• La Nouvelle-Zélande traîne à rouvrir les dossiers d’anciens émigrés nazis Par Lance Morcan
    Le chasseur de nazis Efraim Zuroff a fourni une liste de 50 criminels de guerre présumés il y a plusieurs décennies, mais les gouvernements successifs n’ont pas agi.

    La mort largement médiatisée de l’ancien soldat de la Waffen-SS, Willi Huber, survenue en Nouvelle-Zélande l’année dernière, a permis d’éveiller la conscience des Néo-Zélandais sur le fait que des criminels de guerre et des sympathisants nazis vivaient, ou avaient vécu, parmi eux.

    Huber, qui a émigré en Nouvelle-Zélande en 1953, était un skieur passionné.

    Souvent qualifié de « héros du pays » et de « père fondateur » du domaine skiable du Mt. Hutt, sur l’île du sud du pays, il a acquis un statut quasi légendaire dans le monde du ski et a été encensé par certains médias.

    Il est mort sans avoir jamais exprimé publiquement le moindre regret pour ses actions pendant la guerre.

    Depuis la fin de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, la Nouvelle-Zélande, comme l’Australie, a pu servir de point de chute à des réfugiés de guerre et autres personnes déplacées, principalement en provenance d’Europe.
    Mais tous, semble-t-il, n’ont pas été honnêtes quant à leurs antécédents.

    Huber a par exemple nié avoir eu connaissance des atrocités commises par la Waffen-SS ou de la persécution tout aussi bien documentée des Juifs pendant la Shoah.

    Ce déni est critiqué par des membres éminents de la Fondation pour la Shoah et l’Antisémitisme d’Aotearoa Nouvelle-Zélande (HAFANZ), qui soulignent que les nazis de la Waffen-SS formaient une unité d’extermination qui opérait en dehors des cadres légaux de la guerre.

    Ils insistent sur le fait que tout membre de cette organisation notoire aurait été tout à fait conscient de son modus operandi.

    Ces sentiments sont partagés par le Dr. Efraim Zuroff, membre du Conseil international de HAFANZ et directeur du Centre Simon Wiesenthal à Jérusalem.

    Historien éminent, Zuroff insiste sur le fait que « l’impénitent Huber aurait été tout à fait conscient des atrocités commises par les SS ».

    Il a également souligné certains commentaires de l’émigré autrichien, selon lequel Hitler était « très intelligent » et « avait offert (aux Autrichiens) une issue » aux difficultés qu’ils avaient subies après la Première Guerre mondiale.

    Zuroff, qui a consacré sa vie à traquer les criminels de guerre nazis et que l’on surnomme aujourd’hui « le dernier chasseur de nazis », affirme que lui et d’autres ont porté à l’attention du gouvernement néo-zélandais, lors d’une visite au début des années 1990, l’identité de plus de 50 criminels de guerre nazis présumés (46 ou 47 selon les rapports précédents) vivant dans le pays. (Le nom de Huber ne figurait pas parmi ceux fournis par Zuroff.)

    « Ils étaient tous d’Europe de l’Est et principalement Lituaniens, et je suis sûr qu’il y en avait d’autres. Peut-être beaucoup d’autres », a déclaré Zuroff au Times of Israël fin avril, par téléphone depuis Jérusalem.

    . . . . . .
    « La Nouvelle-Zélande est le seul pays anglo-saxon, parmi la Grande-Bretagne, les États-Unis, le Canada et l’Australie, à avoir choisi de ne pas engager de poursuites judiciaires après une enquête gouvernementale sur la présence de nazis. Et ce, malgré le fait que l’enquêteur principal ait fourni une confirmation (de la présence d’un criminel de guerre nazi en Nouvelle-Zélande) qui aurait dû être prise en compte », a déclaré M. Zuroff.

    L’enquêteur auquel il fait référence est le sergent-détective Wayne Stringer, depuis retraité, qui a indiqué que de nombreux suspects étaient déjà morts et qu’il avait pu en rayer d’autres de la liste.

    Stringer a notamment confirmé que l’un des noms de la liste de Zuroff était Jonas Pukas, un ancien membre du redoutable 12e bataillon de la police lituanienne, qui a massacré des dizaines de milliers de Juifs pendant la guerre.


    Illustration : Entrée principale du ghetto de Vilnius en Lituanie, pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale. (Crédit : Wikimedia Commons/Domaine public)
    Interrogé à son domicile néo-zélandais en 1992, Pukas, alors âgé de 78 ans, a insisté sur le fait qu’il n’avait fait qu’assister au meurtre de Juifs et qu’il n’y avait pas directement participé.

    Cependant, il s’est réjoui, sur des enregistrements, de la façon dont les Juifs « criaient comme des oies » et il a ri en décrivant comment les victimes « volaient dans les airs » lorsqu’elles étaient abattues.

    Malgré cela, le gouvernement de l’époque a décidé qu’il n’y avait pas suffisamment de preuves pour accuser Pukas d’un quelconque crime.
    #nazis #racisme #nazi #nazisme #extrême-droite #asile #antisémitisme #fascisme #guerre #nouvelle-zélande #nouvelle_zélande #Lithuanie

    L’intégralité de l’article : https://fr.timesofisrael.com/la-nouvelle-zelande-traine-a-rouvrir-les-dossiers-danciens-emigres

  • #Nouvelle_Zélande : le #tourisme_glaciaire face aux évolutions climatiques

    1La Nouvelle-Zélande est un pays bien connu dans la recherche concernant le tourisme glaciaire. Deux grands espaces touristiques existent à cette fin (figure 2) : le #Parc_National Aoraki-Mont Cook dont le glacier du Tasman fait partie (330 km depuis Christchurch, principal point d’entrée de l’Île du Sud ; lien vers la brochure touristique) et le Parc National Westland Tai Poutini qui inclue les glaciers de Fox et Franz Josef (400 km de Christchurch à Fox Glacier ; lien vers le site promotionnel). L’ensemble de ces #glaciers est aujourd’hui impacté par l’augmentation des températures en Nouvelle Zélande (Wratt et Mullan, 2016) qui pourrait les amener à perdre jusqu’à 80 % de leur volume de glace d’ici 2100 (Bosson et al., 2019).

