• #Équateur : les #gauches, l’extractivisme et la transition – CONTRETEMPS
    https://www.contretemps.eu/equateur-gauche-extractivisme-transition
    #extractivisme

    En fin de compte, la mise en évidence de deux (et même de trois, avec celle de Hervas) options à gauche, à la faveur des élections équatoriennes, n’est pas une anomalie ni même une phase transitoire avant une prise de conscience, suivie d’un alignement derrière le candidat « naturel », mais l’état réel du champ politique. En Équateur comme ailleurs. Et depuis toujours[45]. Il n’y a pas unité, mais des convergences possibles ; en fonction et à la chaleur des luttes.

    Plutôt donc que d’entériner une union fantasmée et un peuple homogène, il faut partir du dissensus. Et de ce qui le fonde : la pluralité des acteurs et des intérêts, l’hétérogénéité des mouvements, les stratégies et visions différentes sur des enjeux, au premier rang desquels, en Amérique latine, l’extractivisme. À partir de là, il devient alors possible de penser les conditions du débat et, au-delà celles des alliances et convergences, ainsi que les limites et impasses des expériences précédentes, les chances d’une transition et d’une rupture[46].

    Même s’il n’est pas présent au second tour, les près de 20% qu’a récoltés la candidature de Yaku Pérez témoignent de l’autonomie et de la force acquises par le #mouvement_indigène au cours de ces dernières années. Son programme constitue l’expression actuelle, jusque dans ses tensions et contradictions, ses faiblesses et ses manques, du mouvement #indigène : métissage de discours de classe et ethnique, associés aux demandes écologiques, et mis en œuvre dans une politique qui cherche à tirer parti des opportunités[47]. Quant à Andrés Arauz, quelles que soient les critiques que soulève son programme, son élection est nettement préférable à celle de Lasso, en ce compris pour les droits des femmes, des indigènes et de la #nature. Cela n’efface pas pour autant ses contradictions, n’impose pas un ralliement aveugle, et ne suspend pas les conflits à venir.

    Nous n’avons d’autres choix que de penser avec et à partir de ces deux gauches « réellement existantes ». Non pas pour en choisir l’une contre l’autre, mais pour confronter les expériences passées et les projets d’émancipation à celles-ci.

    • https://theconversation.com/methode-miyawaki-pourquoi-les-microforets-ne-sont-pas-vraiment-des-

      Concrètement, il s’agit de restaurer un « écosystème forestier » en plantant de jeunes arbres très serrés (3 au m² en moyenne) et en privilégiant des espèces locales. La technique peut s’appliquer en ville, mais pas que. Ses promoteurs mettent en avant la croissance rapide des arbres et la restauration d’un « écosystème forestier » en quelques années, sans intervention humaine au-delà de la plantation. L’idée est séduisante et la rhétorique évocatrice, mais est-ce la panacée pour autant ?

      Oui, une microforêt pousse vite, haut et (presque) sans entretien : c’est un gros avantage. Mais si elle pousse si haut si vite, c’est que les arbres cherchent tous à accéder le plus rapidement possible à la lumière, à l’eau et aux nutriments, avant que leurs voisins n’accaparent ces ressources.

      Comme le chantait si bien ce groupe venu du Nord, « The winner takes it all » : premier arrivé, premier servi ! En écologie, on appelle ce phénomène la compétition. C’est naturel, il n’y a pas lieu de s’en offusquer. Mais cela a une conséquence immédiate : c’est l’hécatombe.
      Une des rares études menées en Europe sur l’efficacité de la « méthode de Miyawaki » fait état de 61 à 84 % de mortalité des arbres 12 ans après la plantation. Ce n’est pas un problème en soi, cela signifie seulement que toutes les jeunes pousses plantées dans une métropole ne donneront pas, à terme, des arbres. La nuance est de taille.

      https://www.sfecologie.org/regard/regards-3-mouquet

      Transcendant les questions éthiques associées à l’impact de l’homme sur la nature, notre société a trouvé dans cette notion de « service » une rationalisation quasi économique du concept de diversité biologique. Au delà des limites et des dérives d’une simple approche comptable de la diversité (et qui seront discutées dans un autre regard), il y a un vrai raisonnement liant diversité et fonctionnement des écosystèmes. Raisonnement souvent méconnu voir inconnu de ceux-là même qui en défendent l’importance pour notre société ! Ce regard donc, pour, indépendamment du débat sur l’économie de la biodiversité, mieux expliquer les mécanismes biologiques qui lient la diversité des espèces (ou diversité spécifique) au fonctionnement des écosystèmes.

    • 12 ans de recul c’est peu pour se prononcer sur la validité de la méthode.
      Certes la densité de plantation de la méthode Miyawaki peut paraitre excessive et inutile (80% de perte) mais pendant leur durée de vie les végétaux ne font pas que se concurrencer ils assurent aussi la couverture du sol, le maintien de l’humidité, un abri pour la faune et un apport d’humus lors de leur décomposition.
      Pour donner la mesure, La densité d’un semis naturel est de 100 plants/m2 (100 000/ha) la densité finale (+ 150 ans) de nos forets cultivées (futaies) est de 100 plants à l’hectare (un arbre tous les 10 metres). Le taux de survie est donc de 0,1% mais sur des parcelles expérimentales laissées volontairement sans interventions humaines, au bout d’un siècle il reste parfois un seul arbre/hectare, car la nature s’en fout du rendement !
      Finalement comme toujours la nature fait mieux avec moins de dépense d’énergie et l’humain avec sa logique comptable veut surtout faire « plus vite ».

  • Chute de la biodiversité en Île-de-France : encore la faute de Le Corbusier ?
    https://metropolitiques.eu/Chute-de-la-biodiversite-en-Ile-de-France-encore-la-faute-de-Le-Corb

    Critiquant les interprétations avancées dans l’exposition et l’ouvrage Capital agricole, Luc Laurent examine les causes de l’artificialisation croissante des sols : selon lui, les sources de la crise environnementale seraient avant tout politiques et liées à l’idéologie productiviste du siècle dernier. Capital agricole est une exposition qui s’est tenue au Pavillon de l’Arsenal, enrichie d’un catalogue (Rosenstiehl 2019) qui examine la question pertinente du rapport de l’agriculture à l’urbain en #Débats

    / biodiversité, #aménagement, #artificialisation_des_sols, #urbanisme, #agriculture, #Île-de-France, (...)

