naturalfeature:pacific ocean

  • How to walk to LaGuardia Airport in New York City - Curbed NY
    https://ny.curbed.com/2018/12/6/18128031/how-to-walk-to-laguardia-airport-queens

    n a crisp and sunny autumn day, not long ago, I walked to LaGuardia Airport. I wasn’t one of those people you’ve seen on the news who get so panicked by gridlock on the Grand Central Parkway that they abandon their taxis and drag their wheelies across eight lanes of traffic and up the exit ramps to their terminals. I wasn’t even in a hurry. I didn’t have a plane to catch.

    I wasn’t going anywhere except the airport.

    Accompanied by Stanley Greenberg, a photographer whose primary interest is urban infrastructure, I walked to the airport simply to see if it could be done. It was an expedition, like Magellan circumnavigating the earth or Lewis and Clark trekking to the Pacific Ocean

    #photographie #aéroports un autre angle du #DFS


  • Macron at Sea Shows U.S.-France Ties Run Deeper Than Trump Spat - Bloomberg
    https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-11-14/macron-at-sea-shows-u-s-france-ties-run-deeper-than-trump-spat

    France’s Emmanuel Macron is heading to sea on his biggest warship a day after he suffered a tirade of abuse from Donald Trump. The trip, planned for weeks, will show France’s alliance with the U.S. goes beyond any temporary disagreement between the presidents.

    France’s sole aircraft carrier, the Charles-de-Gaulle, the world’s most powerful vessel outside the U.S. navy, puts to sea Wednesday and will sail to the Indian Ocean early next year. It is starting a joint mission with the U.S. and an American frigate will escort it on the voyage, according the Elysee presidential palace.
    […]
    The French aircraft carrier will be part of what Macron has called an “Indo-Pacific Axis” — a strategy to expand France’s participation with a group of nations that includes Japan, Australia, India and the U.S.

    The countries, which are linked by military partnerships, are working to contain China’s maritime claims, keep shipping lines open and secure for trade in a region from Somalia to the Midway Atoll in the middle of the Pacific Ocean.


  • Russia detects missile launches from French frigate off Syria’s coast in Mediterranean — RT World News
    https://www.rt.com/news/438676-french-frigate-mediterranean-missiles


    © French Navy

    Russian airspace control systems registered missile launches from a French frigate in the Mediterranean on Monday, the Russian Defense Ministry reported.
    The French Navy’s newest frigate, FS Auvergne, fired rockets at around 8pm GMT on Monday, the Russian military said. “Airspace control has recorded rocket launches from the French frigate ’Auvergne,’” the ministry’s statement read. The ’Auvergne’ is deployed in the Mediterranean Sea, off the coast of Syria.

    Paris denied “any involvement in [the] attack,” a French army spokesman said, as cited by AFP.

    It is a ’European multi-purpose frigate’ (FREMM) which entered the service of the French Navy in February this year. Prior to its official commissioning, the Aquitaine-class warship underwent deployment across the globe, including the Mediterranean Sea, the Indian Ocean, the Persian Gulf, the South China Sea and the Pacific Ocean.

    The launch was detected at around the same time that air traffic controllers at Khmeimim Airbase “lost contact” with a military Il-20 aircraft during an attack by Israeli F-16 fighters on Latakia. Some 14 people were on board the plane at the time of the disappearance. A search and rescue mission is underway.

    The IDF has refused to comment on the report. Despite the fact that Israel rarely acknowledges striking specific targets inside Syria, earlier this month the IDF admitted hitting at least 202 “Iranian targets” in the country.

    As tensions over Idlib rise, Turkey and Russia on Monday agreed to establish a “demilitarized zone” between militants and government troops as part of an effort to clear the remaining jihadists from Syria.


  • ‘Ring of Fire’ hit with 70 earthquakes in just 48 hours
    https://nypost.com/2018/08/22/ring-of-fire-hit-with-70-earthquakes-in-just-48-hours

    A cluster of 16 “significant” quakes — above magnitude 4.5 — hit yesterday following 53 that shook the region along the disaster zone on Sunday.

    The earthquakes rattled Indonesia, Bolivia, Japan and Fiji but didn’t reach the western coast of the US, which sits on the horseshoe-shaped “Ring of Fire” fault line.

    The Ring of Fire has caused a number of devastating earthquakes over the years and is where two of the Earth’s huge tectonic plates meet.

    It’s a string of 452 volcanoes and sites of high seismic activity that encircle the Pacific Ocean.

    #séisme #volcan

    C’est la presse populaire US, il n’est question que d’eux... À part ça je vais bien, à portée des fumées du Merapi.


  • Russia Is Hunting For Its Crashed Nuclear-Powered Cruise Missile And The U.S. Might Be Too - The Drive
    http://www.thedrive.com/the-war-zone/23058/russia-is-hunting-for-its-crashed-nuclear-powered-cruise-missile-and-the-u


    (je reprends ici l’intégralité de l’article, non accessible en France)

    Russia is reportedly set to launch an operation to recover a prototype of its Burevestnik nuclear-powered and nuclear-armed cruise missile that came down in the Barents Sea in 2017. At the same time, the wreckage presents a prime opportunity for other countries, particularly the United States, to gain major insights into its design and true capabilities.

    CNBC was first to report the Russian expedition, citing unnamed U.S. government sources with knowledge of an American intelligence report on the matter, on Aug. 21, 2018. These individuals said that the Kremlin would dispatch three unspecified ships, including one specially configured to recover the missile’s nuclear reactor, but said there was no set timeline for when the operation would begin or how long it might last. 
    Russia test-fired four Burevestniks in total between November 2017 and February 2018, according to the new information. The longest test flight reportedly lasted over two minutes and saw the weapon travel a total of 22 miles, while the shortest experiment saw the missile fail within seconds, but it still managed to cover a distance of five miles. The missile reportedly uses a nuclear reactor to power its propulsion system, giving it theoretically unlimited range.

    The Russians have otherwise been very tight-lipped about the design, which read more about here. So, it’s not surprising that they would want to recover any wrecks both to prevent foreign intelligence services from getting their hands on it and to gather more information for their test program.

    The official video below offers the best views of the Burevestnik cruise missile available to date.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IuwMsJlM-pg

    Though CNBC did not say which Russian ships might be heading out on the recovery mission, it is very possible that the Yantar might be among them. Officially an “oceanographic research vessel,” this spy ship has specialized equipment that can reportedly tap or cut submarine cables and investigate and retrieve objects from depths of up to 18,000 feet.

    In 2017, the vessel reportedly sailed off the coast of Syria to recover the remnants of two fighter jets, a Su-33 and a Mig-29KR, that crashed into the Mediterranean Sea during operations from Russia’s aircraft carrier Kuznetsov. In that case, the goal was also, at least in part, to make sure other countries could not retrieve the wrecks for their own purposes.

    In June 2018, the U.K.’s Royal Navy escorted Yantar through the English Channel as it headed into the North Sea. Pictures showed a Saab SeaEye Tiger deep-sea robot on the ship’s deck. Russia acquired this piece of equipment after the Kursk submarine disaster. The Tiger can reach depths of 3,280 feet and private companies have previously used them to do work at sites with heavy radioactive contamination.


    The Russian spy ship Yantar.

    It’s not clear what state the missile wreckage, or the weapon’s reactor, might be in. We at The War Zone have previously explored in detail what might happen if these weapons came down on land or over water after reports that they were crashing first emerged earlier in 2018. It’s also worth noting that these apparent failures might have been successes depending on the actual test points and would have provided Russia important information for further development of the Burevestnik regardless.

    Of course, if the weapon is at all salvageable, the race may be on for the Russians to get it off the bottom of the Barents Sea before anyone else does. The United States has already reportedly been keeping a close eye on the tests and could have a good idea of where the missiles have landed. 