    https://journals.openedition.org/rga/6824
    #tourisme #Aoraki-Mont Cook
    #Westland_Tai_Poutini #changement_climatique #climat

  • Violences masculines en période de confinement : « Personne ne viendra m’aider » | Camille Wernaers
    https://www.axellemag.be/violences-masculines-confinement

    Avec le confinement, les femmes ont moins d’échappatoires face à un conjoint violent. La crise sanitaire rappelle que l’espace privé n’est pas sécurisé pour les femmes. Sur le terrain, les associations adaptent leurs services pour rester au plus près de celles qui en ont plus que jamais besoin. Source : Axelle Mag

    • Delphy a publié cet article avec d’autres encore.

      https://christinedelphy.wordpress.com/2020/04/04/coronavirus-et-confinement-vie-feminine-appelle-a-des-mes

      Avec le confinement, c’est l’explosion des violences intrafamiliales - regards.fr
      http://www.regards.fr/politique/a-l-heure-du-covid-19-chroniques-de-clementine-autain/article/avec-le-confinement-c-est-l-explosion-des-violences-intrafamiliales

      En temps normal, si j’ose dire, un enfant meurt tous les cinq jours sous les coups de l’un de ses parents, selon un rapport de l’IGAS (Inspection générale de l’action sociale) remis en avril 2019. Un chiffre sans doute sous-estimé puisqu’il ne tient pas compte des meurtres non révélés, des nouveaux nés tués à la naissance. On constate toujours, avant le geste létal, des violences antérieures répétées. Le coup fatal n’arrive pas du jour au lendemain, il s’inscrit dans un processus d’humiliations psychologiques et d’agressions physiques. Les parents violents, à égalité entre les pères et les mères (en particulier dans les familles monoparentales), souffrent souvent de troubles psychiatriques ou d’addictions. Et les violences conjugales constituent un environnement favorable à l’enfance maltraitée.

      En période de confinement, tout s’accélère. Le ministre de l’Intérieur Christophe Castaner a révélé, lors d’une émission spéciale de France 2 sur la crise sanitaire (si spéciale d’ailleurs qu’aucun membre de l’opposition n’a eu le droit de s’exprimer, comme si la démocratie était elle-même confinée !), que les violences conjugales ont augmenté de 36% en une semaine dans la zone de la préfecture de police de Paris et de 32% en zone gendarmerie. À vrai dire, je n’avais pas imaginé un tel niveau de carnage. On observe d’importantes variations en fonction des territoires, le Nord étant plus touché que l’Ouest par exemple. À Reims, je lisais hier dans Le Parisien que ces violences ont représenté 40% des gardes à vue la semaine dernière !

      Autant vous dire que le milliard que nous n’avons pas réussi à arracher au gouvernement après tant de mobilisation grâce à la vague #MeToo contre les violences conjugales me fait plus mal au bide que jamais.

      Les bonnes nouvelles ne viennent pas du gouvernement mais de la mobilisation sociale et citoyenne.

      Soins et féminisme en temps de pandémie - Autres Brésils
      https://www.autresbresils.net/Soins-et-feminisme-en-temps-de-pandemie

      Au Brésil, bien que la maladie soit arrivée par l’intermédiaire de gens riches venant de l’étranger, les deux premières victimes sont des femmes pauvres qui ont été contaminées parce qu’elles travaillaient. En temps de démantèlement de l’État, il est toujours bon de rappeler que c’est l’État lui-même qui est en mesure de garantir la protection et l’assistance économique en cas de calamité. L’isolement peut paraître une option ou un privilège individuel, mais c’est une question politique qui exige des réponses collectives [1]. Le manque de protection est une imposition systémique - patriarcale, raciste et de classe, et par conséquent son contraire (la protection contre la pandémie) est un droit inaccessible.

      L’émergence de la pandémie appelle avec insistance à la redéfinition de la place des hommes dans le maintien de la vie reproductive, des liens affectifs et des soins, une tâche qui n’est pas considérée comme essentielle ou positive dans nos sociétés, et donc exercée de manière inégale par les femmes.

      Et si nous avions des politiques publiques telles que des écoles à plein temps, des laveries et des restaurants communautaires pour ces activités dans notre vie quotidienne ? Et si les soins aux enfants, aux personnes âgées et à ceux qui ne peuvent se prendre en charge n’étaient pas la responsabilité exclusive des familles – c.à.d. des femmes et des filles - mais plutôt discutés et partagés par toute la société ; les hommes et les entreprises aussi. Il s’agit de propositions que les mouvements féministes brésiliens ont formulées et exigées des gouvernements au cours des dernières années, défendues en conférences et dans les programmes de politiques en faveur des femmes, mais qui n’ont guère avancé. Il suffit de se souvenir de la longue lutte pour l’universalisation des crèches et de l’école maternelle, autre revendication insuffisamment satisfaite.

      « Le coronavirus met plus que jamais en danger les Néo-Zélandaises de l’industrie du sexe ; pourquoi est-ce que le lobby pro-décriminalisation ne les aide pas ? »
      https://seenthis.net/messages/838522

      De nombreux Néo-Zélandais sont fiers de l’esprit de leadership de Mme Ardern. Le gouvernement a préparé des mesures de compensation financière pour les employés, les entreprises et les entrepreneurs individuels afin de réduire leur fardeau financier, car il est demandé aux gens de s’isoler pour empêcher le virus de se propager. Elle en a présenté les détails sur un site web intitulé Unite Against COVID-19.