    #biodiversité #nature
    https://metropolitiques.eu/IMG/pdf/met_laurent.pdf

  • L’environnement est-il soluble dans l’économie ?
    https://laviedesidees.fr/L-environnement-est-il-soluble-dans-l-economie.html

    À propos de : Eve Chiapello, Antoine Missemer, Antonin Pottier (coord.) Faire l’économie de l’environnement, Presses des Mines. Comment l’environnement est-il considéré par les discours et #statistiques économiques ? Un ouvrage collectif examine autant les études des économistes que les activités d’acteurs militants ou d’entreprises qui cherchent à mesurer l’environnement ou à en faire abstraction.

    #Économie #environnement #écologie
    https://laviedesidees.fr/IMG/pdf/20210405_environnement.pdf
    https://laviedesidees.fr/IMG/docx/20210405_environnement.docx

  • Nature left alone offers more than if we exploit it | News | Eco-Business | Asia Pacific
    https://www.eco-business.com/news/nature-left-alone-offers-more-than-if-we-exploit-it

    They have demonstrated that in its pristine state − mangrove swamps, wetlands, savannahs, forests and so on − nature left alone is of more value to humankind than as exploited real estate.
    Carbon & Climate
    UN survival plan offers new hope for the planet
    Read now

    This argument has been made already, and more than once. But this time the researchers can provide the detail for their argument: they report in the journal Nature Sustainability that they had devised an accounting methodology to test such arguments, and then applied this in 24 selected sites around the planet.

    Some of the value would be in intangibles such as providing a shelter for the wild things and wild plants; some of it would be measurable.

    For instance, if the damage inherent in carbon spilled into the atmosphere through habitat destruction or fossil fuel combustion presents an overall cost to society of $31 a tonne − and this is a conservative estimate − then almost three quarters of the sample sites have greater value simply as natural habitats.

    And that includes 100 per cent of all forests. If that greenhouse gas carbon was valued at a paltry $5 a tonne, almost two thirds of the sites would still be, over a 50-year period, a better investment left untouched.

    #nature #exploitation #conservation #habitabilité

  • Les « balades » de #land_rover au milieu des rivières
    http://carfree.fr/index.php/2021/03/22/les-balades-de-land-rover-au-milieu-des-rivieres

    Voici une publicité pour les 4×4 Land Rover trouvée sur Twitter en novembre dernier. Selon le constructeur automobile Land Rover, la « balade du dimanche » consiste à rouler en 4×4 directement Lire la suite...

    #Destruction_de_la_planète #Fin_de_l'automobile #4x4 #anti-4x4 #destruction #nature #publicité

  • Les « balades » de #land_rover au milieu des rivières
    http://carfree.fr/index.php/2021/03/22/les-balades-de-land-rover-au-milieu-des-rivieres

    Voici une publicité pour les 4×4 Land Rover trouvée sur Twitter en novembre dernier. Selon le constructeur automobile Land Rover, la « balade du dimanche » consiste à rouler en 4×4 directement Lire la suite...

    #Destruction_de_la_planète #Fin_de_l'automobile #4x4 #anti-4x4 #destruction #nature #publicité

  • Des scientifiques dressent une carte des aires marines à protéger - RTN votre radio régionale

    https://www.rtn.ch/rtn/Actualite/Monde/Des-scientifiques-dressent-une-carte-des-aires-marines-a-proteger.html

    Pour préserver la vie marine, lutter contre le réchauffement climatique et augmenter les capacités de pêche, une étude parue mercredi dans Nature cartographie les zones prioritaires à protéger à travers le monde. Elles vont de zones côtières à l’Antarctique.

    Vingt-six biologistes marins, spécialistes du climat et économistes, ont identifié à l’aide d’un algorithme des aires qui, ’si elles étaient protégées, permettraient de sauvegarder plus de 80% des habitats d’espèces marines menacées et d’augmenter les prises de pêche de plus de huit millions de tonnes’, selon un communiqué.

    ’La vie dans les océans décline à travers le monde à cause de la surpêche, de la destruction des habitats et du changement climatique. Seulement 7% des océans est actuellement protégé’, constate Enric Sala, auteur principal de l’étude.

    #cartographie #mer #aires_protégée #nature #écologie #écosystèmes

  • The Danger of Anti-Immigrant Extremism Posing as Environmentalism—and Who Funds It

    With President Joe Biden in the White House and Vice President Kamala Harris providing the deciding vote in the Senate, a range of long-sought Democratic policy goals are back in play, albeit just barely. That includes ambitious agendas on immigration and the environment.

    Could this be the administration that pushes through comprehensive immigration reform after decades of failed attempts? Will youth activists and the burgeoning movement for a Green New Deal provide a pathway to major climate legislation? If so, advocates and their funders alike face a tough road ahead, including an obstructionist congressional minority and opponents on both fronts that will look to appeal to the public’s darkest impulses to build opposition.

    At this inflection point, a report this month from the Center for American Progress, “The Extremist Campaign to Blame Immigrants for U.S. Environmental Problems,” offers a timely overview of the history of how opponents of immigration falsely portray it as a threat to the natural world—a strategy we’re likely to see more of in the months ahead. The report offers a valuable review of these efforts, ranging from the past anti-immigrant stances of some of the nation’s best-known environmental groups to the funders that have bankrolled the nation’s largest anti-immigration groups.

    Four years of an administration defined by its opposition to immigration, plus growing attention to climate change, breathed new life into the toxic and racist narrative of immigrants as a cause of environmental degradation. As the report lays out, this argument—often part of a right-wing, white supremacist ideology known as ecofascism, though CAP’s report does not use the term—found allies in the top echelons of government and media, including a former head of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management and conservative commentators like Ann Coulter and Fox News host Tucker Carlson.

    In contemporary politics, this strategy is mainly seen as a right-wing phenomenon or an artifact of the racist and Eurocentric early history of conservation. Yet the fact that anti-immigrant sentiment found a home within top environmental groups, including Earthfirst! and the Sierra Club, which had a major faction in support of these ideas as late as 2004, is a reminder that it has found fertile soil in a variety of political camps. That makes the narrative all the more dangerous, and one against which funders working in both immigration and the environment ought to take a firm and vocal stance.