    If they spread any substantial amount of radioactive material when they came down, it might make them even easier to locate. In February 2017, well before the reported test flights, a U.S. Air Force WC-135 atmospheric reconnaissance aircraft was flying around the Barents Sea on what the service has insisted was a routine mission. This coincided with reports of increased radioactivity in the region, but that might have been linked to leaking Russian nuclear waste facilities.

    That U.S. Navy has its own deep sea intelligence gathering and salvage capabilities, notably the super-secret Seawolf-class submarine the USS Jimmy Carter. In September 2017, again before Russia reportedly began firing Burevestniks, that boat returned to its homeport at Naval Base Kitsap-Bangor in Washington State flying a Jolly Roger flag, a symbol representing the completion of a particularly successful mission.


    USN
    The secretive USS Jimmy Carter flying a Jolly Roger flag as it returns to port in September 2017.

    The U.S. government has a long history of trying to steal sensitive Russian equipment from the bottom of the ocean, as well. In the 1970s, the Central Intelligence Agency famously used the Hughes Glomar Explorer to pull a portion of the Soviet Golf II-class ballistic missile submarine K-129 up from the depths of the Pacific Ocean.

    Getting ahold of or even examining pieces of a #Burevestnik, one of six super weapons Russian President Vladimir Putin highlighted in a speech in March 2018, would be a major coup for American intelligence agencies and the U.S. government’s foreign partners. NATO as a whole is also becoming more concerned with Russia’s aggressive policies and various advanced weapons developments, amid threatening training exercises, electronic warfare attacks, and deceptive information operations.

    All told, it might be worth keeping an eye on Yantar’s movements to see if she heads out into the waters above the Arctic Circle any time soon.

    Update: 5:20pm EST
    Canadian analyst Steffan Watkins has found that Russia’s Akademik Primakov, a seismic research vessel has been recently sailing a very deliberate pattern in the Kara Sea, which is to the east of the Novaya Zemlya archipelago. To the west of Novaya Zemlya is the Barents Sea and the area was home to Soviet nuclear weapon testing.


    @steffanwatkins
    Russian seismic research vessel Akademik Primakov (MMSI:273392760) is certainly looking for something in the Kara Sea at 5kn. (Before you get too excited, it could be mapping the Arctic shelf, to aid in Russian claims to it.)

    It is possible that the initial report of where the missile went down was inaccurate and that it instead crashed into the Kara Sea. However, as Watkins notes, the Akademik Primakov is more likely mapping the region. The Russian company JSC Sevmorneftegeofizika acquired the ship in June 2017 specifically to conduct geological exploration activities in the Arctic Shelf.


  • The Myth of Russia’s Arctic Rule
    https://mailchi.mp/9cdcff7c73de/taming-bureaucratic-beasts-in-china-1650757?e=752ba5eff2

    It’s clearly visible from this bird’s-eye view of the Arctic region.
     
    You can see here that Russia’s vast holdings of Arctic territory do not mitigate its lack of access to the world’s other oceans.
     
    Russian ships cannot get to the Pacific Ocean without passing the Chukchi Sea and the Bering Strait – both of which are off the coast of Alaska and thus securely under U.S. control.
     
    While the U.S. has only two icebreakers, it could shut down this shipping lane at will because it’s easily the world’s pre-eminent naval power.
     
    It’s more of the same for Russia with access to the Atlantic Ocean. To get to the Atlantic from the Arctic, Russian ships have to traverse waters between Iceland and Greenland, or between Iceland and the United Kingdom.
     
    Either way, it’s the same story – they are still susceptible to blockades from anti-Russian forces.
     
    These uncomfortable geopolitical realities make Russia’s position in the Arctic something of a trap. To make matters worse, with the accelerating Arctic ice melt, Russia’s geopolitical strategy in Europe is melting right along with it.
     
    The core of that strategy has been to establish buffer zones between Moscow and the North European Plain. This strategy is based in part on the idea that Russia has never had to worry about a potential threat to its Arctic coastline, as the Arctic Ocean has always been impossible for its enemies to traverse.
     
    But if Arctic ice melts enough to allow trade in the Arctic Ocean year round – as appears inevitable – that also means enemy navies would have much more room to operate.
     
    This explains why Russia has assumed a defensive posture when it comes to the Arctic.
     
    It also explains why Russia has been relatively cooperative in the region diplomatically.

    #arctique #Russie

    • La question est celle d’une route commerciale maritime. Sur l’axe majeur reliant l’Asie orientale à l’Europe (occidentale). De ce point de vue, les deux extrémités posent problème, les débouchés étant :
      • le détroit de Danemark dont il suffit de rappeler la bataille qui porte ce nom en 1941,…
      • la ligne GIUK et sa matérialisation physique par le SOSUS,
      • la mer du Nord comme sortie de la mer de Norvège, bordée de nations de l’OTAN
      pour l’autre côté, la mer des Tchouktches et la mer de Béring sont effectivement verrouillées comme indiqué dans l’extrait que tu pointes. Quant au reste de la façade orientale, située hors de la route maritime d’ailleurs,
      • la mer d’Okhotsk n’est pas libre de glaces en hiver (pour le moment…)


      • la mer du Japon (Vladivostok) est particulièrement fermée (Tsushima, 1905,…)

      Enfin, on parle ici de périphérie et, de ce point de vue, la facade « ouverte » de la mer de Béring est une périphérie particulièrement extrême. Petropavlosk-Kamtchatski, base des sous-marins russes est un bout du monde absolu. Tout doit y être acheminé d’une distance de plusieurs milliers de kilomètres.

      Voir à ce sujet, les effectifs engagés de part et d’autre dans la (très méconnue) bataille de Pétropavlosk en 1854
      https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Si%C3%A8ge_de_Petropavlovsk
      (comme d’hab’, plus de détail sur WP[en]).

      De même pour les Aléoutiennes, campagne périphérique et manœuvre de diversion pendant la guerre du Pacifique.
      https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Campagne_des_%C3%AEles_Al%C3%A9outiennes

      Quant à la vente de l’Alaska en 1867, on peut rêver – comme pour la Louisiane en 1803, mais on voit mal comment l’un et l’autre auraient pu résister au rouleau compresseur des jeunes États-Unis déferlant à la conquête de l’ouest. De ce point de vue, Alexandre II, comme Napoléon avant lui, a réussi à tirer un peu d’argent d’un territoire dont l’avenir sous son pavillon initial était plutôt désespéré. Imagine les péripéties d’un hypothétique Alaska russe en 1905, en 1917-1921, et après…


  • Exclusive: U.S. sorghum armada U-turns at sea after China tariffs
    https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-trade-china-sorghum-exclusive/exclusive-u-s-sorghum-armada-u-turns-at-sea-after-china-tariffs-idUSKBN1HR0

    Sorghum is a niche animal feed and a tiny slice of the billions of dollars in exports at stake in the trade dispute between the world’s two largest economies, which threatens to disrupt the flow of everything from steel to electronics.

    The supply-chain pain felt by sorghum suppliers on the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian oceans underscores how quickly the mounting trade tensions between the U.S. and China can impact the global agricultural sector, which has been reeling from low commodity prices amid a global grains glut.

    Twenty ships carrying over 1.2 million tonnes of U.S. sorghum are on the water, according to export inspections data from the USDA’s Federal Grain Inspection Service. Of the armada, valued at more than $216 million, at least five changed course within hours of China’s announcing tariffs on U.S. sorghum imports on Tuesday, Reuters shipping data showed.

    #sorgo #guerre_commerciale

    • China-bound U.S. sorghum diverted to Saudi Arabia, Japan | Agricultural Commodities | Reuters
      https://af.reuters.com/article/commoditiesNews/idAFL3N1S126K

      Four U.S. sorghum shipments initially bound for China have been diverted to other countries after Beijing’s move last week to impose hefty anti-dumping deposits on imports of the grain from the United States, according to trade sources and Reuters shipping data.