      Women’s Refuge, une organisation qui coordonne un réseau de refuges pour les victimes de violence conjugale dans toute la Nouvelle-Zélande, a reconnu que l’une des plus grandes préoccupations de cette mise en quarantaine est que de nombreuses femmes et de nombreux enfants ne sont pas en sécurité à la maison. La directrice générale de l’organisation, la Dre Ang Jury, a expliqué que « bien que cela soit clairement très nécessaire, l’auto-isolement signifiera probablement une escalade de la violence pour de nombreuses femmes ».

      L’alternative pour de nombreuses femmes serait de rejoindre les 34 000 Néo-Zélandais-es et plus qui souffrent d’une grave pénurie de logement. Or, les femmes sans-abri sont plus vulnérables que leurs homologues masculins, notamment en raison du risque élevé de violence sexuelle. Pour les femmes, les menaces de violence conjugale, de sans-abrisme et de prostitution sont liées, et bon nombre des femmes en prostitution ont connu la violence conjugale, ainsi que le sans-abrisme et l’itinérance.

      (...)

      Les adeptes d’une dépénalisation intégrale de la prostitution affirment souvent qu’il n’est pas possible d’éliminer complètement le risque de violence et de maladie lié à la prostitution, parce que la prostitution est inévitable et ne peut être arrêtée, et parce qu’elle est essentielle — certains hommes ne pouvant tout simplement pas survivre sans avoir accès à des femmes sur le plan sexuel. Ainsi, offrir aux femmes des brochures et des préservatifs, et normaliser la prostitution en la légitimant au plan juridique serait le mieux que l’on pourrait faire.

      Pourtant, après l’annonce de la quarantaine liée à la COVID-19, le NZPC a mis à jour la page d’accueil de son site web pour annoncer que la prostitution devait être stoppée avant minuit mercredi. Cette page se lit maintenant comme suit :

      « INFORMATION SUR LA COVID-19 : DIRECTIVES POUR L’ARRÊT DU TRAVAIL SEXUEL PAR CONTACT PHYSIQUE AVANT MINUIT MERCREDI 25 MARS 2020

      La NZPC reconnaît que le travail du sexe est un travail et constitue la principale forme de revenu pour un certain nombre de personnes.

      Cependant, comme la Nouvelle-Zélande passe au niveau d’alerte 4, les travailleuses du sexe sont priées de se conformer à l’obligation de rester chez elles pendant la période d’isolement de quatre semaines indiquée par le gouvernement. Seuls les travailleurs des services essentiels seront autorisés à travailler. Le travail du sexe n’est pas classé parmi les services essentiels (médecins, pharmaciens, police, ambulance, pompiers, vétérinaires, production alimentaire et supermarchés).

      C’est pourquoi la NZPC souhaite que toutes les travailleuses du sexe respectent l’interruption de quatre semaines.

      En cas de non-respect, des fonctionnaires pourraient se rendre sur votre lieu de travail pour faire respecter cette directive ».

      Le message se termine par un lien vers le site web Work and Income New Zealand (WINZ) et vers le site gouvernemental Unite Against COVID-19.

      Cette notification sur le site web de la NZPC comporte quelques concessions. La première est que la prostitution peut être arrêtée — et immédiatement — si la volonté politique est présente et si le besoin est considéré comme urgent. Le fait que le taux de violence sexuelle contre les femmes dans la prostitution soit plus élevé que celui commis dans tout autre contexte n’a tout simplement jamais constitué une menace suffisamment urgente à leurs yeux. La deuxième concession est que les hommes n’ont pas réellement besoin de la prostitution – celle-ci n’est ni essentielle, ni un besoin humain, ni un droit. C’est une chose dont les hommes peuvent se passer.

  • Historic UN Human Rights case opens door to climate change asylum claims

    In its first ruling on a complaint by an individual seeking asylum from the effects of climate change, the UN Human Rights Committee* has stated that countries may not deport individuals who face climate change-induced conditions that violate the right to life.

    In 2015, #Ioane_Teitiota ’s asylum application in New Zealand was denied, and he was deported with his wife and children to his home country of #Kiribati. He filed a complaint to the UN Human Rights Committee, arguing that by deporting him, New Zealand had violated his right to life. Mr. Teitiota argued that the rise in sea level and other effects of climate change had rendered Kiribati uninhabitable for all its residents. Violent land disputes occurred because habitable land was becoming increasingly scarce. Environmental degradation made subsistence farming difficult, and the freshwater supply was contaminated by salt water.

    The Committee determined that in Mr. Teitiota’s specific case, New Zealand’s courts did not violate his right to life at the time of the facts, because the thorough and careful evaluation of his testimony and other available information led to the determination that, despite the serious situation in Kiribati, sufficient protection measures were put in place. “Nevertheless,” said Committee expert Yuval Shany, “this ruling sets forth new standards that could facilitate the success of future climate change-related asylum claims.”

    The Committee also clarified that individuals seeking asylum status are not required to prove that they would face imminent harm if returned to their countries. The Committee reasoned that climate change-induced harm can occur both through sudden-onset events (such as intense storms and flooding), and slow-onset processes (such as sea level rise, salinization and land degradation). Both sudden-onset events and slow-onset processes can prompt individuals to cross borders to seek protection from climate change-related harm.

    The Committee also highlighted the role that the international community must play in assisting countries adversely affected by climate change. The Committee stated that without robust national and international efforts, the effects of climate change in sending states may trigger the #non-refoulement obligations of receiving states and that – given that the risk of an entire country becoming submerged under water is such an extreme risk – the conditions of life in such a country may become incompatible with the right to life with dignity before the risk is realized.

    The ruling marks the first decision by a UN human rights treaty body on a complaint by an individual seeking asylum protection from the effects of climate change.