    Who’s funding anti-immigration work in the name of the environment?

    Although not comprehensive, the report highlights three funders as key backers of anti-immigration groups: Colcom Foundation, Weeden Foundation and Foundation for the Carolinas. The first two are, in their branding and language, environmental funders—and make those grants in the name of preventing further damage to the natural world.

    Colcom, founded by Mellon Bank heir Cordelia Scaife May, is far and away the largest funder. With a roughly $500 million endowment, it has provided a large share of the support for a network of groups founded by John Tanton, a Sierra Club official in the 1980s, whom the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) calls “the racist architect of the modern anti-immigrant movement.”

    Recipients include NumbersUSA, Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR), and the Center for Immigration Studies, which we once called “Trump’s favorite immigration think tank.” The latter two are classified as hate groups by the SPLC, a designation the organizations reject.

    In keeping with the bending of reflexive political categories, it’s worth noting that May—who died in 2005—was also a substantial funder of Planned Parenthood due to her prioritization of “population control” as a means of achieving conservation. In 2019, the New York Times documented May’s dark journey to becoming a leading funder of the modern anti-immigrant movement, and the millions her foundation continued to move, long after her death, in support of ideas that gained a receptive audience in a nativist Trump administration. May’s wealth came from the Mellon-Scaife family fortune, which yielded several philanthropists, including another prominent conservative donor, Richard Mellon Scaife.

    Weeden, led by Don Weeden, has funded a similar who’s who of top anti-immigration groups, as well as lower-profile or regional groups like Californians for Population Stabilization, Progressives for Immigration Reform—which CAP calls the “most central organization in the anti-immigrant greenwashing universe”—and the Rewilding Institute.

    Both Weeden and Colcom, as well as the groups they fund, generally say they are neither anti-immigrant nor anti-immigration. Aside from restrictionist policy positions and racist comments by former leaders, it is revealing that the groups they fund are the favored information sources for some of the most virulently anti-immigrant politicians, both historically and among those who rose prominence during the Trump administration. For a deeper dive on Weeden and Colcom, see my colleague Philip Rojc’s excellent 2019 piece on these grantmakers.

    Finally, there is the Foundation for the Carolinas, which in many ways is a typical community foundation, with initiatives on topics from COVID-19 relief to local arts. But it also hosts a donor-advised fund that has supported several anti-immigration groups, including Center for Immigration Studies, FAIR and NumbersUSA. That fund channeled nearly $21 million to nine such groups between 2006 and 2018, according to the report.

    There’s a connection here to a larger problem of private foundations and DAFs, some of which are housed at community foundations, supporting 501(c)(3) nonprofits identified as hate groups, according to a recent analysis from the Chronicle of Philanthropy. Foundation for the Carolinas also made its list of top donors to these groups.

    An ideology funders must fight against

    As the debates over both immigration and climate policies move forward under this new administration, and the opposition marshals efforts to defeat them, this report offers a helpful guide to this enduring and noxious myth. It’s also an important reminder that if these ideas are not called actively combated, they can take root within well-intentioned efforts. Though it seems only a small number of foundations directly fund groups advancing these ideas, anti-immigrant sentiment is insidious.

    For example, while some commentators are suggesting that acceding to Trump-fueled demands for a border wall is how Congress could reach bipartisan action on immigration reform, the report notes how the existing sections of wall are ineffective against furtive crossings, disruptive to species migration, and in violation of Indigenous sacred sites. These facts—and more broadly, the connection to white supremacist and fascist movements—should put foundations on guard, whether they support grantees pushing for immigration reform, action on climate or both.

    With the United States and other nations facing greater and greater pressures from climate change—particularly as it forces migration from regions like Latin America and the Middle East—philanthropy would do well to be proactive now and draw a bright line in countering this ideology’s propagation.

    https://www.insidephilanthropy.com/home/2021/2/24/anti-immigrant-environmentalism-is-resurgent-new-report-looks-at
    #extrême_droite #anti-migrants #USA #Etats-Unis #environnementalisme #environnement #migrations #nature #dégradation_environnementale #écofascisme #éco-fascisme #suprématisme_blanc #extrême_droite #Ann_Coulte #Tucker_Carlson #racisme #Earthfirst #Sierra_Club #deep_ecology #fondations #Colcom_Foundation #Weeden_Foundation #Foundation_for_the_Carolinas #Mellon_Bank #Cordelia_Scaife_May #mécénat #John_Tanton #NumbersUSA #Federation_for_American_Immigration_Reform (#FAIR) #Center_for_Immigration_Studies #Planned_Parenthood #démographie #contrôle_démographique #néo-malthusianisme #néomalthusianisme #protection_de_l'environnement #philanthropie #Richard_Mellon_Scaife #Weeden #Don_Weeden #Californians_for_Population_Stabilization #Progressives_for_Immigration_Reform #Rewilding_Institute

    • The Extremist Campaign to Blame Immigrants for U.S. Environmental Problems

      With growing frequency over the past four years, right-wing pundits, policymakers, and political operatives have fiercely and furiously blamed immigrants for the degradation and decline of nature in the United States. William Perry Pendley, who temporarily ran the U.S. Bureau of Land Management under former President Donald Trump, saw “immigration as one of the biggest threats to public lands,” according to an agency spokesperson.1 A handful of right-wing anti-immigration zealots, including Joe Guzzardi, have repeatedly misused data published by the Center for American Progress on nature loss to make xenophobic arguments for anti-immigration policies.2 This so-called “greening of hate”—a term explored by Guardian reporter Susie Cagle—is a common refrain in a wide range of conservative and white supremacist arguments, including those of Ann Coulter, Fox News host Tucker Carlson, neo-Nazi Richard Spencer, and the manifestos of more than one mass shooter.3

      The claim that immigration is to blame for America’s environmental problems is so absurd, racist, and out of the mainstream that it is easily debunked and tempting to ignore. The scientific community, and the little research that has been conducted in this area, resoundingly refutes the premise. Consider, for example, the environmental damage caused by weak and inadequate regulation of polluting industries; the destruction of wildlife habitat to accommodate wealthy exurbs and second homes; the design and propagation of policies that concentrate toxic poisons and environmental destruction near communities of color and low-income communities; the continued subsidization of fossil fuel extraction and trampling of Indigenous rights to accommodate drilling and mining projects; and the propagation of a throw-away culture by industrial powerhouses. All of these factors and others cause exponentially more severe environmental harm than a family that is fleeing violence, poverty, or suffering to seek a new life in the United States.