      Three of the cargoes are now sailing for Saudi Arabia after being sold to a private buyer, a U.S. trader and a Middle East-based trading source with knowledge of the matter said Tuesday. A fourth ship is heading to Japan, according to Reuters shipping data.
      […]
      Saudi Arabia is not a big sorghum importer, but it is the world’s 10th-largest buyer of corn. Some of the sorghum is expected to replace corn in animal feed rations.

      Japan is the second-largest market for U.S. sorghum, well behind top importer China which normally buys about 90 percent of all sorghum exported from the United States.


  • Japanese island’s mud could alter global economy: Study | Business Standard News
    http://www.business-standard.com/article/news-ians/japanese-island-s-mud-could-alter-global-economy-study-1180417002

    An estimated 16 million tonnes of mud containing massive, “semi-infinite” stores of valuable rare earth minerals, found in a small Japanese island in the Pacific Ocean could alter global economy, a new study has revealed.

    According to the study published by a team of Japanese researchers, this huge patch of mineral-rich deep sea mud lies near #Minamitori Island, 1,200 km off the coast of Japan, reports CNN.

    Rare earth minerals contain rare earth elements that are used in high-tech devices like smartphones, missile systems, radar devices and hybrid vehicles.

    For instance, #yttrium, one of the metals included in this recent discovery, can be used to make camera lenses, superconductors and cell phone screens.

    The 16 million tonnes of materials could contain 780 years worth of yttrium, 620 years worth of #europium, 420 years worth of #terbium and 730 years worth of #dysprosium.

    In other words, it “has the potential to supply these materials on a semi-infinite basis to the world”, the study said.

    According to the US Geological Survey, while the minerals are relatively abundant, they have “much less tendency to become concentrated in exploitable ore deposits”, making a find of this scale even more important.

    Most of the world’s supply of (#rare_earth_elements) comes from only a handful of sources,” CNN quoted a USGS report as saying.

    China currently holds a tight grip on the rare earth minerals — controlling about 95 per cent of global rare earths production as of 2015. Because of this, Japan and other countries rely on China to set prices and availability.

    However, Japan has complete economic control over the new supply, and the study said all indications are the new resource “could be exploited in the near future”.

    Even though Minamitori Island is more than a thousand miles away from the Japanese capital, it is still technically a part of Tokyo, in the village of Ogasawara, and falls within Japan’s economic borders.

    #terres_rares #Marcus_Island


  • Ex-U.S. Navy officers face negligent homicide charges over ship collisions
    https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-navy-collisions/u-s-navy-officers-face-possible-homicide-charges-over-ship-collisions-idUSK

    The commanding officers of two U.S. Navy destroyers involved in deadly collisions last year in the Pacific Ocean face courts-martial and military criminal charges including negligent homicide, the U.S. Navy said in a statement on Tuesday.

    Filing charges against the officers marks the Navy’s latest effort to address the problems that led to collisions involving its warships in Asia, in which 17 sailors were killed.

    The Navy has already dismissed several senior officers, including the commander of the Seventh Fleet, as a result of the collisions.

    Evidence supporting the charges against the commanders and several lower-ranking officers who served on the ships will be reviewed soon in investigative hearings, according to the Navy’s statement.

    The announcement of an Article 32 hearing and referral to a court-martial is not intended to and does not reflect a determination of guilt or innocence related to any offenses,” the statement added.

    The commanding officer of the USS John S. McCain guided missile destroyer, which collided with a merchant ship near Singapore in August, faces charges of dereliction of duty, hazarding a vessel and negligent homicide, the statement said.

    The commanding officer and three other officers on the USS Fitzgerald guided missile destroyer, which collided with a Philippine container ship in June, face charges including dereliction of duty, hazarding a vessel and negligent homicide, the Navy said.


  • How much trade transits the South China Sea? | ChinaPower Project

    https://chinapower.csis.org/much-trade-transits-south-china-sea

    The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) estimates that roughly 80 percent of global trade by volume and 70 percent by value is transported by sea. Of that volume, 60 percent of maritime trade passes through Asia, with the South China Sea carrying an estimated one-third of global shipping.1 Its waters are particularly critical for China, Taiwan, Japan, and South Korea, all of which rely on the Strait of Malacca, which connects the South China Sea and, by extension, the Pacific Ocean with the Indian Ocean. As the second-largest economy in the world with over 60 percent of its trade in value traveling by sea, China’s economic security is closely tied to the South China Sea.

    #chine #transport #transport_maritime #commerce_mondial


  • 99% of Australian Green Sea Turtles Studied Turning Female From Climate Change
    https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2018/01/australia-green-sea-turtles-turning-female-climate-change-r

    Since the sex of a sea turtle is determined by the heat of sand incubating their eggs, scientists had suspected they might see slightly more females. Climate change, after all, has driven air and sea temperatures higher, which, in these creatures, favors female offspring. But instead, they found female sea turtles from the Pacific Ocean’s largest and most important green sea turtle rookery now outnumber males by at least 116 to 1.

    #climat #épigénétique #tortues


  • Homeland Security Goes Abroad. Not Everyone Is Grateful. - The New York Times
    https://www.nytimes.com/2017/12/26/world/americas/homeland-security-customs-border-patrol.html

    An estimated 2,000 Homeland Security employees — from Immigration and Customs Enforcement special agents to Transportation Security Administration officials — now are deployed to more than 70 countries around the world.

    Hundreds more are either at sea for weeks at a time aboard Coast Guard ships, or patrolling the skies in surveillance planes above the eastern Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

    The expansion has created tensions with some European countries who say that the United States is trying to export its immigration laws to their territory. But other allies agree with the United States’ argument that its longer reach strengthens international security while preventing a terrorist attack, drug shipment, or human smuggling ring from reaching American soil.

    “Many threats to the homeland begin overseas, and that’s where we need to be,” said James Nealon, the department’s assistant secretary for international engagement.

    #Etats-unis


  • Floating Guantanamos:
    The US Coast Guard is operating floating prisons in the Pacific Ocean, outside US legal protections | Public Radio International
    https://www.pri.org/stories/2017-11-24/us-coast-guard-operating-floating-prisons-pacific-ocean-outside-us-legal

    Now, it turns out, there’s a secret US detention system in the War on Drugs, too — and this one is aboard US Coast Guard cutters sailing in the Pacific Ocean.


  • U.S. Has Three Aircraft Carriers in West Pacific for First Time in a Decade - Bloomberg
    https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-10-26/u-s-has-three-carriers-in-west-pacific-for-first-time-since-07

    The U.S. Navy has three aircraft carriers and their assorted missile-carrying vessels deployed to the western Pacific Ocean for the first time in a decade as tensions with North Korea remain high and President Donald Trump prepares to depart for Asia next week.

    The milestone was reached Wednesday when the USS Nimitz and its strike group entered the Western Pacific region after operating in the Middle East, according to a Navy press release. The USS Theodore Roosevelt strike group, including a cruiser and three destroyers, entered the region Oct. 23, joining the USS Ronald Reagan.

    The high-profile deployments are part of a larger build-up. In addition to the aircraft carrier strike groups, capable of launching Tomahawk cruise missiles, the Navy announced Oct. 13 that the USS Michigan — one the service’s four specialized submarines for carrying as many as 66 Navy SEAL commandos and 154 Tomahawks — arrived in Busan, South Korea.


  • Tsunami carried a million sea creatures from Japan to US west coast | World news | The Guardian
    https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/sep/29/tsunami-carried-million-sea-creatures-from-japan-to-us-west-coast?CMP=f

    The deadly tsunami that struck north-east Japan in 2011 has carried almost 300 species of sea life thousands of miles across the Pacific Ocean to the west coast of the United States.