    See the full Human Rights Committee ruling here: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CCPR/C/127/D/2728/2016&Lang=en

    https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=25482&LangID=E

    #réfugiés #asile #migrations #réfugiés_climatiques #réfugiés_environnementaux #UN #ONU #renvois #expulsions #refoulement #Nouvelle_Zélande #justice #droit_à_la_vie #inhabitabilité #dignité

    Sur ce cas, déjà signalé sur seenthis:
    En 2015: https://seenthis.net/messages/391645
    En 2013: https://seenthis.net/messages/187732

    ping @isskein @karine4 @reka

  • New Zealand history will be compulsory in all schools by 2022

    Within the next three years, New Zealand history will be taught in all schools and kura, Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern announced this morning while unveiling a plaque commemorating the New Zealand Wars.

    The reset is expected to include:

    The arrival of Māori to #Aotearoa New Zealand
    First encounters and early colonial history of Aotearoa New Zealand
    Te Tiriti o Waitangi / Treaty of Waitangi and its history
    Colonisation of, and immigration to, Aotearoa New Zealand, including the New Zealand Wars.
    Evolving national identity of Aotearoa New Zealand in the late 19th and early 20th Centuries
    Aotearoa New Zealand’s role in the Pacific
    Aotearoa New Zealand in the late 20th century and evolution of a national identity with cultural plurality.

    https://www.rnz.co.nz/news/national/398599/new-zealand-history-will-be-compulsory-in-all-schools-by-2022
    #histoire #manuels_d'histoire #colonisation #peuples_autochtones #Maori #Nouvelle_Zélande #éducation #écoles #traité_de_Waitangi #identité #identité_nationale #pluralité_culturelle

  • La Chiesa anglicana neozelandese si scusa con i Maori

    Durante l’era coloniale la #Church_Missionary_Society sottrasse forzatamente le terre al popolo Maori di #Tauranga.

    La Chiesa Anglicana della Nuova Zelanda si è scusata con il popolo Maori di Tauranga per la sottrazione forzata delle terre avvenuta nel 1800.

    Gli abitanti originari, i clan #Ngati_Tapu e #Ngai_Tamarawaho, avevano affidato circa 1333 acri della loro terra alla Church Missionary Society, la quale li consegnò nel 1866 alla Corona.

    La rivista della Chiesa anglicana della Nuova Zelanda, Anglican Taonga, riporta che durante un culto speciale, celebrato ad inizio dicembre, il vescovo Pihopa Ngarahu Katene e l’arcivescovo Philip Richardson – due delle figure più alte della Chiesa – hanno letto un documento contenente le scuse.

    In particolare l’arcivescovo Richardson ha letto il testo in inglese mentre Pihopa Katene lo ha letto nella lingua maori.

    Richardson poi si è inginocchiato e ha consegnato il documento, sigillato con il sigillo dei Primati, agli anziani dei clan Ngati Tapu e Ngai Tamarawaho.

    Il Vescovo di Waiapu, Rt Rev Andrew Hedge, ha affermato che i membri della Chiesa anglicana della Nuova Zelanda che hanno partecipato al culto «portano fino ad oggi il dolore rappresentativo di una nazione intera composta da vescovi, clero e da laici anglicani».

    «Riconosciamo con solenne tristezza che gli eventi del passato hanno gettato un’ombra così lunga sulle generazioni seguenti, lasciando un’eredità di ingiustizia e controversie», ha affermato.

    «Ci aspettiamo che questo atto di pentimento possa contribuire a far brillare una luce di riconciliazione in questa whenua (terra)».

    Le scuse ufficiali sono state concordate in occasione di un incontro del Sinodo Generale nel maggio 2018, in cui il vescovo Hedge aveva affermato di non aver mai «provato in modo così palpabile un tale schiacciante dolore».

    https://riforma.it/it/articolo/2018/12/10/la-chiesa-anglicana-neozelandese-si-scusa-con-i-maori

    #Eglise #colonialisme #Maori #christianisme #histoire #excuses #colonisation #Nouvelle_Zélande #terres

  • Vandalism forces New Zealand council to remove Captain Cook statue

    A year ahead of 250th anniversary of explorer’s arrival, monument will be replaced by ‘cultural designs’

    A statue of Captain Cook in New Zealand that has been repeatedly defaced and daubed with graffiti is to be removed by the council a year out from the 250-year anniversary of his arrival in the country.

    The statue of Cook in Gisborne has been repeatedly targeted by vandals amid a heated debate about the portrayal of the town’s complex colonial history.

    The Cook statue has had red paint smeared on its face and coat, and a bikini and a pair of thongs have also been painted on.

    With the 250th anniversary of Cook’s landing in New Zealand only a year away, tensions are high in the city which lies 350km south-east of Auckland.

    Many residents have posted on social media describing Cook as a “murderer” and “crooked Cook”.

    Cook and the crew of the Endeavour landed in Gisborne’s Poverty Bay in 1769 and the first significant meetings of Europeans and Māori took place nearby.

    Nick Tupara, spokesman for the #Ngati_Oneone tribe, said according to historical records, Cook’s crew shot nine #Maori men of his tribe, including Tupara’s ancestors. Six of the men are believed to have died.

    Ngati Oneone has long opposed having the controversial statue of Cook placed on the sacred mountain of #Titirangi, and on Monday the #Gisborne district council said it would be moved to the Tairawhiti Museum instead.

    The council said the mountain would now be adorned with “iwi [tribal] stories and cultural design elements can be shared from this significant location”.

    The council would also consult with the local community regarding the renaming of the Cook Plaza on top of Titirangi, as well as various walking tracks and sites on the mountain.

    Meredith Akuhata-Brown, a local councillor, told Maori Television the removal of the statue would allow a more nuanced and “honest” story about New Zealand’s history to emerge.