      The extremist effort to blame immigrants for the nation’s environmental problems deserves scrutiny—and not merely for the purpose of disproving its xenophobic and outlandish claims. The contours, origins, funding sources, and goals of this right-wing effort must be understood in order to effectively combat it and ensure that the extremists pushing it have no place in the conservation movement. The individuals and organizations that are most fervently propagating this argument come largely from well-funded hate groups that are abusing discredited ideologies that were prevalent in the 19th-century American conservation movement in an attempt to make their racist rhetoric more palatable to a public concerned about the health of their environment.

      While leaders of the contemporary, mainstream environmental movement in the United States have disavowed this strain of thought and are working to confront the legacies of colonialism and racism in environmental organizations and policies, a small set of right-wing political operatives are trying to magnify overtly xenophobic and false environmental arguments to achieve specific political objectives. In particular, these right-wing political operatives and their deep-pocketed funders are seeking to broaden the appeal of their anti-immigration zealotry by greenwashing their movement and supplying their right-wing base with alternative explanations for environmental decline that sidestep the culpability of the conservative anti-regulatory agenda. In their refusal to confront the true reasons for environmental decline, they are hurting the people—immigrants, Indigenous peoples, and people of color—who bear a disproportionate burden of environmental consequences and are increasingly the base of the climate justice and conservation movements.

      (...)

      https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/green/reports/2021/02/01/495228/extremist-campaign-blame-immigrants-u-s-environmental-problems

  • #L'espace_d'un_instant #8
    http://liminaire.fr/entre-les-lignes/article/l-espace-d-un-instant-8

    « La grande révélation n’était jamais arrivée. En fait, la grande révélation n’arrivait peut-être jamais. C’était plutôt de petits miracles quotidiens, des illuminations, allumettes craquées à l’improviste dans le noir ; en voici une. » Vers le phare, Virginia Woolf Ljubljana, Slovénie : 03:23 Devant l’incendie de cette bâtisse, je repense aux caravanes en feu des Tsiganes. Ils avaient pour habitude de brûler la caravane d’un défunt. Cette image va bien au-delà de la mise en scène d’un rituel. Sur les (...) #Entre_les_lignes / #Écriture, #Cinéma, #Photographie, #Récit, #Ville, #Paysage, #Nature, #Dérive, L’espace d’un instant, #Regard, #Quotidien, #Sensation, #Mémoire, (...)

    #Voyage

  • WePresent | Photographer Maïmouna Guerresi visualizes spirituality
    http://wepresent.wetransfer.com/story/maimouna-guerresi/?flush
    https://images.ctfassets.net/5jh3ceokw2vz/3iNmw6PauHANGKgw8HzTXH/d7355477a019555203eeda38590b1b9d/17_Red_Balance__Mai__mouna_Guerresi_.jpg?w=800

    Maïmouna Guerresi Humanity and nature are interconnected

    Share — Twitter Facebook Copy link

    Ever since converting to Sufi Islam at the age of 40, photographer Maïmouna Guerresi has been on a very personal spiritual journey. In her work, characters float above the ground or merge together with nature, and every photo contains some sense of balance or peace. She tells Alex Kahl about her long search to find ways to visualize the abstract concept of spirituality.

    All images ©Maïmouna Guerresi, and courtesy of Mariane Ibrahim Gallery.

    #photos #faire_monde #spiritualité

  • L’émergence de la pensée écologique en ville
    https://metropolitiques.eu/L-emergence-de-la-pensee-ecologique-en-ville.html

    Quelle place l’urbanisme accorde-t-il à la pensée écologique ? Décrivant les usages du végétal en ville depuis le XIXe siècle, Charles-François Mathis interroge l’évolution historique des partis pris de l’aménagement et les fondements de l’avènement d’un « #urbanisme écologique ». Où que j’aille aujourd’hui encore, si l’occasion s’en présente, si j’ai dans une ville inconnue une heure à perdre, une dérive complaisante m’entraîne au long des rues, vers ces placides enclaves chlorophylliennes cernées de nos jours par #Essais

    / #écologie, urbanisme, #nature, #parc, #jardin, #paysage, #histoire

    https://metropolitiques.eu/IMG/pdf/met_mathis.pdf

  • #L'espace_d'un_instant #7
    http://liminaire.fr/entre-les-lignes/article/l-espace-d-un-instant-7

    « La grande révélation n’était jamais arrivée. En fait, la grande révélation n’arrivait peut-être jamais. C’était plutôt de petits miracles quotidiens, des illuminations, allumettes craquées à l’improviste dans le noir ; en voici une. » Vers le phare, Virginia Woolf Île du Roi-George, Antarctique : 12:38 Silence étrange et menaçant qui trouble et ralentit notre avancée. Ici, les animaux font corps avec le #Paysage, en équilibre instable. Nos mouvements ralentis épousent le rythme lent des éléments. Les (...) #Entre_les_lignes / #Écriture, #Cinéma, #Photographie, #Récit, #Ville, Paysage, #Nature, #Dérive, L’espace d’un instant, #Regard, #Quotidien, #Sensation, (...)

    #Voyage

  • Demain, l’écologie ! - #Utopies & #anticipations environnementales

    Au XIXe siècle, la Révolution industrielle a profondément modifié le rapport de l’être humain à la #nature. Dès cette époque, l’#imaginaire littéraire s’est penché sur la question écologique et les textes d’anticipation réunis dans cette #anthologie (datant de 1810 à 1920 et pour la plupart réédités pour la première fois) envisagent les atteintes à la nature, la destruction de l’environnement, voire la fin du monde. Devant les développements de la science et de l’emprise de l’humanité sur la Terre, certains imaginent une planète où la nature a disparu, où l’eau de source est une denrée plus rare qu’un vin millésimé, où les derniers oiseaux se trouvent en haut d’un Himalaya pris d’assaut par les villes, où l’on vit dans les égouts parisiens, d’autres font part de leurs craintes face à l’épuisement des ressources naturelles, tous lancent des #avertissements qu’il faudra bien se résoudre un jour à écouter.

    https://www.publie.net/livre/demain-lecologie-utopies-anticipations-environnementales-collectif

    #utopie #environnement #livre #écologie

  • Le génie écologique
    https://laviedesidees.fr/Le-genie-ecologique.html

    À propos de : Harold Levrel, Les Compensations écologiques, La Découverte. La « compensation écologique » consiste à réparer les dégâts d’un projet d’aménagement par la reconstitution d’un écosystème de même valeur. La #nature vient au secours de la nature. Malheureusement, on ne parvient jamais reconstituer un écosystème à l’identique.