    In what experts are calling the longest maritime migration ever recorded, an estimated one million creatures – including crustaceans, sea slugs and sea worms – made the 4,800-mile (7,725km) journey on a flotilla of tsunami debris.

    “This has turned out to be one of the biggest unplanned natural experiments in marine biology – perhaps in history,” said John Chapman, an expert at Oregon State University who co-authored a study of the creatures published this week in the journal Science.

    The towering tsunami, triggered by a 9.0 magnitude earthquake on the afternoon of 11 March 2011, generated five million tonnes of debris from the three prefectures of Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima.

    About 70% sank quickly to the ocean floor, according to experts, but countless buoys, docks, boats and other items with buoyancy were swept out to sea.

    Between June 2012 and February this year 289 Japanese species attached to 600 pieces of debris washed up on beaches in the states of Washington, Oregon, California, Alaska and Hawaii, as well as in the Canadian province of British Columbia, according to the study.

    #tsunami #biologie_marine

    Comment le tsunami a provoqué une migration marine massive
    https://www.courrierinternational.com/article/environnement-comment-le-tsunami-provoque-une-migration-marin


  • Why Modern Cartographers Are So Impressed With This 16th-Century Map - Atlas Obscura

    http://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/tlacotapla-map-cartography-accuracy

    Merci à Thierry Joliveau pour le signalement.

    In February 1580, Francisco Gali was headed across Mexico to the Pacific Ocean. A mariner and cartographer who’d crossed the Pacific more than once, he had been living in “New Spain,” as Europeans called that part of the world, and was likely on another official mission that would take him to Asia. To sail out, first he had to make his way down the country’s Atlantic coast to manage a narrower crossing to the Pacific. On his journey, he passed through the coastal towns of the east, where the mayors had a special request of him. Make us a map, they asked.

    #cartographie #cartes_anciennes


  • #SpaceX va envoyer un super-ordinateur dans l’espace
    http://www.latribune.fr/technos-medias/spacex-va-envoyer-un-super-ordinateur-dans-l-espace-747010.html

    La société américaine SpaceX a prévu d’envoyer lundi 14 août sur la Station spatiale internationale (ISS) une cargaison comprenant un super-ordinateur, afin de tester sa capacité à fonctionner dans l’espace pendant un an, dans des conditions extrêmes.

    Le décollage du lanceur #Falcon_9, transportant la capsule Dragon, est prévu à 12h31 (16h31 GMT) depuis la base de Cap Canaveral, en Floride et les conditions météorologiques sont favorables 70%. La capsule Dragon transporte 2,9 tonnes de marchandises, dont un supercalculateur conçu par la société informatique américaine Hewlett Packard Enterprise (HPE).

    Le but de cette mission est de voir si l’ordinateur peut fonctionner dans des conditions extrêmes dans l’espace pendant un an, la durée qu’il faudrait à des astronautes pour atteindre Mars.

    Plus les astronautes parcourent de longues distances, plus le délai de transmission des communications devient important. Il faudrait au moins 20 minutes pour que des messages envoyés depuis Mars atteignent la Terre et autant de temps dans l’autre sens.

    « Un tel délai de communication rendrait toute exploration sur le terrain compliquée et potentiellement dangereuse si les astronautes sont confrontés à des scénarios de mission cruciaux qu’ils ne seraient pas en mesure de résoudre par eux-mêmes », explique le vice-président de HPE, Alain Andreoli, dans un communiqué.

    • SpaceX’s Dragon capsule successfully attached to ISS | TechCrunch
      https://techcrunch.com/2017/08/16/spacexs-dragon-capsule-successfully-attached-to-iss

      SpaceX’s latest International Space Station Resupply mission has completed its latest step, with the Dragon capsule launched on Monday loaded with over 6,400 pounds of supplies successfully docked. Dragon met up with the ISS early Wednesday morning, roughly 36 hours after launching from Kennedy Space Center aboard a Falcon 9 rocket.

      The Dragon capsule, whose payload includes experiments including a novel software-hardened HP supercomputer designed for eventual use in a Mars mission, was captured by the ISS’s robotic Canadarm appendage after matching orbit with the ISS as planned. The capsule will now remain docked at the ISS for roughly a month, as astronauts work to unload its cargo of supplies and experiments.

      Dragon will also be reloaded with 3,000 pounds of cargo destined for a return to Earth, including experimental results being ferried back for examination by researchers and scientists on the ground. The capsule will de-orbit and then splash down in the Pacific Ocean for recovery if all goes as planned.

      This is the last new Dragon capsule SpaceX will use for ISS resupply, if all goes to the private space company’s plan: from here out, SpaceX hopes to use only refurbished, reused Dragons it has flown and recovered before to run CRS missions for NASA.

    • SpaceX lands another one of its Falcon 9 rockets on solid ground - The Verge
      https://www.theverge.com/2017/8/14/16143306/spacex-falcon-9-rocket-launch-ground-landing-nasa-iss

      SpaceX has landed yet another one of its Falcon 9 rockets after launching the vehicle into space this afternoon. The rocket took off from Cape Canaveral, Florida, at 12:31PM ET, bound for the International Space Station. Around eight minutes after takeoff, the majority of the vehicle landed back on solid ground off the Florida coast. It marks the 14th successful rocket landing for SpaceX, and the sixth time a Falcon 9 has successfully touched on solid ground post-launch.

      In fact, SpaceX has yet to lose a rocket during a ground landing. The company has lost a few vehicles during ocean landings, when the rockets attempted to touch down on autonomous drone ships at sea. But all six Falcon 9s that have landed on solid ground have touched down just fine at SpaceX’s Landing Zone 1 — a ground-based landing site at Cape Canaveral.



  • Climate change causes glacial river in Yukon to change direction - Technology & Science - CBC News
    http://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/climate-change-yukon-river-piracy-1.4070153?cmp=rss

    Climate change has caused the massive Kaskawulsh Glacier in the Yukon to retreat so much that its meltwater abruptly switched direction, in the first documented case of “river piracy” in modern times.

    Instead of flowing into the Slims River and then north to the Bering Sea, the water has changed course and now flows south toward the Kaskawulsh River, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean, scientists have found.

    Also known as stream capture, river piracy is a term used to describe a geologic phenomenon where a stream or river is diverted toward another body of water. It’s usually caused by a dramatic tectonic event, such as a landslide or glacial dam collapse.

    #climat #rivière


  • The geology of the Beagle voyage | Darwin Correspondence Project
    https://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/commentary/geology/geology-beagle-voyage

    Via Phil Taylor‏ @ScienceAndMaps sur Twitter

    The primary concern that linked much of Darwin’s geological work in the Beagle years was to understand the changing relation between the levels of land and sea. In this he followed the example of the Scottish geologist Charles Lyell, whose three-volume Principles of Geology Darwin read during the voyage. Lyell argued that the history of movements in the earth’s crust should be (and could be) explained as the result of earthquakes, volcanoes, erosion, and other processes operating at the same intensity in the past as they did in the present. The earth had existed for long enough, Lyell claimed, that an accumulation of small changes could have enormous effects, even the raising of new continents from the ocean. As Darwin studied the shores of South America and discovered shells inland at thousands of feet above sea level, he became convinced that the continent had been uplifted in just such a gradual manner. His conviction was strengthened in February 1835, when he was witness to an earthquake that raised the harbour at Concepcion, Chile, several feet out of the Pacific Ocean.

    #cartographie #esquisses


  • How has map reading changed since the 1600s? | OUPblog

    https://blog.oup.com/2017/01/map-reading-1600s-gps-literacy

    iteracy in the United States was never always just about reading, writing, and arithmetic. Remember in the 1980s and 1990s the angst about children becoming “computer literate”? The history of literacy is largely about various types of skills one had to learn depending on the era in which they lived. Some kept their name, but changed in substance. Map literacy is one of those.