    Discussions are under way in the Gisborne region for Poverty Bay – so named by Cook in 1769 – to be replaced by its Māori name, or given a dual name.
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    Akuhata described the name of Poverty Bay as “horrendous” and said it was particularly painful as the region had numerous social and economical challenges it was working to overcome.

    https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/oct/02/vandalism-forces-new-zealand-council-to-remove-captain-cook-statue?CMP=
    #mémoire #Cook #Nouvelle_Zélande #post-colonialisme #vandalisme #histoire #colonialisme #James_Cook #musée #espace_public #toponymie (même si je ne sais pas si la place s’appelle Cook, mais c’est pour retrouver l’article) #peuples_autochtones
    ping @reka

    • Il faudrait que je retrouve le nom d’un film superbe (australien je crois) qui mets en scène aborigènes et communautés allochtones, et dans lequel une actrice aborigène lance l’insulte suprême « Tu n’es qu’un fils batard du capitaine Cook ! »

  • Govt may change immigration settings to take climate change refugees

    The Government is considering tweaking immigration settings to take climate change refugees.

    It has been a week of relentless diplomacy in New York, with not a lot of sleep. The Prime Minister’s spent her days schmoozing and being schmoozed by world leaders, while her nights were spent between juggling bath time for baby Neve and writing speeches.

    https://www.newshub.co.nz/home/politics/2018/09/govt-may-change-immigration-settings-to-take-climate-change-refugees.html
    #réfugiés #asile #migrations #climat #changement_climatique #réfugiés_climatiques #réfugiés_environnementaux #Nouvelle_Zélande

  • Govt may change immigration settings to take climate change refugees

    The Government is considering tweaking immigration settings to take climate change refugees.

    It has been a week of relentless diplomacy in New York, with not a lot of sleep. The Prime Minister’s spent her days schmoozing and being schmoozed by world leaders, while her nights were spent between juggling bath time for baby Neve and writing speeches.

    https://www.newshub.co.nz/home/politics/2018/09/govt-may-change-immigration-settings-to-take-climate-change-refugees.html
    #réfugiés #asile #migrations #climat #changement_climatique #réfugiés_climatiques #réfugiés_environnementaux #Nouvelle_Zélande

    • Bunnies by the boxful
      https://pateblog.nma.gov.au/2016/03/27/bunnies-by-the-boxful

      Opened in 1916, the freezing works supplied rabbit meat to markets around southern Queensland (Brisbane, Toowoomba, and Warwick), while pelts were sent to Sydney for auction and to hat factories in Melbourne. In 1917 the works processed over 110,000 rabbits. This success led to plans to expand capacity and establish exports.

      ‘The plant which did the freezing was small at first, supplying mainly Brisbane markets, but this grew until it was supplying a large city in Indonesia, then as the years went by, a firm in England…’

      Bert Wright, 1992

      Bert Wright was one of many locals who found employment at the works, operated in the 1920s by local businessmen Bill Wilkinson and Ted Maher.

      ‘I worked for the Yelarbon chiller for years on and off. The rabbit kept me in good work whenever I needed it. … I drove for them … from Yelarbon to Stanthorpe – 90 odd miles. Of course you were all over the place picking up, grading and buying rabbits. A docket was issued – so many pair of large, medium and small – all at different prices.’

      Bert Wright, 1992

      Bert recalled that in the interwar years (1919-1938) Yelarbon was known as a ‘rabbit town’. Over 20 tons of rabbits were trucked to Brisbane each week in peak periods and 151 trappers were on the freezing works’ books. During the 1930s Depression prices for rabbits were very low but trappers were able to make a little over £1 a week, enough for their families to survive the difficult times.

      With the start of the Second World War in 1939, most of the young trappers enlisted for the Army and the flow of rabbit carcasses to the freezing works dropped significantly, but the company remained in business. Bert explained the impact that the absence of trappers had on rabbit populations: when the war finished ‘… there were rabbits everywhere – even living under the freezing works itself.’ The trappers came back and shipments of rabbits started coming from as far away as St George, approximately 250 km west of Yelarbon. The record catch Bert remembers was 4007 pairs delivered by one trapper in 1947-48. The works closed in 1955.

    • Louis Pasteur and the $10m rabbit reward
      http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/earshot/louis-pasteur-and-the-$10m-rabbit-reward/6703072

      Image: Plague proportions: farmers with one evening’s cull in central Victoria, 1949. (State Library of Victoria’s Pictures Collection/ Accession no H19019)

      In the 1880s, the greatest threat to Australia’s political and economic future was the rabbit, and our desperate struggle with the bunny resembled a Looney Tunes plot, involving biological warfare, a scientific genius, a world famous actress and a $10 million reward. Lorena Allam reports.

      Rabbits arrived in Australia with the First Fleet but didn’t thrive initially. The great bunny plague is commonly blamed on Thomas Austin of Barwon Park near Geelong, who decided in 1859 to organise a ’spot of hunting’ by releasing two dozen rabbits into the wild.

      ’Those two dozen rabbits went on to multiply, as rabbits do, to be a plague of a billion rabbits by the 1880s,’ says historian and author Stephen Dando-Collins.

      The speed of the invasion was astonishing.

      Some of the strong contenders were people who thought, “Well, let’s bring in something that will eat the rabbits.” In fact, some animals were brought in ... mongooses, cats.
      Brian Coman, author and research scientist

      ’In the west of NSW in particular, properties were quite marginal to begin with,’ says Dando-Collins. ’Once the rabbits arrived and stripped them of all the crops and stock feed, these places became dustbowls and totally useless to farmers.’

      Next the rabbits invaded politics.

      ’At that time there was no income tax, no company tax and the colonial government’s single biggest source of income was from the lease of crown lands,’ says Dando-Collins. ’By the late 1880s a lot of these leases were coming up for renewal, and farmers said to the government, “If you don’t sort out this rabbit problem, we’ll just walk away. We will not renew our leases.”’

      Under the Rabbit Nuisance Act, the NSW government paid a rebate for rabbit scalps. The act spawned an entire industry.