    #Économie #biodiversité #propriété #écologie
    https://laviedesidees.fr/IMG/pdf/20210107_calame.pdf
    https://laviedesidees.fr/IMG/docx/20210107_calame.docx

  • Keep Out... Come Again. The underbelly of American-styled conservation in the Indian Himalayas.

    IN DECEMBER, THE ROAD leading to the #Tirthan_Valley entrance archway of the #Great_Himalayan_National_Park (#GHNP), a #UNESCO World Heritage site in India’s mountain state of Himachal Pradesh, is a potholed mudslide: For miles, a fleet of excavators and tunnel-boring machines are lopping and drilling the mountains to widen and extend the highway. Most of the traffic passing through a big, dark tunnel blasted through the mountain is headed to Manali — the mass-tourist hub of the Western Himalayas, about an hour’s drive farther north.

    My partner and I pass through the archway and weave the motorcycle along a cliffside road into the gorgeous, narrow valley. Villages and orchards dot the ridges. The first snow is melting off the roofs, and far below the Tirthan River runs free and fast. This is still the off-beaten path. But around every turn, we see signs that development is on the rise. Guesthouses, campsites, cottages, hotels, and resorts are sprouting up outside the park’s boundaries. Trucks carrying construction material drive traffic off onto the shoulder. On the opposite ridge, a new helipad access road is being carved out. The area appears to be under construction, not conservation.

    It seems that by putting this once little-known national park on the global map, conservationists have catalyzed a massive wave of development along its border. And ecotourism, though ostensibly a responsible form of development, looks over here, as one researcher put it, more like “old wine in a new bottle.”

    In the two decades since it was formed, the park has displaced over 300 people from their land, disrupted the traditional livelihoods of several thousand more, and forced yet more into dependence on a risky (eco)tourism industry run in large part by outside “experts.” In many ways, the GHNP is a poster child of how the American national park model — conceived at Yellowstone and exported to the Global South by a transnational nexus of state and nonstate actors, continues to ignore the sociopolitical and cultural realities of a place. As a result, protected areas around the world continue to yield pernicious impacts on local communities, and, to some extent, on the local ecology as well. It also raises the question: If protecting one piece of land requires moving its long-time human residents out, developing adjacent land, and flying in tourists from around the world — what is actually being conserved?

    IN THE EARLY 1980s, at the invitation of the Himachal government, a team of Indian and international wildlife biologists led by a British researcher named Tony Gaston surveyed the Western Himalayas for a possible location for the state’s first national park. The state government had been eyeing the Manali area, but after a broad wildlife survey, Gaston’s team recommended the Upper Tirthan and Sainj valleys instead.

    The ecosystem was less disturbed, home to more wildlife, and thus had “excellent potential for attracting tourists”— especially foreign tourists — who might constitute both a “substantial source of [park] revenues” as well as “an enormous input to the local economy,” the team’s report said.

    The proposed 754.4-square-kilometer park included the upper mountain glacial and snow melt water source origins of the Jiwa Nal, Sainj Tirthan, and Parvati rivers, which are all headwater tributaries to the Beas River and subsequently, the Indus River. Given its location at the junction of two of the world’s major biogeographic realms — the Palearctic and Indomalayan — its monsoon-fed forests and alpine meadows sustain a diversity of plant, moss, lichen, bird, and mammal species, many of which are endemic, including the Himalayan goral, blue sheep, and the endangered western Tragopan pheasant and musk deer.

    The park’s boundary was strategically drawn so that only four villages needed to be relocated. But this glossed over the problem of resource displacement. To the northwest, the proposed park was buffered by high mountain systems that include several other national parks and wildlife sanctuaries, but the land in and around its southwest boundary was home to about 150 villages with a total population of at least 11,000 people, all of whom were officially dispossessed of the forests they depended on for centuries when the Indian government inaugurated The Great Himalayan National Park in 1999. These villages are now part of a 265.6-square-kilometer buffer, or so-called “ecozone,” leading into the park.

    A large majority of these families were poor. Many of them cultivated small parcels of land that provided subsistence for part of the year, and they relied on a variety of additional resources provided by the forestlands in the mountains around their homes to meet the rest of their food and financial requirements. That included grazing sheep and goats in the alpine meadows, extracting medicinal herbs that they could sell to the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry, and collecting gucchi, or morel mushrooms, that fetched high prices in international markets.

    “IN THE INDIAN CONTEXT, the notion that you can have a landscape that is pristine and therefore devoid of humans is an artificial creation,” says Dr. Vasant Saberwal, a wildlife biologist and director of the Centre for Pastoralism, an organization based in Gujarat state that aims to enhance our understanding of pastoralist ecosystems. “India has [long] been a heavily populated country. So, when you think of alpine meadows at 15,000 feet above sea-level, they have been used by pastoral communities for several hundred years. You cannot now go into those landscapes and say we want a pristine alpine meadow. There’s no such thing.”

    In keeping with the lingering idea, tracing back to early American conservationism, that pastoral societies destroy their own land, the Gaston team’s original report claimed that firewood collecting, hunting, and especially overgrazing, were degrading habitat within the area. It recommended a ban on grazing and medicinal plant collection in order to maintain the park’s biodiversity.

    But Saberwal’s research shows that grazing practices in the park’s high alpine meadows — which constitute almost half the park’s area — were likely necessary to maintain its high levels of herb diversity. Before the area was closed off to people, traditional herders of the Indigenous Gaddi tribe would travel up to the alpine meadows with about 35,000 sheep and goats entrusted to them by individual families, and graze them in these meadows for six snow-free months from April through September.