    When colonists began occupying the North American continent in the 1600s, it soon proved essential to know how to draw a map, such as of the boundaries of one’s farm or town, and to be able to read a map. When Thomas Jefferson completed the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, the first thing he did after recovering from sticker shock—the deal had cost 50% more than the annual budget for the entire federal government—was to immediately send a team of soldiers and scouts to map what he had just purchased. His Louis and Clark Expedition developed some of the initial maps of the continent from Virginia to the Pacific Ocean. For the rest of the 1800s when it was not fighting wars or Indians, the US Army mapped in detail the United States.

    #cartographie #sémiologie #sémantique


  • Plongée dans mes archives de novembre 2004 (eh oui, je garde tout!).

    George W. Bush est réélu le 2 novembre contre John Kerry (et Ralph Nader dans le rôle de Jill Stein) alors que son bilan est terrible et que “tout le monde” pense la victoire de Kerry nécessaire et évidente...

    Les articles du New-York Times pourraient être publiés ces jours ci en changeant juste quelques noms propres, si ça vous amuse de les relire...

    Si l’analyse est bonne (mais ça se discute toujours: est-ce la “faute” des pauvres, incultes, sexistes et racistes, qui votent mal ou de l’establishment démocrate dans sa tour d’ivoire qui a perdu le contact avec la réalité?), les leçons, douze ans après, ne semblent pas avoir été tirées.

    D’autre part, l’un des articles (et un autre de Michael Moore que je n’inclue pas ici) insiste sur le fait que les jeunes, eux, ont “bien” voté, sous entendant que le vote républicain est un vote du passé et que l’avenir appartient aux démocrates. Douze ans plus tard, les jeunes sont devenus vieux et la promesse n’a pas été tenue...

    Op-Ed Columnist: Living Poor, Voting Rich
    NICHOLAS D. KRISTOF, The New York Times Company, November 3, 2004
    http://www.nytimes.com/2004/11/03/opinion/living-poor-voting-rich.html
    =================================================
    OP-ED CONTRIBUTOR: The Day the Enlightenment Went Out
    GARRY WILLS, The New-York Times, November 4, 2004
    http://www.nytimes.com/2004/11/04/opinion/the-day-the-enlightenment-went-out.html?_r=0
    ===============================================
    The Red Zone
    MAUREEN DOWD, The New-York Times, 4 November 2004
    http://www.nytimes.com/2004/11/04/opinion/the-red-zone.html
    ============================================
    A Blue City (Disconsolate, Even) Bewildered by a Red America
    JOSEPH BERGER, The New-York Times, November 4, 2004
    http://www.nytimes.com/2004/11/04/nyregion/a-blue-city-disconsolate-even-bewildered-by-a-red-america.html
    ==============================================
    Scrooge’s nightmare
    Leonard Steinhorn, Salon, November 25, 2004
    http://www.salon.com/2004/11/25/new_silent_majority
    =================================================
    On recevait aussi à l’époque des messages plus ou moins humoristiques sur la situation. Aujourd’hui ce serait plutôt sur Facebook, mais ce sont à peu près les mêmes:

    Blue America Charter
    Barbara Moran and Brian Collins, November 3, 2004

    Fellow citizens!

    It gives me great happiness to unveil our plans for the liberation of Blue America. For the past three years, we have, in conjunction with a handful of MIT engineers, been constructing a giant, cordless circular saw, which is now complete. With this saw, we plan to carve our thriving, prosperous eastern Blue nation away from the spreading infection of red america. We will then set a mighty sail, which will carry us around the tip of South America and allow us to join our Blue compadres on the West Coast. We will use our giant saw to free our friends, then join our two lands together and sail to a designated point in the Pacific Ocean. There, we will establish our new country: Blue America.

    Basic Tenets
    -----------------
    Blue America will be founded on the same ideals as the former United States of America. These ideals, sadly, have been decimated by the same red plague that scrambled the brains of so many of our unfortunate former fellow-citizens. These ideals include:
    - The Separation of Church and State
    - Freedom of Speech
    - Freedom of Assembly and Protest
    - Equal rights for all and due process under the Constitution

    Blue America will have many additional aspirations not shared by red america, including:
    - The goal of giving every citizen high quality education and health care (even prescription drugs!), regardless of their race, ethnic background or income
    - The right to a satisfying career with fair pay, job security and an eight-hour workday
    - Respect for other cultures and honesty in our dealings with other countries
    - The right to worship the deity of your choice (or not)
    - Family values, meaning the right of anyone to form a family if they wish
    - Compassion for the poor and sick
    - Belief in the value of: fresh food, recycling, renewable energy, independent bookstores and movie theatres, literacy, the free exchange of ideas, clean air, clean water, sushi, Julia Child cookbooks, Scrabble, humor, honesty, exercise, art, poetry, community gardens, mass transit, local cheese, the scientific process, the theory of Evolution, national parks, bicycles, music, sidewalks, trees, books, family farms, locally-owned diners with revolving pie cabinets, and decent coffee.

    Membership
    -----------------
    Membership in Blue America will be limited to residents of states that voted “blue” in the 2004 election, with the following exceptions:

    1. Red “carriers” (or “vectors”) who are currently living in Blue America are kindly asked to leave before the liberation.
    2. Members of certain Blue outposts in red america (like Austin, Texas) will be allowed to apply for Blue America citizenship.
    3. Members of Blue outposts in Ohio (Oberlin) will also be allowed to apply for citizenship. However, if accepted they must accept a one-year probationary period. Similarly, members of Blue outposts in Florida (South Beach) will also be allowed to apply, but must accept a two-year probationary period.
    4. Members of the Bush family are excluded for life, as are members of the Bush cabinet and all Fox News anchors, and Kid Rock. (Sorry, Colin Powell, but you had your chance.)

    Sports
    ---------
    The first official sports team of Blue America will be the Boston Red Sox (hereby re-named the Boston Blue Sox). However, red propagandist Curt Schilling will be cut from the Sox and banished to the worst team in baseball. Also, we’ll take Derek Jeter, if he’s interested.

    Timetable
    --------------
    Engineers have already begun separating northern Maine from the continent. We plan to be fully liberated and set sail on Blue Inauguration day, January 21, 2005. Pack your guitars, books and Hawaiian shirts, and let’s hear it for the blue, white and blue!

    Bring on the saw!
    Barb and Brian
    ===============================================
    Disaffected Americans look north to ’better government’
    MARINA JIMÉNEZ, 4 November 2004

    Some Americans are willing to do anything to avoid another four years of George W. Bush — even move to Canada.

    Joe Auerbach is so disappointed with Mr. Bush’s election victory that he is planning to give up a job as a systems analyst and leave his comfortable life in Columbus, Ohio, to move to a country with “a better government and more reasonable people.”

    “Today, once the Bush victory was clear, my e-mail was burning up with people vowing to leave the U.S. for Canada,” said Mr. Auerbach, 27.

    “I don’t want to be living in the U.S. when China decides we are a threat and when George Bush starts drafting computer engineers into the army. I’m morally opposed to the Bush administration.”

    He and several other disenchanted Americans are contacting immigration lawyers north of the border to see whether they qualify to immigrate to Canada. It is too soon to say whether this is political hot air or the start of a new trend in immigration.

    But among some middle-class, liberal Americans, there is a growing sense of political disengagement as they realize the majority of their fellow citizens support the conservative agenda of Mr. Bush, who received 51 per cent of the popular vote, winning more votes than any other president in U.S. history.

    “Mr. Auerbach is one of many middle-class Americans who have a philosophical difference with the direction the U.S. is taking,” said Sergio Karas, a Toronto immigration lawyer. “I have received several inquiries from people like him who want to move here.”

    Jacqueline Bart, a Toronto immigration lawyer, said she recently attended a conference in New York and more than a dozen U.S. lawyers asked her about sending their children to study in Canada. “There is a sense of hesitation about the direction Bush is taking the country in,” she said.