      ’In just 12 months near Wilcannia 782,510 rabbits were caught, and they were still saying the property was useless,’ Dando-Collins says.

      ’Near Menindee 342,295 were scalped over three months. Word came back to the government in Sydney: “It’s just not working!”’

      In 1887, the premier of NSW, Sir Henry Parkes, appointed an Inter-Colonial Rabbit Commission made up of prominent graziers, men of science and government administrators. The commission’s task was to find a biological solution to the rabbit problem. It sent out a global call for entries, with prize money of £25,000 ($10 million in today’s terms) for ’any method or process not previously known in the colony for the effectual extermination of rabbits’.
      Rabbit plague Image: Plague proportions: farmers with one evening’s cull in central Victoria, 1949. (State Library of Victoria’s Pictures Collection/ Accession no H19019)

      The Rabbit Commission received more than 1,500 suggestions, most of them ’pretty insane’ according to author and research scientist Brian Coman.

      Coman worked for the Victorian Department of the Environment for 23 years, battling rabbits for much of that time.

      ’Some of the strong contenders were people who thought, “Well, let’s bring in something that will eat the rabbits.” In fact, some animals were brought in ... mongooses, cats. There was a whole trainload of cats dispatched into outback Australia and let loose at various points along the line,’ he says.

      The NSW government and pastoralists sought a ’magic bullet’ because keeping rabbit numbers down was (and still is) expensive, backbreaking and unrelenting work. Coman, who grew up in the Western Districts of Victoria, can relate.

      ’Back then the first sort of crude methods—other than trapping and bounties, which were totally ineffectual—were broad-spectrum poisons like arsenic and phosphorous. These were terrible poisons to use in the bush because they were non-specific. A lot of other animals got killed as well,’ he says.

      ’They were also very dangerous. My father has a recollection, as a little boy, of coming home at night after he’d been with his uncle poisoning on a farm up near Euroa, and rubbing his hands and they glowed in the dark. That was the phosphorous all over his hands.’

      The Rabbit Commission did receive a few useful suggestions, including one from a great man of science: Louis Pasteur.

      Pasteur claimed he could eradicate rabbits with chicken cholera—something he’d trialled with some success in France. Pasteur dispatched his nephew, the scientist Adrien Loir, on a steamer from Paris to Australia with vials of chicken cholera in his luggage.

      The Rabbit Commission agreed to allow Loir’s team to conduct experiments and built them a laboratory and accommodation on tiny Rodd Island, which sits in a quiet bend of the Parramatta River, a safe distance from civilisation.

      Loir’s plan was to ’inject nine rabbits with food containing microbes of chicken cholera, placed in equal numbers in wooden hutches, wire-bottomed cages, and artificial burrows with healthy rabbits, and to place two healthy rabbits in a hutch with the excrement of diseased rabbits.’

      They would also ’feed sheep, cattle, calves, lambs, horses, pigs, goats, dogs, cats, rats and mice once a day for six days with cholera-tainted food. Various birds, including nearly all kinds of poultry and the principal native birds, are also to be fed and inoculated.’

      It soon became clear that chicken cholera killed the rabbits, but only those who ate the tainted food. It was not contagious for them but—and perhaps the clue was in the name—chicken cholera killed all the birds.

      The Rabbit Commission retired to consider its decision, and Adrien Loir was left to wait. Over the next few months he used the lab on Rodd Island to research the mysterious Cumberland disease which at the time was devastating Australia’s sheep and cattle. Loir established that Cumberland disease was actually anthrax and—better still—he had a vaccine.

      The Rabbit Commission eventually decided against ’recommending any further expenditure by government on testing the efficacy of this disease’. Nobody won the £25,000 prize. Instead, Loir and The Pasteur Institute made a healthy profit manufacturing anthrax vaccine on Rodd Island for the next four years.

      In 1891 Loir’s island life took a dramatic turn, thanks to a visiting actress and her two dogs.
      Sarah Bernhardt Image: The greatest actress of her age, Sarah Bernhardt (Photographed by Felix Nadar, 1864; Licensed under Public Domain via Commons)

      ’Sarah Bernhardt was the superstar of her age, and she brought her entire acting troupe to Australia for a tour,’ Stephen Dando-Collins explains. ’She arrived with her two dogs, and just as Johnny Depp ran afoul of quarantine regulations, she had her dogs taken off her, and she too was threatening to leave the country.

      ’Young Loir had bought tickets to all her shows, he was such a huge fan, and he approached her and said, “I think I can convince the NSW government to declare Rodd Island a quarantine facility and I’ll look after your dogs while you’re in Australia.”’

      Dando-Collins says the pair dined in her hotel each evening and Bernhard spent her weekends on Rodd Island ’visiting her dogs’. After one particularly boisterous party, Bernhard and her entourage were ’found on the laboratory roof’ drinking champagne.

      Loir eventually returned to France and Rodd Island is now a public recreation space.
      Rodd island Image: The view from Loir’s balcony on Rodd Island on a sunny winter’s day (Lorena Allam)

      So, what about that pesky plague of a billion rabbits?

      Australia had to wait another 60 years before the magic bullet was found.

      In 1950, after years of research, scientists released myxomatosis—and it was devastating. The rabbit population dropped from 600 million to 100 million in the first two years. The change was immediate.

      Brian Coman remembers walking in a field with his father as a boy and looking at a hill, part of which was covered with bracken fern.

      ’He clapped his hands, and it was almost as if the whole surface of the ground got up and ran into the bracken fern. There were hundreds upon hundreds, perhaps thousands of rabbits. It was a sight I’ll never forget.’

      But after myxomatosis ’the grey blanket’ disappeared.

      ’You could walk all day and not see a rabbit,’ says Coman.

      Even scientists were shocked by the cruel effectiveness of the disease.

      ’I had a friend, Bunny Fennessy, who was of course fortuitously named,’ says Coman.