    “So, when you talk to people and suggest to people that their use of the park leads to degradation, they say that we have been using these resources for the past 150-200 years,” he says. “They say, if our presence here has been such a threat, then why would there be biological diversity here?”

    Saberwal’s findings are consistent with reams of scholarship in recent years documenting how local and Indigenous communities, without external pressures, live convivially with nature.

    That is not to say that external pressures aren’t impacting the region. There has definitely been an uptick in morel and medicinal herbs extraction from the park area, especially since the early 1990s when India “liberalized” its economy. Yet today, without adequate enforcement, it remains unclear just how much the park actually helped curtail extraction of these herbs or instead just forced the market underground.

    Other threats include poaching, human-wildlife conflicts, and hydropower development. Ironically, a 10-square-kilometer area was deleted from the original map of the GHNP for building of a hydro-power project, underscoring a typical approach towards conservation “wherein local livelihoods are expendable in the interests of biodiversity, but biodiversity must make way for national development,” Saberwal says.

    India’s Wildlife Protection Act, which prohibits all human activities within a national park, does recognize people’s traditional rights to forest resources. It therefore requires state governments settle or acquire these rights prior to finalizing a new national park’s boundaries, either through financial compensation or by providing people alternative land where such rights can be exercised. But India’s record of actually honoring these rights has been sketchy at best. In GHNP’s case, the state chose to offer financial compensation to only about 300 of the 2,300 or so impacted households, based on family names listed in a colonial report with census data for the area dating back to 1894. It eventually provided the rest of the villagers alternative areas to graze their livestock, but this land was inadequate and nutrient-poor compared to the grasses in the high alpine meadows. Only a handful of families in these villages still have sheep and goat herds today.

    Saberwal, and many mainstream conservationists, says there is an argument to be made for allowing villagers into the park, and not only because it supports their livelihoods. “The presence of people with a real stake in the biological resources of the park can also lead to far greater levels of support for effective management of the park, including better monitoring of who goes into the park, for what, and at what times of the year. Poaching could be more effectively controlled, as could the excessive extraction of medicinal herbs,” he says.

    DESPITE STIFF LOCAL RESISTANCE, the forest department — with support from an international nonprofit called Friends of GHNP, as well as the World Bank, which chipped in a $2.5 million loan — developed an ecotourism industry in the area to help local communities adapt.

    Eco-development, of course, is the current cool idea for making exclusionary conservation acceptable. On paper, it requires community involvement to create “alternative livelihoods” to reduce locals’ dependence on a park’s resources. So, with the support of Friends of GHNP, the forest department helped form a street theater group. It developed firewood and medicinal herb plantations in an effort to wean villagers off of foraging for these the park. A women’s savings and credit collective called Sahara was set up to produce vermicompost, apricot oil, and handicrafts. The Forest Department also handed out “doles” — stoves, handlooms, televisions, pressure cookers — what Mark Dowie, in his book Conservation Refugees, calls “cargo conservation,” or the exchange of commodities for compliance.

    Yet, the project was mired in corruption and mismanagement. The male director of the women’s collective, for instance, was discovered to be siphoning off the collective’s funds. Meanwhile, local ecodevelopment committees set up to coordinate expenditure on livelihood projects were run by the most powerful people in the villages, usually upper-caste males of the devta (deity) community, and chose to spend the money on things like temple and road repairs. According to a 2001 study of the ecodevelopment project, 70 percent of the funds were spent on infrastructure initiatives of this kind. Much later, in 2002, in an attempt to distance itself from the program, the World Bank concluded ecodevelopment had left “very little or no impact … on the ground.”

    In 2014, the park, along with the adjacent Sainj and Tirthan wildlife sanctuaries, was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site, again in spite of more protests from the impacted local communities. Friends of GHNP wrote the application.

    If creating the park cracked the door to development in the Tirthan Valley, minting it a UNESCO World Heritage site flung it wide open.

    On the economic front, it’s certainly true that the influx of tourists has injected more money into the Tirthan Valley than ever before. And it’s true, too, that many locals, the youth especially, are excited, or at least hopeful, that the industry will improve their lives and alleviate poverty. But on the whole, locals are losing opportunities to outside entrepreneurs who come with deeper pockets, digital marketing savvy, and already established networks of potential clientele.

    “That kind of investment and marketing involvement is difficult for locals for figure out,” says Manashi Asher, a researcher with Himdhara, a Himachal-based environmental research and action collective. “Basically, what many locals have done instead, is circumvent local ecotourism policies by turning their properties into homestay or other kinds of [tourist] lodgings and leasing them out to outsiders to run.”

    Though there are no official estimates yet, there’s a consensus among locals that outsider-run guesthouses have already cornered a majority of the valley’s tourism revenue. “City-based tourism operators are licking out the cream, while the peasantry class and unemployed youth earn a pittance from the seasonal, odd jobs they offer,” Dilaram Shabab, the late “Green Man” of Tirthan Valley who spearheaded successful movements against hydropower development on the Tirthan river, wrote in his book Kullu: The Valley of Gods.

    When I read this quote to Upendra Singh Kamra, a transplant from the northwestern state of Punjab who runs a tourism outfit for fishing enthusiasts called Gone Fishing Cottages, he emphasizes how, unlike at most properties, they don’t lay off their local staff during low season. Some have even bought motorcycles or cars. “Logically, you have nothing and then you have something and then you’re complaining that something is not enough. So it doesn’t make sense for me.”

    Many locals see it differently. Narotham Singh, a veteran forest guard, told me he leased his land for 30 years, but now worries for his son and grandchildren. “If they don’t study, what they’re going to be doing is probably cleaning utensils and sweeping in the guesthouses of these people. That’s the dark future.” Karan Bharti, one of Shabab’s grandsons, told me many youth are so ashamed to work as servants on their own land that they’re fleeing the valley altogether.

    More broadly, tourism is also a uniquely precarious industry. Global market fluctuations and environmental disasters frequently spook tourists away for years. (The Western Himalayas is primed for an 8.0-plus magnitude quake tomorrow). And when destination hotspots flip cold, once self-reliant shepherds turned hoteliers are left holding the bill for that high-interest construction loan.

    Sadly, this is exactly what’s happened. In Himachal, the Covid-19 pandemic has exposed just how dependent the state has become on tourism. After the borders were shut in late March, pressure to reopen to salvage a piece of the summer high season was palpable in the press. Chief Minister Jai Ram Thakur proposed Himachal advertise itself for “Quarantine Tourism.” The hotel unions shot down the idea as absurd.