    Clyde Williamson, a libertarian from Ohio, feels the Bush administration is too conservative on social-justice issues such as gay rights, abortion and the medicinal use of marijuana. He is also opposed to the U.S.-led war in Iraq.

    “I don’t think the U.S. is going to turn into Nazi Germany or anything. But it is going to become a much more conservative country,” said the 29-year-old computer-security engineer.

    Others feel Mr. Bush’s unilateralist foreign policy is more troubling even than his social conservatism. A former U.S. diplomat who has already applied for permanent-resident status said yesterday that Mr. Bush’s election victory has accelerated his determination to relocate permanently to Vancouver.

    “I’m watching this administration preside over the virtual destruction of relations with the Muslim world — and, I fear, end up strengthening the forces of terrorism as a result,” he said.

    “The values of Canada are what I thought the values of the U.S. used to be: personal freedoms, a sense of need for a global community and consensus. The U.S. is losing its way.”

    A Toronto lawyer representing three U.S. soldiers who have fled to Canada to avoid fighting in Iraq said Mr. Bush’s re-election means more U.S. deserters are likely to seek refugee status north of the border.

    Jeffry House, a Vietnam-era draft-dodger who is steering the refugee claims of the three young men, says he has received about 80 e-mails from other U.S. soldiers stationed around the world, inquiring about escaping to Canada to avoid serving in Iraq. At least five U.S. soldiers are believed to have fled to Canada.

    Maria Iadinardi, spokeswoman for Citizenship and Immigration Canada, said it is too soon to say whether there has been a spike in the number of Americans being granted permanent residency, noting the number has fluctuated in recent years from a low of 4,437 in 1998 to a high of 5,604 in 2001.

    So far this year, 5,353 Americans have become permanent residents.
    ==============================================
    “Ladies and gentlemen, drop your borders: Now that George W. Bush has been officially elected, single, sexy, American liberals - already a threatened species - will be desperate to escape. These lonely, afraid (did we mention really hot?) progressives will need a safe haven. You can help. Open your heart, and your home. Marry an American. Legions of Canadians have already pledged to sacrifice their singlehood to save our southern neighbours from four more years of cowboy conservatism...” To be continued on:
    http://www.marryanamerican.ca
    =====================================
    “As democracy is perfected, the office of president represents, more and more closely, the inner soul of the people. On some great and glorious day the plain folks of the land will reach their heart’s desire at last and the White House will be adorned by a downright moron.”
    –- H.L. Mencken, journalist and satirist (1880-1956)
    ==============================================
    THINGS WE SHOULD DO NOW WHILE WE STILL CAN

    Get that abortion you’ve always wanted
    Drink a nice clean glass of water
    Two words - doggy style
    Cash your social security check
    See a doctor of your own choosing
    Hug your draft age child
    Visit Syria, or any foreign country for that matter
    Get that gas mask you’ve been putting off buying
    Move out of the red states
    Horde gas
    Buy all the porn you can carry
    Borrow questionable books from the library - constitutional law books, Catcher
    in the Rye, Harry Potter, Tropic of Cancer
    If you have an idea for an art piece involving a crucifix - do it now
    Two words - come out - then go back in - HURRY!
    Jam in all the Alzheimer’s stem cell research you can
    Stay out late before the curfews start
    Get within 6 feet of a stripper in a state where its still allowed
    Go see Bruce Springsteen before he has his “accident”
    Go see Mount Rushmore before the “W” addition
    Use the phrase - “you can’t do that - this is America”
    If you’re white - marry a black person, if you’re black - marry a white person.
    If you’re gay, learn to pass.
    Take a snowmobile-noise free walk in Yosemite, without being hit by a base-jumper.
    Enroll your kid in art or music class
    Start your school day “without” a prayer
    Pass on secrets of evolution to future genes
    Learn French
    Let’s go and live in France.
    Attend a commitment ceremony with your gay friends.
    Take a factory tour anywhere in the US.
    Try to take photographs of animals on the endangered species list.
    Visit Florida before the polar ice caps melt.
    Visit Nevada before it becomes radioactive.
    Visit Alaska before “The Big Spill”.
    Visit Massachusetts while it is still a State.
    =================================================
    Et deux sites web qui sont encore valables, 12 ans plus tard:

    http://www.sorryeverybody.com
    http://www.apologiesaccepted.com

    #Etats-Unis #Donald_Trump #Hillary_Clinton #George_Bush #John_Kerry #2016 #2004 #histoire #élections_présidentielles


  • The Northwest Passage: Navigating Old Beliefs and New Realities

    One of the greatest stories of exploration and discovery is the quest for the Northwest Passage, an oceanic shortcut from the Atlantic to the Pacific across the top of North America. Tempted with the prospect of wealth and glory, countless seafarers gambled—and occasionally lost—their lives in pursuit of a route through the frozen bays and rivers at the farthest reaches of Arctic North America. Early interest in the Northwest Passage was spurred by the allure of trade goods from regions accessible via the Pacific Ocean, such as China and Spice Islands. Given the Spanish and Portuguese control of the trade routes around the tips of South America and Africa, the search for Northern passages to the Pacific was an obvious undertaking for European countries like Great Britain and the Netherlands.


    http://oshermaps.org/exhibitions/arctic-exploration
    #passage_du_nord_ouest #cartographie #histoire #cartographie_historique #navigation #arctique
    via @jcfichet


    • Trump’s Border Wall Could Impact an Astonishing 10,000 Species

      The list, put together by a team led by Dr. Gerardo J. Ceballos González of National Autonomous University of Mexico, includes 42 species of amphibians, 160 reptiles, 452 bird species and 187 mammals. Well-known species in the region include the jaguar, Sonoran pronghorn, North American river otter and black bear.


      http://therevelator.org/trump-border-wall-10000-species

    • Border Security Fencing and Wildlife: The End of the Transboundary Paradigm in Eurasia?

      The ongoing refugee crisis in Europe has seen many countries rush to construct border security fencing to divert or control the flow of people. This follows a trend of border fence construction across Eurasia during the post-9/11 era. This development has gone largely unnoticed by conservation biologists during an era in which, ironically, transboundary cooperation has emerged as a conservation paradigm. These fences represent a major threat to wildlife because they can cause mortality, obstruct access to seasonally important resources, and reduce effective population size. We summarise the extent of the issue and propose concrete mitigation measures.

      http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.1002483
      #faune #Europe #Europe_centrale #Europe_de_l'Est #cartographie #visualisation

    • Rewriting biological history: Trump border wall puts wildlife at risk

      Mexican conservationists are alarmed over Trump’s wall, with the loss of connectivity threatening already stressed bison, pronghorn, bighorn sheep, bears and other animals.
      About one-third of the border, roughly 700 miles, already has fencing; President Trump has been pushing a controversial plan to fence the remainder.
      A wall running the entire nearly 2,000-mile frontier from the Pacific Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico, conservationists warn, would be catastrophic for borderland ecosystems and many wildlife species, undoing years of environmental cooperation between the two countries to protect animals that must move freely or die.
      The wall is currently a key bargaining chip, and a sticking point, in ongoing immigration legislation negotiations taking place this week in Congress. Also expected this week: a federal court ruling on whether the administration can legally waive environmental laws to expedite border wall construction.


      https://news.mongabay.com/2018/02/rewriting-biological-history-trump-border-wall-puts-wildlife-at-risk
      #bisons

    • A Land Divided

      The national debate about border security doesn’t often dwell on the natural environment, but hundreds of miles of public lands, including six national parks, sit along the U.S.-Mexico border. What will happen to these lands — and the wildlife and plants they protect — if a wall or additional fences and barriers are built along the frontier?


      https://www.npca.org/articles/1770-a-land-divided
      #parcs_nationaux

    • R ULES C OMMITTEE P RINT 115–66 T EXT OF THE H OUSE A MENDMENT TO THE S ENATE A MENDMENT TO H.R. 1625

      US spending bill requires “an analysis, following consultation with the Secretary of the Interior and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, of the environmental impacts, including on wildlife, of the construction and placement of physical barriers” (p 677)

      http://docs.house.gov/billsthisweek/20180319/BILLS-115SAHR1625-RCP115-66.pdf
      Extrait partagé par Reece Jones sur twitter
      https://twitter.com/reecejhawaii/status/977304504700780544

    • Activists Vow Fight as Congress Funds Portions of Border Wall

      Last week Congress voted to appropriate some monies to build new fortifications along the United States–Mexico border, but border activists in the Rio Grande Valley say the fight against President Donald Trump’s border wall is far from over.