      ’He remembers walking to the crest of this hill. There was a fence line there and a gate. He leaned over the gate and looked down. In front of him was this mass of dead and dying rabbits, blind rabbits moping around, birds of prey flying in the air, flies everywhere, a stench in the air—he was simply overawed. He had never seen sick rabbits before.’

      Genetic resistance to myxomatosis has been increasing since the 1970s and even after the release of the virulent rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD, or calicivirus) in 1991, the search for a biological solution continues.

      In the meantime, the ’traditional’ means of keeping rabbits under control—poisoning, and warren destruction—are still necessary. Coman says it’s a war that doesn’t end.

      ’You’ve got a situation here where an animal is causing immense ecological damage, not to mention economic damage, and you simply cannot let that go on. You have to act.

      ’We simply can’t allow them to gain a foothold again; the cost environmentally and economically would be enormous.’

    • La myxomatose c’est vraiment sale, le lapin souffre beaucoup avant d’en mourir. Cet enflure de français d’Armand-Delille est allé l’inoculer aux lapins de sa propriété d’Eure-et-Loir et ça a finit par gagner toute la France puis l’Angleterre et à la fin des années 1950, toute l’Europe était touchée. Ce ne sont pas seulement les lapins sauvages qui en sont morts, mais aussi les domestiqués ou dans les élevages familiaux. WP note Entre 1952 et 1955, 90 à 98 % des lapins sauvages sont donc morts de la myxomatose en France.

      Aujourd’hui le lapin élevé industriellement a moins de considération qu’une poule, c’est dire les conditions de vie infectes dans lesquelles il est maintenu.

      #épizootie

    • Nouvelle-Zélande : les autorités répandent un virus pour décimer les lapins nuisibles RTBF - Antoine Libotte - 28 Février 2018
      https://www.rtbf.be/info/monde/detail_nouvelle-zelande-les-autorites-repandent-un-virus-pour-decimer-les-lapin

      Le ministère néo-zélandais de l’Agriculture a annoncé le déploiement à travers le pays d’une nouvelle souche du virus de la maladie hémorragique virale du lapin. Il s’agit du RHDV1-K5, provenant de Corée.

      Les lapins, qui ont été introduits dans l’archipel au début du 19ème siècle, causent beaucoup de soucis aux agriculteurs du pays. Selon la BBC, ils « entrent en concurrence avec le bétail pour le pâturage et causent aussi des dégâts en creusant des terriers. »

      Selon le ministère de l’Agriculture, les pertes de production imputées aux lapins s’élèvent à 50 millions de dollars néo-zélandais (soit un peu plus de 29,5 millions d’euros), à quoi il faut ajouter 25 millions (environ 14,8 millions d’euros) pour la lutte contre les lapins.

      La population divisée
      Si la Fédération des fermiers néo-zélandais (FF) se réjouit de cette décision, la Société pour la prévention de la cruauté envers les animaux (SPCA) aurait préféré une autre solution au problème.

      Andrew Simpson, porte-parole de la FF, explique à la BBC que certains agriculteurs sont désespérés : « Si une autre année s’écoule sans le virus, les dégâts écologiques causés à certaines propriétés seraient effrayants. »

      Pour Arnja Dale, de la SPCA, cette décision est décevante, vu « les souffrances que le virus causera aux lapins touchés et le risque potentiel pour les lapins de compagnie. Nous préconisons l’utilisation de méthodes plus humaines. »

      La SPCA pointe également du doigt le vaccin conçu pour protéger les lapins domestiques et dont l’efficacité n’aurait pas été suffisamment prouvée. Or, pour le ministère de l’Agriculture, la souche RHDV1-K5 a été déployée en Australie en 2017 et aucun lapin domestique n’a été touché par la souche virale.

      Vidéo : An introduction to the rabbit problem in Australia
      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xieW62u2bZQ

      #Nouvelle_Zélande #Australie #virus

  • Rising death toll from health sector cuts in New Zealand - World Socialist Web Site
    https://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2017/11/03/nzhe-n03.html

    New Zealand’s desperately underfunded healthcare system has resulted in shortened life expectancies, dying babies and increased suicides, according to recent media reports.

    Recently seven babies died within seven weeks at Waikato Hospital. On September 19, One News told the horrific story of Kate, a pregnant mother rushed to hospital when she started suffering severe pain. Due to staff shortages it took 12 hours for her to be seen by an obstetrician and a further 5 hours before she received a scan. She started vomiting black fluid and went into cardiac arrest, caused by an aneurysm that ruptured her uterus and leaked eight litres of blood into her abdomen.

    #nouvelle_zélande #santé #néolibéralisme

  • New Zealand anger as pristine lakes tapped for bottled water market | World news | The Guardian
    https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/mar/27/new-zealand-anger-as-pristine-lakes-tapped-for-bottled-water-market?CMP

    A plan to extract millions of litres of water out of a Unesco world heritage site, send it by pipe to the coast and ship it to foreign markets for bottling has ignited a campaign over water resources in New Zealand.

    An export company is proposing to collect 800m litres a month of the “untapped” glacial waters of Lake Greaney and Lake Minim Mere, mountainous dams that are fed by rainfall on the Southern Alps.
    New Zealand river granted same legal rights as human being
    Read more

    The pristine water, which the company Alpine Pure calls “untouched by man” would be pumped 20km downhill through an underground pipeline to a reservoir at Jackson Bay on the West Coast, where it would be processed.

    From there, it would travel through a two-kilometre pipeline laid on the seafloor to a mooring, where 100,000-tonne tanker ships would be waiting to transport it in bulk to overseas markets in China, India and the Middle East.