    THERE’S NO SIGN NOR ROAD to Raju’s Guesthouse. To get to it, you have to cross the Tirthan River in a cable basket or makeshift plank bridge and climb up the opposite bank into a fairytale. Vines climb the dark wood facade. There are flowers, fruit trees, and a fire pit. When I visit, kittens are playing around an old cherry tree and a pack of dogs bark up the steep south face; leopards, I learn, come over the ridge at night sometimes and steal dogs.

    Raju, in his late sixties, toothpick-thin, and wearing a baseball cap, is the pioneer of ecotourism in Tirthan Valley. He is also Shabab’s son. When I first spoke with him on the phone, he called the park an “eyewash.” What he meant was that most people don’t come to the park for the park. It’s a steep, half-day trek just to the official boundary, and, inside, the trails aren’t marked. Most tourists are content with a weekend kickback at a guesthouse in the ecozone.

    Still, if real ecotourism exists, Raju’s comes as close as I’ve ever seen. Food scraps are boiled down and fed to the cows. There’s fishing and birding and trekking on offer. No corporate groups allowed, even though that’s where the big bucks are. And no fume-expelling diesel generator, despite guests’ complaints after big storms. There’s a feeling of ineffable wholesomeness that has kept people coming back year after year, for decades now.

    In a 1998 report titled “Communtity-Based Ecotourism in the GHNP,” a World Bank consultant was so impressed by Raju’s that she recommended it be “used as a model for the whole area.” But this was a consultant’s fantasy. Rather than provide support to help locals become owners in the tourism industry, the government and World Bank offered them tour guide, portering, and cooking training. Today, similar second-tier job trainings are part of an $83 million project funded by the Asian Development Bank to develop tourism (mainly by building parking lots) across Himachal.

    Varun, one of Raju’s two sons who runs the guesthouse, doesn’t think any tourist property in the area is practicing ecotourism, even his own. People are illegally catching trout for guests’ dinners, cutting trees for their bonfires, and dumping their trash into the river, he says.

    In 2018, Varun founded the Tirthan Conservation and Tourism Development Association (https://www.facebook.com/Tirthan-conservation-and-tourism-development-association-101254861218173), a union of local guesthouses that works to “eliminate the commercialization of our neighborhood and retain the aura of the valley.” They do tree plantings, enforce camping bans around the river, and meet regularly to discuss new developments in the valley.

    Yet, Varun doesn’t see any way of stopping the development wave. “I mean, it’s inevitable. No matter how much you resist, you know, you’ll have to accept it. The only thing is, we can delay it, slow it down.”

    https://www.earthisland.org/journal/index.php/magazine/entry/keep-out...come-again
    #Inde #montagne #conservation_de_la_nature #nature #protection_de_la_nature #parc_national #Himachal_Pradesh #Manali #tourisme #colonialisme #néo-colonialisme #circulation_des_modèles #Hymalayah #Jiwa_Nal #Sainj_Tirthan #Parvati #rivières #Beas_River #paysage #conservationnisme #biodiversité #Gaddi #élevage #ressources #exploitation_des_ressources #Friends_of_GHNP #banque_mondiale #éco-tourisme #écotourisme #cargo_conservation #corruption #devta #deity #éco-développement #développement #World_Heritage_site #énergie_hydroélectrique #Asian_Development_Bank #Tirthan_Conservation_and_Tourism_Development_Association

    #ressources_pédagogiques

  • Rappel : c’est la période pour mettre de l’eau tiède pour les oiseaux dont les abreuvoirs naturels sont gelés. Et y’a Marches pour les réquisitions de logements vides cet aprem à Nantes, Grenoble & Paris 👇
    https://www.flickr.com/photos/valkphotos/50791108031

    Flickr

    ValK. a posté une #photo :

    Plus de 300 000 sans logis, 3 millions de logements vides : Application de la loi de réquisition !
    MARCHES DES RÉQUISITIONS ce samedi 2 janvier :
    A #GRENOBLE : 14H passerelle St Laurent
    A #PARIS : 14H30 sortie métro rue du Bac
    A #NANTES : 17H maison du peuple, rue du Préaubert
    A l’appel de la fédération Droit Au Logement et de nombreux signataires : https://44.demosphere.net/rv/5166
    .
    ☆ autres photos : frama.link/valk
    ☆ infos / audios : frama.link/karacole
    ☆ oripeaux : frama.link/kolavalk
    ☆ me soutenir : liberapay.com/ValK
    .
    #gel #glace #frost #ice #hielo #froid #cold #frio #nature #naturaleza #oiseau #bird #pájaro #hiver #winter #invierno #aide #help #ayuda #balcon #balcony #balcón #abri #shelter #alojamiento #logement #accommodation (...)

  • Philippe Descola, Les animaux et l’histoire, par-delà nature et culture | Quentin Deluermoz et François Jarrige
    https://sniadecki.wordpress.com/2020/12/19/descola-animaux-histoire

    La question des animaux, d’une manière générale, occupe une place singulière et centrale dans cette œuvre très vaste et ambitieuse. Nous avons rencontré Philippe Descola pour évoquer avec lui la place des animaux dans la réflexion des sciences sociales, en particulier des historiens, puis leur rôle dans les diverses cosmologies, leur place au XIXe siècle, et plus largement dans sa propre réflexion. Source : Revue d’histoire du XIXe siècle via Et vous n’avez encore rien vu...