      The nearly $1.6 billion in border wall funding included in the omnibus spending bill that Trump signed Friday provides for the construction of some 33 miles of new walls, all in Texas’s ecologically important Rio Grande Valley. Those walls will tear through communities, farms and ranchland, historic sites, and thousands of acres of protected wildlife habitat, while creating flooding risks on both sides of the border. But far from admitting defeat, border activists have already begun mapping out next steps to pressure Congress to slow down or even halt the wall’s construction.

      https://www.sierraclub.org/sierra/activists-vow-fight-congress-funds-portions-border-wall

    • State attorney general, environmental group to appeal decision on Trump’s border wall

      A ruling by a San Diego federal judge allowing construction of President Donald Trump’s border wall to go ahead will be appealed by two entities that opposed it, including the state Attorney General.

      Both the Center for Biological Diversity and Attorney General Xavier Becerra filed formal notices of appeal on Monday seeking to reverse a decision in February from U.S District Court Judge Gonzalo Curiel. The judge ruled that the Trump administration did not abuse its discretion in waiving environmental laws in its rush to begin border wall projects along the southwest border.

      The center had said after the ruling it would appeal, and Becerra also hinted the state would seek appellate court review at the Ninth U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals.

      The notices declare an intent to appeal. They do not outline arguments to be made on appeal or why each group believe that Curiel got it wrong.

      In a prepared statement Becerra said, “When we said that a medieval wall along the U.S.-Mexico border does not belong in the 21st century, we meant it. There are environmental and public health laws in place, and we continue to believe that the Trump Administration is violating those laws. We will not stand idly by. We are committed to protecting our people, our values and our economy from federal overreach.”

      The lawsuits challenged a law that allowed the federal government not to comply with environmental and other laws and regulations when building border security projects. They argued the law was outdated and Congress never intended for it to be an open-ended waiver for all border projects, and contended it violated constitutional provisions of separation of powers and states’ rights.

      In his decision Curiel said both that the law was constitutional and it gave the Department of Homeland Security wide latitude over border security.

      Justice Department spokesman Devin O’Malley said in response to the Curiel ruling that the administration was pleased DHS “can continue this important work vital to our nation’s interest.”

      “Border security is paramount to stemming the flow of illegal immigration that contributes to rising violent crime and to the drug crisis, and undermines national security,” O’Malley said.

      http://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/news/public-safety/sd-me-border-appeal-20180409-story.html

    • Les murs n’arrêtent pas que les humains

      Des États-Unis à la Malaisie, en passant par Israël ou la Hongrie, les hommes construisent de multiples murs pour contraindre les déplacements de nos semblables. N’oublions pas, explique l’auteur de cette tribune, que nous ne sommes pas les seuls à habiter la Terre et donc à pâtir de ces barrières.

      La #forêt_de_Bialowieza a quelque chose de mythique et de sacré. Âgée de plus de 8.000 ans, elle est la dernière forêt primaire d’Europe. S’étalant sur 150.000 hectares entre la Pologne et la Biélorussie, inaccessible aux visiteurs sans guide assermenté, elle constitue un sanctuaire d’espèces témoignant de la richesse des mondes anciens. Le bison d’Europe y vit encore de manière naturelle, côtoyant élans, cerfs, loups, lynx, etc.

      En 1981, à l’époque du rideau de fer, l’URSS a décidé de clôturer la frontière entre la Pologne et la Biélorussie, coupant à travers cette forêt et séparant en deux la dernière population de bisons d’Europe (environ 500 individus de part et d’autre). Cette clôture est symboliquement forte, car elle témoigne de la coupure existentielle (« ontologique », diraient les philosophes) que les humains se sont imposée vis-à-vis des autres êtres vivants. Ces derniers semblent ne pas exister à nos yeux.

      Mais cette séparation est plus que symbolique, elle est concrète. Les murs dressés par l’espèce humaine représentent une menace importante et sous-estimée pour de nombreux êtres vivants non humains.
      Murs de béton, de pierre, de boue, de sable ou de brique, de barbelés, de grilles en acier ou de clôtures électrifiées

      On en trouve surtout aux frontières : entre les États-Unis et le Mexique, la Corée du Nord et du Sud, Israël et la Cisjordanie, la Malaisie et la Thaïlande, l’Inde et le Pakistan, l’Iran et l’Irak, la Chine et la Mongolie, le Botswana et le Zimbabwe, etc. Ils prennent la forme de murs de béton, de pierre, de boue, de sable ou de brique, de barbelés, de grilles en acier ou de clôtures électrifiées, et viennent accompagnés de routes, de casernes, de lumières et de bruits. Leur nombre a considérablement augmenté depuis les attentats du 11 septembre 2001. Par exemple en Eurasie (sans le Moyen-Orient), il existe aujourd’hui plus de 30.000 km de murs, grillages et barbelés aux frontières.

      Ces murs affectent évidemment les populations humaines en brisant les trajectoires personnelles de millions de personnes. Ils affectent aussi les autres espèces [1]. À Białowieża, par exemple, la séparation a empêché les flux génétiques (et a donc fragilisé) des populations de bisons, d’ours, de loups et de lynx. Pire, 25 ans après la destruction du rideau de fer entre l’Allemagne et la République tchèque, les jeunes cerfs (qui n’avaient jamais vu de clôtures) ne traversaient toujours pas la frontière [2].

      En mai 2018 paraissait dans la revue Bioscience un article cosigné par dix-huit grands noms de l’étude et de la protection de la biodiversité (dont Edward O. Wilson) et signé par 2.500 scientifiques, qui alertait sur les « conséquences inattendues mais importantes » de ces murs frontaliers sur la biodiversité [3]. Ce cri d’alarme n’est pas le premier [4], mais il résume bien l’état des lieux de la recherche, et aussi l’état de préoccupation des chercheurs.
      Lorsque les habitats se fragmentent, les territoires des populations se réduisent

      Les murs nuisent à la biodiversité de plusieurs façons. Premièrement, ils peuvent blesser ou tuer des animaux directement, quand ils s’emmêlent dans les fils barbelés, sont électrocutés ou marchent sur des mines antipersonnelles.

      Deuxièmement, ils fragmentent et dégradent les habitats. Par exemple la frontière de 3.200 km entre le Mexique et les États-Unis traverse les aires de répartition géographique de 1.506 espèces natives (parmi lesquelles 1.077 espèces animales) dont 62 sont sur la liste des espèces en danger. Le mur menace cinq régions particulièrement riches en biodiversité (on les nomme « hotspots ») qui retiennent presque tous les efforts de conservation et de « réensauvagement » (rewilding). Lorsque les habitats se fragmentent, les territoires des populations se réduisent, et le nombre d’espèces présentes sur ces petites surfaces se réduit plus que proportionnellement, rendant ainsi les populations plus vulnérables, par exemple aux variations climatiques. Les clôtures frontalières contribuent aussi à accroître la mortalité de la faune sauvage en facilitant la tâche des braconniers, en perturbant les migrations et la reproduction, et en empêchant l’accès à la nourriture et à l’eau. Par exemple, le mouton bighorn (une espèce en danger) migrait naturellement entre la Californie et le Mexique mais ne peut aujourd’hui plus accéder aux points d’eau et aux sites de naissance qu’il avait l’habitude de fréquenter.

