse.fr/actu/lettonie-elections-concorde-otan-ue
    https://www.les-crises.fr/revue-de-presse-du-21-10-2018

    Les électeurs lettons étaient appelés à renouveler leurs députés le 6 octobre. Dans ce pays balte de 1,9 million d’habitants, 54% d’entre eux se sont déplacés, soit 4 points de moins qu’en 2014.

    Le gouvernement sortant s’est prévalu d’avoir fidèlement appliqué les réformes souhaitées par l’Union européenne (fiscalité, système de santé…), ce qui a contribué à accroître un mécontentement social latent, alors même que l’émigration, notamment de la jeunesse, reste forte, en particulier vers les pays anglo-saxons. Plusieurs scandales de corruption – dont celui qui a tout récemment impliqué le gouverneur de la Banque centrale – ont également marqué la campagne, dans une Lettonie parfois décrite comme « la capitale européenne du blanchiment ».

    Enfin, les discriminations, linguistiques mais aussi sociales, que subissent les personnes d’origine non lettone (40% de la population, notamment les russophones) demeurent des enjeux politiques majeurs.

    Pour le quatrième scrutin consécutif, c’est la formation cataloguée comme « pro-russe », Concorde (Saskana, traduit en anglais par Harmony), qui arrive en tête, avec 19,9% des suffrages (-3,1 points). Le fait nouveau est l’émergence d’un jeune parti, décrit comme populiste, KPV (« A qui appartient le pays ? »), qui rafle d’emblée la deuxième place, avec 14,2% des voix.

    Or le KPV, à la différence de tous les partis installés, n’a jamais exclu une alliance parlementaire avec Concorde. Jusqu’à présent, celle-ci, bien qu’en tête du choix des électeurs, a toujours été tenue à l’écart du pouvoir car elle est accusée d’être proche de Moscou.

    Concorde, historiquement ancrée dans la communauté russophone, attire également des Lettons « de souche » notamment du fait des mesures sociales qu’elle préconise
    En réalité, Concorde se veut un parti d’orientation sociale-démocrate. Certes historiquement ancrée dans la communauté russophone, elle attire également des Lettons « de souche » (dont certaines personnalités étaient candidates sur ses listes) notamment du fait des mesures sociales qu’elle préconise. Lors de cette campagne, Concorde avait notamment proposé de tailler dans le budget de la défense au profit des secteurs de l’éducation et du logement. Un casus belli pour les partis actuellement au pouvoir, qui mettent leur point d’honneur à atteindre, voire à dépasser, le niveau du budget militaire ordonné par l’OTAN.

    Cinq partis (dont trois principaux) étaient associés dans la coalition parlementaire sortante, menée par l’Union des Verts et des paysans (droite). Cette formation qui a toujours été partie prenante du pouvoir depuis 2002 s’effondre, passant de 19,5% à 9,9% des suffrages. Son alliée gouvernementale, l’Alliance nationale (AN) ne s’en sort guère mieux avec 11% des voix contre16,6% il y a quatre ans. L’AN est l’une des formations les plus ultra, notamment en matière de restrictions à l’utilisation de la langue russe. Quant au troisième partenaire de la coalition sortante, Nouvelle unité, il ne rassemble que 6,7%, contre… 21,9% en 2014.

    Outre le KPV, deux formations profitent de la déconfiture des partis au pouvoir : le Nouveau parti conservateur, qui passe de 0,7% à 13,6%, ainsi que la Nouvelle alliance libérale / FOR, récemment créée, avec 12% des voix. Il est vrai qu’en Lettonie, où n’existe pas vraiment de culture politique anciennement ancrée, les disparitions et recréations de partis se succèdent avec des frontières idéologiques souvent bien floues. L’opposition à la Russie et aux habitants russophones, la fidélité à l’OTAN et à l’UE, et les orientations libérales forment cependant un ciment commun aux partis gouvernementaux.

    « la ligne euro-atlantique constitue le cadre fondamental de notre action et je n’accepterai aucune exception à cette ligne » – le président letton
    C’est ce qui avait conduit le président de la République, issu de l’Union des Verts et des paysans, à avertir les électeurs avant le scrutin : « la ligne euro-atlantique constitue le cadre fondamental de notre action et je n’accepterai aucune exception à cette ligne ». Il lui revient désormais de désigner la personnalité qui devra former une future majorité au sein d’un Parlement éclaté en sept groupes parlementaires.

    Concorde et le KPV disposent ensemble de 39 sièges (24 et 15 respectivement), ce qui constitue l’alternative la plus logique au pouvoir actuel. Mais ce total est cependant insuffisant pour atteindre la majorité absolue au sein de l’Assemblée qui compte 100 députés.