  • Et puis, soudain, au milieu des doutes et loin des faux espoirs, reconnaître l’évidence !
    https://www.flickr.com/photos/valkphotos/50679806511

    Flickr

    ValK. a posté une photo :

    (Douleurs automnales, distanciations amicales, dissociations sociales... ce matin était chagrins)
    .
    [ Résilience ]
    .
    #germe #germ #germen #pousse #sprout #brote #plante #plant #planta #escargot #snail #caracol #nature #naturaleza #automne #autumn #fall #otoño #confinement #confinamiento #résilience #resilience #resiliencia #syncrétisme #syncretism #sincretismo
    .
    ☆ série Resilience : https://frama.link/valk-resilience
    ☆ autres photos : https://frama.link/valk
    ☆ infos / audios : https://frama.link/karacole
    ☆ oripeaux : https://frama.link/kolavalk
    ☆ me soutenir : https://liberapay.com/ValK

    • Si tu savais @ericw... j’avais super mal, j’étais super triste pour des raisons que je n’évoquerai pas publiquement et j’ai presque observé mon corps mettre des chaussures, rassembler mon barda de noueuse de liens. Mon corps que je m’obstine à sortir quotidiennement dans ma courette pour prendre les dernières miettes de soleil tant que l’hiver n’est pas là afin de ne pas perdre la « lumière » et : tadaaa ! Sur ma table quotidienne où j’avais laissé l’hommage à Anne Sylvestre (https://seenthis.net/messages/889127 ) je suis tombée là dessus comme sur un Graal ! Synchronisme parfait, je recevais pendant ce temps le message de l’ami qui doute et qui...
      En vrai je fais plein de petites photos, tous les jours, que je n’ose pas trop publier tellement c’est compliqué de ne plus documenter les luttes, d’être dans une décroissance « volontaire » (ou une hyper adaptation ?), dans une simplicité que je magnifie autant que possible pour ne pas sombrer, et de tenter de lancer des « charmes » au quotidien. C’est bizarre tout ça. Mais à la question « Que faire ? » j’essaye de répondre avec mes moyens.

  • #Journal du #Regard : Novembre 2020
    http://liminaire.fr/journal/article/journal-du-regard-novembre-2020

    https://youtu.be/9B6Kboo7If8

    Chaque mois, un film regroupant l’ensemble des images prises au fil des jours, le mois précédent, et le texte qui s’écrit en creux. « Une sorte de palimpseste, dans lequel doivent transparaître les traces - ténues mais non déchiffrables - de l’écriture “préalable” ». Jorge Luis Borges, Fictions L’effondrement d’un monde. On pourrait s’amuser à dresser la liste des analogies, des correspondances qui relient entre elles les compositions de ce programme. Débris d’une maison ruinée, souvenirs piteux : (...) #Journal / #Architecture, #Biographie, Journal, #Voix, #Vidéo, #Poésie, #Sons, #Musique, #Journal_du_regard, #Paris, #Ville, #Paysage, #Ciel, #Dérive, Regard, (...)

    #Nature

  • Loin des petitesses, loin de la violence de ce monde (violence dont il avait évidemment conscience et qu’il combattait), le géographe anarchiste #Élisée_Reclus avait le goût du #bonheur. Et il en donne. Quel plaisir de le lire : vraiment c’est bienfaisant.


    Thread de Ludivine Bantigny sur twitter :
    https://twitter.com/Ludivine_Bantig/status/1330647060522164224

    « Notre commencement de savoir, nos petits rudiments de connaissances historiques nous disent qu’il ne faut point tolérer de maîtres, à tout #ordre il faut répondre par la #révolte. L’histoire nous dit que toute #obéissance est #abdication, que toute #servitude est une mort anticipée »

    « Nous sommes révolutionnaires parce que nous voulons la #justice. » Sans intérêts d’argent, de caste, de position. Pour étudier le grand livre des connaissances humaines, vivre d’une vie libre, puissamment consciente et fraternelle, s’occuper des enfants et avec eux de la #nature.

    Et ce sera pour tous un bonheur dont nous n’avons aujourd’hui aucune idée, de vivre dans un monde où nous ne verrons […] point de faméliques demandant un sou, point d’hommes valides se faisant soldats ou même policiers, parce qu’ils n’ont pas d’autres moyens de gagner leur vie.

    « Puisque la nature est profanée par tant de spéculateurs précisément à cause de sa #beauté, il n’est pas étonnant que dans leurs travaux d’#exploitation les agriculteurs et les industriels négligent de se demander s’ils ne contribuent pas à l’enlaidissement de la terre. »

    Dans le souvenir de la #Commune : « Il me souvient, comme si je la vivais encore, d’une heure poignante de ma vie où l’amertume de la #défaite n’était compensée que par la joie mystérieuse et profonde, presque inconsciente, d’avoir agi suivant mon cœur et ma volonté… »

    Notre idéal de bonheur : une #communauté_d’égaux
    Quel est d’abord notre objectif révolutionnaire ?
    L’#affection_mutuelle, le #respect_de_soi et de la #dignité_d’autrui.
    Pour cela : supprimer l’#accaparement.
    [Que vienne un temps où les humains] pourront enfin se dire égaux sans ironie.

    « L’histoire d’un #ruisseau, même de celui qui naît et se perd dans la mousse, est l’histoire de l’#infini. »
    Reclus observe « les #champignons groupés fraternellement en petites assemblées », le « ravin et ses voûtes d’ombre ».
    Car chez Reclus la nature redonne courage pour les #luttes.

    Les petites ondulations que je provoque à la surface de l’eau se propagent au loin[…] jusqu’à l’espace indistinct. De même toute pensée vigoureuse, toute parole ferme, tout effort dans le grand combat de la justice & de la #liberté se répercutent[…] jusqu’au plus lointain avenir.

    Les gens de gouvernement désespérant de leur cause en sont venus à ne demander à leurs maîtres que la « poigne » leur seule chance de salut.
    À leur sujet le doute n’est pas permis : nul #préjugé ne les arrête pour la conquête du #pouvoir et des écus.
    É. Reclus Évolution et révolution.

    Si le #capital garde la force nous serons tous des #esclaves de ses #machines, cartilages rattachant les dents de fer aux arbres de bronze ou d’acier[…] C’est en vain que vous ferez appel à la #pitié. Le tigre peut se détourner de sa victime mais les livres de banque sont sans appel.

    Aux enfants : « Notre titre de parents ne nous fait en rien vos supérieurs et nous n’avons sur vous d’autres droits que ceux de notre profonde #affection. À vous, mes enfants, de dire si nous avons abusé de notre force pour vous maintenir dans la faiblesse ».

    #Elisée_Reclus #anarchisme #parentalité

    • Elisée Reclus est l’un de mes « maîtres à penser » si tant est qu’on ait besoin de tels personnages. C’est vraiment une personnalité remarquable et sa conception de l’anarchisme et des rapports entre l’homme et la nature sont plus qu’indispensables à connaître. Beau texte !