      Troisièmement, ces murs annulent les effets bénéfiques des millions de dollars investis dans la recherche et les mesures de conservation de la biodiversité. Les scientifiques témoignent aussi du fait qu’ils sont souvent l’objet d’intimidations, de harcèlements ou de ralentissements volontaires de la part des officiers responsables de la sécurité des frontières.

      Enfin, quatrièmement, les politiques de sécurité mises en place récemment font passer les lois environnementales au deuxième plan, quand elles ne sont pas simplement bafouées ou oubliées.
      Des centaines de kilomètres de clôtures de sécurité aux frontières extérieures et intérieures de l’UE

      Le double phénomène migrations/clôtures n’est pas prêt de s’arrêter. En 2015, un afflux exceptionnel d’êtres humains fuyant leurs pays en direction de l’Europe a conduit plusieurs États membres à réintroduire ou renforcer les contrôles aux frontières, notamment par la construction rapide de centaines de kilomètres de clôtures de sécurité aux frontières extérieures et intérieures de l’UE. Le réchauffement climatique et l’épuisement des ressources seront dans les années à venir des causes majeures de guerres, d’épidémies et de famines, forçant toujours plus d’humains à migrer. Les animaux seront aussi de la partie, comme en témoigne la progression vers le nord des moustiques tigres, qui charrient avec eux des maladies qui n’existaient plus dans nos régions, ou encore l’observation du loup en Belgique en mars 2018 pour la troisième fois depuis des siècles…

      Les accords entre pays membres de l’Union européenne au sujet des migrations humaines seront-ils mis en place à temps ? Résisteront-ils aux changements et aux catastrophes à venir ? Quel poids aura la « #Convention_des_espèces_migrantes » (censée réguler le flux des animaux) face aux migrations humaines ?

      En septembre 2017, un bison d’Europe a été aperçu en Allemagne. C’était la première fois depuis 250 ans qu’un représentant sauvage de cette espèce traversait spontanément la frontière allemande. Il a été abattu par la police.

      https://reporterre.net/Les-murs-n-arretent-pas-que-les-humains
      #Bialowieza

    • Les murs de séparation nuisent aussi à la #faune et la #flore

      3419 migrants sont décédés en Méditerranée en tentant de rejoindre Malte ou l’Italie. C’est ce que révèle un rapport du Haut commissariat des Nations unies pour les réfugiés publié le 10 décembre. Il y a les barrières naturelles, et les murs artificiels. Pendant deux mois, le web-documentaire Connected Walls s’attaque aux murs de séparation entre quatre continents : le mur entre l’Amérique du Nord et l’Amérique latine incarné par les grillages entre les Etats-Unis et le Mexique, celui entre l’Europe et l’Afrique incarné par les barbelés qui séparent les enclaves espagnoles du Maroc. Tous les 10 jours, Connected Walls publie un nouveau documentaire de cinq minutes sur une thématique choisie par les internautes. Cette semaine, ils ont sélectionné la thématique « animal ».

      Cette semaine, sur Connected-Walls,Valeria Fernandez (USA) et Fidel Enriquez (Mexico) ont suivi John Ladd dont la famille possède un ranch dans l’Arizona, à la frontière mexicaine, depuis cinq générations. Depuis la construction du mur frontalier en 2007, les choses ont changé pour lui et pour les animaux.

      De leur côté, Irene Gutierrez (Espagne) et Youssef Drissi (Maroc) ont rencontré Adam Camara, un jeune de Guinée Équatoriale qui a tenté de traverser plusieurs fois le détroit entre le Maroc et l’Espagne. Lors de sa dernière tentative, il a reçu l’aide d’un mystérieux ami.
      Pour chaque thématique, un partenaire associatif a carte blanche pour rédiger une tribune. Celle-ci a été rédigée par Dan Millis, de l’organisation écologiste Sierra Club :

      « Les animaux se moquent bien des frontières politiques. Le jaguar de Sonora n’a pas de passeport, et le canard morillon cancane avec le même accent, qu’il soit à Ceuta ou dans la forêt de Jbel Moussa. Les murs et les barrières ont cependant un impact considérable sur la faune et la flore. Par exemple, les rennes de l’ancienne Tchécoslovaquie ne franchissent jamais la ligne de l’ancien Rideau de Fer, alors même que cette barrière a disparu depuis 25 ans et qu’aucun des rennes vivant aujourd’hui ne l’a jamais connue. Les quelques 1000 kilomètres de barrières et de murs séparant les États-Unis et le Mexique détruisent et fragmentent l’habitat sauvage, en bloquant les couloirs de migration essentiels à la survie de nombreuses espèces. Une étude réalisée grâce à des caméras installées au niveau des refuges et des zones de vie naturellement fréquentés par la faune en Arizona a montré que des animaux comme le puma et le coati sont bloqués par les murs des frontières, alors que les humains ne le sont pas. »


      https://www.bastamag.net/Connected-Walls-le-webdocumentaire-4545
      #wildelife

    • Border Fences and their Impacts on Large Carnivores, Large Herbivores and Biodiversity: An International Wildlife Law Perspective

      Fences, walls and other barriers are proliferating along international borders on a global scale. These border fences not only affect people, but can also have unintended but important consequences for wildlife, inter alia by curtailing migrations and other movements, by fragmenting populations and by causing direct mortality, for instance through entanglement. Large carnivores and large herbivores are especially vulnerable to these impacts. This article analyses the various impacts of border fences on wildlife around the world from a law and policy perspective, focusing on international wildlife law in particular. Relevant provisions from a range of global and regional legal instruments are identified and analysed, with special attention for the Bonn Convention on Migratory Species and the European Union Habitats Directive.

      https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/reel.12169

    • Border Security Fencing and Wildlife: The End of the Transboundary Paradigm in Eurasia?

      The ongoing refugee crisis in Europe has seen many countries rush to construct border security fencing to divert or control the flow of people. This follows a trend of border fence construction across Eurasia during the post-9/11 era. This development has gone largely unnoticed by conservation biologists during an era in which, ironically, transboundary cooperation has emerged as a conservation paradigm. These fences represent a major threat to wildlife because they can cause mortality, obstruct access to seasonally important resources, and reduce effective population size. We summarise the extent of the issue and propose concrete mitigation measures.


      https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.1002483

    • Butterfly Preserve On The Border Threatened By Trump’s Wall

      The National Butterfly Center, a 100-acre wildlife center and botanical garden in South Texas, provides a habitat for more than 100 species of butterflies.

      It also sits directly in the path of the Trump administration’s proposed border wall.

      The federal spending bill approved in September includes $1.6 billion in 2019 for construction of the wall. In October, the Department of Homeland Security issued a waiver to 28 laws protecting public lands, wildlife and the environment to clear the way for construction to proceed.

      https://www.npr.org/2018/11/01/660671247/butterfly-preserve-on-the-border-threatened-by-trumps-wall
      #papillons


  • Photos: U.S. Navy Shows Off Seabasing Ops with USNS Montford Point - gCaptain
    https://gcaptain.com/photos-u-s-navy-shows-off-new-seabasing-capabilities-with-usns-montford-po


    Photo: MSC

    The U.S. Military Sealift Command’s (MSC) expeditionary transfer dock USNS Montford Point (T-ESD 1) showed off some “skin-to-skin” maneuvers last week in the Pacific Ocean, part of the U.S. Navy’s new seabasing capabilities.
    […]
    The U.S. Navy considers Montford Point’s flexibility critical for humanitarian response to natural disasters and for support to warfighters ashore. The size of the ship allows for 25,000 square feet of vehicle and equipment stowage space and 380,000 gallons of JP-5 fuel storage.