    #eau #privatisation #Nouvelle_Zélande

  • New Zealand government complicit in Australia’s persecution of refugees - World Socialist Web Site

    http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2015/06/19/asyl-j19.html

    New Zealand government complicit in Australia’s persecution of refugees

    By Tom Peters
    19 June 2015

    There is now substantial evidence that last month Australian officials paid six “people smugglers” about $US30,000 to take 65 asylum seekers, who were attempting to reach New Zealand by boat, back to Indonesia. The passengers and crew were intercepted by the Australian navy, which confiscated their boat, stripped them of their supplies and loaded them into two unseaworthy wooden boats without adequate fuel and supplies.

    The entire episode illustrates the utter criminality and brutality of the Australian government’s “border protection” regime. The 71 people, mostly from Sri Lanka and Bangladesh, reached the remote island of Latu only by an extraordinary stroke of luck after one boat ran out of fuel and the other crashed into a reef, forcing those on board to swim ashore. One Indonesian official accused Australia of sending the asylum seekers “on a suicide mission.”

    #réfugiés #asile #australie #nouvelle_zélande

  • #Manus_Island asylum seeker alleges New Zealand guard used brutal force

    Sustained and brutal force was used by a New Zealand security guard during violence in the Manus Island detention centre that killed one asylum seeker, a witness has alleged.

    The asylum seeker witness, whose name has been suppressed, says the guard came into his dormitory room on the second night of the violence in February and began hitting his brother, who has diabetes, before turning on the witness and five other asylum seekers.

    “[My brother] said to him ’I beg you, don’t hit me because I am sick, I have diabetes’,” the witness said. “But he hit him with force and said to him ’I hate asylum seekers’.”


    http://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/manus-island-asylum-seeker-alleges-new-zealand-guard-used-brutal-force-20140

    #Nouvelle_Zelande #réfugiés #violence #gardes_cotes #asile #migration #Ausralie

  • Les 55 derniers #dauphins Maui de la planète menacés par des forages de pétrole | Big Browser
    http://bigbrowser.blog.lemonde.fr/2014/08/15/les-55-derniers-dauphins-maui-de-la-planete-menaces-par-des-

    Mais le gouvernement est depuis quelques mois la cible de vives critiques, après avoir autorisé des forages exploratoires de pétrole et étendu la zone de pêche autorisée dans le domaine protégé de ces mammifères qui tiennent leur nom d’un dieu polynésien.

    Mais, selon Nick Smith, il est inenvisageable de renoncer à l’exploitation pétrolière dans cette zone : « cela coûterait à l’économie néo-zélandaise un milliard de dollars par an, et nous obligerait à nous tourner vers le charbon, ce qui nous ferait rejeter bien plus de gaz à effet de serre ».

    Ben oui, en Nelle-Zélande il n’y a ni vent, ni soleil, ni marée, ni géothermie, c’est ballot.
    #pétromania #tout_doit_disparaître et #pourquoi_faire

  • New Zealand is the new destination for desperate asylum seekers

    Late on Wednesday night, eight cars full of asylum seekers slipped quietly out of the hillside town of Cisarua and headed for the coast.

    They carried 50 desperate men and women who were intending to board a waiting boat and set off into the night.

    This movement was reminiscent of hundreds of other people-smuggling ventures in recent years. But in one critical respect it was different and immeasurably more dangerous.

    http://www.smh.com.au/world/new-zealand-is-the-new-destination-for-desperate-asylum-seekers-20140524-zrn

    #Nouvelle_Zélande #asile #réfugiés #migration #pays_de_destination

  • Mapping border deaths in Australia and Europe

    PhD Candidate #Brandy_Cochrane (http://artsonline.monash.edu.au/thebordercrossingobservatory/brandy-cochrane) recently presented a research mapping exercise of those who have died whilst crossing borders to Australia and in Europe at the 2013 Australia and New Zealand Society of Criminology Conference in Brisbane. In developing her map, Brandy used BOb’s Australian Border Deaths Database and an EU equivalent from United Against Racism, to look at areas of origin and deaths at the borders of those attempting to make the perilous migration journey. She presents her findings and a discussion of the development of her map below arguing that those from certain areas are more likely to die in the borderlands than others, attributing such tragedies to border hardening tactics applied by states against these areas.

    http://artsonline.monash.edu.au/thebordercrossingobservatory/mapping-border-deaths-in-australia-and-europe-2

    Le prezi de la présentation de Brandy:
    http://prezi.com/rb7tpb_8qjfl/finalanzsoc011013

    Australian Border Deaths Database

    The Australian Border Deaths Database maintains a record of all known deaths associated with Australia’s borders since 1 January 2000.

    The database was begun by Professor Sharon Pickering and Dr Leanne Weber as part of BOb’s Deaths at the Global Frontier project, culminating in the publication of the book Globalization and Borders: Death at the Global Frontier in 2011.

    The Border Crossing Observatory continues to periodically update The Australian Border Deaths Database in line with the methodology detailed in Globalization and Borders: Death at the Global Frontier.

    The most recent version (see below) records deaths at the Australian frontier for the period 1 January 2000 – October 2013, with a recorded 1,484+ border deaths.

    Download a Microsoft Excel version of the table with a history of amendments here.

    If you would like to report a border death to us please email bcrossingobservatory@gmail.com

    Deaths at the Global Frontier

    Controlling border crossing has become a prime concern under conditions of late modernity, leading western governments to introduce increasingly coercive control measures, ranging from visa regimes to military fortification.

    Far from eradicating spontaneous border crossing, this ‘defensive geography’ has fuelled illicit people smuggling markets, and forced asylum seekers and illegalized travellers into increasingly hazardous journeys.

    This project seeks to account for, rather than merely count, border-related deaths. It intends to shift the debate about contemporary border controls towards the acceptance of a more mobility-tolerant future.

    http://artsonline.monash.edu.au/thebordercrossingobservatory/research-agenda/external-border-control/deaths-at-the-global-frontier

    #carte #cartographie #visualisation #mourir_en_mer #décès #Australie #migration #Europe #United_against_racism #base_de_données #frontière #frontières_meurtrières #Nouvelle_Zélande