    Le dirigeant de Concorde, qui est également maire de la capitale, Riga, a cependant averti qu’« aucune coalition stable et capable de gouverner n’est possible » sans sa formation. « Sinon, a-t-il poursuivi, vous pourriez avoir une coalition de xénophobes et de partisans des droits des homosexuels, et un tel gouvernement ne tiendrait pas plus de deux ou trois semaines », faisant référence aux Conservateurs et à la Nouvelle alliance libérale.

    Tout porte cependant à croire que les élites installées finiront par trouver une formule écartant une « coalition pro-Kremlin / populistes » qui constituerait selon elles une hérésie pour ce pays balte, dont les dirigeants sont depuis près de trente ans convaincus – ou feignent de l’être – que les troupes russes s’apprêtent à les envahir. Les mêmes continuent à témoigner d’une indulgence notable envers les nostalgiques de l’Allemagne nazie, nostalgiques qui ont pignon sur rue dans le pays.

    Il reste que les électeurs lettons, et pas seulement les russophones, viennent de leur infliger une gifle retentissante, notamment sur la base d’un mécontentement social grandissant. Mais du côté de Bruxelles, un seule chose compte : que la Lettonie ne vienne pas s’ajouter à la litanie des pays menacés par les « populistes »… https://ruptures-presse.fr/actu/suede-elections-lofven-akesson

    #Lettonie, #parlement, #députés, #élection, #election2018, #Saeimas, #résultats, #chiffres, #partis, #OTAN #NATO #ue #union_européenne #populisme

  • Seit Jahren funktioniert die deutsch-britische Militärkooperation g...
    https://diasp.eu/p/7812336

    Seit Jahren funktioniert die deutsch-britische Militärkooperation gut. Dennoch haben die Verteidigungsminister beider Länder einen neuen Vertrag namens „Joint Vision Statement“ geschlossen. Grund ist der drohende Brexit. Ein Brückenschlag in Zeiten des Brexit | DW | 05.10.2018 #Leyen #Williamson #Deutschland #Großbritannien #Brexit #NATO #PESCO #Militär #Wester

  • Les Natoufiens fabriquaient de la bière il y a 13 000 ans (avant l’arrivée de l’agriculture).

    Les premières preuves archéologiques de brassage de la bière à base de céréales avant même l’arrivée de l’agriculture proviennent des Natoufiens, des populations semi-sédentaires, vivant en Méditerranée orientale entre le Paléolithique et le Néolithique, après la dernière période glaciaire. Les Natoufians de la grotte de Raqefet ont collecté des plantes disponibles localement, stocké des graines maltées et fabriqué de la bière dans le cadre de leurs rituels.

    « (...) avec la production de bière, les vestiges de la grotte Raqefet offrent une image très vivante et colorée des modes de vie natoufiens, de leurs capacités technologiques et de leurs inventions. »

    (...) Les résultats indiquent que les Natoufiens ont exploité au moins sept types de plantes associés aux mortiers, notamment du blé ou de l’orge, de l’avoine, des légumineuses et des fibres libériennes (y compris le lin). Ils ont emballé des aliments végétaux dans des contenants en fibre et les ont stockés dans des mortiers à blocs. Ils ont utilisé des mortiers de roche-mère pour piler et cuire des aliments végétaux, et pour brasser de la bière à base de blé / orge, probablement servis dans des fêtes rituelles il y a 13 000 ans.

    Les modèles d’usure et d’assemblage microbotanique suggèrent que deux des trois mortiers à blocs examinés ont été utilisés comme conteneurs de stockage pour les aliments végétaux - y compris les malts de blé et d’orge. Ils étaient probablement recouverts de couvercles, probablement faits de dalles de pierre et d’autres matériaux. Les aliments ont probablement été placés dans des paniers en fibres libériennes pour faciliter leur manipulation. Les puits étroits et profonds peuvent avoir fourni des conditions fraîches convenant au stockage des aliments, en particulier pour la conservation des malts de céréales.

    En combinant les données sur l’usure et les résidus, le troisième mortier étudié a été interprété comme un récipient multifonctionnel destiné à la préparation des aliments, comprenant des aliments végétaux et de la bière à base de blé / orge, probablement avec des légumineuses et d’autres plantes.

    Les preuves de brassage de bière à la grotte de Raqefet, il y a 13 000 ans, constituent un autre exemple des complexes sociaux et rituels du Natouf. Le brassage de la bière peut avoir été, au moins en partie, une motivation sous-jacente à la culture de céréales dans le sud du Levant, confirmant l’hypothèse de la bière proposée par les archéologues il ya plus de 60 ans.

    #Préhistoire #Natoufiens #alcool #Asie #Moyen_Orient
    #Li_Liu #Stanford_University #Danny Rosenberg #University_d'Haifa
    #Hao_Zhao #Université_de_Zhengzhou
    #XXXLIEN40LIENXXX
    #13000BC

    A prehistoric thirst for craft beer
    https://www.elsevier.com/about/press-releases/research-and-journals/a-prehistoric-thirst-for-craft-beer